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Title:
STARCH ACID MODIFIED TO BE SLOWLY DIGESTIBLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/071014
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This specification discloses an acid converted starch comprising between 20% and 70%, slowly digestible starch on a weight basis selected from one of corn starch, tapioca starch or sago starch. The starch is modified to have a water fluidity of at least 20 or a viscosity of less than 100 cP, and is useful in providing high slowly digestible starch content to food products including soft-baked goods.

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Inventors:
SEKULA, Bernard (10 Finderne Avenue, Bridgewater, New Jersey, 08807, US)
SHAH, Tarak (10 Finderne Avenue, Bridgewater, New Jersey, 08807, US)
SIZEMORE, MacKenzie (10 Finderne Avenue, Bridgewater, New Jersey, 08807, US)
ZHAO, Qin (10 Finderne Avene, Bridgewater, New Jersey, 08807, US)
OKONIEWSKA, Monika (East Hanover, Hanover, US)
Application Number:
US2018/054425
Publication Date:
April 11, 2019
Filing Date:
October 04, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CORN PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT, INC. (5 Westbrook Corporate Center, Westchester, Illinois, 60154, US)
International Classes:
C08B30/14; A21D6/00
Foreign References:
US20020009532A12002-01-24
Other References:
OTTO B WURZBURG ED - ALISTAIR M STEPHEN ET AL: "CHAPTER 3: Modified Starches", 1 January 2006, FOOD POLYSACCHARIDES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS (2ND EDIT, CRC PRESS, PAGE(S) 87 - 118, ISBN: 978-0-8247-5922-3, XP009129892
"Classification and Measurement of Nutritionally Important Starch Reactions", ENGLYST ET AL. EUR. J. CLIN. NUTR., vol. 46, no. 2, 1992, pages 33 - 50
ENGLYST, H.N. ET AL.: "Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions", EUR J CLIN NUTR. SUPPL., vol. 2, 1992, pages 33 - 50
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GRAUCH, Jason et al. (Ingredion Incorporated, 10 Finderne AvenueSuite, Bridgewater New Jersey, 08807, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An acid converted starch comprising between 20% and 70%, or between 25% and 65%, or between 30%, and 60%, or between 35%, and 55%, or between 40% and 50% slowly digestible starch by weight (w/w).

2. The acid converted starch of claim 1 being a corn starch and having a slowly digestible starch content of greater than about 58% or between 58% and 70% or between 58% and 66% or between 59% and 63%, or between about 60% and about 62% (by weight of the starch).

3. The starch of claim 1 being a sago starch having a slowly digestible starch content of between 20% and 40% or between 20% and 30% or between 20% and 25% (by weight of the starch).

4. The acid converted starch of claim 1 being a tapioca starch having a slowly digestible starch content of between 40% and 55% by weight of the starch, or between 45% and 55% or between 50% and 55%.

5. The acid converted starch of claim 1 comprising acid converted starch obtained from more than one base wherein the base starch is selected from the group consisting of sago starch, corn starch, and tapioca starch.

6. The acid converted starch of any one of the preceding claims having a water fluidity of less than 60, or less than 50, or less than 40, or less than 30, or less than 20, or about 20 or about 20 or about 40, or about 50 or about 60 or between 10 and 60, or 15 and 40, or between 15 and 20 or between 15 and 25.

7. The acid converted starch of any one of the preceding claims wherein a starch 14% solids aqueous starch slurry has a final viscosity of 30 cP to 100 cP, 40 cP to 90 cP, or 50 cP to 70 cP.

8. The starch of any one of the preceding claims a) wherein the starch provides a test food composition a slowly digestible starch in amount or between 9g and 18g (slowly digestible starch per lOOg starch (g/100g)), or between 12g and 18g (g/lOOg), or about 15g and 18g (g/lOOg); and b) wherein the test food composition consisting of 42.71% starch; 19.50% sucrose; 0.31% baking powder (SAPP), 0.22%, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), 0.17%, salt, 9.63% water, 12.16% whole eggs, 5.60% glycerin; 8.90% canola oil; 0.78% lecithin (w/w); wherein the modified starch is the sole starch in the test food composition and wherein the test food composition is baked at 375° F for 18 minutes.

