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Title:
SPOILAGE RETARDANT MULTILAYER MATERIALS CONTAINING FOOD SAFE ADHESIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/175225
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A multilayer material suitable for use in food packaging or storage including a first layer of non-adhesive material and a second layer of non-adhesive material, wherein the first and second layers may be the same or different; and a food safe adhesive gluing together the first and second materials, the food safe adhesive containing an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof, the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect; wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof.

Inventors:
GEZUNDHAIT, Yigal (13 Harimon Street, Ganey Tikva, 55900, IL)
PELAH, Avishay (10 HaMaagal Street, Kiryat-Ono, 55402, IL)
ISHAI, Yigal (68 Sokolov Street, 43 Netanya, 42255, IL)
BARASH, Ilan (40 Hashaked Street, 31 Netanya, 42214, IL)
Application Number:
IL2017/050416
Publication Date:
October 12, 2017
Filing Date:
April 06, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BOTANOCAP LTD. (P.O.Box 527, 01 Ganei Tikva, 55105, IL)
International Classes:
A01N25/28; A01N25/10; A23B7/154; A23L3/3472; A23L33/105; A23P10/47; B01J13/02; B23B7/12; B32B23/06; B32B23/08; B32B37/12; B65B25/02; B65D65/40; B65D81/28; C08K9/10; D21H21/36
Domestic Patent References:
WO1997029638A11997-08-21
WO2007135273A22007-11-29
WO2016051403A12016-04-07
Foreign References:
KR20140094866A2014-07-31
US20150257381A12015-09-17
US20100323134A12010-12-23
CN104945646A2015-09-30
KR101644907B12016-08-03
Other References:
GHERARDI R. ET AL.: "Development of a multilayer antimicrobial packaging material for tomato puree using an innovative technology", LWT - FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 72, 1 May 2016 (2016-05-01), pages 361 - 367, XP029561947, ISSN: 0023-6438, Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WEBB, Cynthia (Webb & Co, P.O. Box 2189, 0 Rehovot, 76121, IL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A multilayer composite material suitable for use in food packaging or storage comprising a first layer of non-adhesive material and a second layer of non- adhesive material, wherein the first and second layers of material may be the same or different, and a food safe adhesive disposed between the first and second layers of materials, the food safe adhesive comprising an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof, the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect; wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof.

2. The multilayer composite material of claim 1, wherein the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).

3. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the first and second layers of material are selected from the group consisting of: paper, plastic, fabric, wood, and any combination thereof.

4. The multilayer composite material of claim 3, wherein the paper comprises a gas impermeable paper, a gas permeable paper, parchment paper, kraft paper, tissue paper, cellophane, chromo paper, crepe paper, waxed paper, cardboard, plastic laminated paper or any combination thereof.

5. The multilayer composite material of claim 3, wherein the plastic comprises polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, polysaccharide plastic, or any combination thereof.

6. The multilayer composite material of claim 3, wherein the fabric is selected from the group consisting of woven and non-woven fabric.

7. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the food safe adhesive comprises l%-50% w/w essential oil.

8. The multilayer composite material of claim 7, wherein after drying the food safe adhesive comprises 10 -40 w/w essential oil.

9. The multilayer composite material of claim 7, wherein after drying the food safe adhesive comprises 20% or more w/w essential oil.

10. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the food safe adhesive further comprises an emulsifier.

11. The multilayer composite material of claim 10, wherein the emulsifier is selected from a non-ionic alkylene oxide condensate of an organic compound which contains one or more hydroxyl groups.

12. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), carboxymethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, pullulan, karaya gum, pectin, xanthan gum, tragacanth, alginic acid, gum arabic, food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive, and any combination thereof.

13. The multilayer composite material of claim 12, wherein the adhesive substance is ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer.

14. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the essential oil is selected from the group consisting of angelica oil, anise oil, basil oil, bay oil, bergamot oil, bitter almond oil, bois de rose oil, calendula oil cananga oil, caraway oil, cardamom oil, cedar oil, cedarwood oil, chamaecyparis obtusa oil, chamomile oil, cinnamon oil, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, copaiba balsam oil, coriander oil, cumin oil, dill oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, garlic oil, geranium oil, ginger oil, grapefruit oil, guaiacwood oil, hiba oil, camphor oil, iris oil, Japanese mint oil, jasmine oil, lavender oil, laurel leaf oil, lemon oil, lemongrass oil, lime oil, linaloe oil, lindera oil, mandarin oil, mustard oil, neroli oil, onion oil, orange oil, oregano oil, palmarosa oil, parsley oil, patchouli oil, peach kernel oil, pennyroyal oil, pepper oil, peppermint oil, perilla oil, Peru balsam oil, petitgrain oil, pine needle oil, rose oil, rosemary oil, sandalwood oil, spearmint oil, star anis oil, tagetes oil, tea tree oil, tea seed oil, thyme oil, tolu balsam oil, tuberose oil, turmeric oil, vetivert oil, western mint oil, white micromeria oil, wintergreen oil, combinations and/or derivatives thereof.

15. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the derivative is selected from the group consisting of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha- terpineol, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, anisic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, carvacrol, carveol, carvone, citral, citronellal, citronellol, eucalyptol (cineole), eugenol, iso- eugenol, galaxolide, geraniol, guaiacol, hexanal, ionone, d-limonene, menthol, methyl anthranilate, methyl ionone, methyl salicylate, alpha-phellandrene, pennyroyal oil, perillaldehyde, 1- or 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol, 1- or 2-phenyl ethyl propionate, piperonal, piperonyl acetate, piperonyl alcohol, D-pulegone, terpinen-4-ol, terpinyl acetate, 4-tert butylcyclohexyl acetate, thymol, trans- anethole, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and any combination thereof.

16. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the essential oil is microencapsulated.

17. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the essential oil is partially encapsulated and partially non-encapsulated.

18. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 16 or 17, wherein the microcapsule comprises a solid core.

19. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 16 or 17, wherein the microcapsule comprises a liquid core.

20. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 16 or 17, wherein the microcapsules are matrix type capsules.

21. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 16 to 20, wherein the microcapsule comprises at least two different essential oils.

22. The multilayer composite material of claim 21 , wherein the at least two different essential oils are co-encapsulated.

23. The multilayer composite material of claim 21 , wherein the at least two different essential oils are separately encapsulated.

24. The multilayer composite material of any one of claims 1 to 23, wherein the food safe adhesive comprises less than 10% w/w water. 25. A method for reducing spoilage of crops or foods, the method comprising exposing the crops to a multilayer composite material according to any one of claims 1 to 24.

26. The method of claim 25, wherein the spoilage of said crops or foods is reduced by at least 20% compared to non-treated crops or foods. 27. A food safe adhesive for food packaging comprising:

an adhesive substance; and an essential oil or a derivative thereof; the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect;

wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof when applied on a surface; and

wherein the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone. 28. The food safe adhesive of claim 27, wherein the food safe adhesive comprises l %-50% w/w essential oil.

29. The food safe adhesive of claim 28, wherein after drying the food safe adhesive comprises 10%-40% w/w essential oil.

30. The food safe adhesive of claim 28, wherein after drying the food safe adhesive comprises 20% w/w or more essential oil.

31. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 30, further comprising an emulsifier.

32. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 31, wherein the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), carboxymethylcellulose, pullulan, karaya gum, pectin, xanthan gum, tragacanth, alginic acid, gum arabic, food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive, and any combination thereof.

33. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 32, wherein the essential oil is selected from the group consisting of angelica oil, anise oil, basil oil, bay oil, bergamot oil, bitter almond oil, bois de rose oil, calendula oil cananga oil, caraway oil, cardamom oil, cedar oil, cedarwood oil, chamaecyparis obtusa oil, chamomile oil, cinnamon oil, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, copaiba balsam oil, coriander oil, cumin oil, dill oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, garlic oil, geranium oil, ginger oil, grapefruit oil, guaiacwood oil, hiba oil, camphor oil, iris oil, Japanese mint oil, jasmine oil, lavender oil, laurel leaf oil, lemon oil, lemongrass oil, lime oil, linaloe oil, lindera oil, mandarin oil, mustard oil, neroli oil, onion oil, orange oil, oregano oil, palmarosa oil, parsley oil, patchouli oil, peach kernel oil, pennyroyal oil, pepper oil, peppermint oil, perilla oil, Peru balsam oil, petitgrain oil, pine needle oil, rose oil, rosemary oil, sandalwood oil, spearmint oil, star anis oil, tagetes oil, tea tree oil, tea seed oil, thyme oil, tolu balsam oil, tuberose oil, turmeric oil, vetivert oil, western mint oil, white micromeria oil, wintergreen oil, combinations and/or derivatives thereof.

34. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 33, wherein the derivative is selected from the group consisting of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpineol, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, anisic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, carvacrol, carveol, carvone, citral, citronellal, citronellol, eucalyptol (cineole), eugenol, iso- eugenol, galaxolide, geraniol, guaiacol, hexanal, ionone, d-limonene, menthol, methyl anthranilate, methyl ionone, methyl salicylate, alpha-phellandrene, pennyroyal oil, perillaldehyde, 1- or 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol, 1- or 2-phenyl ethyl propionate, piperonal, piperonyl acetate, piperonyl alcohol, D-pulegone, terpinen-4-ol, terpinyl acetate, 4-tert butylcyclohexyl acetate, thymol, trans- anethole, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and any combination thereof.

35. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 34, wherein the essential oil or derivative thereof is microencapsulated. 36. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 34, wherein the essential oil or derivative thereof is partially encapsulated and partially non-encapsulated.

37. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 35 or 36, wherein the microcapsule comprises a solid core.

38. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 35 or 36, wherein the microcapsule comprises a liquid core.

39. The food safe adhesive of any one of claims 27 to 38, comprising at least two different essential oils.

40. The food safe adhesive of claim 39, wherein the at least two different essential oils are co-encapsulated.

41. The food safe adhesive of claim 39, wherein the at least two different essential oils are separately encapsulated.

42. A method for producing a food safe multilayer composite material according to any one of claims 1 to 24, the method comprising:

(i) blending a food safe adhesive polymer, at least one emulsifier and at least one essential oil; and

(ii) gluing a first layer of non-adhesive material to a second layer of non- adhesive material to form a multilayer composite material with the product of step (i) disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein step (i) comprises emulsifying with an emulsifier selected from a non-ionic alkylene oxide condensate of an organic compound which contains one or more hydroxyl groups.

44. The method of any one of claims 42 or 43, wherein gluing is performed after contacting a first layer of non-adhesive material with the adhesive.

45. The method of any one of claims 42 to 44, wherein contacting is performed by a printing or laminating machine.

Description:
SPOILAGE RETARDANT MULTILAYER MATERIALS CONTAINING

FOOD SAFE ADHESIVES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to materials for food packaging or storage. In particular, the present invention relates to multilayer materials bonded by food safe adhesives containing essential oils that are useful in crops and other foods preservation.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Essential oils have been known for many years to have different desired properties, such as antiseptic, disinfectant, antifungal, antibacterial, etc. Consequently, essential oils have been used as natural products for a variety of applications. Over the years, they have been replaced with less expensive but effective synthetic chemical agents, but given the toxicity and environmental effects of these synthetic chemicals, there is once again a rising interest in using the natural essential oil agents. This objective necessitates the development of materials and formulations that combine the desired properties of the natural essential oils while matching the efficacy of synthetic agents, at a low cost.

U.S. Patent No. 9,079,152 discloses a process for the preparation of essential oil microcapsules comprising dissolving a di- or polyisocyanate into an essential oil, emulsifying the resulting mixture in an aqueous solution containing a di- or polyamine, and/or a di- or polyhydroxy compound to effect encapsulation of said essential oil through interfacial polymerization, whereby there is formed a polyurea and/or polyurethane film around the essential oil droplets. The film enhances the stability of said essential oil, reduces its evaporation rate and controls its release rate when applied to a substrate. These microcapsules may be used as disinfectant products for the consumer market as hard-surface cleaners, laundry detergents and softeners, as pesticides, insect repellents, and as antiviral or antifungal agents.

U.S. Patent No. 9,101 ,143 to the applicants of the present invention discloses agricultural formulations of essential oil microcapsules and uses thereof, which were also prepared by interfacial polymerization, and comprise a combination of a volatile essential oil and a non-volatile carrier. The microcapsules were a liquid core of essential oil optionally with additives and other active agents such as insect growth regulators (IGRs).

U.S. Patent No. 8,753,676 to the applicants of the present invention discloses a new method for the preparation of microencapsulated essential oils. The microcapsules containing essential oils or a formulation containing thereof may be used for various non- agricultural applications.

International (PCT) Application Publication No. WO 2014/159812 discloses stabilization of essential oils within a hydrocolloid adhesive. Various adhesive compositions which comprise one or more essential oils may optionally comprise one or more active agents such as pharmaceutical agents. Also described are related methods of improving the stability of essential oil(s) in adhesive compositions by incorporating polyvinylpyrrolidone and related methods of using the compositions and articles incorporating such compositions.

Adhesives are used in a multitude of industries and are of particular importance in printing technologies. Edible adhesives and adhesives generally regarded as safe (GRAS) are well known for applications where consumption of the adhesive or possible oral contact is a consideration.

Packaging materials are typically prepared by laminating two or more layers of film. Each film is chosen for specific properties. For example, a packaging material may include an inner layer (e.g. polypropylene), which contacts the packaged product, and an outer layer which provides protection for the package. Packaging may likewise be made of laminated sheets of materials, such as paper glued together by an adhesive.

Various food-safe adhesives have been described in the art.

U.S. Patent No. 4,360,551 shows a flexible film laminate especially adapted for use in the construction of a retortable food pouch for the packaging of food wherein the layers of the pouch are bonded together by an adhesive comprising a maleic acid anhydride adduct of ethylene-propylene copolymer. U.S. Patent No. 6,077,551 teaches an expandable microwave popcorn package wherein panels of the package are bonded together by a releasable adhesive.

Transport and storage of post-harvest crops is a well-known challenge. Decay of crops prior to reaching the consumer, as well as afterwards during consumer storage, is common and expenses involved in preventing the decay (for example transportation in coolers), as well as losses due to wastage, are considerable. A common solution is treating the crops with synthetic chemical agents. However, such agents often cause harm to human health and environment.

