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Title:
STABLE ANTIBODY FORMULATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/187057
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides stable pharmaceutical formulations comprising a human antibody that specifically binds to human programmed death -1 protein (PD-1). In certain embodiments, the formulations contain, in addition to an anti-PD-1 antibody, a buffer, an amino acid, a non-ionic surfactant, and a sugar. The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention exhibit a substantial degree of antibody stability upon stress and storage.

Inventors:
HU, Qingyan (777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, New York, 10591, US)
LIU, Dingjiang (777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, New York, 10591, US)
Application Number:
US2018/024032
Publication Date:
October 11, 2018
Filing Date:
March 23, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
REGENERON PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, New York, 10591-6707, US)
International Classes:
A61K9/00; A61K39/00; A61K47/18; A61K47/26; C07K16/28
Domestic Patent References:
WO2012135408A12012-10-04
WO2016168716A12016-10-20
WO2006121168A12006-11-16
WO2009114335A22009-09-17
WO2012145493A12012-10-26
WO2013014668A12013-01-31
WO2009101611A12009-08-20
WO2015112800A12015-07-30
Foreign References:
US20150203579A12015-07-23
US7101550B22006-09-05
US7595048B22009-09-29
US7488802B22009-02-10
US7563869B22009-07-21
US8008449B22011-08-30
US8168757B22012-05-01
US8216996B22012-07-10
US20110008369A12011-01-13
US20130017199A12013-01-17
US20130022595A12013-01-24
EP2262837A22010-12-22
EP2504028A22012-10-03
US20140234296A12014-08-21
US20150203579A12015-07-23
US4997423A1991-03-05
US5908686A1999-06-01
US6286699B12001-09-11
US6645635B22003-11-11
US7226554B22007-06-05
US6629949B12003-10-07
US6659982B22003-12-09
Other References:
WANG ET AL., J. PHARMA. SCI., vol. 96, 2007, pages 1 - 26
BOLTON ET AL., BIOTECHNOL. PROG., vol. 27, no. 1, 2011, pages 140 - 152
ROBINSON, N.: "Protein Deamidation", PNAS, vol. 99, no. 8, 16 April 2002 (2002-04-16), pages 5283 - 5288
MEEHAN ET AL., J. CONTROLLED RELEASE, vol. 46, 1996, pages 107 - 116
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EL HIOUM, Dianna G. (Fox Rothschild LLP, 997 Lenox DriveLawrenceville, NJ, 08648-2311, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A liquid pharmaceutical formulation comprising:

(a) an antibody which binds specifically to human programmed death -1 (PD-1), wherein the antibody comprises three heavy chain complementarity determining regions (CDRs) (HCDR1 , HCDR2 and HCDR3) contained in a heavy chain variable region (HCVR) of SEQ ID NO: 1 and three light chain CDRs (LCDRl , LCDR2 and LCDR3) contained in a light chain variable region (LCVR) of SEQ ID NO: 2;

(b) a buffer comprising histidine;

(c) an organic solvent comprising polysorbate;

(d) a stabilizer comprising a sugar; and

(e) a viscosity modifier comprising an amino acid;

wherein the formulation has a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3.

2. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the antibody concentration is from 5 mg/mL ± 0.75 mg/mL to 250 mg/mL ± 37.5 mg/mL.

3. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 2, wherein the antibody concentration is 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL.

4. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 2, wherein the antibody concentration is 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL.

5. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 2, wherein the antibody concentration is 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL.

6. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 2, wherein the antibody concentration is 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL.

7. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 6, wherein the histidine buffer concentration is from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 mM ± 4 mM.

8. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 7, wherein the histidine buffer concentration is 10 mM ± 2 mM.

9. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 7 or 8, wherein the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate.

10. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 9, wherein the L-histidine concentration is 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM and the L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate concentration is 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM.

11. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 10, wherein the polysorbate concentration is from 0.01% ± 0.005% to 0.5% ± 0.25% w/v.

12. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 11, wherein the polysorbate

concentration is 0.1% ± 0.05% w/v.

13. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 11, wherein the polysorbate

concentration is 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v.

14. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 11 - 13, wherein the organic solvent is polysorbate 80.

15. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 14, wherein the stabilizer is sucrose and the sucrose concentration is from 0% to 20% ± 4% w/v.

16. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 15, wherein the sucrose concentration is from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v.

17. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 16, wherein the sucrose concentration is

5% ± 1% w/v.

18. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 17, wherein the viscosity modifier is proline.

19. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 18, wherein the proline concentration is from 0 to 5% ± 1% w/v.

20. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 19, wherein the proline concentration is 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v.

21. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 18 comprising:

(a) 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL antibody,

(b) of from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 mM ± 4mM histidine buffer, (c) of from 0.1% ± 0.05% to 0.5% ± 0.25% w/v polysorbate,

(d) of from 1 % ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v sucrose, and

(e) of from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

22. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 21 comprising:

(a) 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL antibody,

(b) lOmM ± 2mM histidine buffer,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1 % w/v polysorbate

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

23. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 22 comprising:

(a) 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine,

(c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate,

(d) 0.2% ± 0.1 % w/v polysorbate,

(e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

24. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 18 comprising:

(a) 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) of from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 mM ± 4mM histidine buffer,

(c) of from 0.1% ± 0.05% to 0.5% ± 0.25% w/v polysorbate,

(d) of from 1 % ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v sucrose, and

(e) of from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

25. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 24 comprising:

(a) 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1 % w/v polysorbate, (d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline,

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

26. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 25 comprising:

(a) 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine,

(c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM) L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate,

(d) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate,

(e) 5% + 1% w/v sucrose, and

(f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

27. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 18 comprising:

(a) 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) of from 5 mM ± ImM to 20 mM ± 4mM histidine buffer,

(c) of from 0.1% ± 0.05% to 0.5% ± 0.25% w/v polysorbate,

(d) of from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v sucrose, and

(e) of from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% w/v proline,

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

28. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 27 comprising:

(a) 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate,

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline,

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

29. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 28 comprising:

(a) 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine,

(c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate,

(d) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate, (e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

30. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 18 comprising:

(a) 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL antibody,

(b) of from 5 mM ± ImM to 20 mM ± 4mM histidine buffer,

(c) of from 0.1% ± 0.05% to 0.5% ± 0.25% w/v polysorbate

(d) of from 1 % ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v sucrose, and

(e) of from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% w/v proline,

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

31. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 30 comprising:

(a) 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1 % w/v polysorbate,

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline,

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

32. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 31 comprising:

(a) 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL antibody,

(b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine,

(c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate,

(d) 0.2% ± 0.1 % w/v polysorbate,

(e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and

(f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline;

at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

33. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 32, wherein the formulation has viscosity less than 20 cP.

34. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 33, wherein at least 90% of the antibody has native conformation after 28 days at 45°C.

35. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 34, wherein at least 35% of the antibody is the main charge variant of the antibody after 28 days at 45°C.

36. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 35, wherein at least 94% of the antibody has native conformation after three months at 25°C.

37. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 36, wherein at least 44% of the antibody is the main charge variant of the antibody after three months at 25°C.

38. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 37, wherein at least 96% of the antibody has native conformation after 12 months at 5°C.

39. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 38, wherein at least 45% of the antibody is the main charge variant of the antibody after 12 months at 5°C.

40. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 39, wherein at least 96% of the antibody has native conformation after 12 months at -20°C, -30°C, &/or -80°C.

41. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 40, wherein at least 40% of the antibody is the main charge variant of the antibody after 12 months at -20°C, -30°C, &/or -80°C.

42. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:

(a) 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL of an antibody that binds specifically to PD-1, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer, pH 6.0 ± 0.3,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80,

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline; wherein:

(i) > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa;

(ii) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 20 cP; and

(iii) at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at - 80°C, -30°C &/or -20°C for 6 months.

43. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 42 consisting of: (a) 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL of the antibody, (b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine (c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L- histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, (d) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, (e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and (f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline, in water at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

44. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:

(a) 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL of an antibody that binds specifically to PD-1, wherein the antibody comprises an HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1 and an LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer, pH 6 ± 0.3,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80,

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline; wherein:

(i) > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa;

(ii) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 15cP; and

(iii) at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at - 80°C, -30°C or -20°C for 6 months.

45. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 44 consisting of: (a) 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL of the antibody, (b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine, (c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L- histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, (d) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, (e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and (f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline, in water at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

46. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:

(a) 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL of an antibody that binds specifically to PD-1, wherein the antibody comprises an HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1 and an LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer, pH 6 ± 0.3,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80,

(d) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline, and

(e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; wherein:

(i) > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa;

(ii) more than 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C; and (iii) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity less than 15 cP.

47. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 46 consisting of: (a) 50 mg/mL mL ± 7.5 mg/mL of the antibody, (b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine, (c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L- histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, (d) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, (e) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and (f) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline, in water at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

48. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising:

(a) 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL of an antibody that binds specifically to PD-1, wherein the antibody comprises an HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1 and an LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2,

(b) 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer, pH 6.0 ± 0.3,

(c) 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80,

(d) 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose; and

(e) 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v proline; wherein:

(a) > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa;

(b) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 10 cP; and

(c) at least 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C.

49. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 48 consisting of: (a) 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL of the antibody, (b) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine, (c) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L- histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, (d) 0.2% w/v ± 0.1% polysorbate 80, (e) 5% w/v ± 1% sucrose; and (f) 1.5% w/v ± 0.3% proline, in water at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

50. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 49, wherein the antibody comprises a HCDRl of SEQ ID NO: 3, a HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, a HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, a LCDRl of SEQ ID NO: 6, a LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and a LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8.

51. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 50, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2.

52. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1.

53. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a LCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2.

54. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2.

55. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain and light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 11.

56. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain and light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9.

57. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain and light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11.

58. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain and light chain, wherein the light chain comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10.

59. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain/light chain comprising amino acid sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9/10 and 11/10.

60. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain/light chain comprising amino acid sequences of SEQ ID NOs: 9/10.

61. The pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 51, wherein the antibody comprises a heavy chain/light chain comprising amino acid sequences of SEQ ID NOs: 11/10.

62. A pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 61, wherein said formulation is contained in a container.

63. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 62, wherein the container is a vial.

64. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 63, wherein the vial is 10 mL Type 1 clear glass vial.

65. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 62, wherein the container is a syringe.

66. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 65, wherein the syringe is low-tungsten glass.

67. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 62, wherein the container is a prefilled syringe.

68. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 62 contained in an autoinjector.

69. A kit comprising a pharmaceutical formulation of any one of claims 1 - 61, a container, and instructions.

70. The kit of claim 69, wherein the container is a glass vial.

71. The kit of claim 69, wherein the container is a prefilled syringe.

72. The kit of claim 69, wherein the container is an autoinjector.

Description:
STABLE ANTIBODY FORMULATION

[001] This application is being filed on March 23, 2018 as a PCT International Patent Application and claims the benefit of priority to US Provisional Patent Application No.

62/482,270, filed on April 6, 2017, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[002] The present invention relates to the field of therapeutic antibody formulations. More specifically, the present invention relates to the field of pharmaceutical formulations comprising a human antibody that specifically binds to human programmed death -1 (PD- 1) protein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[003] Therapeutic macromolecules (e.g. , antibodies) must be formulated in a manner that not only makes the molecules suitable for administration to patients, but also maintains their stability during storage and subsequent use. For example, therapeutic antibodies in liquid solution are prone to degradation, aggregation or undesired chemical modifications unless the solution is formulated properly. The stability of an antibody in liquid formulation depends not only on the kinds of excipients used in the formulation, but also on the amounts and proportions of the excipients relative to one another. Furthermore, other considerations aside from stability must be taken into account when preparing a liquid antibody formulation. Examples of such additional considerations include the viscosity of the solution and the concentration of antibody that can be accommodated by a given formulation, and the visual quality or appeal of the formulation. Thus, when formulating a therapeutic antibody, great care must be taken to arrive at a formulation that remains stable, contains an adequate concentration of antibody, and possesses a suitable viscosity as well as other properties which enable the formulation to be conveniently administered to patients.

[004] Antibodies to the human programmed death -1 protein (PD-1) are one example of a therapeutically relevant macromolecule that requires proper formulation. Anti-PD-1 antibodies are clinically useful for the treatment of cancer (e.g., lung cancer, melanoma, and brain cancer) and viral infections and autoimmune diseases. Exemplary anti-PD-1 antibodies are described, inter alia, in US Patent/Publication Nos. 7101550, 7595048, 7488802, 7563869, 8008449, 8168757, 8216996, 20110008369, 20130017199,

20130022595, and in WO2006121168, WO2009114335, WO2012145493,

WO2013014668, WO2009101611, EP2262837, and EP2504028. US20140234296 describes lyophilized formulations of an anti-PD-1 antibody.

[005] Although anti-PD-1 antibodies are known, there remains a need in the art for novel pharmaceutical formulations comprising anti-PD-1 antibodies that are sufficiently stable and suitable for administration to patients.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[006] The present invention satisfies the aforementioned need by providing stable pharmaceutical formulations comprising a human antibody that specifically binds to human programmed death -1 protein (PD-1).

[007] In one aspect, a stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation of low viscosity is provided, comprising: (i) a human antibody that specifically binds to human programmed death protein (PD-1); (ii) a buffer; (iii) an organic cosolvent; (iv) a stabilizer; and (v) a viscosity modifier.

[008] In various embodiments, the antibody is provided at a concentration from about 5 ± 0.75 mg/mL to about 250 ± 37.5 mg/mL. In one embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 12.5 mg/mL ± 1.85 mg/mL, or about 12.5 mg/mL. In one embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL, or about 25 mg/mL. In another embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL, or about 50 mg/mL. In another embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 100 mg/mL ± 15 mg/mL, or about 100 mg/mL. In one embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL, or about 150 mg/mL. In another embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL, or about 175 mg/mL. In another embodiment, the antibody is provided at a concentration of 200 mg/mL ± 30 mg/mL, or about 200 mg/mL.

[009] In certain embodiments, the formulation comprises any one of the anti-PD-1 antibodies disclosed in US Patent Application Publication No: 20150203579, incorporated herein in its entirety. In certain embodiments, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises (a) a heavy chain variable region (HCVR) comprising heavy chain complementarity determining regions 1, 2 and 3 (HCDR1-HCDR2-HCDR3) each comprising a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4 and SEQ ID NO: 5, respectively; and (b) a light chain variable region (LCVR) comprising light chain complementarity determining regions 1, 2 and 3 (LCDR1 -LCDR2-LCDR3) each comprising a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7 and SEQ ID NO: 8, respectively. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a HCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 11 ; and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a HCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a LCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a HCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR having 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2.

[010] In one embodiment, the pH of the liquid formulation is pH 6.0 ± 0.5, pH 6.0 ± 0.4, pH 6.0 ± 0.3, pH 6.0 ± 0.2, pH 6.0 ± 0.1, pH 6.0 ± 0.05, pH 6.0 ± 0.01, or pH 6.0. In one embodiment, the pH of the liquid formulation is about pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

[011] In one embodiment, the buffer comprises histidine. In certain embodiments, the histidine buffer is at a concentration of from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 50 mM ± 10 mM, preferably from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 25 mM ± 5 mM. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer is at a concentration of 10 mM ± 2 mM or about 10 mM. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer is at a concentration of 20 mM ± 4 mM or about 20 mM. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer is at a concentration of 40 nM ± 8 mM or about 40 nM. In certain embodiments, the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate. In one embodiment, L-histidine is at a concentration of from 2 mM ± 0.4 mM to 25 mM ± 5 mM, preferably from 4 mM ± 0.8 mM to 20 mM ± 4 mM. In one embodiment, L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate is at a

concentration of from 2 mM ± 0.4 mM to 25 mM ± 5 mM, preferably from 4 mM ± 0.8 mM to 20 mM ± 4 mM. In one embodiment, the buffer comprises L-histidine at a concentration of 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate at a concentration of 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM. In one embodiment, the buffer comprises histidine at a concentration of 10 mM ± 2 mM, wherein the histidine comprises L-histidine at a concentration of 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate at a concentration of 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM.