9. A method of increasing the slowly digestible starch content of a starch comprising modifying a base starch using an acid.

10. The method of claim 10 wherein the base starch is selected from the group consisting of corn starch, tapioca starch and sago starch.

11. The acid converted starch of any one of the preceding claims having a water fluidity of less than 60, or less than 50, or less than 40, or less than 30, or less than 20, or about 20 or about 20 or about 40, or about 50 or about 60 or between 10 and 60, or 15 and 40, or between 15 and 20 or between 15 and 25.

12. The acid converted starch of any one of the preceding claims wherein a 14% solids aqueous starch slurry has a final viscosity of 30 cP to 100 cP, 40 cP to 90 cP, or 50 cP to 70 cP.

Description:
Starch Acid Modified to be Slowly Digestible

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This Application claims priority to United States Provisional Application Serial Number 62/569,219.

[0002] The present invention generally relates to food products having a high level of slowly digestible starch, starches useful for providing said baked good a high slowly digestible starch content and methods for making such starch.

[0003] The higher moisture dough or batter systems of soft-baked bakery products often present a technical challenge for delivery of high levels of slowly digestible starch ("SDS"). Higher content of slowly digestible starch has been associated with various health benefits, such as continuous release into the bloodstream, and low or moderate glycemic response which can be associated with sustained energy release. The present invention relates to modified starches which are suitable for providing soft-baked bakery products elevated SDS content.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] In an embodiment a food product comprises a gelatinized component comprising a total starch content, wherein, the gelatinized component has slowly digestible starch content over total starch content of at least 15%. In embodiments this specification discloses a starch for use in a food product comprising a gelatinized component and methods of making such starch. In some embodiments this specification discloses an acid converted starch having a slowly digestible starch content of between 20% and 70%, or between 25% and 65%, or between 30%, and 60%, or between 35%, and 55%, or between 40% and 50%.

[0005] In various embodiments an acid converted starch is derived from a base starch selected from dent corn starch, sago starch, or tapioca starch.

[0006] In various embodiments an acid converted starch is converted with a strong acid for example hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or a mineral acid.

[0007] In various embodiments the base starch comprises significant amylose. In some embodiments the total starch content comprises a starch having an amylose ratio of 5% to 40%, more typically between 15% and 30%, or between about 18% and about 25%. [0008] In an embodiment of the invention a method of producing a food product comprises admixing a starch component with one or more additional ingredients to form a batter or dough having a total starch content; and baking the batter or dough wherein the food product has a slowly digestible starch content of at least 15%.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0009] Total available starch comprises slowly digestible starch (SDS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS). The difference between the total available starch and total starch (TS) is that total available starch does not comprise resistant starch (RS), which cannot be digested or is digested at such a slow rate that it escapes the small intestine before it can be digested to any appreciable degree. SDS, RDS RS, and TS as used herein, are defined and measured according to the Englyst method ("Classification and Measurement of Nutritionally Important Starch Reactions", Englyst et al. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 1992 (46 Suppl. 2:S:33-50)), or a modified Englyst method as described in this specification.

[0010] In some embodiments the food product has a slowly digestible starch over total starch ("SDS/TS") content of at least 15%, such as at least 16%, at least 17%, at least 18%, at least 19, or at least 20%. In some embodiments the food product has a SDS/TS content of about 15%, or about 16%, about 17%, about 18%, about 19%, or about 20%. In some embodiments the food product has a SDS/TS content of 10% to 20%, 12% to 18%, 14% to 16%, 15% to 25%, 16% to 24%, 17% to 23%, or 18% to 22%.

