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Title:
SSB TRANSMISSIONS IN UNLICENSED SPECTRUM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/030675
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method is implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The method comprises determining a first parameter, for the unlicensed operation, indicative on provision of synchronisation signal blocks, and determining quasi-co-location, QCL, relationship between one or more synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks each having a first index, by determining a second index for the one or more SS/PBCH blocks by applying a modulo operation on the first index, respectively, based on the first parameter, where the QCL relationship is determined to occur if the second indices coincide. A computer program for implementing the method in a wireless transceiver and such a transceiver are also disclosed.

Inventors:
ALRIKSSON PETER (SE)
GRANT STEPHEN (US)
LI GEN (CN)
Application Number:
EP2019/071180
Publication Date:
February 13, 2020
Filing Date:
August 07, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
ERICSSON TELEFON AB L M (SE)
International Classes:
H04L5/00; H04W16/14; H04W74/08
Foreign References:
Other References:
HUAWEI ET AL: "On QCL indication and time repetition of SS blocks", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 17 September 2017 (2017-09-17), XP051339032, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170917]
ZTE QUALCOMM INTERDIGITAL MEDIATEK SIERRA: "WF on SS block QCL Indication", vol. RAN WG1, no. Prague, Czechia; 20170821 - 20170825, 26 August 2017 (2017-08-26), XP051328690, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170826]
ERICSSON: "On initial access, RRM, mobility and RLM", vol. RAN WG1, no. Spokane, USA; 20181112 - 20181116, 11 November 2018 (2018-11-11), XP051555498, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20181111]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ERICSSON (SE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A method implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed, the method comprising

determining a first parameter, for the unlicensed operation, indicative on provision of synchronisation signal blocks; and

determining quasi-co-location, QCL, relationship between one or more synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks each having a first index, by determining a second index for the one or more SS/PBCH blocks by applying a modulo operation on the first index, respectively, based on the first parameter, where the QCL relationship is determined to occur if the second indices coincide.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining of the first parameter comprises receiving the first parameter.

3. The method of claim 1 or 2, comprising determining the frame timing based on the first index associated with a detected SS/PBCH block.

4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the determining of the first index comprises receiving at least a part of the first index from a Physical Broadcast Channel payload.

5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the receiving of the first index comprises receiving at least a part of the first index implicitly from the identifier of a reference signal sequence associated with the Physical Broadcast Channel.

6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the determining of the first parameter comprises receiving at least a part of the first parameter from a System Information Block, SIB.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the at least part of the first parameter is conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB.

8. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the determining of the first parameter comprises receiving at least a part of the first parameter from a Master Information Block, MIB or PBCH payload, or a combination of the two.

9. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the determining of the first parameter comprises receiving the first parameter through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

10. The method of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the determining of the QCL relationship comprises

determining one or more desired second index(es) from transmission history; determining second index for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the first parameter; and

comparing the second indices.

11. The method of any one of claims 1 to 9, comprising determining a QCL shift indicator, and wherein the determining of the QCL relationship comprises

determining one or more desired second index(es) from transmission history; determining second index I for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the first parameter minus the determined QCL shift when the second index becomes positive and as the first index modulo the first parameter minus the determined QCL shift plus the first parameter otherwise; and

comparing the second indices.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the determining of the QCL shift indicator comprises receiving the QCL shift indicator through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.?

13. The method of claim 11, wherein the determining of the QCL shift indicator comprises receiving the QCL shift indicator through broadcast system information.

14. The method of any one of claims 1 to 13, comprising receiving an indication of a number of transmitted SS/PBCH blocks per burst.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the receiving of the indication of the number comprises receiving the number from a System Information Block, SIB.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the number is conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB.

17. The method of claim 14, wherein the receiving of the indication of the number comprises receiving the number from a Master Information Block, MIB or PBCH payload, or a combination of the two.