[012] In certain embodiments, the organic cosolvent is a nonionic polymer containing a polyoxy ethylene moiety. In one embodiment, the organic solvent is a surfactant. In some embodiments, the organic cosolvent is any one or more of polysorbate, poloxamer 188 and polyethylene glycol 3350. In one embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 80. In one embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 20.

[013] In one embodiment, the organic cosolvent is at a concentration of from about 0.01% ± 0.005% to about 1% ± 0.5% "weight to volume" or "w/v", wherein, e.g., 0.1 g/ml = 10% and 0.01 g/ml = 1%. In certain embodiments, the organic solvent is polysorbate at a concentration of from 0.05% ± 0.025% to 0.5% ± 0.25% (w/v). In one embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 80, which is at a concentration of 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v, or about 0.2%. In another embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 80, which is at a concentration of 0.1% ± 0.05% w/v or about 0.1% w/v. In one embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 20, which is at a concentration of 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v, or about 0.2%. In another embodiment, the organic cosolvent is polysorbate 20, which is at a concentration of 0.1% ± 0.05% w/v or about 0.1% w/v.

[014] In certain embodiments, the stabilizer is a sugar. In one embodiment, the sugar is sucrose. In various embodiments, the stabilizer is at a concentration of from 1% ± 0.2% w/v to 20% ± 4% w/v, from 5% ± 1% w/v to 15% ± 3% w/v, or from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v. In one embodiment, the stabilizer is sucrose at a concentration of 5% ± 1% w/v or about 5% w/v. In another embodiment, the stabilizer is sucrose at a concentration of 9% ± 1.8% w/v or about 9% w/v. In another embodiment, the stabilizer is sucrose at a concentration of 10% ± 2% w/v or about 10% w/v.

[015] In one embodiment, the viscosity modifier is an amino acid. In one embodiment, the viscosity modifier is L-proline. In certain embodiments, the viscosity modifier is at a concentration of from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% w/v. In one embodiment, the viscosity modifier is proline at a concentration of 1.5% ± 0.3% or about 1.5%. In one embodiment, the viscosity modifier is proline at a concentration of 3% ± 0.6%, or about 3%.

[016] In certain embodiments, the viscosity of the liquid pharmaceutical formulation at 25°C is less than or equal to about 15 cPoise ± 10%. In certain embodiments, the viscosity at 25°C is between 1.0 cPoise ± 10% and 20 cPoise ± 10%. In certain embodiments, the viscosity of the liquid pharmaceutical formulation is < 15 cPoise. In certain embodiments, the viscosity of the liquid pharmaceutical formulation is < 20 cPoise. In certain embodiments, the viscosity of the liquid pharmaceutical formulation is < 10 cPoise. In certain embodiments, the viscosity at 25°C is 5 cPoise ± 10%, 6.0 cPoise ± 10%, 7.0 cPoise ± 10%, 7.1 cPoise ± 10%, 7.2 cPoise ± 10%, 7.9 cPoise ± 10%, 8.3 cPoise ± 10%, 9.0 cPoise ± 10%, 9.6 cPoise ± 10%, 10.0 cPoise ± 10%, 10.6 cPoise ± 10%, 11.4 cPoise ± 10%, 11.6 cPoise ± 10%, 11.8 cPoise ± 10%, 12.0 cPoise ± 10%,13.0 cPoise ± 10%, 14.0 cPoise ± 10%, 15.0 cPoise ± 10%, or 16 cPoise ± 10%.

[017] In one aspect, a stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation of low-viscosity is provided, comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1; (ii) from 0 mM to 40 ± 8 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0% to 0.5% ± 0.25% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 0% to 15% ± 3% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 0 to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of from about 5.3 to about 6.7; wherein the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a heavy chain variable region (HCVR) and a light chain variable region (LCVR) such that the HCVR / LCVR combination comprises heavy and light chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR1 -HCDR2-HCDR3 / LCDR1- LCDR2-LCDR3), which comprise the amino acid sequences of SEQ ID NOs: 3 - 4 - 5 / SEQ ID NOs: 6 - 7 - 8, respectively. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a heavy chain variable region (HCVR) and light chain variable region (LCVR) comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and SEQ ID NO: 2, respectively. In certain embodiments, the anti-PDl antibody comprises a Fc region elected from the group consisting of human IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotypes. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a human IgG4 isotype. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 11; and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10. In one embodiment, the antibody has a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 5 kDa.

[018] In certain embodiments, a stable, low-viscosity liquid pharmaceutical formulation is provided, comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1; (ii) from 0 mM to 40 ± 8 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0% to 0.5% ± 0.25% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 0% to 15% ± 3% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 0 to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of from about 5.3 to about 6.7; wherein the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a HCVR and a LCVR, wherein the HCVR has 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 and/or the LCVR has 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a HCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 11; and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10.

[019] In certain embodiments, a stable, low-viscosity liquid pharmaceutical formulation is provided, comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1; (ii) from 0 mM to 40 ± 8 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0% to 0.5% ± 0.25% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 0% to 15% ± 3% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 0 to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of from about 5.3 to about 6.7; wherein the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a HCVR and a LCVR, wherein the HCVR comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 having no more than five amino acid substitutions, and wherein the LCVR comprises an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 having no more than two amino acid substitutions. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a HCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and a LCVR comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 11; and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10.

[020] In certain embodiments, the formulation of any of the preceding aspects has an attribute selected from the group consisting of: (i) the formulation is stable to long-term storage at 25°C, 5°C, -20°C, -30°C and -80°C, as described herein; (ii) the formulation is stable to agitation stress as described herein; (iii) the formulation is low-viscosity

(viscosity less than 20cPoise, preferably less than 15 cPoise); (iii) the formulation is stable even with up to ± 50% variation in the formulation excipient concentrations, as described herein; (iv) the formulation is iso-osmolar to physiologic conditions; (v) the formulation is stable to and compatible with intravenous delivery devices and procedures; and (vi) the formulation is stable to long-term storage in a glass vial or in a prefilled syringe. [021] In certain embodiments of this aspect, a stable liquid formulation is provided, comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1; (ii) from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 ± 4 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0.05% ± 0.025% to 0.3% ± 0.15% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of about 6.0, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation of this aspect has a viscosity less than 15 cP. In one embodiment, > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 20 cP, less than 15 cP, or less than 10 cP. In one embodiment, more than 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C. In one embodiment, at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at -80°C, -30°C &/or -20°C for 6 months.

[022] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 25 ± 3.75 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (v) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[023] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 25 ± 3.75 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ±

1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[024] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 50 ±

7.5 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (v) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment of this particular formulation, the viscosity is less than 10 cPoise.

[025] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 50 ± 7.5 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[026] In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 100 ± 15 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (v) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment of this particular formulation, the viscosity is less than 10 cPoise.

[027] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 100 ± 15 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[028] In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 150 ± 22.5 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 10% ± 2% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment of this particular formulation, the viscosity is less than 20 cPoise, preferably less than 15 cPoise.

[029] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 150 ± 22.5 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[030] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 175 ± 26.25 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment of this particular formulation, the viscosity is less than 20 cPoise, preferably less than 15 cPoise. [031] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 175 ± 26.25 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[032] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 200 ± 30.00 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer; (iii) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2. In one embodiment of this particular formulation, the viscosity is less than 20 cPoise.

[033] In one embodiment of this aspect, the stable liquid formulation comprises (i) 200 ± 30.00 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM L-histidine; (iii) 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate; (iv) 0.2% ± 0.1% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (v) 1.5% ± 0.3% (w/v) proline; and (vi) 5% ± 1% (w/v) sucrose, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[034] In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at 45° for 28 days, > 90% of the antibody is native and > 35% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at 25° for three months, > 94% of the antibody is native and > 44% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at 5° for 12 months, > 96% of the antibody is native and > 50% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at -20° for 12 months, > 96% of the antibody is native and > 40% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at -30° for 12 months, > 96% of the antibody is native and > 40% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, after storage of the formulation at -80° for 12 months, > 96% of the antibody is native and > 40% of the antibody is of the main charge form. In one embodiment, more than 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C. In one embodiment, at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at -80°C, -30°C &/or -20°C for 6 months. [035] In one aspect, the present invention provides a stable liquid formulation comprising: (i) upto 100 mg/mL of an anti-PD-1 antibody; (ii) from 2 mM ± 0.4 mM to 20 mM ± 4 mM histidine buffer; (iii) upto 20% ± 4% (w/v) sucrose; and (iv) upto 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 25 mg/mL of anti-PD-1 antibody. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 50 mg/mL of anti-PD-1 antibody. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 75 mg/mL of anti-PD-1 antibody. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 10 mM ± 2 mM histidine buffer. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 5% sucrose. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 6% sucrose. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 9% sucrose. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 10% sucrose. In one embodiment, the stable liquid formulation comprises 0.1 % polysorbate. In one embodiment, the polysorbate is polysorbate 80 or polysorbate 20. In one embodiment, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2.

[036] In one aspect, a stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation of any of the preceding aspects is provided in a container. In one embodiment, the container is a polycarbonate vial. In one embodiment, the container is a glass vial. In one embodiment, the glass vial is a type 1 borosilicate glass vial with a fluorocarbon-coated butyl rubber stopper. In one embodiment, the container is a microinfuser. In one embodiment, the container is a syringe. In one embodiment, the container is a prefilled syringe. In one embodiment, the syringe comprises a fluorocarbon-coated plunger. In certain embodiments, the syringe is a 1 mL or 2.25 mL long glass syringe containing less than about 500 parts per billion of tungsten equipped with a 27-G needle, a fluorocarbon-coated butyl rubber stopper, and a latex-free, non-cytotoxic rubber tip cap. In one embodiment, the syringe is a 1 mL long glass syringe equipped with a 27-G thin wall needle, a FLUROTEC-coated 4023/50 rubber stopper, and a FM 27 rubber tip cap. In one embodiment, the syringe is a 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 5 mL or 10 mL plastic syringe fitted with a needle.

[037] In one aspect, a kit comprising a stable pharmaceutical composition of any one of the preceding aspects, a container, and instructions is provided. In one embodiment, the container is a glass vial. In one embodiment, the container is a prefilled syringe. In one embodiment, the syringe is a 1 mL or 2.25mL long glass syringe equipped with a 27-G thin wall needle, a FLUROTEC-coated 4023/50 rubber stopper, and a FM 27 rubber tip cap. In one embodiment, the syringe is a 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 5 mL or 10 mL plastic syringe fitted with a needle.

[038] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a prefilled syringe comprising a stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1; (ii) from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 ± 4 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0.05% ± 0.025% to 0.3% ± 0.15% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2; wherein the formulation has an attribute selected from the group consisting of: (i) > 98% of the antibody is in native form after storage at 5°C for 12 months; (ii) > 53% of the antibody is the main charge variant after storage at 5°C for 12 months; (iii) > 97% of the antibody is in native form after storage at 25°C for 6 months; (iv) the formulation is stable to agitation stress wherein > 98% of the antibody is in native form after 120 minutes of agitation stress in the prefilled syringe; (v) over 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa; (vi) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 20 cP, less than 15 cP, or less than 10 cP; (vii) more than 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C; and (viii) at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at -80°C, -30°C &/or -20°C for 6 months.

[039] In certain embodiments the present invention provides a glass vial comprising a stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation comprising: (i) from 5 ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 ± 37.5 mg/ml of a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1 ; (ii) from 5 mM ± 1 mM to 20 ± 4 mM histidine buffer; (iii) from 0.05% ± 0.025% to 0.3% ± 0.15% (w/v) polysorbate 80; (iv) from 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% (w/v) sucrose; and (v) from 1% ± 0.2% to 5% ± 1% proline, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3, wherein the antibody comprises a HCVR/LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence pair of SEQ ID NOs: 1/2; wherein the formulation has an attribute selected from the group consisting of: (i) the formulation is stable to storage and stress in a glass vial; (ii) the formulation is stable to and compatible for use in IV delivery devices; (iii) the formulation is chemically and physically stable to dilution with standard diluents known in the art (e.g. , 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose); (iv) the formulation is stable to IV bags made of glass or polymer plastics (e.g. , polyvinyl chloride, phthalates, poly olefins or polypropylene); (v) the formulation is compatible with standard infusion pumps (e.g., peristaltic pump, fluid displacement pump); (vi) > 90% of the antibodies have a molecular weight of 143 kDa ± 1 kDa; (vii) the pharmaceutical formulation has a viscosity of less than 20 cP, less than 15 cP, or less than 10 cP; (viii) more than 96% of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage for 12 months at 5°C; and (ix) at least 97% or more of the antibodies have native conformation upon storage at -80°C, -30°C &/or -20°C for 6 months.

[040] Other embodiments will become apparent from a review of the ensuing detailed description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

[041] Figure 1 is a table showing the effect of pH on the stability of 150 mg/mL mAbl incubated at 45°C for 28 days. a SE-UPLC and CEX-UPLC 'Starting Material' results are the average values of the starting material for all formulations.

[042] Figure 2 shows storage stability of three formulations Fl, F2 and F3, wherein Fl comprises 210 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine and 3% proline, at pH 6.0; F2 comprises 210 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine and 3% sucrose, at pH 6.0; and F3 comprises 210 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine and 5% sucrose, at pH 6.0. Storage stability is measured by % high molecular weight species (HMW) generated upon storage at -80°C (A), -30°C (B) and -20°C (C) for up to 9 months and analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC).

[043] Figure 3 shows storage stability of three formulations Fl, F2 and F3, wherein Fl comprises 150 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine, 9% sucrose and 0.2% polysorbate 80 (PS80), at pH 6.0; F2 comprises 175 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine, 3% proline and 0.2% PS80, at pH 6.0; and F3 comprises 175 mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM histidine, 5% sucrose, 1.5% proline and 0.2% PS80, at pH 6.0. Storage stability is measured by % high molecular weight species (HMW) generated upon storage at -80°C (A), -30°C (B) and -20°C (C) for up to 6 months and analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC).

[044] Figure 4 is a table showing viscosity of 150 mg/mL mAbl with the addition of excipients and viscosity modifiers.

[045] Figure 5 is a table that shows effect of viscosity modifiers on the stability of 175 mg/mL mAbl incubated at 45°C for 14 days. a pH, SE-UPLC and CEX-UPLC 'Starting Material' results are the average values of the starting material for all formulations. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[046] Before the present methods are described, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to particular methods, and experimental conditions described, as such methods and conditions may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting, since the scope of the present invention will be limited only by the appended claims.