[0011] STARCH

[0012] Chemically, starch comprises amylose and amylopectin. Within this specification starch refers to the milled components of plant material, for example corn kernels, tapioca root, or sago palm. Milling yields a granular composition comprising amylose and amylopectin. To be called a starch (for purposes of food labeling) the milled composition is purified so that it consists essentially of starch. The methods for modifying starch disclosed in this specification alter at least some amount of the starch (amylose and/or amylopectin) within the granular composition such that the starch is slowly digestible. The amount of slowly digestible starch can be represented as a weight percentage of the starch as a whole - e.g. a starch having a slowly digestible starch content of between 20% and 40% (w/w). [0013] This specification discloses acid converted starch having high slowly digestible starch content and useful for providing high slowly digestible starch content to soft-baked bakery products. In some embodiments the acid may be a strong acid, and/or the acid may be a mineral acid. For example, the acid may be hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments the acid-converted starch is an acid converted maize starch, or an acid converted sago starch, or an acid converted tapioca starch. In various embodiments a starch is acid-converted to have a high slowly digestible starch by a method comprising obtaining a starch slurry having solids content of less than 45%; adding sufficient acid to adjust the slurry to a pH less than 4 or less than 1, neutralizing the solution by adding a sufficient amount of a basic solution, for example using between 1% and 10% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, recovering starch from slurry by filtration and washing the recovered starch with distilled water.

[0014] The level of acid conversion can be characterized by a method well established in the industry, e.g., Rapid Visco Analyzer ("RVA"). A typical starch analysis protocol is as follows: a starch suspension may be created by dispersing 8% starch solids (corrected for moisture) in deionized water to a total of 50g sample. The starch suspension in water may be prepared in a standard aluminum RVA canister equipped with a plastic stirring paddle, and may then be heated to 50° C while stirring at 960 rpm in the first 10 minutes of the test. Then the stirring rate may be reduced to 160 rpm and temperature may be raised to 98° C over 4 min. The starch may be held at 98° C for 10 min and then cooled to 65° C within 5 min which may mark the end of the test (final viscosity). As highly acid converted starches have much lower viscosity, to increase the sensitivity of the measurement the solid content of the test can be increased up to 14%.

[0015] The level of conversion can also be characterized by the water fluidity of the starch. Water fluidity is a unitless scale running between 0 ( high viscosity) and 90 ( low viscosity). Water fluidity can be measured using a Bohlin Visco 88 Rotational Viscometer with water jacket (commercially available for example from Malvern Instruments, Inc., Southborough, Mass.), standardized at 30° C with a standard oil having a viscosity of 100.0 cP. For various embodiments, water fluidity is obtained by determining the viscosity (in mPa*s) of solution having 8.06% solids content and converting that viscosity to a water fluidity value using the equation: WF=116.0-[18.746xLn(viscosity)]), wherein Ln is the natural logarithm. In at least some embodiments, the viscosity used to obtain a water fluidity measurement is made as follows: mix starch slurry with 100.00 grams of a 20% CaCl 2 solution to obtain 8.06 solids level; heat the slurry in a 100° C water bath until the slurry reaches at least with 90° C; transfer heated solution to the viscometer to measure viscosity; and convert the viscosity to water fluidity.

[0016] In some embodiments acid converted starch having high slowly digestible starch content and useful for providing high slowly digestible starch content to a food product. In some embodiments an acid converted starch has a final viscosity after acid treatment of less than 100 cP, less than 90 cP, less than 80 cP, less than 70 cP, less than 60 cP, less than 50 cP, less than 40 cP, about 40 cP, about 45 cP, about 50 cP about 55 cP, about 60 cP, about 65 cP, about 70 cP, about 80 cP about 85 cP, about 90 cP, about 100 cP, 30 cP to 100 cP, 40 cP to 90 cP, or 50 cP, to 70 cP when measured by RVA at 14% solids.

[0017] In various embodiments a starch is modified with acid to have a water fluidity of less than 60, or less than 50, or less than 40, or less than 30, or less than 20, or about 20 or about 20 or about 40, or about 50 or about 60 or between 10 and 60, or 15 and 40, or between 15 and 25 or between 15 and 20.