There remains a need for environmentally non-harmful and low-cost means for treating crops and foods, to inhibit their decay during transport and storage and for packets and/or packaging materials including such means.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides multilayer materials suitable for use in food or crop packaging and storage. The multilayer materials include a first layer of non- adhesive material and a second layer of non-adhesive material which may be the same or different and a food safe adhesive disposed therebetween, wherein the food safe adhesive contains a substance for deterring spoilage of the food or crop. The food safe adhesive thus glues together the first and second layers. According to some aspects, the food safe adhesive includes an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof. Advantageously, the essential oil is released from the adhesive over time, thereby providing insecticidal, fungicidal, fungistatic, spoilage retardant properties or other desired effects to the vicinity of the material. The non-adhesive materials may be laminated sheets of material such as paper, plastics and fabrics glued together by the adhesive. The non-adhesive materials provide a permeable/semi- permeable structure that allows for a sustained release of the essential oil. Furthermore, according to some embodiments, the materials disclosed herein provide release of an effective dose of the essential oil at a constant rate giving a longer duration of activity.

It was surprisingly found that incorporating the essential oil into the adhesive had no negative effect either on the activity of the essential oil or the adhesive ability. In other words, the incorporation of the essential oil into the adhesive was not detrimental, either on the insecticidal, fungicidal, fungistatic, spoilage retardant properties of the essential oil, or on the properties of the adhesive. Advantageously, the insecticidal, fungicidal, fungistatic, spoilage retardant properties of the essential oil in the food safe adhesive is retained during prolonged storage.

The present invention thus provides multilayer food safe materials, also referred to herein as composite material, or composite articles, that comprise the essential oil containing adhesive.

Advantageously, the release profile of the essential oil from the multilayer food safe materials, ensures prolonged duration of the essential oil as an insect repellant, a bacteriocidal, a bacteriostatic, a fungicidal, a fungistatic and/or a spoilage retardant agent and prevents undesired impact on taste.

Furthermore, the essential oil can be released from the multilayer food safe composite materials at a broad and/or controlled range of temperatures including the low temperatures of cooled environments, as well as the high temperatures of tropical climates. Advantageously, an optimal release profile is achieved when the material is placed at room temperature or even higher, making the composite packaging material particularly suitable for transport and storage of crops and foods originating in countries or regions having a hot climate and may thus obviate the need of cooling during transport.

In addition, due to the advantageous release profile of the essential oil from the adhesive, only small amounts of essential oils are required. In effect, the multilayer food safe materials disclosed herein provides a cost-effective solution to post-harvest transport and storage of crops.

According to a first aspect, the present invention provides a multilayer composite material suitable for use in food packaging or storage comprising a first layer of non-adhesive material, a second layer of non-adhesive material, wherein the first layer and the second layer may be the same or different materials, and a food safe adhesive disposed between the first and second layers of materials, the food safe adhesive comprising an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof, the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect; wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof. According to some embodiments, the first and second layers of materials are the same. According to other embodiments, the first and second layers of materials are different. According to some embodiments, the first and second layers of materials are selected from the group consisting of: paper, plastic, fabrics, woods, and any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the paper comprises a gas impermeable paper, a gas permeable paper, parchment paper (also referred to herein as baking paper and wax paper), kraft paper, tissue paper, cellophane, chromo paper, crepe paper, waxed paper, cardboard, or any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention. According to other embodiments, the paper comprises a gas semipermeable paper.

According to some embodiments, the plastic comprises polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, polysaccharide plastic, or any combination thereof.

According to some embodiments, the fabric is selected from woven, and non- woven fabrics. According to some embodiments, the fabric comprises a combination of woven and non-woven fabrics. According to other embodiments, the non-adhesive material is selected from various woods.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is a water-based adhesive material.

According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises l %-50% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises 10%-40% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises more than 20% w/w essential oil. According to specific embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive composition comprises 20%-50% w/w essential oil.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive further comprises an emulsifier. According to some embodiments, the emulsifier is an emulsifier that is approved for use in contact with food. According to some embodiments the emulsifier is selected from a non-ionic alkylene oxide condensate of an organic compound which contains one or more hydroxyl groups, such as an ethoxylated alcohol or ester compound. According to specific embodiments the emulsifier is a material selected from compounds known under the tradename TWEEN ® . According to certain embodiments, the emulsifier is TWEEN ® 80. According to some embodiments the adhesive is mixed with an emulsifier and emulsified prior to addition of the essential oil.

According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinylacetate copolymers, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), carboxymethylcellulose, pullulan, karaya gum, pectin, xanthan gum, tragacanth, alginic acid and gum Arabic, food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive and any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, and polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is ethylene vinyl acetate acrylate glue. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl acetate (PVA). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is a PVA/PVOH adhesive.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises less than 0.1% PVP. According to specific embodiments the food safe adhesive comprises less than 0.05% PVP, or less than 0.01% PVP.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is selected from the group consisting of angelica oil, anise oil, basil oil, bay oil, bergamot oil, bitter almond oil, bois de rose oil, calendula oil cananga oil, caraway oil, cardamom oil, cedar oil, cedarwood oil, chamaecyparis obtusa oil, chamomile oil, cinnamon oil, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, copaiba balsam oil, coriander oil, cumin oil, dill oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, garlic oil, geranium oil, ginger oil, grapefruit oil, guaiacwood oil, hiba oil, camphor oil, iris oil, Japanese mint oil, jasmine oil, lavender oil, laurel leaf oil, lemon oil, lemongrass oil, lime oil, linaloe oil, lindera oil, mandarin oil, mustard oil, neroli oil, onion oil, orange oil, oregano oil, palmarosa oil, parsley oil, patchouli oil, peach kernel oil, pennyroyal oil, pepper oil, peppermint oil, perilla oil, Peru balsam oil, petitgrain oil, pine needle oil, rose oil, rosemary oil, sandalwood oil, spearmint oil, star anis oil, tagetes oil, tea tree oil, tea seed oil, thyme oil, tolu balsam oil, tuberose oil, turmeric oil, vetivert oil, western mint oil, white micromeria oil, wintergreen oil, and combinations thereof. According to other embodiments the essential oil may be replaced by derivatives thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention. According to some embodiments, the essential oil is selected from the group consisting of oregano, caraway, spearmint, mustard, tea-tree, and any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil derivative is selected from the group consisting of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpineol, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, anisic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, carvacrol, carveol, carvone, citral, citronellal, citronellol, eucalyptol (cineole), eugenol, iso-eugenol, galaxolide, geraniol, guaiacol, hexanal, ionone, d- limonene, menthol, methyl anthranilate, methyl ionone, methyl salicylate, alpha- phellandrene, pennyroyal oil, perillaldehyde, 1- or 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol, 1- or 2- phenyl ethyl propionate, piperonal, piperonyl acetate, piperonyl alcohol, D-pulegone, terpinen-4-ol, terpinyl acetate, 4-tert butylcyclohexyl acetate, thymol, trans-anethole, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is microencapsulated. According to other embodiments the essential oil(s) or derivatives thereof are not encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the essential oil and/or derivative is partially encapsulated and partially non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule comprises a solid core. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule comprises a liquid core. According to other embodiments, the microcapsules are matrix type capsules.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises at least two different essential oils. According to some embodiments, the at least two different essential oils are co-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the at least two different essential oils are separately encapsulated. According to still further embodiments, one oil may be encapsulated and the other non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of water. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises less than 10% w/w water, less than 5% w/w water, or less than 2% w/w water.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer materials exhibits sustained release of an effective dose of the essential oil at a constant rate giving a long duration of activity.