[047] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. As used herein, the term "about", when used in reference to a particular recited numerical value or range of values, means that the value may vary from the recited value by no more than 1%. For example, as used herein, the expression "about 100" includes 99 and 101 and all values in between (e.g. , 99.1, 99.2, 99.3, 99.4, etc.). Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, preferred methods and materials are now described. All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[048] As used herein, the expression "pharmaceutical formulation" means a combination of at least one active ingredient (e.g. , a small molecule, macromolecule, compound, etc. which is capable of exerting a biological effect in a human or non-human animal), and at least one inactive ingredient which, when combined with the active ingredient or one or more additional inactive ingredients, is suitable for therapeutic administration to a human or non-human animal. The term "formulation", as used herein, means "pharmaceutical formulation" unless specifically indicated otherwise. The present invention provides pharmaceutical formulations comprising at least one therapeutic polypeptide. According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the therapeutic polypeptide is an antibody, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, which binds specifically to human programmed death -1 (PD-1) protein. More specifically, the present invention includes pharmaceutical formulations that comprise: (i) a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1 (ii) a histidine buffer; (iii) an organic cosolvent that is a non-ionic surfactant; (iv) a stabilizer that is a carbohydrate; and, optionally, (v) a viscosity modifier that is an amino acid. Specific exemplary components and formulations included within the present invention are described in detail below. ANTIBODIES THAT BIND SPECIFICALLY TO PD-1

[049] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may comprise a human antibody, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, that binds specifically to human PD-1. As used herein, the term "PD-1" means human programmed death -1 protein. Antibodies to human PD-1 are described in, for example, US Patent/Publication Nos. 8008449, 8168757, 20110008369, 20130017199, 20130022595, 20150203579, and in

WO2006121168, WO2009114335, WO2012145493, WO2013014668, WO2009101611, WO2015112800, EP2262837, and EP2504028.

[050] The term "antibody", as used herein, is generally intended to refer to

immunoglobulin molecules comprising four polypeptide chains, two heavy (H) chains and two light (L) chains inter-connected by disulfide bonds, as well as multimers thereof (e.g., IgM); however, immunoglobulin molecules consisting of only heavy chains (i.e., lacking light chains) are also encompassed within the definition of the term "antibody". Each heavy chain comprises a heavy chain variable region (abbreviated herein as HCVR or VH) and a heavy chain constant region. The heavy chain constant region comprises three domains, CHI, CH2 and CH3. Each light chain comprises a light chain variable region (abbreviated herein as LCVR or VL) and a light chain constant region. The light chain constant region comprises one domain (CL1). The VH and VL regions can be further subdivided into regions of hypervariability, termed complementary determining regions (CDRs), interspersed with regions that are more conserved, termed framework regions (FR). Each VH and VL is composed of three CDRs and four FRs, arranged from amino- terminus to carboxy -terminus in the following order: FR1, CDR1, FR2, CDR2, FR3, CDR3, FR4.

[051] Unless specifically indicated otherwise, the term "antibody", as used herein, shall be understood to encompass complete antibody molecules as well as antigen-binding fragments thereof. The term "antigen-binding portion" or "antigen-binding fragment" of an antibody (or simply "antibody portion" or "antibody fragment"), as used herein, refers to one or more fragments of an antibody that retain the ability to specifically bind to human PD-1 or an epitope thereof.

[052] An "isolated antibody", as used herein, is intended to refer to an antibody that is substantially free of other antibodies having different antigenic specificities (e.g., an isolated antibody that specifically binds human PD-1 is substantially free of antibodies that specifically bind antigens other than human PD-1). [053] The term "specifically binds", or the like, means that an antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof forms a complex with an antigen that is relatively stable under physiologic conditions. Specific binding can be characterized by a dissociation constant of at least about lxl 0 "8 M or greater. Methods for determining whether two molecules specifically bind are well known in the art and include, for example, equilibrium dialysis, surface plasmon resonance, and the like. An isolated antibody that specifically binds human PD-1 may, however, have cross-reactivity to other antigens, such as PD-1 molecules from other species (orthologs). In the context of the present invention, multispecific (e.g. , bispecific) antibodies that bind to human PD-1 as well as one or more additional antigens are deemed to "specifically bind" human PD-1. Moreover, an isolated antibody may be substantially free of other cellular material or chemicals.

[054] Exemplary anti-human PD-1 antibodies that may be included in the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention are set forth in patent application publications US20150203579, and WO2015112800, the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[055] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1 antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a heavy chain complementary determining region (HCDR) 1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, and an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5. In certain embodiments, the anti-human PD-1 antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises an HCVR of SEQ ID NO: 1.

[056] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a light chain complementary determining region (LCDR) 1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8. In certain embodiments, the anti-human PD-1 antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises an LCVR of SEQ ID NO: 2.

[057] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a HCVR having 90%, 95%, 98% or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 1.

[058] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a LCVR having 90%, 95%, 98% or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 2. [059] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a HCVR comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 having no more than 5 amino acid substitutions.

[060] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a LCVR comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 having no more than 2 amino acid substitutions.

[061] Sequence identity may be measured by any method known in the art (e.g., GAP, BESTFIT, and BLAST).

[062] The present invention also includes formulations comprising anti-PD-1 antibodies, wherein the anti-PD-1 antibodies comprise variants of any of the HCVR, LCVR and/or CDR amino acid sequences disclosed herein having one or more conservative amino acid substitutions. For example, the present invention includes formulations comprising anti- PD-1 antibodies having HCVR, LCVR and/or CDR amino acid sequences with, e.g., 10 or fewer, 8 or fewer, 6 or fewer, 4 or fewer, etc. conservative amino acid substitutions relative to any of the HCVR, LCVR and/or CDR amino acid sequences disclosed herein.

[063] In certain embodiments, the anti-PDl antibody comprises a Fc region elected from the group consisting of human IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotypes.

[064] The non-limiting, exemplary antibody used in the Examples herein is referred to as "mAbl". This antibody is also referred to in US 20150203579 as H2M7798N or

H4H7798N, and is also known as "REGN2810" or "cemiplimab". mAbl (H4H7798N) comprises an HCVR/LCVR amino acid sequence pair having SEQ ID NOs: 1/2, and HCDR1 -HCDR2-HCDR3 / LCDR1 -LCDR2-LCDR3 domains represented by SEQ ID NOs: 3 - 4 - 5 / SEQ ID NOs: 6 - 7 - 8.

[065] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the anti -human PD-1, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, comprises a heavy chain of SEQ ID NO: 9 and a light chain of SEQ ID NO: 10.

[066] It is well known in the art that terminal cleavage of amino acids can occur during production of antibodies (see, for example, Wang et al 2007, J. Pharma. Sci. 96: 1-26). Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the anti-PD-1 antibody comprises a heavy chain and a light chain, wherein the heavy chain comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 11. SEQ ID NO: 11 comprises the heavy chain amino acid sequence wherein the C- terminal lysine is absent from the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9. In certain embodiments, formulations of the present disclosure contain about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95%, about 98% or more of the anti-PD-1 antibody wherein the C-terminal lysine is absent.

[067] The amount of antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, contained within the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may vary depending on the specific properties desired of the formulations, as well as the particular circumstances and purposes for which the formulations are intended to be used. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulations are liquid formulations that may contain 5 ± 0.75 mg/mL to 250 ± 37.5 mg/mL of antibody; 10 ± 1.5 mg/mL to 240 ± 36 mg/mL of antibody; 20 ± 3.0 mg/mL to 230 ± 34.5 mg/mL of antibody; 25 ± 3.75 mg/mL to 240 ± 36 mg/mL of antibody; 50 ± 7.5 mg/mL to 230 ± 34.5 mg/mL of antibody; 60 ± 9 mg/mL to 240 ± 36 mg/mL of antibody; 70 ± 10.5 mg/mL to 230 ± 34.5 mg/mL of antibody; 80 ± 12 mg/mL to 220 ± 33 mg/mL of antibody; 90 ± 13.5 mg/mL to 210 ± 31.5 mg/mL of antibody; 100 ± 15 mg/mL to 200 ± 30 mg/mL of antibody; 110 ± 16.5 mg/mL to 190 ± 28.5 mg/mL of antibody; 120 ± 18 mg/mL to 180 ± 27 mg/mL of antibody; 130 ± 19.5 mg/mL to 170 ± 25.5 mg/mL of antibody; 140 ± 21 mg/mL to 160 ± 24 mg/mL of antibody; 150 ± 22.5 mg/mL of antibody; or 175 ± 26.25 mg/ml. For example, the formulations of the present invention may comprise about 5 mg/mL; about 10 mg/mL; about 15 mg/mL; about 20 mg/mL; about 25 mg/mL; about 30 mg/mL; about 35 mg/mL; about 40 mg/mL; about 45 mg/mL; about 50 mg/mL; about 55 mg/mL; about 60 mg/mL; about 65 mg/mL; about 70 mg/mL; about 75 mg/mL; about 80 mg/mL; about 85 mg/mL; about 90 mg/mL; about 95 mg/mL; about 100 mg/mL; about 105 mg/mL; about 110 mg/mL; about 115 mg/mL; about 120 mg/mL; about 125 mg/mL; about 130 mg/mL; about 135 mg/mL; about 140 mg/mL; about 145 mg/mL; about 150 mg/mL; about 155 mg/mL; about 160 mg/mL; about 165 mg/mL; about 170 mg/mL; about 175 mg/mL; about 180 mg/mL; about 185 mg/mL; about 190 mg/mL; about 195 mg/mL; about 200 mg/mL; about 205 mg/mL; about 210 mg/mL; about 215 mg/mL; about 220 mg/mL; about 225 mg/mL; about 230 mg/mL; about 235 mg/mL; about 240 mg/mL; about 245 mg/mL; or about 250 mg/mL of an antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, that binds specifically to human PD-1.

EXCIPIENTS AND pH

[068] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention comprise one or more excipients. The term "excipient", as used herein, means any non-therapeutic agent added to the formulation to provide a desired consistency, viscosity or stabilizing effect. [069] In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical formulation of the invention comprises at least one organic cosolvent in a type and in an amount that stabilizes the human PD-1 antibody under conditions of rough handling or agitation, such as, e.g., vortexing. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is the prevention of the formation of more than 3% aggregated antibody of the total amount of antibody (on a molar basis) over the course of rough handling. In some embodiments, rough handling is vortexing a solution containing the antibody and the organic cosolvent for about 60 minutes or about 120 minutes.

[070] In certain embodiments, the organic cosolvent is a non-ionic surfactant, such as an alkyl poly(ethylene oxide). Specific non-ionic surfactants that can be included in the formulations of the present invention include, e.g. , polysorbates such as polysorbate 20, polysorbate 28, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 65, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 81, and polysorbate 85; poloxamers such as poloxamer 181, poloxamer 188, poloxamer 407; or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Polysorbate 20 is also known as TWEEN 20, sorbitan monolaurate and polyoxyethylenesorbitan monolaurate. Poloxamer 188 is also known as PLURONIC F68.

[071] The amount of non-ionic surfactant contained within the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may vary depending on the specific properties desired of the formulations, as well as the particular circumstances and purposes for which the formulations are intended to be used. In certain embodiments, the formulations may contain 0.01% ± 0.005% to 0.5% ± 0.25% surfactant. For example, the formulations of the present invention may comprise about 0.005%; about 0.01%; about 0.02%; about 0.03%; about 0.04%; about 0.05%; about 0.06%; about 0.07%; about 0.08%; about 0.09%; about 0.1%; about 0.11%; about 0.12%; about 0.13%; about 0.14%; about 0.15%; about 0.16%; about 0.17%; about 0.18%; about 0.19%; about 0.20%; about 0.21%; about 0.22%; about 0.23%; about 0.24%; about 0.25%; about 0.26%; about 0.27%; about 0.28%; about 0.29%; about 0.30%; about 0.35%; about 0.40%; about 0.45%; about 0.46%; about 0.47%; about 0.48%; about 0.49%; about 0.50%; about 0.55%; or about 0.575% polysorbate 20 or polysorbate 80.

[072] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may also comprise one or more stabilizers in a type and in an amount that stabilizes the human PD-1 antibody under conditions of thermal stress. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is maintaining greater than about 91% of the antibody in a native conformation when the solution containing the antibody and the thermal stabilizer is kept at about 45°C for up to about 28 days. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein less than about 6% of the antibody is aggregated when the solution containing the antibody and the thermal stabilizer is kept at about 45°C for up to about 28 days. As used herein, "native" means the major form of the antibody by size exclusion, which is generally an intact monomer of the antibody. The term "native" also refers to non-aggregated and non- degraded form of the antibody.

[073] In certain embodiments, the thermal stabilizer is a sugar such as sucrose, the amount of which contained within the formulation can vary depending on the specific

circumstances and intended purposes for which the formulation is used. In certain embodiments, the formulations may contain about 1% to about 15% sugar; about 2% to about 14% sugar; about 3 % to about 13% sugar; about 4% to about 12% sugar; about 5% to about 12% sugar; about 6% to about 11% sugar; about 7% to about 10% sugar; about 8% to about 11% sugar; or about 9% to about 11% sugar. For example, the

pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may comprise 4%± 0.8%; 5% ± 1%; 6% ± 1.2%; 7% ± 1.4%; 8% ± 1.6%; 9% ± 1.8%; 10% ± 2%; 11% ± 2.2%; 12% ± 2.4%; 13% ± 2.6%; or about 14% ± 2.8% sugar (e.g., sucrose).

[074] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may also comprise a buffer or buffer system, which serves to maintain a stable pH and to help stabilize the human PD-1 antibody. The term "buffer" as used herein denotes a pharmaceutically acceptable buffer which maintains a stable pH or resists changes in pH of the solution. In preferred embodiments, the buffer comprises histidine. In the context of this disclosure, "histidine buffer" or "buffer comprising histidine" is a buffer comprising the amino acid histidine. Examples of histidine buffers include histidine chloride, histidine acetate, histidine phosphate, and histidine sulfate. In a preferred embodiment, the histidine buffer is prepared by dissolving L-histidine and L-histidine hydrochloride (e.g. as monohydrate) in a defined amount and ratio. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer is prepared by titrating L-histidine (free base, solid) with diluted hydrochloric acid. The term "histidine" is used interchangeably with "histidine buffer" throughout this disclosure. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein less than 4.5% ± 0.5% of the antibody is aggregated when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 45°C for up to about 28 days. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein less than 3% ± 0.5% or less than 2.5% ± 0.5% of the antibody is aggregated when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 37°C for up to about 28 days. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein at least 93% ± 0.5% or at least 94% ± 0.5% of the antibody is in its native conformation as determined by size exclusion chromatography when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 45°C for up to about 28 days. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein at least 94% ± 0.5% or at least 95% ± 0.5% of the antibody is in its native conformation as determined by size exclusion chromatography when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 37°C for up to about 28 days. By "native" or "native conformation", what is meant is the antibody fraction that is not aggregated or degraded. This is generally determined by an assay that measures the relative size of the antibody entity, such as a size exclusion chromatographic assay. The non-aggregated and non-degraded antibody elutes at a fraction that equates to the native antibody, and is generally the main elution fraction. Aggregated antibody elutes at a fraction that indicates a size greater than the native antibody. Degraded antibody elutes at a fraction that indicates a size less than the native antibody.

[075] In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein at least 35% ± 0.5% of the antibody is in its main charge form as determined by cation exchange

chromatography when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 45°C for up to about 28 days. In some embodiments, what is meant by "stabilizes" is wherein at least 46% ± 0.5% or at least 39% ± 0.5% of the antibody is in its main charge form as determined by cation exchange chromatography when the solution containing the antibody and the buffer is kept at about 37°C for up to about 28 days. By "main charge" or "main charge form", what is meant is the fraction of antibody that elutes from an ion exchange resin in the main peak, which is generally flanked by more "basic" peaks on one side and more "acidic" peaks on the other side.