[0018] In another aspect of the invention a starch is modified to have a slowly digestible starch content of between 20% and 70% (by weight of the starch), depending on the starch base. In some embodiments a starch is an acid converted corn starch having a slowly digestible starch digestible starch content of greater than about 58% or between 58% and 70% or between 58% and 66% or between 59% and 63% (by weight of the starch). In some embodiments a starch is an acid converted sago having a slowly digestible starch content of between 20% and 40% (by weight of the starch) or between 20% and 30% or between 20% and 25%. In some embodiments a starch is an acid converted tapioca starch having a slowly digestible starch content of between 40% and 55% by weight of the starch, or between 45% and 55% or between 50% and 55%.

[0019] In various embodiments this specification discloses a starch composition comprising one or more of an acid converted corn starch, acid converted sago starch, or acid converted tapioca starch. In various embodiments more than one of the starches are mixed to provide a slowly digestible starch content of greater than 20%, or greater than 30%, or greater than 40% or greater than 50% or greater than 60% or up to about 70%, or between 20% and 70%, or between 25% and 65%, or between 30%, and 60%, or between 35%, and 55%, or between 40% and 50%.

[0020] In various embodiments slowly digestible starch content is determined using an Englyst or modified Englyst assay. (See e.g. Englyst, H.N., et al., "Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions" 46 (Oct.) Eur J Clin Nutr. Suppl. 2: S33-50 (1992)). In general the assay digests starch in vitro under conditions comparable to those in the stomach and uses calorimetry to measure the release of glucose over time. In various embodiments disclosed in this specification a percentage of glucose released from starch in 20 minutes is referred to as rapidly digestible starch (RDS). In various embodiments a percentage of glucose released from starch after between 20 and 120 minutes digestion is referred to as slowly digestible starch (SDS). In various embodiments a percentage of starch that remains undigested after 120 minutes (unreleased glucose) is referred to as resistant starch (RS). In various embodiments a total starch (TS) content in a measured sample is equal to the sum of the rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch (TS = RDS + SDS + RS). In some embodiments a percentage of glucose released from starch after between 120 and 240 digestion is called available starch (AS), and any starch not digested after 240 minutes is referred to as an unavailable starch (UAS). In various embodiments a total starch is equal to the sum of the rapidly digestible starch, the slowly digestible starch, the available starch, and the unavailable starch (TS = RDS + SDS+ AS + UAS).

[0021] In another aspect of the invention a modified starch provides (or is capable of providing) a high slowly digestible starch content to a food composition and food compositions comprising high slowly digestible starch content. In various embodiments slowly digestible starch content in a food composition is measured using an Englyst assay or modified Englyst assay. In some embodiments a starch modified to have high slowly digestible starch content is added in any amount typical for such food composition for example in an amount between 1% and 99% by weight of the composition. In various embodiments the starch modified to have high slowly digestible starch content is the sole starch component in a food composition, or, in other embodiments, a food composition may comprise said modified starch as well as other starches or flours (modified or unmodified). In various embodiments a food composition is formulated to provide a slowly digestible starch content above 9 grams slowly digestible starch per 100 grams of starch (g/lOOg), or between 9 and 18 (g/lOOg), or between 9 and 12 (g/lOOg), or about 15 and 18 (g/lOOg) or up to about 20 (g/lOOg).

[0022] OTHER INGREDIENTS [0023] In various embodiments, the modified starches described in this specification are useful for providing high slowly digestible starch content to a food composition including food products such as soft baked goods like cakes, cookies, breads and other similar food products. In such embodiments the acid converted starch may be the sole starch in a food composition, or a food composition may comprise one or more other starches. Said food composition may further comprise ingredients conventional to such food composition (for example, but not limited to sucrose, oil, salt, leavening agents, solid or liquid dairy ingredients, gelatin, gums, proteins isolates and protein concentrates, fibers, fruit concentrates or purees, emulsifiers, and water). Various embodiments of food products comprise an acid converted starch having 20%, or greater than 30%, or greater than 40% or greater than 50% or greater than 60% or up to about 70%, or between 20% and 70%, or between 25% and 65%, or between 30%, and 60%, or between 35%, and 55%, or between 40% and 50% slowly digestible starch content. In various embodiments a food product comprises between 1 and 99% acid converted starch by weight. In various embodiments a food product is formulated contain after baking more than 9 grams slowly digestible starch per 100 grams of starch (g/lOOg), or between 9 and 18, or between 9 and 12 (g/lOOg), or about 15 and 18 (g/lOOg). In various embodiments an acid converted starch is useful to provide between

[0024] METHOD

[0025] In some embodiments this specification describes use of an acid converted corn starch, or acid converted tapioca starch, or acid converted sago starch to increase the slowly digestible starch content of (or a method for increasing the slowly digestible starch content) of a food product , for example a soft baked good. In embodiments a method comprises providing one or more of an acid converted corn starch, acid converted tapioca starch, or acid converted sago starch with a second edible ingredient to form a dough or a batter and baking the dough or batter to reach an internal temperature of at least 95° C, or 100° C, or 105° C, at least 115° C, at least 120° C, at least 125° C, at least 130° C, at least 135° C, at least 140° C, at least 145° C, at least 150° C, a least 155° C, at least 160° C, at least 170° C, at least 180° C, at least 190° C, about 100° C, about 110° C, about 115° C, about 120° C, about 125° C, about 135° C, about 140° C, about 145° C, about 150° C, about 155° C, about 160° C, about 165° C, about 170° C, about 175° C, about 180° C, between 100° C and 180° C, between 110° C and 180° C, between 120° C and 180° C, between 130° C and 180° C, between 140° C and 180° C, or between 150° C and 170° C. [0026] PROCEDURAL

[0027] Applicants evaluated slowly digestible starch content of acid modified, physically modified, and physically modified and acid modified corn starch, tapioca starch, and sago starch. Applicants also evaluate the slowly digestible starch content of cakes made using one of acid converted, physically modified, or physically modified and acid modified corn starch, tapioca starch, or sago starch.

[0028] Native and modified starches were screened for their in vitro digestibility profile using a modified version of the Englyst method to determine their RDS, SDS, and RS contents. To take the measurements, the Englyst assay was modified as follows: Commercial source of amylglucosidase was used to replace the original AMG 400; 1 mL AMG enzyme (Sigma A7096 from Apergillus niger > 260 U/ml) was added to centrifuged 12 g pancreatin solution; invertase (40 mg) (Sigma 14505, Grade VII from baker's yeast > 300 U/mg) was added, replacing 4 mL of the original liquid enzyme; and guar gum was prehydrated in 0.05 M HC1 solution (0.5 w/v) with 0.5% pepsin before being added to the digestion tubes.

[0029] Starches were acid converted or were acid converted after physical modification using known methods to obtain starch having the desired water fluidity (WF). Water fluidity was measured using a Bohlin Visco 88 Rotational Viscometer with water jacket (commercially available for example from from Malvern Instruments, Inc., Southborough, Mass.), standardized at 30° C with a standard oil having a viscosity of 100.0 cP. Water fluidity was determined by converting the viscosity at a 8.06% solids level using the equation: WF=116.0- [18.746xLn(viscosity)]). The viscosity was measured by mixing starch slurry with 100.00 grams of a 20% CaCl 2 solution to obtain 8.06 solids level; heating the slurry in a 100° C water bath for 30 minutes to disperse the starch at a temperature of at least 90° C. Starch was then transferred to a viscometer cup, and analyzed.

[0030] All cakes were made using the following recipe:

Table 1

Sucrose 19.50

SAPP 0.31

Sodium Bicarbonate 0.22

Salt 0.17

Water 9.63

Whole eggs 12.16

Glycerin 5.60

Canola Oil 8.90

Lecithin 0.78

Total 100%

[0031] Selected starches were formulated into the model system of Table 1 above to replace 100% of the wheat starch. Once prepared the batter was dispensed per cup into a 6 cup muffin baking ray greased with a non-stick pan spray. The tray was placed in a conventional oven baked at 375° F for about 18 minutes. The tray was removed and placed on a wire rack to cool. The baked cakes were stored in metallized bags until analyzed by the modified Englyst method.

Example 1 - Corn starch

[0032] Table 2 presents results from modified Englyst assays of unmodified dent corn starch and acid converted dent corn starch processed as described. Table 2 also reports the amount of glucose released after 120 minutes. The percentage of slowly digestible starch (%SDS) is the difference between the percent of glucose released at 120 minutes and the percent of glucose released at 20 minutes. Percentage of resistant starch (%RS) is the amount of starch not digested (unreleased glucose) after 120 minutes.

Table 2

Corn Starch Released at mins

20 120

Dent Corn - unmodified 24.0 86.0 24.0 62.0 14.0

AC Dent - 20WF 21.8 84.1 21.8 62.3 15.9

[0033] Additional testing comparing how varying amounts of acid conversion effect slowly digestible starch of a starch sample.

[0034] The corn starches of Table 2 were used in cake models. Results of the modified Englyst assay for model cake systems are listed in Table 3. The table reports the ratio of starch - rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch content - within a lOOg sample. Table 3 also provides the total starch (TS) within a lOOg cake sample, and the ratio of slowly digestible starch to total starch within that sample (SDS/TS) represented as a percentage.

Table 3

Acid Converted Corn Starch in Cakes

Example 2 - Sago Starch

[0035] Table 4 presents results from modified Englyst assays of unmodified sago starch, and acid converted sago starch processed according to the reported conditions. Table 4 reports the percent glucose released after 20 minutes, which is the percent of rapidly digestible starch (RDS%). Table 4 also reports the amount of glucose released after 120 minutes. The percentage of slowly digestible starch (%SDS) is the difference between the percent glucose released at 120 minutes and the percent glucose released at 20 minutes. Percentage of resistant starch (%RS) is the amount of starch not digested (unreleased glucose) after 120 minutes.

Table 4

Acid Converted Sago Starch INGREDIENT DATA (%)

% Gh jcose

%RDS %SDS % RS

Sample Description Releasee at mins

20 120

Sago (unmodified) 2.0 13.0 2.0 11.0 87.0

AC Sago - 20WF 7.3 34.9 7.3 27.6 65.1

AC Sago - 40WF 6.9 32.1 6.9 25.2 67.9

AC Sago - 60WF 16.6 27.3 16.6 10.7 72.7

[0036] Table 5 reports the ratio of starch - rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch content- within a lOOg sample. Table 5 also provides the total starch (TS) within a lOOg cake sample, and the ratio of slowly digestible starch to total starch within that sample (SDS/TS) represented as a percentage.

Table 5

Acid Converted Sago Starch in Cakes

Example 3 - Tapioca Starch

[0037] Table 6 presents results from modified Englyst assays of unmodified tapioca starch and acid converted tapioca starch processed according to the reported conditions. Table 6 reports the percent glucose released after 20 minutes, which is the percent of rapidly digestible starch (RDS%). Table 6 also reports the amount of glucose released after 120 minutes. The percentage of slowly digestible starch (%SDS) is the difference between the percent glucose released at 120 minutes and the percent glucose released at 20 minutes. Percentage of resistant starch (%RS) is the amount of starch not digested (unreleased glucose) after 120 minutes.

Table 6

Acid Converted Tapioca Starch Released at mins

20 120

Tapioca (unmodified) 13.0 46.0 13.0 33.0 54.0

AC Tapioca - 20WF 15.1 62.0 15.1 46.9 38.0

AC Tapioca - 40WF 14.9 60.9 14.9 46.0 39.1

AC Tapioca - 60WF 12.8 54.1 12.8 41.3 45.9

[0038] Results of the modified Englyst assay for model cake systems are listed in Table 7. The table reports the ratio of starch - rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch content- within a lOOg sample. Table 6 also provides the total starch (TS) within a lOOg cake sample, and the ratio of slowly digestible starch to total starch within that sample (SDS/TS) represented as a percentage.

Table 7

Acid Converted Tapioca Starch in Cakes