According to an aspect, the present invention provides a method for reducing spoilage of crops or foods, the method comprising exposing the crops or foods to a multilayer composite material according to the invention.

According to some embodiments, the method reduces the spoilage of crops or foods by at least 20%, 40%, 60% or 80% compared to non-treated crops or foods.

According to an additional aspect, the present invention provides a food safe adhesive composition comprising an adhesive substance and as essential oil or a derivative thereof, the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, antimicrobial, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect; wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof when applied on a surface.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is suitable for use in packaging materials of foods including but not limited to fruits and vegetables.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises less than 0.1% PVP. According to specific embodiments the food safe adhesive comprises less than 0.05% PVP, or less than 0.01% PVP.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive composition comprises l %-50% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive composition comprises 10%-40% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive composition comprises more than 15% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive composition comprises 20% w/w or more essential oil. According to specific embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive composition comprises 20%-50% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl acetate copolymers, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), carboxymethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, pullulan, karaya gum, pectin, xanthan gum, tragacanth, alginic acid and gum arabic, food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive and any combination thereof.

According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is ethylene vinyl acetate acrylate glue. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl acetate (PVA). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is a PVA/PVOH adhesive.

The essential oil or derivative thereof is as described hereinabove.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is not encapsulated.

According to other embodiments the essential oil is microencapsulated. According to some embodiments, the essential oil is partially encapsulated and partially non- encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule comprises a solid core. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule comprises a liquid core. According to other embodiments, the microcapsules are matrix type capsules.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive includes at least two different essential oils. According to some embodiments, the at least two different essential oils are co-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the at least two different essential oils are separately encapsulated.

According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of water. According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises less than 10% w/w water, less than 5% w/w water, or less than 2% w/w water. According to these embodiments, after drying the essential oils constitute 10-50% of the total weight of the food safe adhesive comprising these oils.

According to an additional aspect, the present invention provides a method for producing a food safe multilayer composite material according to the invention, the method comprising: (i) blending a food safe adhesive polymer, an emulsifier and at least one essential oil; and

(ii) gluing a first layer of non-adhesive material to a second layer of non- adhesive material to form a multilayer composite material with the product of step (i) disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

According to some embodiments, step (ii) further comprises contacting the adhesive with a second non-adhesive material.

According to some embodiments, the method comprises:

(i) emulsifying a food safe adhesive polymer with at least one emulsifier; (ii) blending the emulsified material of step (i) with at least one essential oil to form a food safe adhesive comprising at least one essential oil; and

(iii) gluing a first layer of non-adhesive material to a second layer of non- adhesive material to form a multilayer composite material with the product of step (ii) disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

According to some embodiments, step (i) comprises emulsifying with an emulsifier that is approved for use in contact with food. According to some embodiments the emulsifier is selected from a non-ionic alkylene oxide condensate of an organic compound which contains one or more hydroxyl groups, such as an ethoxylated alcohol or ester compound. According to specific embodiments the emulsifier is a material selected from compounds known under the tradename TWEEN ® . According to certain embodiments, the emulsifier is TWEEN ® 80.

According to some embodiments, gluing is performed after contacting a first layer of non-adhesive material with the adhesive. According to some embodiments contacting is performed by a printing machine. According to other embodiments, contacting is performed by a laminating machine.

According to some embodiments, the two layers of non-adhesive material may be the same or different.

The adhesive material, the essential oil, and the non-adhesive material are as described hereinabove. Further embodiments, features, advantages and the full scope of applicability of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description and drawings given hereinafter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 shows an illustrative picture of a multilayer material (paper product) glued by a food safe adhesive as disclosed herein.

FIG. 2 shows an illustrative picture of roses wrapped with a multilayer material (paper product) for the prevention of botrytis. The flowers wrapped in the paper product are further enclosed within transparent packaging material.

FIG. 3 shows the release profile of tea-tree oil from BotanoFresh paper. The percent of oil released was calculated over time. A.I. - active ingredient

FIG. 4A-4C show the effect of storing grapes covered by the BotanoFresh paper. The spoilage effect was evaluated with (FIG. 4A-4B) or without (FIG. 4C) BotanoFresh paper after two months in cold storage.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention provides multilayer food safe materials suitable for crop and food storage and packaging. The multilayer food safe materials comprise two non-adhesive materials and a food safe adhesive composition disposed between the two non-adhesive materials. The two non-adhesive materials may be the same or different. The food safe adhesive composition comprises an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof. The essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect; wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof. Unexpectedly, the essential oil is stabilized within the food safe adhesive composition disclosed herein even without the addition of PVP, providing a prolonged storage activity. It is now further disclosed that the multilayer materials according to the invention are capable of stabilizing essential oil in an amount of more than 20%, 30% or 40% w/w of the final adhesive amount and enable its controlled and prolonged release. The term "BotanoFresh paper" as used herein refers to a non-limiting example of a multilayer composite material according to the invention.

As used herein the term "essential oil" refers to concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing aroma compounds of plants. An oil is essential in the sense that it contains the characteristic fragrance of the plant that it is taken from. The aroma compounds in essential oils are volatile organic compounds and evaporate at room temperature.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is selected from the group consisting of angelica oil, anise oil, basil oil, bay oil, bergamot oil, bitter almond, bois de rose oil, calendula oil, cananga oil, caraway oil, cardamom oil, cedar oil, cedarwood oil, chamaecyparis obtusa oil, chamomile oil, cinnamon oil, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, copaiba balsam oil, coriander oil, cumin oil, dill oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, garlic oil, geranium oil, ginger oil, grapefruit oil, guaiacwood oil, hiba oil, camphor oil, iris oil, Japanese mint oil, jasmine oil, lavender oil, laurel leaf oil, lemon oil, lemongrass oil, lime oil, linaloe oil, lindera oil, mandarin oil, mustard oil, neroli oil, onion oil, orange oil, oregano oil, palmarosa oil, parsley oil, patchouli oil, peach kernel oil, pennyroyal oil, pepper oil, peppermint oil, perilla oil, Peru balsam oil, petitgrain oil, pine needle oil, rose oil, rosemary oil, sandalwood oil, spearmint oil, star anis oil, tagetes oil, tea tree oil, tea seed oil, thyme oil, tolu balsam oil, tuberose oil, turmeric oil, vetivert oil, western mint oil, white micromeria oil, wintergreen oil and any combination thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to a specific embodiment, the essential oil is oregano oil. According to a specific embodiment, the essential oil is mustard oil. According to a specific embodiment, the essential oil is tea tree oil. According to a specific embodiment, the essential oil is caraway oil. According to a specific embodiment, the essential oil is spearmint oil.