[076] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may have a pH of from about 5.2 to about 6.4. For example, the formulations of the present invention may have a pH of about 5.5; about 5.6; about 5.7; about 5.8; about 5.9; about 6.0; about 6.1 ; about 6.2; about 6.3; about 6.4; or about 6.5. In some embodiments, the pH is 6.0 ± 0.4; 6.0 ± 0.3; 6.0 ±0.2; 6.0± 0.1 ; about 6.0; or 6.0.

[077] In some embodiments, the buffer or buffer system comprises at least one buffer that has a buffering range that overlaps fully or in part the range of pH 5.5 - 7.4. In certain embodiments, the buffer comprises a histidine buffer. In certain embodiments, the histidine buffer is present at a concentration of 5 mM ± 1 mM to 15 mM ± 3 mM; 6 mM ± 1.2 mM to 14 raM + 2.8 mM; 7 mM ± 1.4 mM to 13 raM + 2.6 mM; 8 mM ± 1.6 mM to 12 mM ± 2.4 mM; 9 mM ± 1.8 mM to 11 mM ± 2.2 mM; 10 mM ± 2 mM; or about 10 mM. In certain embodiments, the buffer system comprises histidine at 10 mM ± 2 mM, at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.3. In preferred embodiments, the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine at a concentration of 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate at a concentration of 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM. In one embodiment, the histidine buffer comprises L-histidine at a concentration of 4.8 mM ± 0.96 mM and L-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate at a concentration of 5.2 mM ± 1.04 mM.

[078] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may also comprise one or more excipients that serve to maintain a reduced viscosity or to lower the viscosity of formulations containing a high concentration of anti-PD-1 antibody drug substance (e.g., generally > 150 mg/ml of antibody). In certain embodiments, the viscosity modifier is an amino acid. In one embodiment, the amino acid is proline. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical formulation of the present invention contains proline, preferably as L- proline, at a concentration of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5% or 5%. The term "proline" is used interchangeably with "L-proline" throughout this disclosure. In some embodiments, the formulation comprises proline in an amount sufficient to maintain the viscosity of the liquid formulation at less than 20 ± 3 cPoise, less than 15 ± 2.25 cPoise, or less than 11 ± 1.65 cPoise. In some embodiments, the formulation comprises proline in an amount sufficient to maintain the viscosity at or below 15 ± 2.25 cPoise. In certain embodiments, formulations may contain about 1% to about 5% proline; about 2% to about 4% proline; or about 3% proline. For example, the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may comprise 1%± 0.2%; 1.5% ± 0.3%; 2% ± 0.4%; 2.5% ± 0.5%; 3% ± 0.6%; 3.5% ± 0.7%; 4% ± 0.8%; 4.5% ± 0.9%; or about 5% ± 1% proline.

[079] During the antibody purification process it may be desired or necessary to exchange one buffer for another to achieve appropriate excipient concentrations, antibody concentration, pH, etc. Buffer exchange can be accomplished, e.g. , by

ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) using, e.g., a semi-permeable tangential flow filtration membrane. Use of such techniques, however, has the potential to cause the Gibbs-Donnan effect [Bolton et al, 2011, Biotechnol. Prog. 27(1): 140-152]. The buildup of positive charge on the product side of the membrane during protein concentration is

counterbalanced electrically by the preferential movement of positive ions to the opposite side of the membrane. The potential consequence of this phenomenon is that the final concentrations of certain components (e.g. , histidine, L-proline, etc.) may be lower than the intended target concentrations of these components due to the electrostatic repulsion of positively charged diafiltration buffer excipients to the positively charged antibody protein during the UF/DF step. Thus, the present invention includes formulations in which the concentration of, e.g. , histidine and/or L-proline vary from the recited amounts or ranges herein due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect.

[080] Volume exclusion describes the behavior of highly concentrated samples in which a significant portion of the total volume of the solution is taken up by the solute, especially large molecules such as proteins, excluding the solvent from this space. This then decreases the total volume of solvent available for other solutes to be dissolved in, which may result in unequal partition across the ultrafiltration membrane. Thus, the present invention includes formulations in which the concentration of, e.g., histidine and/or L- proline may vary from the recited amounts or ranges herein due to the volume exclusion effect.

[081] During the manufacture of the formulations of the present invention, variations in the composition of the formulation may occur. These variations may include the concentration of the active ingredient, the concentration of the excipients, and/or the pH of the formulation. Because changes in any of these parameters could potentially impact the stability or potency of the drug product, proven acceptable range (PAR) studies were conducted to assess whether variations in the composition, within the defined ranges, would impact the stability or potency of the antibody. Accordingly, the present invention includes formulations comprising anti-PD-1 antibodies which are stable and retain potency with up to 50% variation in the excipient concentration. For example, included herein are anti-PD-1 antibody formulations, wherein stability and potency of said formulations is unaffected by ± 10%, ± 20%, ±30%, ± 40% or ± 50% variation in the concentration of antibody, sucrose, histidine buffer and/or polysorbate.

STABILITY AND VISCOSITY OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

[082] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention typically exhibit high levels of stability. The term "stable", as used herein in reference to the pharmaceutical formulations, means that the antibodies within the pharmaceutical formulations retain an acceptable degree of chemical structure or biological function after storage under defined conditions. A formulation may be stable even though the antibody contained therein does not maintain 100% of its chemical structure or biological function after storage for a defined amount of time. Under certain circumstances, maintenance of about 90%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98% or about 99% of an antibody's structure or function after storage for a defined amount of time may be regarded as "stable".

[083] Stability can be measured, inter alia, by determining the percentage of native antibody that remains in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a defined temperature. The percentage of native antibody can be determined by, inter alia, size exclusion chromatography (e.g. , size exclusion ultra performance liquid

chromatography [SE-UPLC]), such that native means non-aggregated and non-degraded. An "acceptable degree of stability", as that phrase is used herein, means that at least 90% of the native form of the antibody can be detected in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a given temperature. In certain embodiments, at least about 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% of the native form of the antibody can be detected in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a defined temperature. The defined amount of time after which stability is measured can be at least 14 days, at least 28 days, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 3 months, at least 4 months, at least 5 months, at least 6 months, at least 7 months, at least 8 months, at least 9 months, at least 10 months, at least 11 months, at least 12 months, at least 18 months, at least 24 months, or more. The defined temperature at which the pharmaceutical formulation may be stored when assessing stability can be any temperature from about -80°C to about 45°C, e.g. , storage at about -80°C, about -30°C, about -20°C, about 0°C, about 4°-8°C, about 5°C, about 25°C, about 35°C, about 37°C, or about 45°C. For example, a pharmaceutical formulation may be deemed stable if after 6 months of storage at 5°C, greater than about 95%, 96%, 97% or 98% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 6 months of storage at 25°C, greater than about 95%, 96%, 97% or 98% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 28 days of storage at 45°C, greater than about 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95% or 96% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 12 months of storage at -20°C, greater than about 96%, 97%, or 98% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 12 months of storage at -30°C, greater than about 96%, 97% or 98% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 12 months of storage at -80°C, greater than about 96%, 97% or 98% of native antibody is detected by SE-UPLC.

[084] Stability can be measured, inter alia, by determining the percentage of antibody that forms in an aggregate within the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a defined temperature, wherein stability is inversely proportional to the percent aggregate that is formed. The percentage of aggregated antibody can be determined by, inter alia, size exclusion chromatography (e.g. , size exclusion ultra performance liquid

chromatography [SE-UPLC]). An "acceptable degree of stability", as that phrase is used herein, means that at most 5% of the antibody is in an aggregated form (also denoted as the high molecular weight - HMW - form) detected in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a given temperature. In certain embodiments an acceptable degree of stability means that at most about 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody can be detected in an aggregate in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a given temperature. The defined amount of time after which stability is measured can be at least 2 weeks, at least 28 days, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 3 months, at least 4 months, at least 5 months, at least 6 months, at least 7 months, at least 8 months, at least 9 months, at least 10 months, at least 11 months, at least 12 months, at least 18 months, at least 24 months, or more. The temperature at which the pharmaceutical formulation may be stored when assessing stability can be any temperature from about -80°C to about 45°C, e.g. , storage at about -80°C, about -30°C, about -20°C, about 0°C, about 4°-8°C, about 5°C, about 25°C, about 35°C, about 37°C or about 45°C. For example, a pharmaceutical formulation may be deemed stable if after 12 months of storage at 5°C, less than about 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody is detected in an aggregated form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after three months of storage at 25°C, less than about 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody is detected in an aggregated form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 28 days of storage at 45°C, less than about 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, or 0.5%, of the antibody is detected in an aggregated form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after three months of storage at - 20°C, -30°C, or -80°C less than about 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody is detected in an aggregated form. [085] Stability can be measured, inter alia, by determining the percentage of antibody that migrates in a more acidic fraction during ion exchange ("acidic form") than in the main fraction of antibody ("main charge form"), wherein stability is inversely proportional to the fraction of antibody in the acidic form. While not wishing to be bound by theory, deamidation of the antibody may cause the antibody to become more negatively charged and thus more acidic relative to the non-deamidated antibody (see, e.g., Robinson, N., Protein Deamidation, PNAS, April 16, 2002, 99(8):5283-5288). The percentage of "acidified" antibody can be determined by, inter alia, ion exchange chromatography (e.g. , cation exchange ultra performance liquid chromatography [CEX-UPLC]). An "acceptable degree of stability", as that phrase is used herein, means that at most 45% of the antibody is in a more acidic form detected in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a defined temperature. In certain embodiments an acceptable degree of stability means that at most about 40%, 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody can be detected in an acidic form in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a given temperature. In one embodiment, an acceptable degree of stability means that less than 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% of the antibody can be detected in an acidic form in the formulation after storage for a defined amount of time at a given temperature. The defined amount of time after which stability is measured can be at least 2 weeks, at least 28 days, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 3 months, at least 4 months, at least 5 months, at least 6 months, at least 7 months, at least 8 months, at least 9 months, at least 10 months, at least 11 months, at least 12 months, at least 18 months, at least 24 months, or more. The temperature at which the pharmaceutical formulation may be stored when assessing stability can be any temperature from about -80°C to about 45°C, e.g., storage at about -80°C, about -30°C, about -20°C, about 0°C, about 4°-8°C, about 5°C, about 25°C, or about 45°C. For example, a pharmaceutical formulation may be deemed stable if after three months of storage at -80°C, -30°C, or -20°C less than about 30%, 29%, 28%, 27%, 26%, 25%, 24%, 23%, 22%, 21%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% of the antibody is in a more acidic form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after six months of storage at 5°C, less than about 32%, 31%, 30%, 29%, 28%, 27%, 26%, 25%, 24%, 23%, 22%, 21%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% of the antibody is in a more acidic form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after six months of storage at 25°C, less than about 43%, 42%, 41%, 40%, 39%, 38%, 37%, 36%, 35%, 34%, 33%, 32%, 31%, 30%, 29%, 28%, 27%, 26%, 25%, 24%, 23%, 22%, 21%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% of the antibody is in a more acidic form. A pharmaceutical formulation may also be deemed stable if after 28 days of storage at 45°C, less than about 49%, 48%, 47%, 46%, 45%, 44%, 43%, 42%, 41%, 40%, 39%, 38%, 37%, 36%, 35%, 34%, 33%, 32%, 31%, 30%, 29%, 28%, 27%, 26%, 25%, 24%, 23%, 22%, 21%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% of the antibody can be detected in a more acidic form.

[086] Other methods may be used to assess the stability of the formulations of the present invention such as, e.g. , differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine thermal stability, controlled agitation to determine mechanical stability, and absorbance at about 350 nm or about 405 nm to determine solution turbidities. For example, a formulation of the present invention may be considered stable if, after 6 or more months of storage at about 5°C to about 25°C, the change in OD405 of the formulation is less than about 0.05 (e.g., 0.04, 0.03, 0.02, 0.01, or less) from the OD405 of the formulation at time zero.

[087] Measuring the biological activity or binding affinity of the antibody to its target may also be used to assess stability. For example, a formulation of the present invention may be regarded as stable if, after storage at e.g., 5°C, 25°C, 45°C, etc. for a defined amount of time (e.g., 1 to 12 months), the anti-PD-1 antibody contained within the formulation binds to PD-1 with an affinity that is at least 90%, 95%, or more of the binding affinity of the antibody prior to said storage. Binding affinity may be determined by e.g., ELISA or surface plasmon resonance. Biological activity may be determined by a PD-1 activity assay, such as e.g., contacting a cell that expresses PD-1 with the formulation comprising the anti PD-1 antibody. The binding of the antibody to such a cell may be measured directly, such as e.g., via FACS analysis. Alternatively, the downstream activity of the PD-1 system may be measured in the presence of the antibody, and compared to the activity of the PD-1 system in the absence of antibody. In some embodiments, the PD-1 may be endogenous to the cell. In other embodiments, the PD-1 may be ectopically expressed in the cell.

[088] Additional methods for assessing the stability of an antibody in formulation are demonstrated in the Examples presented below. [089] The liquid pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may, in certain embodiments, exhibit low to moderate levels of viscosity. "Viscosity" as used herein may be "kinematic viscosity" or "absolute viscosity". "Kinematic viscosity" is a measure of the resistive flow of a fluid under the influence of gravity. When two fluids of equal volume are placed in identical capillary viscometers and allowed to flow by gravity, a viscous fluid takes longer than a less viscous fluid to flow through the capillary. For example, if one fluid takes 200 seconds to complete its flow and another fluid takes 400 seconds, the second fluid is twice as viscous as the first on a kinematic viscosity scale. "Absolute viscosity", sometimes called dynamic or simple viscosity, is the product of kinematic viscosity and fluid density (Absolute Viscosity = Kinematic Viscosity x Density). The dimension of kinematic viscosity is L 2 /T where L is a length and T is a time. Commonly, kinematic viscosity is expressed in centistokes (cSt). The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is mm 2 /s, which is 1 cSt. Absolute viscosity is expressed in units of centipoise (cP). The SI unit of absolute viscosity is the milliPascal-second (mPa-s), where 1 cP = 1 mPa-s.

[090] As used herein, a low level of viscosity, in reference to a fluid formulation of the present invention, will exhibit an absolute viscosity of less than about 20 cPoise (cP). For example, a fluid formulation of the invention will be deemed to have "low viscosity", if, when measured using standard viscosity measurement techniques, the formulation exhibits an absolute viscosity of about 20 cP, about 19 cP, about 18 cP, about 15 cP, about 12 cP, about 10 cP, about 9 cP, about 8 cP, or less. As used herein, a moderate level of viscosity, in reference to a fluid formulation of the present invention, will exhibit an absolute viscosity of between about 35 cP and about 20 cP. For example, a fluid formulation of the invention will be deemed to have "moderate viscosity", if when measured using standard viscosity measurement techniques, the formulation exhibits an absolute viscosity of about about 34 cP, about 33 cP, about 32 cP, about 31 cP, about 30 cP, about 29 cP, about 28 cP, about 27 cP, about 26 cP, about 25 cP, about 24 cP, about 23 cP, about 22 cP, about 21 cP, about 20 cP, about 19 cP, 18 cP, about 17 cP, about 16 cP, or about 15.1 cP.