18. The method of claim 14, wherein the receiving of the indication of the number comprises receiving the number through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling. 19. A computer program comprising instructions which, when executed on a processor of a wireless transceiver device, causes the wireless transceiver device to perform the method according to any of claims 1 to 18.

20. A wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed, wherein the wireless transceiver device comprises

a transceiver arranged to receive and transmit signals, including receiving synchronisation signals and control signals; and

a signal handling circuit arranged to perform the method according to any one of claims 1 to 18.

Description:
SSB TRANSMISSIONS IN UNLICENSED SPECTRUM

Technical field

The present disclosure generally relates to a method implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk, LBT, is employed, such a wireless transceiver device and a computer program for implementing the method in the wireless transceiver device. In particular, the present disclosure relates to handling shifted synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks which occur when operating in unlicensed spectrum where LBT is employed.

Background

Abbreviations

SSB Synchronization Signal Block

PSS Primary Synchronization Signal

SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal

PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel

SS Synchronization Signal

UE User Equipment

LSB Least Significant Bit

Rx Receiver /Reception

DM-RS Demodulation Reference Signal

RACH Random Access Channel

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel

RRM Radio Resource Management

RSRP Reference Signal Received Power

SMTC SSB Measurement Time Configuration

CSI-RS Channel State Information Reference Signal

LBT Listen Before Talk

LAA Licensed-Assisted Access

DRS Discovery Reference Signal

DMTC Discovery Measurement Timing Configuration

NR New Radio

NR-U NR Unlicensed

FR1, FR2 Frequency Range 1, Frequency Range 2 QCL Quasi-Co-Location

RRC Radio Resource Control

MIB Master Information Block

SIB System Information Block

RMSI Remaining Minimum System Information

gNB gNodeB ( base station in NR)

NR defines two types of synchronization signals; PSS and SSS and one broadcast channel; PBCH. Further PSS, SSS and PBCH are transmitted in one SS/PBCH block. One or multiple SS/PBCH block(s) can be transmitted within one SS/PBCH period. For a half frame with SS/PBCH blocks, the first symbol indexes for candidate SS/PBCH blocks are determined according to the subcarrier spacing of SS/PBCH blocks as described in 3GPP TS 38.213, vl5.2.0.

The candidate SS/PBCH blocks in a half frame are indexed in an ascending order in time from 0 to L-l. A UE determines the 2 LSB bits, for L=4, or the 3 LSB bits, for L>4, of a SS/PBCH block index per half frame from a one-to-one mapping with an index of the DM-RS sequence transmitted in the PBCH. For L=64, the UE determines the 3 MSB bits of the SS/PBCH block index per half frame by PBCH payload bits. In addition, a half-frame indicator is present in the PBCH payload bits.

The UE may assume that SS/PBCH blocks transmitted with the same block index on the same centre frequency location are quasi co-located with respect to Doppler spread, Doppler shift, average gain, average delay, delay spread, and, when applicable, spatial Rx parameters. The UE shall not assume quasi co-location for any other SS/PBCH block transmissions.

The SS/PBCH block index is used in for different purposes: - Frame timing establishment

By determining the SS/PBCH block index (from the DM-RS sequence and PBCH payload), the half-frame indicator (from the PBCH payload) and the first symbol index of SS/PBCH blocks (from the specification) the UE can establish the start of the radio frame.

- RACH procedure

A UE is provided a number N of SS/PBCH blocks associated with one PRACH occasion and a number R of contention-based preambles per SS/PBCH block by higher layer parameter ssb-perRACH-OceasionAndCB- PreamblesPerSSB. If N<l, one SS/PBCH block is mapped to l/N consecutive PRACH occasions. If, N>=l, R contention-based preambles with consecutive indexes associated with SS/PBCH block n, 0<=n<=N-l, per PRACH occasion start from preamble index n*64/N. SS/PBCH block indexes are mapped to PRACH occasions in the following order:

- First, in increasing order of preamble indexes within a single PRACH occasion.

- Second, in increasing order of frequency resource indexes for frequency multiplexed PRACH occasions.

- Third, in increasing order of time resource indexes for time multiplexed PRACH occasions within a PRACH slot.

- Fourth, in increasing order of indexes for PRACH slots.

Thus, to summarize there is a mapping from SS/PBCH block index to preamble and/or PRACH occasion.

- RRM Measurements

SS reference signal received power (SS -RSRP) is defined as the linear average over the power contributions (in [W]) of the resource elements that carry secondary synchronization signals (SS). The measurement time resource(s) for SS-RSRP are confined within SS/PBCH Block Measurement Time Configuration (SMTC) window duration.

SS-RSRP shall be measured only among the reference signals corresponding to SS/PBCH blocks with the same SS/PBCH block index and the same physical-layer cell identity.

- Radio Link Monitoring

A UE can be configured with a set of resource indexes, through a corresponding set of higher layer parameters RadioLinkMonitoringRS, for radio link monitoring by higher layer parameter failureDetectionResources. The UE is provided by higher layer parameter RadioLinkMonitoringRS, with either a CSI-RS resource configuration index, by higher layer parameter csi- RS-Index, or a SS/PBCH block index, by higher layer parameter ssb-Index.

This disclosure particularly concerns operation in unlicensed spectrum. In unlicensed spectrum, transmissions are often (depending on regulation) subject to LBT, thus access to the medium cannot be guaranteed. To mitigate this problem the transmitter is often given a window in which transmissions can occur instead of fixed time locations. For example, in Rel-l3 LAA the discovery reference signal (DRS) is allowed to move in the discovery measurement timing configuration window (DMTC).

Similar approaches have been proposed for the SS/PBCH block for NR-U, where multiple SS/PBCH blocks are grouped together and referred to as a DRS. In Rel- 15 NR the maximum number for the SS/PBCH block index is 8 for FR1 (<=6GHz) and 64 for FR2 (>6GHz).

To allow the UE to be able to determine the frame timing when the SS/PBCH block shifts in time while still allowing other procedures such as RRM measurements, radio link monitoring and random access to function as closely as possible to licensed NR, a new solution is required.

The above information disclosed in this Background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the background of the disclosure and therefore it may contain information that does not form the prior art that is already known to a person of ordinary skill in the art.

Summary

The disclosure is based on the inventors’ understanding that the time position of the shifted SS/PBCH block is indicated by the detected SS/PBCH index, either directly or indirectly through other parameters, and making use of both the PBCH DM- RS sequence and reserved bits in the PBCH payload enables to signal more than the 8 SS/PBCH indexes that are available for FR1 (<6GHz) in Rel-l5 NR. The inventors propose that the UE uses an effective SS/PBCH index which is computed by a modulo operation on the detected SS/PBCH index instead of the detected SS/PBCH index in all procedures except when determining the frame timing.

According to a first aspect, there is provided a method implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The method comprises determining a first parameter, for the unlicensed operation, indicative on provision of synchronisation signal blocks, and determining quasi-co-location, QCL, relationship between one or more synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks each having a first index, by determining a second index for the one or more SS/PBCH blocks by applying a modulo operation on the first index, respectively, based on the first parameter, where the QCL relationship is determined to occur if the second indices coincide. The determining of the first parameter may comprise receiving the first parameter. The method may comprise determining the frame timing based on the first index associated with a detected SS/PBCH block.

The determining of the first index may comprise receiving at least a part of the first index from a Physical Broadcast Channel, PBCH, payload. The determining of the first index may comprise receiving at least a part of the first index implicitly from the identifier of a reference signal sequence associated with the Physical Broadcast Channel.

The determining of the parameter may comprise receiving at least a part of the parameter from a System Information Block, SIB. The at least part of the first parameter may be conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB.

The receiving of the indication of the number may comprise receiving the number from a Master Information Block, MIB or PBCH payload, or a combination of the two.

The determining of the first parameter may comprise receiving the first parameter through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

The determining of the QCL relationship may comprise determining one or more desired second index(es) from transmission history, determining second index for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the first parameter, and comparing the second indices.

The method may comprise determining a QCL shift indicator, and wherein the determining of the QCL relationship may comprise determining one or more desired second index(es) from transmission history, determining second index for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the first parameter minus the determined QCL shift when the second index becomes positive and as the first index modulo the first parameter minus the determined QCL shift plus the first parameter otherwise, and comparing the second indices. The determining of the QCL shift indicator may comprise receiving the QCL shift indicator through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling. The determining of the QCL shift indicator may comprise receiving the QCL shift indicator through broadcast system information.

The method may comprise receiving an indication of a number of transmitted SS/PBCH blocks per burst. The receiving of the indication of the number may comprise receiving the number from a System Information Block, SIB. The number may be conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB. The receiving of the indication of the number may comprise receiving the number from a Master Information Block, MIB or PBCH payload, or a combination of the two. Alternatively, the receiving of the indication of the number may comprise receiving the number M through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

According to a second aspect, there is provided a computer program comprising instructions which, when executed on a processor of a wireless transceiver device, causes the wireless transceiver device to perform the method according to the first aspect.

According to a third aspect, there is provided a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The wireless transceiver device comprises a transceiver arranged to receive and transmit signals, including receiving synchronisation signals and control signals, and a signal handling circuit arranged to perform the method according to the first aspect.

An advantage of some embodiments is that the UE can determine the frame timing of the cell using legacy-like mechanisms, thus providing a solution without increasing the complexity of procedures such as RRM measurements, RLM and RACH that relies on the detected SS/PBCH index.

Brief description of the drawings

The above, as well as additional objects, features and advantages of the present disclosure, will be better understood through the following illustrative and non-limiting detailed description of preferred embodiments of the present disclosure, with reference to the appended drawings.

Fig. 1 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCL indices.

Fig. 2 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCF indices.

Fig. 3 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCF indices for a case where two blocks are provided.

Fig. 4 is a flow chart illustrating a method according to an embodiment.

Fig. 5 is a block diagram schematically illustrating a wireless transceiver device according to an embodiment. Fig. 6 schematically illustrates a computer-readable medium and a processing device.

Detailed description

The time position of the shifted SS/PBCH block is indicated by the detected SS/PBCH index. Making use of both the PBCH DM-RS sequence and reserved bits in the PBCH payload to signal more than the 8 SS/PBCH indexes that are available for FR1 (<6GHz) in Rel-l5 NR, even though 8 or less SS/PBCH blocks are transmitted.

The previously ms p rv p PBCH payload bits (see TS 38.212) used to signal the a— a— 7f— 7f— Cl—

SS/PBCH index are bits J+7 in case 32 indexes are sufficient and i+5 1+6 1+7 if 64 indexes are required.

Because there are two SS/PBCH block positions in each slot, 64 indices cover 32 slots, which corresponds to 32, 16 and 8 ms for 15, 30 and 60 kHz subcarrier spacing respectively. Thus, using a subset of the available 64 indices any SS/PBCH block position within a half-frame can be addressed. For 15, 30 and 60 kHz SCS, 10, 20 and 40 indices respectively are sufficient to cover 5 ms.

The value of the SS/PBCH index is reset to 0 every 5 ms (=half- frame). For example, for 30 kHz subcarrier spacing the value will range from 0 to 19 (because there are 20 SS/PBCH positions per 5 ms).

In one embodiment the UE computes an effective SS/PBCH block index as the detected SS/PBCH block index modulo N. This effective SS/PBCH block index is then used instead of the detected SS/PBCH block index (e.g. ranging 0 to 19 for 30 kHz SCS) except for when determining the frame timing (then the detected SS/PBCH index is used according to prior art). In other words the parameter N tells the UE that not only is SS/PBCH blocks with the same index QCL with each other, but also SS/PBCH blocks with index nl and n2 fulfilling mod(nl,N) = mod(n2,N).

The parameter N may for example be provided in a SIB. Alternatively, the parameter N may be provided through RRC messaging.

Fig. 1 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCL indices. In Fig. 1, several examples are shown for different values of N assuming a DRS with 4 SS/PBCH blocks. Note that basic repetition can be achieved with N=l . QCLx denotes the effective SS/PBCH block index and indicates which SS/PBCH blocks that are QCL with each other. This provides the UE with the information it requires in order to determine on which SS/PBCH blocks it may include in its RRM and RLM measurements. In addition, it preserves the association between SS/PBCH blocks and PRACH occasions that are configured to the UE irrespective of a potential time shift of the DRS due to LBT.

For example, assuming 20 candidate positions to transmit SS/PBCH block for 30kHz SCS and only maximum 4 is transmitted. So the transmitted SS/PBCH block index in DRS could be (0,1, 2, 3), (1,2, 3, 4) ..(2, 3, 4, 5).... Assuming one UE detects SSB0 in the first DRS occasion and enters RRC CONNECTED mode. Later, this UE will rely on SSB0 for RLM and RRM measurements. However in next DRS occasion, SSB0 is not transmitted due to LBT failure and the DRS contains SSB(l,2,3,4). In this case, this UE cannot monitor and make measurement anymore since the specification states that measurements shall be made only among the reference signals corresponding to SS/PBCH blocks with the same SS/PBCH block index. In this disclosure, it is provided a method to inform the UE that a time shifted SS/PBCH block (due to LBT) with a different SS/PBCH block index is still QCL’d with SSB0, so the UE associated with SSB0 first could still use the later detected SS/PBCH block with a different index for RLM and RRM measurements.

In NR, there is a parameter ssb-PositionsInBurst which is a bitmap specifying which SS/PBCH blocks that are transmitted. For NR-U, because the SS/PBCH blocks are allowed to move in time, such a bitmap does not convey any useful information. Instead it is proposed in this disclosure to reuse the bits for signalling the value of N.

In another embodiment the value of N divides the number of SS/PBCH block positions per 5 ms (=half- frame). For example, for 30kHz subcarrier spacing, the number of SS/PBCH block positions per 5 ms is 20 (10 slots per 5 ms and 2 SS/PBCH block positions per slot), and thus N can take the value of N=l, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20.

Fig. 2 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCL indices. For a signalled SS/PBCH block index n, the UE computes an effective SS/PBCH block index I as

I = mod(n,N) - Q if I > 0 or

I = mod(n,N) - Q + N if I according to above is negative.

Here Q is a signalled QCL shift indicator computed at the gNB as

Q = mod(nl,N)

where nl is the first index, e.g. SS/PBCH BLOCK index, in the DRS burst that is signalled. The QCL shift indicator Q has a range of possible values of 0 .. N-l, and thus requires log2(N) bits, e.g., 2 bits for N = 4. In one embodiment Q is signalled in MIB carried by PBCH. In another embodiment Q is signalled in RMSI (e.g. SIB1) associated with the DRS. A difference from legacy solutions is that the QCLx always starts at QCLO for each DRS burst. This can be seen from a comparison between Fig. 2 and Fig. 1. This can be advantageous from a gNB perspective for the case if beamforming is applied to the SS/PBCH blocks in that the order of the beam sweep is the same for each DRS burst regardless of whether or not the DRS burst is shifted in time due to LBT.

Fig. 3 schematically illustrates examples of different SS/PBCH positions and their respective SS/PBCH block indices and QCL indices for a case where two blocks are provided. The number of actually transmitted SS/PBCH blocks M may be signalled to the UE. In the examples in Figs 1 and 2, the value M=4 would be signalled. The value M can be signalled using the remaining bits of ssb-PositionsInBurst. This can help the UE skip detections of SS/PBCH blocks once it has detected the M SS/PBCH blocks. An example with M=2 is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 4 is a flow chart illustrating a method according to an embodiment. The method is implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The method comprises receiving 400 a parameter N, for the unlicensed operation, indicative on provision of synchronisation signal blocks. The receiving 400 of the parameter N may comprise receiving at least a part of the parameter N from a System Information Block, SIB. For example, the at least part of the parameter N is conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB. Alternatively, the receiving 400 of the parameter N is performed through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

Optionally, the method may comprise receiving 401 a QCF shift indicator Q. The receiving 401 of the QCF shift indicator Q may be made through a SIB, Alternatively, the receiving 401 of the QCF shift indicator Q may comprise receiving the QCF shift indicator Q through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

Optionally, the method may comprise receiving 403 an indication of a number M of transmitted SS/PBCH blocks per burst. The receiving 403 of the indication of the number M may comprise receiving the number M from a System Information Block, SIB. The number M may be conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB. Alternatively, the receiving 403 of the number M may be made through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

The method includes determining 404 quasi-co-location, QCF, for one or more synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks having a synchronisation signal block index n, by determining a second index, e.g. effective SS/PBCH block index I, for the one or more SS/PBCH blocks by applying a modulo operation on the first index, e.g. the SS/PBCH block index n, respectively, based on the parameter N, where QCL is determined to occur if the second indices, e.g. effective SS/PBCH block indices, coincide. The receiving of the first index, e.g. SS/PBCH block index n, may comprise receiving at least a part of the index n from a Physical Broadcast Channel payload.

The determining 404 of the QCL may according to one embodiment comprise determining desired the second index from transmission history, determining the second index, e.g. effective SS/PBCH block index I, for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the parameter N, e.g. SS/PBCH block index n modulo N, and comparing the second indices, e.g. the effective SS/PBCH block indices.

The determining 404 of the QCL may in cases where the QCL shift indicator is available comprise determining desired second index from transmission history, determining the second index for a received SS/PBCH block as the first index modulo the parameter, e.g. SS/PBCH block index n modulo N, minus the received QCL shift Q when the second index becomes positive and as the first index modulo the parameter minus the received QCL shift Q plus the parameter N otherwise, and comparing the second indices.

The method includes reading 406 received SS/PBCH blocks based on the first indices, e.g. SS/PBCH block indices, to determine frame timing.

Fig. 5 is a block diagram schematically illustrating a wireless transceiver device 500 according to an embodiment, for example a User Equipment, UE. The wireless transceiver device 500 comprises an antenna arrangement 502, a receiver 504 connected to the antenna arrangement 502, a transmitter 506 connected to the antenna arrangement 502, a processing element 508, one or more input interfaces 510 and one or more output interfaces 512. The processing element 508, which may comprise one or more circuits, may comprise a signal handling circuit arranged to perform the method according to what has been demonstrated above. The interfaces 510, 512 can be user interfaces and/or signal interfaces, e.g. electrical or optical. The wireless transceiver device 500 is arranged to operate in a cellular communication network, including operation in unlicensed spectrum. In particular, by the processing element 508 being arranged to perform the embodiments demonstrated with reference to Figs 1 to 4, the wireless transceiver device 500 is capable of determining QCL in the unlicensed spectrum environment where there is an uncertainty whether the channel is clear for a frame, and the SS/PBCH blocks may not be provided in the same way as for the licensed spectrum environment. The processing element 508 can also fulfil a multitude of tasks, ranging from signal processing to enable reception and transmission since it is connected to the receiver 504 and transmitter 506, executing applications, controlling the interfaces 510, 512, etc.