According to some embodiments, an essential oil derivative may be used as an alternative to, or in addition to, the encapsulated essential oil itself. According to some embodiments, the essential oil derivative is selected from the group consisting of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpineol, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, anisic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, carvacrol, carveol, carvone, citral, citronellal, citronellol, eucalyptol (cineole), eugenol, iso-eugenol, galaxolide, geraniol, guaiacol, hexanal, ionone, d-limonene, menthol, methyl anthranilate, methyl ionone, methyl salicylate, alpha-phellandrene, perillaldehyde, phenyl ethyl alcohol, 2-phenyl ethyl propionate, piperonal, piperonyl acetate, piperonyl alcohol, D-pulegone, terpinen-4-ol, terpinyl acetate, 4-tert butylcyclohexyl acetate, thymol, trans-anethole, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and any combination thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the essential oil derivative may be a synthetic derivative.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil derivative is benzaldehyde. According to some embodiments, the essential oil derivative is cinnamaldehyde.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil or derivative thereof has an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

As used herein, the term "food safe adhesive" refers to a composition comprising an adhesive substance, an essential oil and other optional ingredients such as a surfactant, an emulsifier and the like. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is used for gluing together materials, which may directly or indirectly come in contact with a subject's mouth or skin. The "food safe adhesive" composition includes adhesive and essential oil or derivative thereof according to the invention having an approval for use in contact with food. It should be understood that the essential oils or derivative thereof are used in concentrations that do not have deleterious effect on human health.

As used herein, the terms "adhesive substance" and "glue" may refer to any adhesive substance which conforms to food safety in accordance with United States federal regulations concerning "INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS", specifically 37 CFR § 175 subsection 105 relating to "Adhesives".

According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), carboxymethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, pullulan, karaya gum, pectin, xanthan gum, tragacanth, alginic acid, gum arabic, food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive, and any combination thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of: ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), food safe polyurethane adhesive, food grade epoxies, food grade silicone adhesive and any combination thereof. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is selected from the group consisting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer. According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl acetate (PVA). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). According to some embodiments, the adhesive substance is a PVA/PVOH adhesive.

According to one aspect, the present invention provides a multilayer composite material suitable for use in food packaging or storage comprising a first layer of non-adhesive material and a second layer of non-adhesive material, wherein the first and second layers of material may be the same or different and a food safe adhesive disposed between the first and second layers of materials, the food safe adhesive comprising an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof, the essential oil or derivative thereof having an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect, wherein the adhesive is material comprises ethylene vinyl acetate acrylate copolymer, and wherein the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material disclosed herein enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof when applied on a surface. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive enables sustained release of the essential oil or derivative thereof when the adhesive substance is hardened.

As used herein, the term "sustained release" refers to a release of the essential oil at a predetermined rate in order to maintain a substantially constant essential oil concentration for a specific period of time. For example, the essential oil may be released at a rate providing an initial daily release of 15%, 10%, 5%, 1 %, 0.5%, 0.1% or 0.05% of the essential oil from the adhesive. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the release rate may be temperature and/or humidity dependent providing higher release rates at elevated temperatures (e.g. above 25°C) and humidity (e.g. above 40%).

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is water based adhesive. According to these specific embodiments, most of the water evaporates during the hardening of the food safe adhesive.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises 5%-50%, 10%-40%, 10%-30%, 15%-25%, 22%-50%, or 25%-50% w/w essential oil. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises about 20% w/w essential oil. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises more than 20% essential oil.

According to some embodiments the food safe adhesive further comprises at least one surfactant and/or emulsifier configured to generate a stable composition.

Typically, the surfactant is a non-ionic alkylene oxide condensate of an organic compound which contains one or more hydroxyl groups. For example, ethoxylated and/or propoxylated alcohol or ester compounds or mixtures thereof are commonly available and are well known to those skilled in the art. Suitable surfactants include, but are not limited to, TYLOXAPOL; POLOXAMER 4070; POLOXAMER 188; POLYOXYL 40 Stearate; POLYSORBATE 80, and POLYSORBATE 20, as well as various compounds sold under the trade name TWEEN (ICI American Inc., Wilmington, Del. U.S.A.), PLURONIC F-68 (trade name of BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany for a copolymer of polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene). The TYLOXAPOL and TWEEN surfactants are suitable because they are FDA approved for human use. Non-limiting examples of suitable surfactants/emulsifiers include: CREMOPHOR® RH 40 (Ethoxy Hydrogenated Castor Oil), CREMOPHOR®RH 60 (Ethoxy Hydrogenated Castor Oil); GENAPOL® (Alcohol Polyglycol Ether); POLOXAMER®407 (also known as PLURONIC® F127 and PLURACARE® F127) (Ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block co-polymer having an average molecular weight of 12,600); Sodium Lauryl Sulphate; SPAN®20 (Sorbitan Monolaurate) SPAN®40 (Sorbitan Monopalmitate); SPAN® 60 (Sorbitan Monostearate); and SPAN® 80 (Sorbitan Mono-oleate); TWEEN®20 (Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monolaurate), TWEEN®40 (Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monopalmitate); TWEEN®60 (Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate); TWEEN®80 (Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Mono-oleate) and combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive further comprises at least one co-surfactant. Non-limiting examples of suitable co- surfactants include short to medium chain length alcohols (C3-C8), such as propanol, butanol, and hexanol. It is understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that adding the co-surfactant may further reduce the interfacial tension and increase the fluidity of the interface to facilitate the formation of nano-sized particles.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is microencapsulated. As used herein the term "microcapsule" refers to a micro sized capsule or particle serving as a barrier between the essential oil or derivative thereof and the environment. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule protects the essential oil or derivative thereof from oxidation, water, light and other environmental factors harming the stability and/or activity of the essential oil. Microcapsules comprising essential oils and methods for preparing same are disclosed, inter alia, in U.S. Pat. NOs: 9079152, 9101143, 8753676, and 9210926.

According to some embodiments, the microcapsules have an average size of 0.05-250 microns, 0.1 -150 microns, 1-100 microns, 10-100 microns, 20-100 microns, 50-500 microns or any other range within 0.05-500 microns. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to certain embodiments, the microcapsules have an average size of less than 500, 400, 300, 200, or 100 microns.

According to some embodiments, the microcapsule may have a shell and core structure, i.e. a solid shell surrounding a core comprising temporarily entrapped substances such as essential oils. According to some embodiments, the encapsulating shell comprises polyurea, polyurethane, a multivalent salt form of an alkanoic acid, a polymeric complex of a polyacid and a polymer with which it forms complexes such as but not limited to polyethylene oxide, a wax or any other suitable polymer, or any suitable combination thereof. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule has a liquid core. According to some embodiments, the microcapsule has a solid core. According to some embodiments, the solid core comprises a porous solid material in which the essential oil is absorbed. According to some embodiments, the porous material is selected from the group consisting of: cellulosics, starch powders, AEROSIL®, silicas, or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the microcapsule may be matrix type microcapsule, i.e. microcapsules having a micro -granular structure of, for example, a wax, a polysaccharide, or plastic, in which the active ingredient (e.g. the essential oil) is distributed.

According to some embodiments, the microcapsule comprises 10 -20 , 20 -30 , 30 -40 , 40 -50 , 50 -60 , 60 -70 , 70 -80 , 80 -90 , 90%- 95 or any other suitable range within the range of 10%-95% w/w essential oil. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to certain embodiments, the microcapsule comprises above 20 percent per weight essential oil. The remainder of the microcapsules may be comprised of the encapsulating shells and additives.

According to some embodiments, the microcapsule retards the evaporation and/or prevents the oxidation of the encapsulated essential oil. According to some embodiments, the microcapsules itself may have sustained release properties. For example, the essential oil may be released at a rate providing an initial daily release of 15%, 10%, 5%, 1 %, 0.5%, 0.1 % or 0.05% of the encapsulated essential oil from the microcapsule. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the release rate may be temperature and/or humidity dependent providing higher release rates at elevated temperatures (e.g. above 25°C) and humidity (e.g. above 40%).

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is partially encapsulated and partially non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the ratio between encapsulated and non-encapsulated essential oil may be in the range of 3:1-1 :3, 2:1-1- 2 or any other suitable range. Each possibility is a separate embodiment of the invention.

According to some embodiments, the release rate of the essential oil from the microcapsule and/or from the adhesive can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of encapsulated versus non-encapsulated essential oil added to the adhesive substance and/or by choosing of a specific encapsulation technique. As a non-limiting example, half of the essential oil added to the adhesive may be encapsulated (for example, by interfacial polymerization forming a polyurethane shell around the essential oil), whereas the other half may remain non-encapsulated. As another non-limiting example, all the essential oil added to the adhesive may be encapsulated, but half may be encapsulated in matrix type microcapsules in which the essential oil is dispersed within a wax, whereas the other half may be encapsulated in microcapsules having an amphipathic shell.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may include at least two (different) essential oils, such as 2, 3, 4, 5 or more different essential oils. As a non-limiting example, the food safe adhesive may include a combination of caraway oil and spearmint oil.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may include an essential oil and an essential oil derivative. According to some embodiments, the essential oil and the essential oil derivative may be related (e.g. thyme oil and thymol). According to some embodiments, the essential oil and the essential oil derivative may be unrelated (e.g. oregano oil and benzaldehyde).

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may further include a non- volatile oil.

As used herein, the term "non- volatile oil" refers to non-volatile oils extracted from plants. Non-volatile oils have lower vapor pressures than volatile oils at the same temperature and thus do not evaporate at room temperature (typically referring to ambient temperatures in the range of 20-30°C). Non-limiting examples of nonvolatile oils include cottonseed oil, sesame oil, neem oil, castor oil, pyrethrum oil, or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the at least two essential oils (or the essential oil and the non-volatile oil) may be non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the at least two essential oils (or the essential oil and the non- volatile oil) may be co-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the at least two essential oils (or the essential oil and the non-volatile oil) may be separately encapsulated. According to some embodiments, at least one of the essential oils may be encapsulated and at least one of the essential oils non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the essential oil(s) may be encapsulated, whereas the non- volatile oil may be non-encapsulated. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may be self- preserved. As used herein the term "self-preserved" refers to an adhesive containing an essential oil, which may serve as a preservative in addition to, or as an alternative to, its insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant property. An example of an essential oil which may serve as a preservative includes, but is not limited to, rosemary oil, neem oil, caraway oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, cumin oil, eucalyptus oil, lavender oil, lemon oil, lemongrass oil, mustard oil, rose oil, sage oil, sandalwood oil, thyme oil, or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive or multilayer material may include a natural preservative, which is not an essential oil, such as castor oil, honey, bee propolis, lecithin, grapefruit seed extract, or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the natural preservative (whether an essential oil or not) may be co-encapsulated with the essential oil, be separately encapsulated or be non-encapsulated. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may be devoid of synthetic preservatives.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of water.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

As used herein the term "essentially devoid" of refers to less than 1 %, or less than 0.1 %. According to some embodiments, "essentially devoid" refers to less than 0.01% (w/w).

According to some embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive comprises less than 5% w/w water. According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive comprises less than 2.5% w/w water. According to additional embodiments, after drying the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of water.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may further include an anti-oxidant. According to advantageous embodiments, the food safe adhesive is devoid of synthetic active ingredients. However, according to some alternative embodiments, the food safe adhesive may further include an additional active agent, which is not an essential oil, preferably at a concentration below the minimum recommended. Non- limiting examples of additional agents include insect repellants, fungicides, fungistatics, bactericides, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant agents or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. Additionally or alternatively, the additional active agent may be an insecticide, a pesticide, a nematicide, a herbicide, spoilage retardant, or combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the additional agent may be co-encapsulated with the essential oil, separately encapsulated or non- encapsulated. Non-limiting examples of suitable agents include carbamates, triazines, triazole, uracil derivative, organophosphate, dinitroaniline, acylalanines, pyrethroids, organochlorines, carbofuran, azinphos-methyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, cypermethrin, cyromazine, beta-cyfluthrin, endosulfan, phosmet, chlorobromuron, chloroxuron, chlorotoluron, fluometuron, metobromuron, nefocide, thiazafluron, teflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, chlorfluazuron, dimethachlor, metolachlor, pretilachlor, 2-chloro-n-(l -methyl-2-methoxyethyl)-acet- 2,6-xylidide, imidocloprid, alachlor, butachlor, propachlor, dimethenamid, bifenox, 4- (4-pentyn- l-yloxy)diphenylether, acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, fomesafen, cis,trans-(+)-2-ethyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenoxymethyl)- 1 ,3-dioxolane, fluazifop-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, haloxyfop-(2-ethoxyethyl), endosulfan, fluorotopic, fenoxapropethyl, quizalofop-ethyl, propaquizafop, diclofop-methyl, butralin, ethalfiuralin, fluchloralin, isopropalin, pendimethalin, profiuralin, trifluralin, aclalanines furalaxyl, metalaxyl, benzoylprop ethyl, flamprop methyl, difenoconazole, etaconazole, propiconazole, l ,2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-pent- l -yl-lh-l ,2,4-triazole, triadimefon, dioxacarb, furathiocarb, aldicarb, benomyl, 2-sec- butylphenylmethylcarbamate, etiofencarb, fenoxycarb, isoprocarb, propoxur, carbetamid, butylate, di-allate, eptc, molinate, thiobencarb, tri-allate, vemolate, piperophos, anilofos, butamifos, azamethiphos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diazinon, methidathion, azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, chlorthiofos, crotoxyphos, cyanophos, demeton, dialifos, dimethoate, disulfoton, etrimfos, famphur, flusulfothion, fluthion, fonofos, formothion, heptenophos, isofenphos, isoxathion, malathion, mephospholan, mevinphos, naled, oxydemeton methyl, oxydeprofos, parathion, phoxim, pyrirniphos methyl, profenofos, propaphos, propetamphos, prothiophos, quinalphos, sulprofos, phemephos, terbufos, triazophos, trichloronate, fenamipos, isazophos, s-benzyl-o,o-diisopropylphosphorothioate, edinphos, pyrazophos, and combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the agent is added at a concentration below a minimum recommended concentration. As used herein, the term "minimum recommended concentration" refers to the minimum concentration of an agent needed to obtain its insect repellant, insecticidal, pesticidal, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect, when used as a sole agent.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive or multilayer material

(or the adhesive gluing its sheets together) may further include an insect growth regulator (IGR). According to some embodiments, the IGR may be co-encapsulated with the essential oil, separately encapsulated or non-encapsulated. Non-limiting examples of suitable IGRs include: azadirachtin, novaluron, hydroprene, methoprene, pyriproxyphen, trifiumuron, and combinations thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive is essentially devoid of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

The multilayer composite material as described herein is suitable for use in food packaging or storage and comprises a first layer of non-adhesive material, a second layer of non-adhesive material, and a food safe adhesive disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

According to an aspect, the present invention provides a composite/multilayer material comprising a first layer, a second layer and a food safe adhesive gluing together the first and second layers, the food safe adhesive comprising an adhesive substance and an essential oil or derivative thereof.

As used herein, the terms "composite material" and "multilayered material" refer to pieces of at least two materials or articles glued together by an adhesive. According to some embodiments, the multilayered material may be laminated sheets of materials glued together by the adhesive. According to some embodiments, the material may be selected from the group consisting of: paper, cardboard, plastic, fabrics, woods, thin metal foils and any combination thereof. According to some embodiments, the multilayered material includes two layers. According to some embodiments, the multilayered material may include more than two layers such as 3, 4, 5, or more layers. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the multilayered material may be non- adhesive. As used herein the term "non-adhesive" refers to materials, which do not adhere to substances with which they are in contact. According to some embodiments, the non-adhesive material does not include adhesives at sides thereof exposed to the surroundings at an amount sufficient to provide adhesive properties.

According to some embodiments, the composite material or multilayer material include sheets of materials (two or more) which may be same. Non-limiting example of same materials include two or more sheets of paper, two or more sheets of plastic, two sheets of cardboard, two sheets of wood, etc. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the composite material may include sheets of materials, which may be different. Non-limiting examples of composite materials including different sheets of materials include: a first sheet of paper glued to a second sheet of plastic; a first sheet of paper glued to a second sheet of fabric, a first sheet of paper, glued to a second sheet of plastic glued to a third sheet of paper; a first sheet of paper, glued to a second sheet of plastic, glued to a third sheet of fabric; a first sheet of paper, glued to a second sheet of plastic, glued to a third sheet of plastic, etc.

As used herein, the term "paper" refers to a thin material typically produced from fibers of cellulose pulp derived, for example, from wood, rags or grasses; however, the term may also include synthetic papers. Non-limiting examples of papers include gas impermeable paper, gas permeable paper, gas semipermeable paper, parchment paper (also referred to herein as baking paper or wax paper), kraft paper, tissue paper, cellophane, chromo paper, crepe paper, waxed paper, cardboard or any combination thereof.

According to some embodiments, the paper is selected from the group consisting of chromatography paper, card stock, filter paper, vellum paper, printing paper, wrapping paper, ledger paper, bank paper, bond paper, blotting paper, drawing paper, fish paper, tissue paper, paper towel, wax paper, photography paper and any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention.

As used herein, the term "cardboard" refers to heavy-duty paper of various strengths, ranging from a simple arrangement of a single thick sheet of paper to complex configurations featuring multiple corrugated and uncorrugated layers.

As used herein, the term "plastic" refers to materials including any of a wide range of synthetic or semi- synthetic organics. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but some are partially natural. Non-limiting examples of suitable plastics include polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, polysaccharide plastic, or any combination thereof. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment.

As used herein, the terms "fabric", "textile" and "cloth" may be used interchangeably and refer to flexible material made of a network of natural or artificial fibers (yarn or thread). According to some embodiments, the fabric may be formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the fabric may be a woven fabric. According to other embodiments, the fabric may be a nonwoven fabric.

As used herein, the term "nonwoven fabric" refers to materials made from fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment, and are neither woven nor knitted. According to some embodiments, the nonwoven fabrics may at least partially be made from recycled fabrics and/or oil-derived polymeric materials.

Non-limiting examples of suitable fabrics include: cotton, rayon, wool, polyamide, polyolefin (such as polypropylene), polyester, or any combination thereof. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the sheets of material may be glued together by the food safe adhesive disclosed herein. According to some embodiments, the essential oil or derivative thereof has an insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant effect. According to some embodiments, the essential oil may be released from the food safe adhesive and thus from the composite material. According to some embodiments, the essential oil may be released at a substantially sustained release rate, as essentially described herein.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive and/or the composite material further comprises at least one surfactant and/or emulsifier configured to generate a stable composition.

According to some embodiments, the essential oil is microencapsulated or non-encapsulated, as described herein.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may include an essential oil and an essential oil derivative. According to some embodiments, the essential oil and the essential oil derivative may be related. According to some embodiments, the essential oil and the essential oil derivative may be unrelated.

According to some embodiments, the food safe adhesive may further include a non- volatile oil.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material (or the adhesive gluing its sheets together) may further include an anti-oxidant.

According to advantageous embodiments, the multilayer material is devoid of synthetic active ingredients. According to alternative embodiments, the multilayer material (or the adhesive gluing its sheets together) further includes an additional active agent, which is not an essential oil.

According to an aspect, the present invention provides a method for reducing spoilage of crops or foods, the method comprising exposing the crops or foods to a multilayer composite material according to the invention.

According to some embodiments, the method reduces the spoilage of crops or foods by at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% 80%, or 90% compared to non-treated crops or foods. Each possibility represents a separate embodiment of the invention. Spoilage reduction can be determined by any measure or assay as known in the art. Non limiting examples of reducing spoilage can be expressed in terms of increasing shelf life, reducing wilting, and maintaining a fresh, presentable appearance, and viability.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material is suitable for use during cultivation of pre -harvest crop. Additionally or alternatively, the multilayer material is suitable for use during storage and/or transport of post-harvest crop or other foodstuff. According to some embodiments, the multilayer material is suitable for treatment of soil, fields, bushes, trees and the like, for example, by spreading the multilayer material over the desired area. According to some embodiments, the multilayer material is suitable for being included in and/or constituting the packaging containers of post-harvest crop and/or other foodstuff. According to some embodiments, exposing the crop to the composite material containing the essential oil extends the shelf life of the crop by at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 100%, 200%, 300% or more. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

As used herein, the term "post-harvest" refers to the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including storage and transport of the crop.

As used herein, the term "preservation" with regard to a crop, refers to extending the amount of time passing between harvest of the crop to initiation of its decay. It is thus understood that, preservation of the crop extends its shelf life, i.e. the length of time that it may be stored without becoming unfit for use or consumption.

As used herein, the term "crop" refers to any cultivar that is harvested for food, ornament, clothing, livestock fodder, biofuel, medicine, or other uses. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the crop is edible. Non-limiting examples of crops suitable for the treatment with the fabric include grapes, lettuce, peppers, cherries, strawberries, onions, herbs, apples, pears, melons, avocado, citrus fruit, flowers (e.g. roses), etc. According to some embodiments, the composite material may be suitable for the prevention of botrytis infection on roses.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material may be included into food packages or boxes. According to some embodiments, the package, container or box used for transport and/or storage of the foodstuff may be made of the composite material.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material may be contained within a sealed package or envelope preventing evaporation of the essential oil prior to opening thereof. According to some embodiments, the multilayer material may be vacuum packed prior to use.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material exerts an insect- repellant, a fungicidal, a fungistatic, a bactericidal, a bacteriostatic and/or a spoilage retardant (such as anti-sprouting in potatoes) effect on the crop. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the insect-repellant, the fungicidal, the fungistatic, the bactericidal, the bacteriostatic and/or the spoilage retardant effect of the composite material lasts for at least 1 week, at least two weeks, at least one month, at least two months, at least 6 months, or at least 1 year after it being glued with the essential oil containing food safe adhesive and/or after opening and/or unsealing a package containing the multilayer material. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

According to some embodiments, the multilayer material may be used for treatment of foods, crops, soils or agricultural fields. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to some embodiments, the multilayer material may exert its insect-repellant, an insecticidal, a nematicidal, a herbicidal, a fungicidal, a fungistatic, a bactericidal, a bacteriostatic and/or a spoilage retardant effect on the foods, crops, soils and/or fields when placed in proximity thereto. Each possibility is a separate embodiment.

The multilayer composite materials of the invention may reduce spoilage of crops or foods in wide range of conditions and storage temperatures, from frozen to refrigerated temperature, room temperature (e.g., 25°C), and warmer conditions. According to some embodiments, the multilayer material has an optimal efficacy when placed on or in proximity to foods/crops at a temperature in the range of 0°C- 45°C, 10°C-35°C, 20°C-30°C or any other suitable temperature above 0°C and/or below 50°C, such as any range within 10°C-45°C. Each possibility is a separate embodiment. According to other embodiments, the multilayer material has high efficacy when placed on or in proximity to foods/crops at a temperature in the range of 0°C- 10°C. According to additional embodiments, the multilayer material has high efficacy when placed on or in proximity to foods/crops at a temperature in the range of -20°C- 10°C.

According to an additional aspect, the present invention provides a method for producing a food safe multilayer composite material according to the invention, the method comprising:

(i) emulsifying a food safe adhesive polymer with at least one emulsifier;

(ii) blending the emulsified material of step (i) with at least one essential oil to form a food safe adhesive comprising at least one essential oil; and

(iii) gluing a first layer of non-adhesive material to a second layer of non- adhesive material to form a multilayer composite material with the product of step (ii) disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

According to another aspect, the present invention provides a method for producing a food safe multilayer composite material according to the invention, the method comprising:

(i) blending at least one essential oil with a food safe adhesive polymer;

(ii) emulsifying the material of step (i) with at least one emulsifier; and

(iii) gluing a first layer of non-adhesive material to a second layer of non- adhesive material to form a multilayer composite material with the product of step (ii) disposed between the first and second layers of materials.

As used herein, the singular form "a", "an" and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. For example, the term "a compound" or "at least one compound" may include a plurality of compounds, including mixtures thereof.

As used herein the term "about" refers to plus/minus 10% of the stated value.

The following examples are presented in order to more fully illustrate some embodiments of the invention. They should, in no way be construed, however, as limiting the broad scope of the invention. EXAMPLES

Example 1 - method for preparing polyurethane microencapsulated essential oil.

17.5 g TDI (toluene di-isocyanate) was mixed into 125 g oregano, caraway, spearmint, mustard oil or tea-tree oil, which was added into 250 g water containing 2.5 g PVA using a high shear mixer. 27.8 g PEG 4000 dissolved in 70 ml of water was then added and mixing was continued for two hours at room temperature. To the dispersion of microcapsules was added 0.4 g xanthan gum (rhodopol), 2 g fungicide (nefocide) or 4 g Rosemary oil and 5 g SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1 %). It is understood, that the essential oils disclosed herein may be substituted with or co- encapsulated with any other essential oil, essential oil derivative, non-volatile oil and/or additional agent, as described along the description. Example 2: Glue preparation.

To an emulsion of ethylene vinyl acetate acrylate copolymer glue, 20% w/w of essential oil was added together with 1 % w/w emulsifier (Tween 80) and mixed to obtain a glue emulsion. The essential oils (oregano, caraway, spearmint, mustard or tea-tree) were either non-encapsulated or microencapsulated in microcapsules having a polyurethane shell, however partially encapsulated essential oil (e.g. 10% non- encapsulated essential oil + 10% microencapsulated essential oils) as well as essential oils encapsulated by other encapsulation techniques are also applicable, as described herein. Additional adhesives that were used and found suitable are emulsion of polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The glue was a water-based glue in which most of the water was evaporated during its hardening process. The final concentration of the essential oil (w/w) in the adhesive was more than 20%.

Example 3 : Preparation of paper based essential oil composite material with pesticidal activity.

Papers used: Printed parchment and Kraft papers. The printing was done using a Flexo printing machine, using water based, food safe inks. Two elongated sheets of paper were glued together by use of a cold glue laminating machine charged with the glue emulsion of Example 2, thereby obtaining a sandwich of papers connected by a glue containing essential oil.

The papers were cut into squares and wrapped by a gas impervious plastic for storage. FIG. 1 is an illustrative picture of the obtained composite materials.

Example 4 - prevention of botrytis infection on roses

The efficacy of the food adhesive and the composite material containing same, as insect-repellant, fungicidal, fungistatic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and/or spoilage retardant agent, was determined by observing infection of roses with botrytis. Roses (Lovely red & Avalanche) were wrapped with composite materials of paper glued together by the essential oil containing food safe adhesive disclosed herein, as illustrated in FIG. 2. The level of botrytis infection was determined by visual inspection by an expert in the field. Treatment with the paper increased flower vase life to 5.6 days, as compared to 4.2 days for untreated roses.

Example 5 - determining the amount of essential oil in the composite materials

The concentration of the essential oil in the composite materials of Example 3 is determined by immersing the material in 25 mL Methanol and ultrasonicating for 60 minutes to release the essential oil into the methanol. The concentration of essential oil (grams per 1 unit of composite material), is determined using standard HPLC and/or Gas Chromatography techniques.

Example 6 - determining the release profile of Tea-tree oil from BotanoFresh paper The release rate of tea tree oil (with Terpinen-4-ol as its major ingredient) from a 10X10 cm BotanoFresh paper (a paper containing encapsulated essential oil in a polymeric carrier matrix) was examined. The paper was placed in 4 litter plastic containers at 6°C and Tea tree oil molecules were measured over time. As a control, the release profile of non-encapsulated oil absorbed in paper was measured. As shown in FIG. 3, The paper with the encapsulated oil released the oil at a significantly slower rate than typical fast release of the non-encapsulated oil. The relative amount of active ingredient at different time intervals was measured using the method in Example 5.

Example 7 - BotanoFresh paper reduces the spoilage of grapes

To evaluate the effect of the BotanoFresh paper on the spoilage of grapes, cold stored grapes were covered by the paper for two months. As shown in FIG. 4, the paper reduced the spoilage of the grapes as compared to non-treated grapes.