[091] As illustrated in the examples below, the present inventors have made the surprising discovery that low viscosity liquid formulations comprising high concentrations of an anti- human PD-1 antibody (e.g. , from about 50 mg/ml up to 250 mg/mL) can be obtained by formulating the antibody with proline from about 1% to about 5% and sucrose at about 5%. Such formulations are stable to stress during handling and to storage at temperatures ranging from 45°C to -80°C (shown herein) and have low viscosity (have viscosity ranging from 7 to 15cP). EXEMPLARY FORMULATIONS

[092] According to one aspect of the present invention, the pharmaceutical formulation is a stable, low viscosity, generally physiologically isotonic liquid formulation, which comprises: (i) a human antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1 (e.g., H4H7798N), at a concentration of up to 250 mg/mL ± 45 mg/mL; (ii) a histidine buffer system that provides sufficient buffering at about pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) an organic cosolvent, which protects the structural integrity of the antibody; (iv) a thermal stabilizer that is a sugar; and (iv) a viscosity modifier that is an amino acid, which serves to keep the viscosity manageable for injection in a convenient volume for subcutaneous administration.

[093] According to one embodiment, the stable, low-viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of up to 200 mg/ml ± 30 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2 mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1% w/v; (iv) sucrose at 5% ± 1% w/v; and (v) L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%.

[094] According to one embodiment, the stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of 175 mg/ml ± 26.25 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2 mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1% w/v; (iv) sucrose at 5% ± 1% w/v; and (v) L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%.

[095] According to one embodiment, the stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of 150 mg/ml ± 22.5 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2 mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1% w/v; (iv) sucrose at 5% ± 1% w/v; and (v) L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%. [096] According to one embodiment, the stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL ± 15 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) sucrose at 5% w/v ± 1% w/v; (iv) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1%; and L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%.

[097] According to one embodiment, the stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL ± 7.5 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) sucrose at 5% w/v ± 1% w/v; (iv) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1%; and L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%.

[098] According to one embodiment, the stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprises: (i) a human IgG4 antibody that specifically binds to human PD-1, and which comprises an HCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 3, an HCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 4, an HCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 5, an LCDR1 of SEQ ID NO: 6, an LCDR2 of SEQ ID NO: 7, and an LCDR3 of SEQ ID NO: 8, at a concentration of 25 mg/mL ± 3.75 mg/mL; (ii) histidine buffer at 10 mM ± 2mM, which buffers at pH 6.0 ± 0.3; (iii) sucrose at 5% w/v ± 1% w/v; (iv) polysorbate 80 at 0.2% w/v ± 0.1%; and L-proline at 1.5% (w/v) ± 0.3%.

[099] Additional non-limiting examples of pharmaceutical formulations encompassed by the present invention are set forth elsewhere herein, including the working Examples presented below.

CONTAINERS AND METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION

[0100] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may be contained within any container suitable for storage of medicines and other therapeutic compositions. For example, the pharmaceutical formulations may be contained within a sealed and sterilized plastic or glass container having a defined volume such as a vial, ampule, syringe, cartridge, or bottle. Different types of vials can be used to contain the formulations of the present invention including, e.g., clear and opaque (e.g. , amber) glass or plastic vials. Likewise, any type of syringe can be used to contain or administer the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention.

[0101] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention may be contained within "normal tungsten" syringes or "low tungsten" syringes. As will be appreciated by persons of ordinary skill in the art, the process of making glass syringes generally involves the use of a hot tungsten rod which functions to pierce the glass thereby creating a hole from which liquids can be drawn and expelled from the syringe. This process results in the deposition of trace amounts of tungsten on the interior surface of the syringe.

Subsequent washing and other processing steps can be used to reduce the amount of tungsten in the syringe. As used herein, the term "normal tungsten" means that the syringe contains greater than or equal to 500 parts per billion (ppb) of tungsten. The term "low tungsten" means that the syringe contains less than 500 ppb of tungsten. For example, a low tungsten syringe, according to the present invention, can contain less than about 490, 480, 470, 460, 450, 440, 430, 420, 410, 390, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 or fewer ppb of tungsten.

[0102] The rubber plungers used in syringes, and the rubber stoppers used to close the openings of vials, may be coated to prevent contamination of the medicinal contents of the syringe or vial, or to preserve their stability. Thus, pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention, according to certain embodiments, may be contained within a syringe that comprises a coated plunger, or within a vial that is sealed with a coated rubber stopper. For example, the plunger or stopper may be coated with a fluorocarbon film. Examples of coated stoppers or plungers suitable for use with vials and syringes containing the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention are mentioned in, e.g. , U.S. Patent Nos. 4,997,423; 5,908,686; 6,286,699; 6,645,635; and 7,226,554, the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties. Particular exemplary coated rubber stoppers and plungers that can be used in the context of the present invention are commercially available under the tradename "FluroTec®", available from West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc. (Lionville, PA). FluroTec® is an example of a flurocarbon coating used to minimize or prevent drug product from adhering to the rubber surfaces.

[0103] According to certain embodiments of the present invention, the pharmaceutical formulations may be contained within a low tungsten syringe that comprises a

fluorocarbon-coated plunger. [0104] The pharmaceutical formulations can be administered to a patient by parenteral routes such as injection (e.g. , subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, etc.) or percutaneous, mucosal, nasal, pulmonary or oral administration. Numerous reusable pen or autoinjector delivery devices can be used to subcutaneously deliver the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention. Examples include, but are not limited to AUTOPEN™ (Owen Mumford, Inc., Woodstock, UK), DISETRONIC™ pen (Disetronic Medical Systems, Bergdorf, Switzerland), HUMALOG MIX 75/25™ pen, HUMALOG™ pen, HUMALIN 70/30™ pen (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN), NOVOPEN™ I, II and III (Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark), NOVOPEN

JUNIOR™ (Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark), BD™ pen (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ), OPTIPEN™, OPTIPEN PRO™, OPTIPEN STARLET™, and OPTICLIK™ (sanofi-aventis, Frankfurt, Germany). Examples of disposable pen or autoinjector delivery devices having applications in subcutaneous delivery of a pharmaceutical composition of the present invention include, but are not limited to the SOLOSTAR™ pen (sanofi-aventis), the FLEXPEN™ (Novo Nordisk), and the

KWIKPEN™ (Eli Lilly), the SURECLICK™ Autoinjector (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), the PENLET™ (Haselmeier, Stuttgart, Germany), the EPIPEN (Dey, L.P.), and the HUMIRA™ Pen (Abbott Labs, Abbott Park, IL).

[0105] The use of a microinfusor to deliver the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention is also contemplated herein. As used herein, the term "microinfusor" means a subcutaneous delivery device designed to slowly administer large volumes (e.g., up to about 2.5 mL or more) of a therapeutic formulation over a prolonged period of time (e.g. , about 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or more minutes). See, e.g. , U.S. 6,629,949; US 6,659,982; and Meehan et al., J. Controlled Release 46: 107-116 (1996). Microinfusors are particularly useful for the delivery of large doses of therapeutic proteins contained within high concentration (e.g. , about 100, 125, 150, 175, 200 or more mg/mL) or viscous solutions.

[0106] In certain embodiments, the stable liquid pharmaceutical formulation of any of the preceding aspects is contained in a sterile glass vial and is administered as an IV infusion.

[0107] In one embodiment, the container is a 20 mL type 1 clear borosilicate glass vial. In certain embodiments, the container is a 2 mL, 5mL or 10 mL type 1 borosilicate glass vial with a chlorobutyl stopper, with a FluroTec ® coating. [0108] In one embodiment, the liquid pharmaceutical formulation of the present invention comprising about 25 mg/mL or 50 mg/mL of mAbl is administered

intravenously and may be contained in a glass vial.

[0109] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides an autoinjector comprising any of the liquid formulations described herein. In some embodiments, the present invention provides an autoinj ector comprising a stable liquid formulation comprising about 50 mg/mL, about 100 mg/mL, about 150 mg/mL or about 175 mg/mL of mAbl , about lOmM of histidine, at pH of about 6.0, about 5% sucrose, about 1.5% proline and about 0.2% polysorbate 80.

[0110] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a prefilled syringe comprising any of the liquid formulations described herein. In some embodiments, the present invention provides a prefilled syringe comprising a stable liquid formulation comprising about 50 mg/mL, about 100 mg/mL, about 150 mg/mL or about 175 mg/mL of mAbl , about lOmM of histidine, at pH of about 6.0, about 5% sucrose, about 1.5% proline and about 0.2% polysorbate 80. In certain embodiments, the syringe is a 1 mL or 2.25 mL long glass syringe filled with a 27-gauge thin wall needle, a fluorocarbon coated rubber plunger and a rubber needle shield.

[0111] In one embodiment, the liquid pharmaceutical formulation containing about 175 mg/mL ± 26.25 mg/mL mAbl is administered in a volume of approximately upto 2 mL in a prefilled syringe. In certain embodiments, the syringe is a 1 mL or 2.25 mL long glass syringe filled with a 27-gauge thin wall needle, a fluorocarbon coated rubber plunger and a rubber needle shield. In one embodiment, the syringe is an OMPI 1 mL long glass syringe fitted with a 27-gauge needle, a FM27 rubber needle shield, and a FLUROTEC® coated 4023/50 rubber plunger.

[0112] In one embodiment, the liquid pharmaceutical formulation containing about 150 mg/mL ± 22.5 mg/mL anti-PD-1 antibody is administered in a volume of approximately up to 2 mL in a prefilled syringe. In one embodiment, the syringe is a 1 mL or 2.25 mL long glass syringe filled with a 27-gauge thin wall needle, a fluorocarbon coated rubber plunger and a rubber needle shield. In one embodiment, the syringe is an OMPI 1 mL long glass syringe fitted with a 27-gauge needle, a FM27 rubber needle shield, and a FLUROTEC® coated 4023/50 rubber plunger. THERAPEUTIC USES OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

[0113] The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention are useful, inter alia, for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of any disease or disorder associated with PD-1 activity, including diseases or disorders mediated by PD-1. Exemplary, non-limiting diseases and disorders that can be treated or prevented by the administration of the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention include viral infections, autoimmune diseases and various cancers such as, e.g., brain cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, skin cancer, various blood cancers, and endometrial cancers.

EXAMPLES

[0114] The following examples are presented so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to make and use the methods and compositions of the invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what the inventors regard as their invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to numbers used (e.g., amounts, temperature, etc.) but some experimental errors and deviations should be accounted for. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by mole, molecular weight is average molecular weight, temperature is in degrees Centigrade, and pressure is at or near atmospheric pressure.

Example 1: Development of an anti-PD-1 antibody formulation

[0115] The goals of the formulation activities were to develop a formulation with the following attributes:

• A liquid formulation with a concentration of the anti-PD-1 antibody sufficient to deliver a dose of 250 mg or more by intravenous infusion;

• A near iso-osmolar formulation that is stable upon dilution with commonly used diluents, e.g., 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection, for intravenous infusion;

• A formulation that is compatible with and stable in Type 1 clear glass vial and standard serum stopper as packaging; and

• A sterile drug product (DP) solution that supports long-term stability;

o A formulation that minimizes antibody high molecular weight (HMW) species when subjected to handling and thermal stresses; o A formulation that minimizes changes in the relative distribution of antibody charged species when subjected to thermal stress; and o A formulation that maintains biological activity when subjected to handling and thermal stress.

[0116] Throughout formulation development, three primary protein stress conditions (representing extreme handling conditions beyond which the antibody drug product would not be subjected during handling, manufacturing, shipping, storing, and labeling) were employed to develop and optimize the antibody formulations and to evaluate the effects of potential real-world stresses on the stability of the drug product. These stress conditions included:

• Agitation (vortexing) of the protein solution at room temperature. Vortexing in glass vials exceeds the agitation that occurs during the handling and

manufacturing of the protein.

• Incubating the protein solution at elevated temperature (37°C, 40°C or 45°C) relative to the proposed DP storage condition (2°C-8°C).

• Subjecting the protein to multiple freeze thaw cycles. Since the protein will undergo at least one freeze thaw cycle during the manufacture of DP, multiple freeze thaw cycles simulate and exceed the actual stress the protein is expected to experience.

[0117] There were four main goals of the initial formulation development work:

1. Selection of buffer and pH: The choice of buffer and pH can have a large effect on the stability of proteins, hence deciding on the optimal buffer species and pH is an important process. Studies are presented in these sections that demonstrate the rationale for choice of the optimal buffer and pH for antibody.

2. Selection of surfactant or organic cosolvent: A surfactant or organic cosolvent, such as polysorbate, is typically required to prevent precipitation or aggregation of proteins when agitated. Soluble protein may be subjected to agitation when handled, filtered, mixed, manufactured, shipped, and administered. The antibody drug substance in a simple buffered solution can become visibly cloudy with excess agitation. Therefore, it was determined that stabilizing the protein to handling and agitation was important.

3. Identification/selection of stabilizing/tonicifying excipients: The addition of sugars, salts, and amino acids were examined for their ability to improve the stability of antibody to thermal stress and to increase the shelf life of the DP. The rationale for inclusion of these thermal stabilizers, as well as studies identifying the optimal concentrations in the final formulation are presented herein.

4. Selection of antibody concentration: The effect of antibody concentration on the stability of the drug product with the selected excipients was examined.

[0118] Initial formulation development activities were conducted using 5 - 50 mg/mL of the anti-PD-1 antibody and involved screening organic cosolvents, thermal stabilizers, and buffers in liquid formulations of anti-PD-1 antibodies to identify excipients that are compatible with the protein and enhance its stability, while maintaining near physiologic osmolality and low viscosity for intravenous and subcutaneous injection. Buffer conditions were also examined to determine the optimal pH for maximum protein stability (described in Examples 4, 6 and 7 herein).

[0119] Results from this initial formulation development work were used to develop an initial formulation that was suitable for Phase 1 clinical studies. The phase 1 formulation also provided a reference to optimize late phase clinical and commercial formulations.

[0120] With the knowledge gained from the initial formulation development, the late stage formulation development activities involved optimizing pH, surfactant

concentration, and stabilizers to identify excipients that enhance protein stability at both low and high protein concentrations (up to 175 mg/mL mAbl) (described in Examples 5, 8, 9, and 10).

[0121] Throughout formulation development, the formulations were assessed for stress and storage stability. The methods used to assess stability in the formulation development studies are described in Example 3 herein. Examples 11 and 12 describe the storage and stress stability of the formulations.

[0122] Example 13 describes the stability of formulations when the excipients were varied within specific ranges.

[0123] Results generated from these studies were used to develop stable liquid formulations suitable for clinical use, for either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous administration (SC). Example 14 describes containers used for the formulations herein. Examples 15, 16 and 17 describe the compatibility and stability of the formulations in glass vials, prefilled syringes and intravenous delivery devices. Such formulations met the objectives defined for formulation development:

•The developed formulations are suitable for the developed doses; •A tonicity that is iso-osmolar to physiologic conditions;

o The osmolality of the 50 mg/mL formulation is approximately 318 mOsm/kg;

• Sterile DP solution that supports long-term stability in liquid state;

o Minimal formation of antibody HMW species occurs upon long-term

storage at 2-8 °C;

o Little to no change in the relative distribution of antibody charged species occurs upon long-term storage at 2-8 °C; and

o Minimal formation of subvisible particles was observed in antibody DP under accelerated storage and stress conditions, and upon storage at 5°C for

12 months.

[0124] Other attributes of the formulations will be apparent from the description herein.

Anti-PD-1 antibodies; Anti-PD-1 antibodies are described in US20150203579, incorporated herein in its entirety. The exemplary antibody used in the Examples below is a fully human anti-PD-1 antibody H4H7798N (as disclosed in US20150203579, known as "REGN2810" or "cemiplimab") comprising a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10; an HCVR/LCVR amino acid sequence pair comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1 12; and heavy and light chain CDR sequences comprising SEQ ID NOs: 3 - 8; and herein referred to as "mAbl".