The methods according to the present disclosure are suitable for implementation with aid of processing means, such as computers and/or processors, especially for the case where the processing element 508 demonstrated above comprises a processor handling the method demonstrated with reference to Fig. 4. Therefore, there is provided computer programs, comprising instructions arranged to cause the processing means, processor, or computer to perform the steps of any of the methods according to any of the embodiments described with reference to Fig.1 to 4. The computer programs preferably comprise program code which is stored on a computer readable medium 600, as illustrated in Fig. 6, which can be loaded and executed by a processing means, processor, or computer 602 to cause it to perform the methods, respectively, according to embodiments of the present disclosure, preferably as any of the embodiments described with reference to Figs 1 to 4. The computer 602 and computer program product 600 can be arranged to execute the program code sequentially where actions of the any of the methods are performed stepwise or be arranged to perform the actions on a real-time basis. The processing means, processor, or computer 602 is preferably what normally is referred to as an embedded system. Thus, the depicted computer readable medium 600 and computer 602 in Fig. 6 should be construed to be for illustrative purposes only to provide understanding of the principle, and not to be construed as any direct illustration of the elements.

According to one example, there is provided a method implemented in a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The method comprises receiving a parameter N, for the unlicensed operation, indicative on provision of synchronisation signal blocks, and determining quasi-co- location, QCL, relationship between one or more synchronisation signal and physical broadcast channel, SS/PBCH, blocks each having a synchronisation signal block index n, by determining effective SS/PBCH block index I for the one or more SS/PBCH blocks by applying a modulo operation on the SS/PBCH block index n, respectively, based on the parameter N, where the QCL relationship is determined to occur if the effective SS/PBCH block indices coincide. The method may comprise reading received SS/PBCH blocks based on the SS/PBCH block indices to determine frame timing.

The receiving of the SS/PBCH block index n may comprise receiving at least a part of the index n from a Physical Broadcast Channel payload. Alternatively, the receiving of the SS/PBCH block index may comprise receiving at least a part of the index n implicitly from the identifier of a reference signal sequence associated with the Physical Broadcast Channel.

The parameter N may comprise receiving at least a part of the parameter N from a System Information Block, SIB. The at least part of the parameter N may be conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB.

The receiving of the parameter N may comprise receiving the parameter N through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling.

The determining of the QCL relationship may comprise determining one or more desired effective SS/PBCH block index(es) from transmission history, determining effective SS/PBCH block index I for a received SS/PBCH block as SS/PBCH block index n modulo N, and comparing the effective SS/PBCH block indices.

The method may comprise receiving a QCL shift indicator Q, and wherein the determining of the QCL relationship may comprise determining one or more desired effective SS/PBCH block index(es) from transmission history, determining effective SS/PBCH block index I for a received SS/PBCH block as SS/PBCH block index n modulo N minus the received QCL shift Q when the effective SS/PBCH block index I becomes positive and as SS/PBCH block index n modulo N minus the received QCL shift Q plus the parameter N otherwise, and comparing the effective SS/PBCH block indices. The receiving of the QCL shift indicator Q may comprise receiving the QCL shift indicator Q through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling. The receiving of the QCL shift indicator Q may comprise receiving the QCL shift indicator Q through broadcast system information.

The method may comprise receiving an indication of a number M of transmitted SS/PBCH blocks per burst. The receiving of the indication of the number M may comprise receiving the number M from a System Information Block, SIB. The number M may be conveyed in a field used for ssb-PositionlnBurst of a ServingCellConfigCommonSIB. Alternatively, the receiving of the indication of the number M may comprise receiving the number M through user-specific Radio Resource Control signalling. According to one example, there is provided a computer program comprising instructions which, when executed on a processor of a wireless transceiver device, causes the wireless transceiver device to perform the method according to the example above.

According to one example, there is provided a wireless transceiver device arranged to operate in a cellular wireless communication network and capable of operating in an unlicensed spectrum where listen-before-talk is employed. The wireless transceiver device comprises a transceiver arranged to receive and transmit signals, including receiving synchronisation signals and control signals, and a signal handling circuit arranged to perform the method according to the example above.

An advantage of some embodiments is that the UE can determine the frame timing of the cell using legacy-like mechanisms, thus providing a solution without increasing the complexity of procedures such as RRM measurements, RLM and RACH that relies on the detected SS/PBCH index.