Example 2: Exemplary Formulations

[0125] In certain embodiments, mAbl is formulated as an aqueous buffered formulation containing from 5 mg/ml ± 0.75 mg/ml to 250 mg/ml ± 45.0 mg/ml mAbl, 10 mM ± 2mM histidine buffer, 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate, 1% ± 0.2% to 10% ± 2% w/v sucrose, and 1% ± 0.02% to 5% ± 1% w/v proline, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

[0126] Exemplary formulations include:

• A stable low-viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprising: 25 mg/ml ± 3.75 mg/mL mAbl, 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer, 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v L-proline, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

• A stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprising: 50 mg/ml ± 7.5 mg/mL mAbl, 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer, 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v L-proline, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3. • A stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprising: 150 ± 23 mg/mL mAbl,10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer, 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v L-proline, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

• A stable low- viscosity pharmaceutical formulation comprising: 175 ± 27 mg/mL mAbl, 10 ± 2 mM histidine buffer, 0.2% ± 0.1% w/v polysorbate 80, 5% ± 1% w/v sucrose, and 1.5% ± 0.3% w/v L-proline, at pH 6.0 ± 0.3.

Example 3: Methods Used to Assess Formulation Stability

[0127] The following assays were applied to assess formulation stability:

• Color and appearance by visual inspection

• pH

• Turbidity measured by increase in OD at 405nm, or by nephelometry

• Particulate matter analysis performed by microflow imaging (MFI) (reported as particle counts obtained as is), and light obscuration (HIAC)

• Protein concentration by reverse phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography

(RP-UPLC)

• Purity by size exclusion- ultra performance liquid chromatography (SE-UPLC), or by reduced and non-reduced microchip capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (MCE-SDS) PAGE

• Charge variant analysis by cation exchange chromatography -ultra performance liquid chromatography (CEX-UPLC), or by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (iCIEF)

• Potency by bioassay: The relative potency of each sample is determined using a bioassay and is defined as: (IC50 reference sample/ICso sample)* 100%. The measured potency of storage stability samples must be within 50% to 150% of the measured potency of the reference standard.

[0128] The physical stability of a formulation refers to properties such as color, appearance, pH, turbidity, and protein concentration. The presence of visible particulates in solution can be detected by visual inspection. A solution passes visual inspection if it is clear to slightly opalescent, essentially free from visible particulates, and colorless to pale yellow. In addition, turbidity, measured by OD at 405 nm, can also be used to detect particulates in solution. An increase in OD at 405 nm may indicate the presence of particulates, an increase in opalescence, or color change of the test articles. MFI is used to measure subvisible particulates that are > 2 μηι in size. The protein concentration of mAbl is measured by a RP-UPLC assay and reported as percent protein recovery relative to the starting material. In the RP-UPLC assay, mAbl is eluted from the RP column as a single peak. The protein concentration is determined from the mAbl total peak area by comparing it with a calibration curve generated using mAbl standards. Percent of recovery is calculated based on the measured protein concentration relative to the starting protein concentration.

[0129] Chemical stability refers to the formation of covalently modified forms (e.g. covalent aggregates, cleavage products, or charge variant forms) and non-covalently modified forms (e.g. non-covalent aggregates) of protein. Higher and lower molecular weight degradation products can be separated from native mAbl by SE-UPLC and MCE- SDS methods. The percentage of degraded mAbl in the SE-UPLC and MCE-SDS methods is calculated from the ratio of the area of all non-native peaks to the total area of all mAbl peaks. Charge variant forms of mAbl are resolved using CEX-UPLC and iCIEF. In the CEX-UPLC method, peaks with retention times earlier than that of the main peak are labeled as "acidic" peaks; the peaks with retention times later than that of the main peak are labeled as "basic" peaks. In the iCIEF method, peaks that are focused to a pi lower than that of the main peak are labeled "acidic" peaks, whereas those focused to a pi higher than that of the main peak are labeled "basic" peaks.

Example 4: Effect of different buffers and pH

[0130] The effect of buffer and pH on the thermal stability of mAbl was examined in liquid formulations by incubating 5 mg/mL mAbl at 45°C for 28 days in a series of buffer systems at varying pH ranges. The following pH and buffer systems were studied: acetate (pH 4.5, 5.0, 5.5), histidine (pH 5.5, 6.0, 6.5), and phosphate (pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0). Based on results from SE-UPLC analysis, maximum protein stability was observed when mAblwas formulated between pH 6.0 and 6.5 in histidine buffer (Table 1). Table 1: Effect of Buffer and pH on the Stability of 5 mg/niL mAbl Incubated at 45°C for 28 Days

aReported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 97.2% native peak by SE-UPLC and > 49.0% main peak by CEX-UPLC in all formulations.

CEX = Cation exchange; DS = Drug substance; HMW = High molecular weight;

LMW = Low molecular weight; OD = Optical density; RP = Reverse phase; SE = Size exclusion; UPLC = Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

[0131] Based on results from CEX-UPLC analysis, maximum protein stability was observed when mAbl was formulated between pH 5.5 and 6.0 in histidine buffer or between pH 5.0 and 5.5 in acetate buffer. These analyses also revealed that aggregation (i formation of HMW species), fragmentation (i.e. formation of LMW species), and formation of charge variants were the main degradation pathways. Histidine buffer was selected as the formulation buffer because it provided the best overall level of protein stabilization with respect to formation of HMW and LMW species and formation of charge variants. A pH of 6.0 was chosen for the formulation because formation of HMW species and charge variants, which are the major degradation pathways, were minimized at this pH. Based on these results, 10 mM histidine buffer at pH 6.0 was chosen for the mAbl formulation.

Example 5: pH screening in histidine buffers

[0132] The effect of buffer and pH on the thermal stability of mAbl was examined in high concentration liquid formulations. 150 mg/mL mAbl was incubated at 45°C for 28 days in a series of histidine buffers ranged at pH 5.3, 5.5, 5.8, 6.0 and 6.3 with and without thermal stabilizers. With 9% sucrose, based on results from SE-UPLC analysis, maximum protein stability was observed when mAbl was formulated between pH 5.8 and 6.3 in histidine buffer (Figure 1). Based on results from CEX-UPLC analysis, maximum protein stability was observed when mAbl was formulated between pH 5.3 and 6.0 in histidine buffer (Table 2).

Table 2: Effect of pH on the Stability of 150 mg/mL mAbl Incubated at 45 °C for 28 Days

a Reported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 94.0% native peak by SE-UPLC and >48.7% main peak by CEX-UPLC in all formulations

b Sample gelled. No futher analysis was performed. NA = Not applicable

CEX, cation exchange; HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight; OD, optical density; RP, reverse phase; SE, size exclusion; UPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography

[0133] These analyses also revealed that aggregation (i.e. formation of HMW species), and formation of charge variants were the main degradation pathways. A pH of 6.0 was chosen for the DP formulation because formation of HMW species and charge variants, which are the major degradation pathways, were minimized at this pH. Based on these results, 10 mM histidine buffer at pH 6.0 was chosen for the mAbl high concentration DP formulation.

Example 6: Selection of protectants against agitation stress

[0134] Stabilizers such as surfactants and organic co-solvents are often added to the antibody formulations to protect the protein from agitation-induced aggregation. The effect of organic co-solvents and surfactants on the agitation stress stability and thermal stability of 5 mg/mL mAbl was examined in liquid formulations. The following co- solvent and surfactants were evaluated: 0.1% polysorbate 20, 0.1% polysorbate 80, and 1.0% PEG3350. The results of agitation stress stability studies are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3: Effect of Organic Co-solvents and Surfactants on the Stability of 5 mg/mL mAbl After Agitation (120 Min of Vortexing)

aReported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 98.2% native peak by SE-UPLC and > 49.1% main peak by CEX-UPLC in all 5 formulations.

b The formulation also contains 5% sucrose. CEX = Cation exchange; HMW = High molecular weight; LMW = Low molecular weight; OD = Optical density; RP = Reverse phase; SE = Size exclusion; UPLC = Ultra- performance liquid chromatography

[0135] mAbl was unstable when agitated by vortexing for 120 min in the absence of an organic co-solvent or surfactant. After agitation by vortexing in the absence of co-solvent or surfactant, the solution became cloudy, exhibited a substantial increase in turbidity, and had a 15.3% increase in aggregates as determined by SE-UPLC, as well as 24% loss in protein recovery by RP-UPLC (Table 3). 1% PEG3350 did not provide sufficient stabilization of mAbl after 120 min of vortexing. In the presence of 1% PEG3350, the solution became cloudy, and exhibited an increase in turbidity (Table 3). In contrast, 0.1% polysorbate 20 and 0.1% polysorbate 80 both protected mAbl from agitation-induced instability to the same extent (Table 3).

[0136] However, the formulation containing 0.1% polysorbate 80 exhibited a decreased amount of aggregates compared to the formulation containing 0.1% polysorbate 20 when incubated at 45°C (Table 4). 0.1% polysorbate 80 was chosen as the surfactant for the mAbl DP formulation because it stabilized the protein to agitation stress, had less negative effect on protein thermal stability than polysorbate 20 (as determined by both SE- UPLC and CEX-UPLC analyses), and has a safe history of use in monoclonal antibody formulations.

Example 7: Selection of protectants against thermal stress

[0137] Stabilizers such as sucrose are often added to antibody formulations to increase the thermal stability of the protein in liquid formulations. Five (5) mg/mL mAbl in a liquid formulation exhibited improved stability when formulated with 5% sucrose and incubated under accelerated conditions (Table 4).

Table 4: Effect of Organic Co-solvents and Surfactants on the Stability of 5 mg/mL mAbl Incubated at 45°C for 29 Days

aReported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 98.2% native peak by SE-UPLC and > 49.1% main peak by CEX-UPLC in all 5 formulations

bThe formulation also contains 5% sucrose

CEX = Cation exchange; HMW = High molecular weight; LMW = Low molecular weight; OD = Optical density; RP = Reverse phase; SE = Size exclusion; UPLC = Ultra- performance liquid chromatography

[0138] After incubation at 45°C for 29 days, the relative amount of HMW species increased by 1.7% in the formulation containing 5% sucrose compared to a 2.8% increase in the control formulation without sucrose. For this reason, sucrose was chosen as the thermal stabilizer. To make the formulation isotonic and to maximize the thermal stability, the sucrose concentration was increased to 10% for the mAbl formulation. Example 8: Optimization of stabilizers

[0139] The goal of optimizing the thermal stabilizers was to identify the stabilizing components that could be used to develop a DP formulation supporting an antibody concentration of up to 200 mg/mL. 10% sucrose was selected in the initial formulation. It was found that with 10% sucrose, the viscosity of mAbl was about 20 cP at 20°C and was considered too high for a robust late stage and commercial product. Therefore, a modified mAbl formulation was needed that exhibited both favorable stability and lower viscosity.

[0140] Sucrose was chosen as the thermal stabilizer for mAbl during the low

concentration formulation development. For the high concentration formulation development, different concentrations of sucrose and L-proline were evaluated on the stability and viscosity of the mAbl at 150 and 175 mg/mL concentrations at 25°C (Table 5) and at 40°C for 1 month. The formation of HMW species decreased with increasing sucrose concentrations when the formulations were incubated at 40°C for 28 days. 3% L- proline provided similar stabilization to 5% sucrose, and the maximum stabilization was observed with 9% of sucrose.

[0141] Although 9% sucrose provided slightly better stabilization comparing with 3% L- proline, it also increased the formulation viscosity. At 175 mg/mL, mAbl formulation with 9% of sucrose has a viscosity of 27 centipoise, which pose manufacturing and administration challenges. The 175 mg/mL mAbl formulation with 3% of proline has a viscosity of approximately 20 centipoise, which is manageable with the current manufacturing process.

Table 5: Accelerated Stability of high concentration mAbl with thermal stabilizers at 25 °C for 1 month

3%

Pass 0.00 6.0 107

Sucrose 4.7 94.8 0.6 25.2 46.5 28.3

5%

Pass 0.00 6.0 104

Sucrose 4.7 94.8 0.6 25.1 46.1 28.8

Formulation FDS/DP: 150 mg/mL or 175mg/mL mAbl, 10 mM Histidine pH 6.0, 0.1% PS 80

Fill Volume 0.4 mL

Container/ 2 mL Type 1 borosilicate glass vial with a FluroTec® coated 4432/50 butyl rubber Closure stopper

Starting a)

Pass 0.00 6.1 100 2.3 97.4 0.4 24.9 50.2 24.9 Material

9%

Sucrose,

Pass 0.00 6.1 101 3.7 95.7 0.7 28.4 47.7 23.9 0.1% PS

80

3%

Proline

Pass 0.00 6.1 101 3.7 95.7 0.7 26.5 47.7 25.8 0.1% PS

80

a pH, SE-UPLC and CEX-UPLC 'Starting Material' results are the average values oi fthe starting formulations

[0142] However, based on storage stability at -20°C, -30°C and -80°C, it was found that the formulation with 3% proline was not as stable as the formulations with sucrose (Figure 2). As shown in Figure 2, formulation F3 (with 5% sucrose) was stable at -20°C, -30°C and -80°C with≤3% HMW species.

[0143] The effect of L-proline in stabilizing mAbl was examined with the 50 mg/mL formulation. After incubation at 45 °C for 28 days, the formulation with L-proline showed lower levels of HMW species relative to the formulation without L-proline, showing that L-proline stabilizes the antibody at a concentration of 50 mg/mL (Table 6). In addition, the impact of L-proline on antibody protein structure was examined by biophysical techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry). The results showed that L-proline did not perturb the secondary and tertiary structure of the antibody.

Table 6: Effect of stabilizers on the stability of 50 mg/ml mAbl after incubation at 45°C for 28 days

a ) Reported as a change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 98.5% Monomer peak by SE-UPLC and >52.8% main peak by CEX-UPLC in all three formulations.

CEX, cation exchange; DS, drug substance; HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight; OD, optical density; RP, reverse phase; SE, size exclusion; UPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography

[0144] The effect of different stabilizers on the thermal stability of high concentrations (150 and 175 mg/mL) mAbl was further examined in liquid formulations. The stabilizers evaluated were 9% (w/v) sucrose, 3% (w/v) L-proline, and 5% (w/v) sucrose with 1.5% (w/v) L-proline. The results of the accelerated stability study are summarized in Table 7.

Table 7: Effect of Stabilizers on the Stability of mAbl after Incubation at 25 °C and 40 °C

UPLC in all three formulations.

CEX, cation exchange; HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight; OD, optical density; RP, reverse phase; SE, size exclusion; UPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography

[0145] After incubation at 40°C for 28 days, 9% sucrose provided the best stabilization and had the highest viscosity among the high concentration formulations. The 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline formulation ranked second for stability after 28 days at 40°C. After incubation at 25 °C for three months, the stability of mAbl was nearly the same in all of the formulations examined; however, the formulation with 5%

sucrose/1.5% L-proline was slightly better than the other two formulations. However, upon incubation at -20°C, -30°C and -80°C, sucrose at 5% and at 9% provided better stability than 3% proline (Figure 3). The viscosity of 175 mg/mL mAbl with 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline has a viscosity of 14 cP at 20°C. To provide a formulation that yields an isotonic solution and achieves the best balance between stability and viscosity, 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline was selected for development of an antibody late phase DP formulation.

Example 9: Selection of viscosity modifiers

[0146] The viscosity of protein formulations increases exponentially as the protein concentration increases. When the viscosity begins to exceed about 10 to 15 cP at 20°C, viscosity of the formulation must be taken into account when developing a formulation: this is simply because viscosity correlates with the ease of injection through a prefilled syringe (PFS) or other needle-based delivery device; more importantly maintaining a reasonably low viscosity is critical for the development of a delivery device, such as autoinjector. The effect of excipients on formulation viscosity was examined in liquid formulation with the following potential viscosity modifiers, proline, arginineHCl, histidineHCl, magnisum acetate and NaCl. Figure 4 summarizes the viscosity of 150 mg/mL mAbl with the viscosity modifiers. ArginineHCl, histidineHCl, magnesium acetate and NaCl at 25 - 100 mM lower the viscosity of 150 mg/mL mAbl formulations.

[0147] Impact of the viscosity modifiers on stability of mAbl formulation was also examined. 150 mg/mL mAbl formulations with viscosity modifiers such as arginineHCl, histidineHCl, magnesium acetate and NaCl were prepared and incubated at 45°C for 28 days. The results are shown in Figure 5. It was found that maximum protein stability was observed when mAbl was formulated without the viscosity modifiers; all these viscosity modifying salts negatively impact the mAbl stability. Therefore salts were not included in the final formulation.

[0148] L-proline, as a stabilizer, minimized solution viscosity for antibody

concentrations at or above 50 mg/mL. The results of the accelerated stability studies for high concentration antibody with varying amounts of L-proline, with and without sucrose, are summarized in Table 7. After incubation at 25 °C for three months, the formulation with 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline provided slightly improved stability relative to the other two formulations with respect to formation of HMW species. After incubation at 40 °C for 28 days, the formulation containing 9% sucrose provided the best stabilization, and the formulation with 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline formulation ranked second. The formulation with 9% sucrose has a viscosity of 20 cP at 175 mg/mL antibody, while the viscosity of 175 mg/mL formulation with 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline has a viscosity of 14 cP at 20 °C. Adding L-proline to the formulation was important for lowering the viscosity at elevated protein concentrations as well as stabilizing the antibody.

[0149] In summary, 5% sucrose/1.5% L-proline was selected for both 50 mg/mL and high concentration antibody formulations. This combination of excipients achieved an isotonic formulation with acceptable stability and viscosity at all antibody concentrations tested (up to 175 mg/mL).

Example 10: Optimization of polysorbate (PS) concentration

[0150] During formulation development, higher order molecular weight species formation and an increase in turbidity was observed when the mAbl formulation was agitated without surfactant. The protein was stabilized to agitation by addition of polysorbate 80 (PS 80). During high concentration mAbl liquid formulation

development, instability to agitation was observed as an increase in higher order molecular weight species. A study was carried out to determine the minimum amount of

polysorbate 80 needed to protect up to 175 mg/mL mAbl from agitation-induced instability. The formulations in this study contained 5% sucrose and 1.5% L-proline so that the effect of polysorbate 80 could be studied with a formulation composition that was more representative of the final formulation. The nominal polysorbate 80 concentrations included in the study were 0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2% (w/v). In the absence of polysorbate 80, the solution became cloudy and exhibited a substantial increase in turbidity after agitation by vortexing. A polysorbate 80

concentration-dependent reduction in the amount of %HMW after 120 minutes of agitation was observed. A concentration of 0.15 - 0.2% polysorbate 80 was found to be sufficient to stabilize 150 mg/mL and 175 mg/mL mAbl to agitation induced aggregation (Table 8). The addition of 0.2% (w/v) (nominal value) polysorbate 80 completely prevented formation of the HMW species after agitation for 120 minutes. Table 8: Stability of 150mg/mL and 175 mg/mL mAbl with PS 80 after 120 min of agitation

[0151] Table 9 details the effect of polysorbate 80 concentration on the stability of 175 mg/mL mAbl after agitation (120 minutes of vortexing). Table 9: Effect of Polysorbate 80 Concentration on the Stability of 175 mg/mL mAbl after Agitation (120 minutes of Vortexing)

aReported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 97.4% native peak by SE-UPLC and > 48.2% main peak by CEX UPLC in all formulations.

CEX, cation exchange; HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight; NA, not available; OD, optical density; RP, reverse phase; SE, size exclusion;

UPLC, ultra-performance liquid chromatography

[0152] The ability of 0.2% (w/v) polysorbate 80 to protect mAbl from agitation-induced instability was confirmed by another study with the final formulation at 50 mg/mL (Table

10).

Table 10: Effect of PS80 Concentration on the Stability of 50 mg/niL mAbl after Agitation (120 minutes of Vortexing)

a Reported as a relative change in purity relative to the starting material. The starting material (no incubation) contains > 98.5% Monomer peak by SE-UPLC and > 52.8% main peak by CEX UPLC in all five formulations.

CEX, cation exchange; DS, drug substance; HMW, high molecular weight; LMW, low molecular weight; NA, not available; OD, optical density; RP, reverse phase; SE, size exclusion; UPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography

[0153] Based on these results, 0.2% (w/v) polysorbate 80 was selected as the surfactant because it provided sufficient stabilization to prevent formation of HMW species under agitation stress.

Example 11: Storage and stress stability of exemplary formulations

[0154] The storage stability of 50 mg/mL and 175 mg/mL mAbl formulations in glass vials are shown in Table 11 and Table 12, and the accelerated and stress stability data from the two formulations are shown in Table 13 and Table 14, respectively. Research stability studies demonstrated that the 50 mg/mL and 175 mg/mL mAbl formulation in glass vials are stable for at least 24 months when stored at 2 °C to 8 °C. In addition, the 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation also exhibited excellent stability under accelerated and stress conditions. The formulation is stable when stored at 25 °C for at least 3 months and 40 °C for at least 7 days, demonstrating the compatibility of the 50 mg/mL formulation with the primary container closure components. No appreciable changes were observed in color or appearance, turbidity, particulate matter, pH, protein concentration, purity as measured by SE-UPLC or CEX-UPLC and iCIEF, and potency was maintained under these conditions.

Table 11: Research stability of 50 mg/mL formulation stored at 2 - 8°C

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microflow- imaging; Monomer, intact antibody; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography Table 12: Research stability of 175 mg/mL formulation stored at 2 - 8°C

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microfiow- imaging; Monomer, intact antibody; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography Table 13: Research stability of 50 mg/mL formulation stored at accelerated and stress conditions

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microfiow- imaging; Monomer, intact antibody; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography Table 14: Research stability of 175 mg/mL formulation stored at accelerated and stress conditions

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microflow- imaging; Monomer, intact antibody; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography Example 12: Stability of mAbl formulations comprising histidine buffer, sucrose and polysorbate

[0155] Tables 15 - 24 summarize the storage stability of exemplary mAbl formulations that comprise 10 mM histidine buffer, at pH 6.0, sucrose and polysorbate.

Table 15: Research Stability of mAbl formulation Stored at -80°C

CEX = Cation exchange; HMW = High molecular weight; iCIEF = Imaged capillary isoelectric focusing; LMW = Low molecular weight; MCE-SDS = Microchip capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate; MFI = Microfiow imaging; NR = Not required; OD = Optical density; RH = Relative humidity; RP = Reverse phase; SE = Size exclusion; UPLC = Ultra-performance liquid chromatography Table 16; Research Stability of mAbl formulation Stored at -30°C

Table 17: Research Stability of mAbl formulation Stored at -20°C % HMW 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7

Purity by

% Native 98.7 98.8 98.9 98.6 98.8 98.8 SE-UPLC

% LMW 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.6

Charge variant % Acidic 22.2 22.4 22.3 22.4 24.6 23.4 analysis by % Main 49.7 49.7 49.2 47.6 45.5 44.2 CEX-UPLC % Basic 28.1 27.9 28.5 30.0 30.0 32.5

% Acidic 38.9 NR NR 38.6 NR 38.6

Charge variant

% Main 56.5 NR NR 56.8 NR 56.2 analysis by iCIEF

% Basic 4.6 NR NR 4.6 NR 5.3

% Relative potency (Bioassay) 95 NR NR 96 NR 111

Table 18: Research Stability of mAbl formulation - Effect of Accelerated Conditions

Table 19: Research Stability of mAbl Formulation Stored at -80°C

Table 20: Research Stability of mAbl Formulation Stored at -30°C SE-UPLC % Native 98.6 98.7 98.6 98.7 98.8 98.7

% LMW 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6

Charge variant % Acidic 22.8 23.1 22.9 23.5 23.7 25.1 analysis by % Main 47.3 47.1 46.5 45.3 44.4 44.4 CEX-UPLC % Basic 30.0 29.8 30.6 31.2 31.9 30.5

Charge variant % Acidic 40.1 NR NR 38.0 NR 41.3 analysis by % Main 56.1 NR NR 57.3 NR 53.3 iCIEF % Basic 3.8 NR NR 4.7 NR 5.4

Table 21: Research Stability of mAbl Formulation Stored at -20°C

Table 22: Research Stability of mAbl Formulation - Effect of Accelerated Conditions

Table 23: Research Stability of mAbl formulation Stored at 5°C

pH 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.1

293

2 to 10 μηι 823 NR NR 2169 NR

Particulate analysis 31 by MFI

> 10 um 15 NR NR 10 NR 56 (particles/mL)

> 25 um 0 NR NR 3 NR 5

% Protein recovered by RP-UPLC 100 100 98 101 102 90

Non-reduced;

99.4 NR NR 99.5 NR 99.2 % main peak

Purity by MCE-SDS Reduced;

% heavy + light 100 NR NR 100 NR 100 chain

% HMW 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9

Purity by SE-UPLC % Native 98.7 98.8 98.7 98.6 98.6 98.5

% LMW 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6

Charge variant % Acidic 23.0 22.8 23.5 22.4 24.1 22.4 analysis by CEX-

% Main 48.5 48.6 46.2 47.2 44.4 45.5 UPLC

% Basic 28.6 28.6 30.4 30.4 31.5 32.1

Charge variant % Acidic 39.8 NR NR 39.2 NR 40.1 analysis by iCIEF

% Main 56.7 NR NR 56.5 NR 55.7

% Basic 3.4 NR NR 4.3 NR 4.1

% Relative potency (bioassay) 111 NR NR 132 NR 124

Table 24: Research Stability of mAbl formulation Stored at Accelerated Conditions

% Protein recovered by RP-UPLC 100 99 100 99 99 100 99

Non-reduced;

99.4 NR NR 99.4 NR NR 99.2 % main peak

Purity by MCE- SDS Reduced;

% heavy + 100 NR NR 100 NR NR 98.6 light chain

% HMW 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.6 3.2 8.5

Purity by

% Native 98.7 98.6 98.5 98.1 97.6 95.9 89.7 SE-UPLC

% LMW 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.8

Charge variant % Acidic 23.0 22.6 23.1 25.8 24.7 27.3 34.0 analysis by CEX-

% Main 48.5 48.7 48.1 44.5 46.2 44.1 35.9 UPLC

% Basic 28.6 28.8 28.9 29.8 29.1 28.6 30.2

Charge variant % Acidic 39.8 NR NR 47.1 NR NR 66.9 analysis by iCIEF

% Main 56.7 NR NR 49.5 NR NR 30.2

% Basic 3.4 NR NR 3.5 NR NR 3.0

% Relative potency by bioassay 111 NR NR 94 NR NR 63

[0156] Tables 25 - 27 summarize the stress stability of exemplary formulations. Table 25: Research Stability of mAbl formulation - Effect of Stress Conditions

CEX-UPLC % Basic 28.1 28.2 28.2 28.3 28.2

Charge variant % Acidic 38.9 NR 40.8 NR 39.0 analysis by % Main 56.5 NR 54.7 NR 56.5 iCIEF % Basic 4.6 NR 4.6 NR 4.5

% Relative Potency (Bioassay) 95 NR 87 NR 89

Table 26: Research Stability of mAbl Formulation - Effect of Stress Conditions

Table 27: Research Stability of mAbl formulation - Effect of Stress Conditions

Table 28: Accelerated and Stress Stability of 50 mg/mL and 25 mg/niL of mAbl Formulations

Example 13: Proven Acceptable Range (PAR) Study

[0157] During the manufacture of mAbl drug product (DP), variations in the composition of the DP may occur. These variations may include the concentration of the active ingredient, the concentration of the excipients, and/or the pH of the formulation. Because changes in any of these parameters could potentially impact the stability or potency of the drug product, proven acceptable range (PAR) studies were conducted to assess whether variations in the DP composition, within the defined ranges, would impact the stability or potency of mAbl DP.

[0158] Two Design-Of-Experiment (DOE) studies were used to evaluate the effect of each formulation parameter as well as the interactions on the formulation stability: • A fractional factorial design Pre-PAR study with accelerated and stress stability assessment to identify critical formulation parameters that may impact mAbl DP stability;

• A full factorial design PAR study including critical formulation parameters identified from the Pre-PAR study, with long-term shelf-life stability to demonstrate the acceptable ranges of the formulation parameters.

Pre-PAR study design

[0159] To assess critical and/or interacting formulation parameters in the DP composition that might be important to product quality, a fractional factorial DOE was applied to examine the accelerated and stress stability of formulations by varying all formulation parameters, including protein concentration (± 10%), buffer and stabilizer concentrations (± 20%), surfactant concentration (± 50%), and pH (± 0.3 unit). The tested formulation parameter ranges were defined to be equal or wider than the specification acceptance criteria and manufacturing experience. The study was designed with a statistical software using a 2 Λ (6-2) resolution IV fractional factorial experiment. Together with four target formulations as the center points, the study included 20 runs, as shown in Table 29.

Table 29: Formulations tested in the Pre-PAR study

[0160] All 20 formulations at the accelerated conditions and the stress conditions (25°C, 37°C, freeze/thaw [F/T] and agitation) were characterized and assessed for

physical/chemical properties and stability, including visual inspection, pH, turbidity, osmolality, conductivity, purity, protein concentration and recovery, charge variant analysis, and sub-visible particulate analysis.

Pre-PAR Study Results

[0161] All 20 formulations showed no change after agitation or F/T stress. Results from 25 °C and 37 °C incubation were analyzed by a regression model (JMP fit model with standard least square personality and effect leverage emphasis). Statistical analysis of the main and interacting variables of all experimental formulations against the critical quality attributes revealed that pH, protein concentration and sucrose concentration were important to product quality. The two product quality attributes impacted were HMW species and acidic charge variants. Other formulation parameters, including histidine, proline or polysorbate 80 concentrations within the ranges tested, were found to have no statistically significant impact on the product quality. Under accelerated conditions, there was no secondary or higher interactions that impact formulation stability. The pre-PAR study results indicated that pH, mAbl concentration, and sucrose concentration were critical to the mAbl formulation stability, and were considered as the critical formulation parameters for the 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation.

[0162] Although pH, mAbl concentration and sucrose concentration were identified as the critical formulation parameters, the impact of these three factors on the quality attributes was minimal. Based on the statistical analysis, the change in pH range of 5.7- 6.3, 45-55 mg/mL of mAbl, and/or 4-6% of sucrose likely had < 15% impact on the formation of HMW species and acidic charge variants.

[0163] To confirm the impact on the long-term storage stability at the recommended DP storage condition, the following three critical formulation parameters: pH, mAbl concentration, and sucrose concentration, were further evaluated in a PAR study with long-term storage stability.

PAR study design

[0164] A full factorial DOE design was applied to examine the long-term shelf-life storage stability of formulations with varying pH (± 0.3 unit), protein concentration (± 10%), and sucrose concentration (± 20%), resulting in eight experimental runs (Table 30); a reference formulation (formulation 3, the target formulation in Table 30) was included as the center point formulation.

Table 30: Formulations tested in PAR studies

[0165] The full factorial study design allows the estimation of all main effect terms as well as the interaction terms. The tested formulation parameter ranges, defined to be equal or wider than the specification acceptance criteria and manufacturing experience, remained the same as in the Pre-PAR study.

[0166] The stability of the experimental formulations was compared to the stability of a reference formulation at pH 6.0 containing all formulation components at their nominal concentrations (F3). PAR studies utilized a mAbl DS lot manufactured with the representative commercial manufacturing process. DP formulations were filled into 10 mL Schott type 1 borosilicate glass vials, with 20 mm FluroTec®-coated West S2-451 4432/50 GRY B2-40 stoppers (commercial DP representation) and assessed for long-term storage stability at 2-8 °C. The formulations were studied according to the analysis plan in Table 31.

Table 31: Analysis plan for PAR study

Total protein content t = 0 Protein concentration

by RP-UPLC

Osmolality t = 0 Solute concentration

Conductivity t = 0 Conductive property

Purity by SE-UPLC All Molecule weight variants: %HMW,

%Monomer, %LWM

Charge Variant t = 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and Charge isoforms: %Acidic, Analysis by cIEF 36 months at 5°C %Main, %Basic

Particulate Matter t = 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and Subvisible particulates.

(Light Obscuration) 36 months at 5°C Acceptance criteria set forth in

USP <788> (< 6000

parti cles/container for particles >10 □ m and < 600 parti cles/container for particles >25 Dm)

Particulate Matter t = 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and Subvisible particulates ( For (MicroFlow Imaging, 36 months at 5°C information only)

MFI)

Bioassay t = 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and Potency

36 months at 5°C Acceptance criteria: 50-150% of reference standard

PAR Study Results

Effect on the HMW species formation

[0167] There was no meaningful increase in the %HMW as measured by SE-UPLC up to 12 months at 2-8 °C for all 9 formulations. All values were well below the upper specification, and no significant increase in %HMW over time was observed.

[0168] The HMW species formation for 50 mg/mL mAbl DP at 2-8 °C was found to be extremely slow. For up to 12 months, the maximum change of relative amount in %HMW in the 9 formulation was ~ 0.2%. Since the change in %HMW was minimal, and monomer concentration could be considered as a constant, the aggregation from monomers to HMW species could be simplified as a zero order reaction. Therefore a simplified linear model was used to analyze the %HMW stability data. By linearly fitting the %HMW over time, the HMW species formation rate was derived for each formulation.

[0169] The rate was analyzed against the main factors as well as all interaction terms using a regression model (JMP fit model with standard least square personality and effect leverage emphasis). The resulted regression model was statistically significant with an R 2 of 0.74. mAbl concentration, pH, and time were statistically significant, but the effect on the %HMW species formation was statistically insignificant, only contributing up to 0.1%.

[0170] Therefore, these factors, pH at 5.7 - 6.3, mAbl concentration at 45-55 mg/rriL, and sucrose concentration at 4-6%, had no practical relevance to the %HMW stability at 2- 8 °C.

[0171] %HMW in all 9 formulations up to 12-month time-point were well below the defined acceptance criteria limit of 4% and thus within the release and end of shelf-life specifications. In addition, the linear models predicted that after 24 months of shelf-life storage at 2°C - 8°C, the %HMW, ranging from 0.6% to 0.8%, would also be well below the specification limit.

[0172] Based on the long-term storage stability data, the variations of the critical formulation parameters within the studied ranges were found to have no significant impact on the mAbl formulation stability. The 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation was robust with regards to HMW species formation within the tested formulation composition range. Effect on the acidic charge variants formation

[0173] There was no meaningful increase in the %acidic charge variants measured up to

12 months at 2-8 °C for all 9 formulations. All values were below upper specification, and no significant increase in %acidic charge variants over time was observed.

[0174] The mAbl formulation was considered to be robust with regard to acidic charge variants formation within the tested formulation composition range.

Effect on general quality attributes

[0175] The effect of pH, mAbl concentration, and sucrose, as well as storage time on other DP general quality attributes, including appearance, pH, turbidity, subvisible particulates, protein recovery, %monomer and %LMW by SEC, %main and %basic charge variants by iCIEF, and bioactivity were studied. All values were within

specification, and no meaningful change over time or difference between the PAR formulations was observed:

• No precipitate or visible particulate was detected by either visual inspection or turbidity measurements (OD at 405 nm and nephelometry);

• No statistically significant changes in protein recovery were observed (RP- UPLC);

• The pH of the formulations was stable; • No meaningful increases in subvisible particulates, and no meaningful differences were observed in the subvisible particulate counts between PAR study formulations.

o For subvisible particulates measured by HIAC, all values were below the acceptable limits set by USP <788>, and no meaningful variation in subvisible particles between formulations was observed.

o In additions, the subvisible particles were also measured by MFI. No

meaningful variation in subvisible particles between formulations was observed.

• The bioassay results were within the specification limit for all formulations during storage.

[0176] The results demonstrate that variations of the critical formulation parameters (pH, mAbl concentration, and sucrose concentration) within the studied ranges have no significant impact on the mAbl formulation stability. The 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation is robust with regards to general quality attributes within the tested formulation composition range.

Effect of Freezing and Thawing on the stability of PAR formulations

[0177] The physical and chemical stability of 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation, examined following two freezing and thawing cycles, was unaffected by variation in critical formulation parameters, i.e. a ± 0.3 pH unit change relative to the reference mAbl, a

±10% variation in mAbl concentration, and/or a ± 20% variation in sucrose.

[0178] The following effects were observed:

• No precipitate was detected by either visual inspection or turbidity

measurements (OD at 405 nm);

• No loss of protein was observed (RP-UPLC);

• The pH of the formulations remained constant;

• No meaningful differences were observed in the subvisible particulate counts, determined by light obscuration (HIAC) or micro flow imaging (MFI) between the study formulations. There was a slight increase in subvisible particles after 2 cycles of F/T, which could be removed by filtering through a 0.22 μιτι filter prior to filling the DP.

• No appreciable changes in purity, as determined by SE-UPLC, were observed in all formulations following two freezing and thawing cycles; • No appreciable change in the distribution of charge variants, as determined by iCIEF, was observed in all formulations following two freezing and thawing cycles.

• The bioassay results demonstrated that mAbl activity was maintained in all formulations subjected to 2 cycles of freezing and thawing.

Conclusions

[0179] Design-Of-experiment (DOE)-based pre-PAR and PAR studies were used to evaluate the effect of formulation parameters as well as the interactions on the formulation stability. The pre-PAR study with accelerated and stress stability identified pH, mAbl concentration, and sucrose concentration as the critical formulation parameters. A full factorial PAR study with long-term shelf-life stability demonstrated that variation in the critical formulation parameters, within the range studies, did not affect mAbl DP quality.

[0180] Specifically, the stability and potency of 50 mg/mL mAbl DP stored at 5°C for 12 months were unaffected by a ±10% variation in protein concentration, a ± 20% variation in sucrose, L-proline and/or histidine concentration, and/or ± 50% variation in polysorbate 80 concentration, and/or a ± 0.3 pH unit variation.

[0181] The robustness of mAbl formulation was demonstrated by the PAR study. Overall, the results from the pre-PAR and PAR study supported that variability in the compositions of the mAbl formulation within the ranges studied would not adversely impact the stability of the mAbl DP under the recommended storage conditions (2 to 8°C).

[0182] The 50 mg/mL mAbl FDS samples were stable after two cycles of freezing and thawing (-30°C freeze and room temperature thaw). The stability of mAbl FDS to freeze/thaw stress was unaffected by a ±10% change in mAbl concentration, a ± 20% change in sucrose, and/or a ± 0.3 pH unit change relative to the control mAbl FDS (50 mg/mL). The results from these freeze/thaw studies provide support that 50 mg/mL mAbl FDS can be frozen and thawed during the manufacture of mAbl DP without adversely impacting the stability of the FDS.

Example 14: Containers

[0183] The mAbl formulations were developed in glass vials (for delivery by intravenous infusion). The container for mAbl drug product intended for later clinical development and product commercialization is also a pre-filled syringe, which is presented as either a stand-alone syringe for self-injection or incorporated into an auto injector device for self-administration.

Example 15: Stability of mAbl formulation in glass vials

[0184] Tables 32 - 35 summarize the stability of exemplary mAbl formulations in 10 mL glass vials.

Table 32: Research stability of mAbl formulation stored at 2 - 8°C

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microflow- imaging; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

Table 33: Research stability of mAbl formulation at accelerated and stress conditions

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microflow- imaging; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

Table 34: Research stability of mAbl formulation stored at 2 - 8°C

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microflow- imaging; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

Table 35: Research stability of mAbl formulation at accelerated and stress conditions

CEX, Cation exchange; DS, Drug substance; HMW, High molecular weight; iCIEF, imaged capillary isoelectric-focusing, LMW, Low molecular weight; MFI, Microfiow- imaging; NR, Not required; OD, Optical density; RP, Reverse phase; SE, Size exclusion; UPLC, Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

[0185] The two formulations at different fill volumes were found to be stable to stress (40°C/75% RH) (data not shown).

Example 16: Stability of mAbl formulation in pre-filled syringes

[0186] Tables 36 - 38 summarize the stability of high concentration mAbl formulations in pre-filled syringes.

Table 36: Research Stability of mAbl Drug Product in Pre-filled Syringe (PFS) Stored at 5°C

% HMW 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9

Purity by SE-UPLC % Native 99.1 98.9 99.1 98.7 98.7 98.6

% LMW 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5

Charge variant analysis % Acidic 18.6 18.5 18.2 18.6 19.3 18.8 by CEX-UPLC

% Main 53.4 54.8 54.3 53.2 53.5 55.5

% Basic 27.9 26.8 27.5 25.3 25.6 24.3

Charge variant analysis % Acidic 30.2 NR 30.2 32.9 NR NA by iCIEF

% Main 55.9 NR 55.9 53.4 NR NA

% Basic 13.9 NR 13.9 13.7 NR NA

% Relative potency (bioassay) 87 NR NR 141 NR NA

Table 37: Research Stability of mAbl Drug Product in Pre-filled Syringe (PFS) Stored at Accelerated Conditions

% HMW 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.6 1.6 2.5 3.9

Purity by

SE-UPLC % Native 99.1 98.6 98.5 97.7 97.8 96.9 95.5

% LMW 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6

Charge variant % Acidic 18.6 19.0 21.3 25.5 20.0 22.1 24.3 analysis by % Main 53.4 54.3 52.0 46.5 51.8 49.8 48.9 CEX-UPLC

% Basic 27.9 26.8 26.6 28.1 28.3 28.1 26.8

Charge variant % Acidic 30.2 NR 36.8 44.9 NR NR 45.6 analysis by % Main 55.9 NR 49.6 42.8 NR NR 40.5 iCIEF

% Basic 13.9 NR 13.6 12.3 NR NR 13.9

% Relative potency by bioassay 87 NR NR 137 NR NR 83

Table 38: Research Stability of mAbl Drug Product in Pre-filled Syringe (PFS) - Effect of Stress Conditions

Charge variant analysis % Acidic 18.6 18.8 19.0 by CEX-UPLC % Main 53.4 53.2 53.5

% Basic 27.9 28.1 27.5

Charge variant analysis % Acidic 30.2 NR 30.4 by iCIEF % Main 55.9 NR 55.5

% Basic 13.9 NR 14.1

% Relative potency by bioassay 87 NR 100

Example 17: Compatibility of mAbl formulations in intravenous (IV) delivery devices

[0187] For the compatibility assessment, 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation was added to a 100 mL IV bag, containing either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection, to assess whether mAbl is stable when delivered intravenously. To support the variability in patient weights, two admixture concentrations, 1.0 mg/mL mAbl and 25 mg/mL mAbl, were examined in this study to reflect the low and high dosing conditions. The following IV admixture components were used during the compatibility studies:

• Drug Product

o 50 mg/mL mAbl DP

• Diluents

o 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

o 5% Dextrose Injection

• IV Bags

o IV bags made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

o IV bags made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with DEHP prefilled with 5% Dextrose Injection

o IV bags made of polyolefin (PO) prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

o IV bags made of polyolefin (PO) prefilled with 5% Dextrose Injection o IV bags made of polypropylene prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection

o IV bottles made of polypropylene prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection • IV Pumps

o Peristaltic pump

o Fluid displacement pump

• IV Infusion Sets

o IV set made of PVC with DEHP

o IV set made of PVC with dioctyl terephthalate (DEHT)

o IV set made of PVC with trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM)

o IV set made of polyethylene lined PVC

o IV set made of polyurethane

• Filters

o 0.2 μπι polyethersulfone inline filter

o 1.2 μπι polyethersulfone inline filter

o 5 μιτι polyethersulfone inline filter

o 15 μπι polyethersulfone inline filter.

[0188] The DPs used in this study were GMP manufactured using a representative DP commercial manufacturing process. The IV bags containing the admixture were initially held for 24 hours at 5°C; the bags were then incubated for at least 8 hours at 25°C. After these incubations, each of the infusion sets was connected to the IV bag, primed with the admixture and held for 1 hour at ambient room temperature. Each admixture was then pumped through the respective infusion sets at rates of 25 mL/h and 500 mL/h.

[0189] Methods used to assess admixture compatibility: The compatibility of the mAbl admixture with materials used in the IV delivery device was assessed using the following assays:

• Color and appearance by visual inspection

• pH

• Turbidity measured by increase in Optical Density (OD) at 405 nm

• Subvisible particulate analysis on admixture by light obscuration (HIAC)

• Protein concentration of mAbl by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC)

• Purity by SE-UPLC

• Charge variant analysis by CEX-UPLC

• Potency, by bioassay: The relative potency of each sample is determined using the bioassay and is defined as: (IC50 Reference Sample/ICso Sample)* 100%. The measured potency of storage stability samples must be within 50-150% of the measured potency of the reference standard.

[0190] Results and Conclusions: The 50 mg/mL mAbl formulation, diluted in either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection to concentrations of either 1.0 mg/mL or 25 mg/mL was physically and chemically stable under all conditions tested within the proposed dose ranges and administration conditions. These data support the following conclusions pertaining to dose preparation and IV administration of mAbl DP:

• 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection and 5% Dextrose Injection IV bags made of PVC with DEHP, PO, and polypropylene are compatible with mAbl IV administration.

• mAbl DP can be diluted to concentrations as low as 1.0 mg/mL in PVC, PO or polypropylene IV bags containing either 0.9% Sodium Chloride or 5% Dextrose for IV administration.

• mAbl DP can be diluted to concentrations as high as 25.0 mg/mL in PVC, PO or polypropylene IV bags containing either 0.9% Sodium Chloride or 5% Dextrose for IV administration.

• mAbl admixture in either 0.9% Sodium Chloride or 5% Dextrose was stable after incubation in a PVC, PO or polypropylene IV bag for periods of up to 24 hours at 5°C and 8 hours at 25°C. The diluted mAbl DP may be administered within 6 hours of preparation.

• Diluted mAbl can be administered using a standard infusion pump.

• Diluted mAbl can be administered with an infusion set composed of either PVC containing DEHP, PVC containing TOTM, polyethylene or polyurethane.

• mAbl is compatible with the use of an inline 0.2 μηι - 5 μηι polyethersulfone filter.

• Diluted mAbl can be administered at a rate ranging from 25 to 500 mL/hour.

[0191] The present invention is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments described herein. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description and the accompanying figures. Such modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims.