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Title:
STRUCTURALLY INTEGRATED AND PASSIVELY COOLED LIGHT SYSTEMS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/205636
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Provided herein are systems and methods of providing structural support to a surface, for example a ceiling, with integrated light emitting diode (LED) devices. The structural support further acts as a heat sink, removing heat generated by the LEDs and directing heat in a different direction than the light produced. Advantageously, the structural system and methods contained herein are capable of generating light on one side of a surface, such as a ceiling, while directing heat to the other side, providing the room below the ceiling with high intensity LED light while minimizing the heat introduced into the lighted room by removing the heat upwards and away from the lighted room.

Inventors:
KEEN STEPHEN (US)
SHARPE MATTHEW (US)
SCHULTZ BRADY (US)
JOHNSON JORDAN (US)
BUGLER MALCOLM (US)
Application Number:
US2016/038061
Publication Date:
December 22, 2016
Filing Date:
June 17, 2016
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SURNA INC (US)
International Classes:
F21S8/02; F21S8/04; F21V29/50
Foreign References:
US20050201098A12005-09-15
US8459824B12013-06-11
US20100328945A12010-12-30
CN103968352A2014-08-06
US7934851B12011-05-03
US20080273331A12008-11-06
US20080278954A12008-11-13
US20140307450A12014-10-16
US3096033A1963-07-02
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHAPMAN, Gary B. et al. (4845 Pearl East Circle Suite 20, Boulder Colorado, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1 . A structurally integrateable lighting system comprising:

a structural member having a top surface, a bottom surface and a longitudinal axis, said bottom surface configured to receive at least one optical light source; a heat sink connected to said structural member top surface and thermally connected to said structural member bottom surface, wherein said heat sink comprises a plurality of heat dissipating elements with a heat dissipating element longitudinal axis substantially aligned with said structural member longitudinal axis; and

a surface support formed from a portion of said structural member top surface configured to support a ceiling panel; or a ceiling panel receiving slot operably connected to the structural member and configured to receive a ceiling panel.

2. The system of claim 1 , further comprising:

an optical light module comprising said at least one optical light source connected to said structural member bottom surface and in thermal contact with said heat sink;

wherein said optical light source comprises one or more light emitting diodes (LED).

3. The system of claim 1 , wherein the ceiling panel comprises a first panel and a second panel, wherein:

said surface support has a first support portion configured to receive said first panel and a second support portion configured to receive said second panel; said first support portion is positioned along a first outer longitudinal edge of said structural member; and

said second support portion is positioned along a second outer longitudinal edge of said structural member so that said structural member is configured to extend between and support said first panel and said second panel, wherein each support portion has a surface area in contact with a ceiling panel that is between 1 cm2 and 50 cm2.

4. The system of claim 3, wherein at least a portion of the ceiling panel is optically transparent, at least a portion of the structural member is optically transparent, or both at least a portion of the structural member and the ceiling panel are optically transparent.

5. The system of claim 1 , wherein said ceiling panel is optically opaque.

6. The system of claim 1 , wherein said structural member has a width that is greater than or equal to 1 cm and less than or equal to 20 cm.

7. The system of claim 1 , wherein said structural member comprises a thermally conductive material comprising aluminum, iron, steel, copper, carbon fiber, or a combination thereof.

8. The system of claim 1 wherein the structural member further comprises a cover fastener connected to said bottom surface configured to fasten a cover to said structural member.

9. The system of claim 8, wherein said cover fastener comprises:

a first clasp extending from said bottom surface;

a second clasp extending from said bottom surface, wherein said first and second clasps are separated from each other by a cover separation distance sufficient to receive one or more optical light sources.

10. The system of claim 9, wherein said first clasp and said second clasp extend an entire length of said structural member, or comprise a plurality of paired clasps, with adjacent pairs of clasps separated from each other by a cover longitudinal distance.

1 1 . The system of claim 8 further comprising a cover connected to said cover

fastener, said cover configured to surround a plurality of optical light sources of said optical light module and to disperse light emitted from said plurality of optical light sources in a direction away from said structural member.

12. The system of claim 1 1 , wherein said cover is a lens or a diffuser.

13. The system of claim 1 wherein said structural member further comprises a cable conduit formed from said structural member top surface, said cable conduit having a conduit longitudinal axis.

14. The system of claim 13, wherein said conduit longitudinal axis is substantially aligned with said structural member longitudinal axis.

15. The system of claim 13, wherein said cable conduit further comprises:

an outer cable conduit member extending from said structural member top surface; and

an inner cable conduit member extending from said structural member top surface and separated from said outer cable conduit member by a cable conduit width to form said cable conduit from an inner surface of said outer cable conduit member, said structural member top surface, and an outer surface of said inner cable conduit member, wherein said cable conduit is positioned on an outer portion of said structural member top surface.

16. The system of claim 15, further comprising a second cable conduit positioned on a second outer portion that is opposibly positioned to said outer portion, wherein said heat sink is positioned in an inner region of said structural member top surface formed between an inner surface of said inner cable conduit member and an inner surface of said second inner cable conduit member.

17. The system of claim 16, wherein said inner cable conduit members have a distal end further comprising a mounting slot configured to receive a fastener.

18. The system of claim 17, wherein said mounting slot is a threaded opening for receiving a screw for reliably positioning one or more of: a driver, a ballast, an adapter, a fan, or a power supply.

19. The system of claim 1 further comprising a pair of outer cable conduit members each having a support bracket, wherein said support bracket is connected to said outer cable conduit member.

20. The system of claim 19, wherein said support bracket comprises:

a pair of fastener arms each having a distal end terminating in a female clasp fastener; and

a male clasp fastener connected to the outer cable conduit member; and wherein said pair of fastener arms are opposibly configured to each other to connect and reliably engage a corresponding pair of the male clasp fasteners, thereby fastening said support bracket to said outer cable conduit member of said structural member

21 . The system of claim 20, further comprising a proximate longitudinally extending member connected to said pair of fastener arms for connecting said support bracket to a building ceiling or to a connector therebetween, such as a wire.

22. The system of claim 21 , wherein a plurality of said structural support brackets are spaced intermittently along said longitudinal axis with a linear density

corresponding to a structural grid of a standard drop ceiling.

23. The system of claim 22, wherein said structural support brackets are spaced intermittently along said longitudinal axis with a linear density range of one support bracket per 0.5 m to 2 m.

24. The system of claim 23, wherein a plurality of power supplies are mounted to said mounting slot, wherein each power supply is positioned adjacent to one of the structural support brackets.

25. The system of claim 1 wherein said heat sink has a heat sink surface area, wherein said heat sink surface area per unit length of said structural member is greater than or equal to 10 cm2/linear cm.

26. The system of claim 1 wherein said plurality of heat dissipating elements have a height, a bottom width, a top width.

27. The system of claim 26 wherein said plurality of heat dissipating elements have a ratio of height to an average width that is greater than or equal to 5:1 .

28. The system of claim 26 wherein said bottom width is greater than or equal to said top width.

29. The system of claim 1 , wherein said plurality of heat dissipating elements form a plurality of thermal passages having an average passage width that is greater than or equal to 1 mm and less than or equal to 1 cm.

30. The system of claim 1 , wherein said plurality of heat dissipating elements is

greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 20.

31 . The system of claim 26, wherein said plurality of heat dissipating elements

comprise a pair of outer heat dissipating elements and a central plurality of heat dissipating elements positioned between said pair of outer heat dissipating elements, wherein said height of said central plurality of heat dissipating elements is greater than said height of said outer heat dissipating elements.

32. The system of claim 31 , further comprising an inner cable conduit member

extending from said structural member top surface, said inner cable conduit member having a distal end with a mounting slot that extends into a region that is above at least a portion of said heat dissipating elements in said outer portion.

33. The system of claim 1 that is modular and configured to connect with additional systems to provide an extended length with continuous lighting over said extended length.

34. The system of claim 1 , wherein each system has a longitudinal length that is between about 0.5 m and 4 m.

35. The system of claim 2, wherein said optical light source comprises a light emitting diode (LED) module.

36. The system of claim 35, wherein said LED module comprises:

a driver;

an optical sensor; and

a controller, wherein said driver, optical sensor and controller are electrically connected to provide a user-controlled illumination output.

37. The system of claim 36, further comprising an electrical wire positioned in a cable conduit for providing power to said LED module and any additional systems in modular connection with said system.

38. The system of claim 2 wherein said optical light sources have a linear density per unit of length of structural member of greater than or equal to 1 per cm.

39. The system of claim 38 wherein each optical light module comprises one or more LEDs, the optical light module providing radiant energy greater than or equal to 0.1 W.

40. The system of claim 1 further comprising a ceiling panel supported by surface support.

41 . The system of claim 40, wherein said ceiling panel is part of a drop ceiling.

42. The system of claim 41 , wherein said ceiling panel separates a first volume and a second volume, wherein said optical light source is positioned to illuminate said first volume and said heat sink is positioned in said second volume.

43. The system of claim 42 wherein said second volume corresponds to a ceiling volume defined between said ceiling panel and a ceiling that separates said second volume from an outer environment.

44. The system of claim 1 wherein said ceiling panel comprises an optically

transparent material and is part of a greenhouse ceiling.

45. The system of claim 1 , wherein said surface support further comprises a clamp, a shelf, a joist, a bracket, a screw, a rivet, an adhesive, or a combination of these to connect a ceiling panel to said structural member.

46. The system of claim 1 , wherein the ceiling receiving panel slot extends from the structural member at an angle, configured to receive a correspondingly angled ceiling panel relative to the structural member.

47. The system of claim 46, further comprising a ceiling panel having a corrugated cross-sectional shape, with an angled outer portion postioned in the ceiling panel receiving slot.

48. The system of claim 46, wherein said ceiling panel comprises translucent or transparent polycarbonate.

49. A method of making a structurally integrateable lighting system said method

comprising:

providing a structural member comprising:

a top surface , a bottom surface and a longitudinal axis, wherein the top surface is opposibly positioned relative to the bottom surface; a heat sink comprising at least one heat dissipating element

thermally connected to an inner portion of said structural member top surface and having a heat dissipating longitudinal axis;

a support surface extending along an outer edge of said top surface wherein said heat dissipating longitudinal axis is substantially aligned with said structural member longitudinal axis; and attaching an optical light module having at least one optical light source to the bottom surface of the structural member.

50. The method of claim 49, further comprising a step of supporting a ceiling panel to the support surface or positioning an outer edge of a ceiling panel in a receiving slot of the structural member.

51 . The method of claim 50, further comprising a step of fastening the ceiling panel to the support surface.

52. The method of claim 50, wherein the support surface comprises a first support surface on a first outer edge of the top surface and a second support surface on a second outer edge, further comprising the steps of:

supporting a first ceiling panel on the first support surface; and supporting a second ceiling panel on the second support surface.

53. The method of claim 52, comprising an array of aligned structurally integrateable lighting systems to support a drop ceiling.

54. The method of claim 52, comprising an array of aligned structurally integrateable lighting systems to support a greenhouse ceiling.

55. A method of illuminating a grow room by incorporating the structurally

integrateable lighting system of any of claims 1 -48 into a grow room ceiling and powering the at least one optical light source.

56. A method of making a grow room by incorporating any of the structurally

integrateable lighting systems of claims 1 -48 as structural elements to connect adjacent ceiling panels, wherein the ceiling panels comprise:

optically transparent ceiling panels as part of a greenhouse; or optically opaque ceiling panels as part of a drop ceiling.

Description:
STRUCTURALLY INTEGRATED AND PASSIVELY COOLED LIGHT SYSTEMS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Pat. App. No.

62/182,158 filed June 19, 2015, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety to the extent not inconsistent herewith.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[0002] The invention is generally in the field of optical light sources configured for integration with a surface, thereby improve lighting characteristics, including increased illumination in an energy efficient and low intrusive manner. In this manner, substantial cost savings are realized without a sacrifice in desired light characteristics or building design.

[0003] The reduction of energy consumption is an increasing focus for many businesses throughout the United States, for both economic and environmental reasons. The US Department of Energy estimates that for a typical commercial building, cooling represents 28% and lighting represents 22% of total energy usage. For agricultural building, such as greenhouses, these percentages can be substantially higher.

[0004] Traditional office spaces typically use fluorescent tubes as a lighting source and central air as a cooling source. Fluorescent tubes, while more efficient than incandescent bulbs, are inferior to emerging light emitting diode (LED) technology.

Fluorescent tubes generally provide approximately 60 lumens per watt of energy supplied compared with LEDs which have been shown to provide in excess of 300 lumens per watt. Further, fluorescent tubes emit light in all directions due to their cylindrical shape, further reducing the amount of light that reaches the desired area, even with reflectors installed above the tube. The cylindrical shape has a secondary effect in that heat generated by the tube inherently is distributed within the room because the light must be suspended wholly within the room itself. Thus, heat generated by fluorescent tubes must be removed to avoid undesirable heat build-up, including during hot periods where active cooling may be ongoing to maintain a desired room temperature in view of the high outdoor temperature. Air conditioning requires large amounts of energy and is utilized at times when energy costs are at their highest. Heat associated with light generation can further exacerbate the cooling load. [0005] Greenhouses generally use high pressure sodium lamps which generate approximately 90-125 lumens per watt making them more efficient than fluorescent tubes, but less efficient than LEDs. LEDs, however, are not generally used in greenhouses because of the higher light demands and requirements for maximum plant growth. The light requirements of greenhouses are much higher than those of an office space. Therefore, even though the high pressure sodium lamps are more efficient, they also generate more heat. This further compounds a heating problem because inherently greenhouses are hot, with a typical greenhouse tending to be 10-25 Q C warmer than outside temperature even without running of supplemental lighting.

Greenhouses, therefore, tend to require cooling, such as evaporative cooling, to maintain temperatures conducive for plant growth. Additionally, the introduction of hanging high pressure sodium lamps create shade during periods of natural light, and reduce the efficiency of the greenhouse during that time. The net effect is that greenhouses require a great deal of energy to operate, especially if they seek the benefit of added artificial light, and that added artificial light can create adverse growth challenges related to unwanted shading.

[0006] Greenhouses are cost prohibitive for plants which grow in dryer climates. One side effect of the evaporative cooling used in most greenhouses is that relative humidity typically increases to greater than 90%. This can present challenges for plant growth, particularly for plants that grow better in a dry environment, such as about 40-60% humidity range. Thus, a greenhouse for plant growth having a suitable 40-60% relative humidity range, requires a large cooling system to maintain desired humidity and temperature levels. Large cooling systems of this magnitude are typically cost prohibitive. Instead, growers that grow plants in dryer climates tend to use indoor warehouses or growhouses, which rely exclusively on artificial lighting without natural light. Such growhouses, therefore, have tremendous energy consumption to power the artificial lights, and still require substantial cooling to dissipate heat generated by the artificial light sources.

[0007] Furthermore, current state of the art fixtures for supplemental lighting are almost exclusively High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps that must be installed and mounted within the greenhouse space. An acceptable location must be selected for the ballast, lamp, and/or reflector in accordance with safety regulations. Conventional HPS lighting illuminates the cultivation space, and dissipation of additional heat from that lamp and ballast must be addressed, with corresponding adverse environmental impacts. HPS lights also require a "startup" period before typical spectral output is achieved.

[0008] It will be appreciated from the foregoing that there is a need in the art for high efficiency lighting systems which reduce overall lighting and cooling costs. In particular, lighting systems which minimize shading in greenhouse areas and reduce the amount of heat generated within climate controlled areas.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The systems and methods described herein relate to a structurally integrated and minimally invasive solid state supplemental lighting system for agricultural buildings. Less than desirable weather conditions in greenhouses and hybrid agricultural buildings result in lower production, necessitating supplemental light and power usage at the cost of added heat and less usable agricultural space. Those problems are addressed herein by embedding a more efficient supplemental lighting solution in a minimally invasive manner from both an environmental and installation standpoint. [0010] In an aspect, the optical light source corresponds to an LED module that is incorporated into a structural member in such a way that heat generated by the chip is convectively or actively cooled to a space separate from the cultivation room. The placement of this supplemental light within the support structure ensures minimal shadow footprint generation and incorporates a novel technique of supplemental light delivery within the cultivation space while shunting heat generated away from the controlled greenhouse cultivation space. Intelligent light sensors allow for dimming of the LED source to a predefined or user-set level. In addition, the startup period for HPS lamps is virtually eliminated with the solid state lighting incorporated into the systems provided herein. [0011] Relevant components of the systems provided herein include an LED chip, LED driver, light sensor, printed circuit board, lens and heat sink assembly incorporated into a support strut for a transparent or opaque agricultural ceiling. The systems are configured to be modular and can be extended to any length with additional sections as needed. [0012] Main aspects of the systems provided herein include: full-spectrum LED chip, LED driver, light sensor, lens or protective cover, heat exchanger, and cable routing conduit. Furthermore, high power LEDs offer greater control and have longer lifespan than remote ballasted HPS lights that are conventionally used in this type of application. The systems provided herein facilitate modular replacement of the light emitting portion of the assembly without adversely disturbing the ceiling or other portions of the structure, enabling upgrades to the system as LED technology advances. Accordingly, any of the systems provided herein relate to LEDs, including LED modules that are reversibly connected to the structural member bottom surface.

[0013] Specific advantages of the instant systems and methods include: Lower operating temperature; Greater control of supplemental light; Potential for new

supplemental light applications; Decreased risk of harm to personnel; Reduced lighting footprint/less shading; Increased power density and control over lighting scheme;

Reduced unnecessary heat gain to cultivation space; Reduced installation time and maintenance; better use of solid state technology, including optical technology.

[0014] Provided herein are systems and methods of providing structural support to a surface, for example a ceiling, with integrated light emitting devices, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs). The structural support further acts as a heat sink, removing heat generated by the light source and directing heat in a different direction than the light produced. Advantageously, the structural system and methods contained herein are capable of generating light on one side of a surface, such as a ceiling, while directing heat to the other side, providing the room below the ceiling with light while minimizing the heat introduced into the lighted room by removing heat upwards and away from the lighted room. Thus, the system and methods provided herein can reduce the energy required for climate control in a lighted area. Further, convective cooling may be introduced to efficiently remove heat as it is generated above the structural system, either by adding fans directly to the top of the structural system or by providing an external means of convective cooling, such as bulk forced air movement by fans and/or blowers.

[0015] The systems and methods provided herein are versatile and may further be used to create a number of different high-efficiency surfaces such as for a ceiling, a wall, a roof or a floor. For example, the system may be used to create a traditional drop-type ceiling, removing the need for additional lighting fixtures such as fluorescent tubes and ballasts by incorporating lighting devices directly into the structure that supports the ceiling panels. In this manner, the systems can at least partially replace the conventional grid-work of typical metal channels having an upside-down T-shape that supports a drop ceiling, while providing desirable illumination characteristics. Similar to the conventional grid-work, as explained further below the instant systems can be suspended on wires from an overhead structure, with panels dropped in between the systems, resulting in a similar functional drop ceiling, but with optical light sources connected thereto.

[0016] Additionally, the systems and methods may be used in an indoor agricultural application, such as a greenhouse or a growhouse, to provide a number of significant advantages. First, the incorporation of a light emitting device in the structure removes the need to hang supplemental lighting structures within the greenhouse or growroom which, in addition to generating heat within the greenhouse growing area, adds some amount of shading and reduces the amount of light that can reach plants during natural light periods. By removing shading created by light and light fixture hanging,

greenhouses can more efficiently rely on natural light when artificial light is unnecessary. Additionally, for plants which grow in relatively dry environments, with relative humidities between 40-60%, greenhouses are economically infeasible. In such cases, growhouses or indoor warehouses are preferred which rely exclusively on artificial light. However, light generated by traditional means, including high powered LEDs, also generates significant heat within the growing area. By reducing the heat generation to an area outside of the growing area, growhouses may operate far more efficiently.

[0017] The structurally integrateable lighting system may comprise: a structural member having a top surface, a bottom surface and a longitudinal axis; a heat sink connected to the structural member top surface and thermally connected to the at least one optical light source, wherein the heat sink comprises a plurality of heat dissipating elements with a heat dissipating element longitudinal axis substantially aligned with the structural member longitudinal axis; and a surface support formed from a portion of the structural member top surface and configured to support a surface by the structural member, including a surface that is a ceiling panel. Alternatively, the surface support may correspond to a receiving slot sized and configured to receive an outer edge portion of a ceiling panel, including with corresponding receiving slots on either side of the heat sink for receiving two adjacent ceiling panels with the structural member disposed thereinbetween. That receiving slot may be flat or may be angled, such as to receive a correspondingly angled ceiling panel. In this manner, additional strength and support is provided to the ceiling panels, such as to support a person walking on the top surface of the ceiling panel without breaking, loosening or otherwise falling through the ceiling to the room underneath. Other connection mechanisms are compatible with the system, including snap-fit, fasteners, adhesives, screws, nails and the like. Optionally, an optical light module having at least one optical light source is connected to the structural member bottom surface. Any of the optical light modules may comprise an LED, including a plurality of LEDs within one module and/or a plurality of light modules connected to the structural member. [0018] The systems and methods provided herein are versatile and are compatible with a wide variety of structural shapes and materials. The structural supports

themselves may be optimized to increase thermal conductivity, reduce shading, or increase structural strength, such as by forming a structural member from a material having good thermal conductivity, shaping the thickness of the structural member to be unobtrusive without sacrificing desired rigidity for holding ceiling panels without detectable sagging by the human eye. Furthermore, additional supports or connecters or general fastening means (e.g., adhesives, screws, fasteners) may be used to reliably connect the structural member to the surrounding building, such as an overhead structure including another ceiling. [0019] The system may further comprise a first ceiling panel and a second ceiling panel, wherein the surface support has a first support portion configured to receive the first ceiling panel and a second surface support portion configured to receive the second ceiling panel. The first support may be positioned along a first outer longitudinal edge of the structural member and the second support portion may be positioned along a second outer longitudinal edge of the structural member or, equivalently, with other means such as receiving slots, fasteners, snap-fits and the like. In this manner, the structural member is configured to extend between and support the first ceiling panel and the second ceiling panel.

[0020] In embodiments, at least a portion of the surface is optically transparent, at least a portion of the structural member is optically transparent, or both at least a portion of the structural member and the surface are optically transparent. In an embodiment, for example, the surface is optically opaque. In an embodiment, the structural member has a width that is greater than or equal to 1 cm and less than or equal to 20 cm, such as a width of about 1 10 mm. In embodiments, for example, the member comprises a thermal conductive material that is aluminum, iron, steel, copper, carbon fiber, or thermally conductive doped plastics, or a combination thereof.

[0021] In an embodiment, the structural member further comprises a cover fastener connected to the bottom surface configured to fasten a cover to the structural member, for example, a cover fastener comprising a first clasp extending from the bottom surface and a second clasp extending from the bottom surface, wherein the first and second clasps are separated from each other by a cover separation distance. In an embodiment, the clasps extend an entire length of the structural member, or comprise a plurality of paired clasps, with adjacent pairs of clasps separated from each other by a cover longitudinal distance. In an embodiment, the system further comprises a over connected to the cover fastener configured to surround a plurality of optical light sources of the optical light module and to disperse light emitted from the plurality of optical light sources. In an embodiment, for example, the cover is a lens or a diffuser.

[0022] In an embodiment, the structural member further comprises a cable conduit formed from the structural member top surface or element extending therefrom, the cable conduit having a conduit longitudinal axis. In an embodiment, for example, the conduit longitudinal axis is substantially aligned with the structural member longitudinal axis. In an embodiment, the cable conduit further comprises an outer cable conduit member extending from the structural member top surface and an inner cable conduit member extending from the structural member top surface and separated from the outer cable conduit member by a cable conduit width to form the cable conduit from an inner surface of the outer cable conduit member, the structural member top surface, and an outer surface of the inner cable conduit member, wherein cable conduit is positioned on an outer portion of the structural member top surface. In an embodiment, for example, the system further comprises a second cable conduit positioned on a second outer portion that is opposibly positioned to the outer portion, wherein the heat sink is positioned in an inner region of the structural member top surface formed between an inner surface of the inner cable conduit member and an inner surface of the second inner cable conduit member.

[0023] In certain embodiments, the inner cable conduit members have a distal end further comprising a mounting slot configured to receive a fastener, for example, a threaded opening for receiving a screw for reliably positioning one or more of a: a driver, a ballast, an adapter, a fan, or a power supply. In an embodiment, the system further comprises a support bracket connected to the structural member, such as a top surface or any structural members extending therefrom. In an embodiment the support bracket further comprises two female clasp fasteners at a distal end of fastener arms of the support bracket. The outer cable conduit member may further comprise a male clasp fastener thereby fastening the support bracket to the outer cable conduit member of the structural member. In an embodiment, for example, a proximate end of the support bracket is configured to attach to a wire thereby hanging the support bracket to a structural building component. In an embodiment, a plurality of structural support brackets are spaced intermittently along the longitudinal axis with a linear density similar to that of a standard drop ceiling, for example, with a linear density of one support bracket per 0.5 m to 2 m. In an embodiment, a plurality of power supplies are mounted onto the mounting slot at the same frequency and adjacent to the plurality of structural support brackets.

[0024] The systems and methods may be used with a range of geometries and configurations of heat dissipating devices on the top portion of the structural member.

[0025] In an embodiment, for example, the heat sink has a heat sink surface area, wherein the heat sink surface area per unit length of the structural member is greater than or equal to 10 cm 2 /linear cm. In an embodiment, the plurality of heat dissipating elements have a height, a bottom width, a top width. In an embodiment, for example, the plurality of heat dissipating elements have a ratio of height to an average width that is greater than or equal to 5:1 . In an embodiment, the bottom width of the heat dissipating elements is greater than or equal to the top width. In an embodiment, the plurality of heat dissipating elements form a plurality of thermal passages having an average passage width that is greater than or equal to 1 mm and less than or equal to 1 cm. In an embodiment, the plurality of heat dissipating elements is greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 20.

[0026] The plurality of heat dissipating elements may comprise a pair of outer portions and a central portion positioned between the outer portions, wherein the height of the heat dissipating elements in the central portion is greater than the height of the heat dissipating elements in the outer portion. In an embodiment, the system further comprises an inner cable conduit member extending from the structural member top surface, the inner cable conduit member having a distal end with a mounting slot that extends into a region that is above at least a portion of the heat dissipating elements in the outer portion. [0027] The system and methods presented herein may have a modular design and the structural supports may be configured into any pattern capable of supporting a surface. For example, the system may be modular and configured to connect with additional systems to provide an extended length with continuous lighting over the extended length. Systems may have a longitudinal length that is between about 0.5 m and 4 m, and may be selected depending on the application of interest and underlying growroom dimensions.

[0028] The system may be implemented with a wide range of light sources, including LED and high-intensity LEDs. For example, the optical light source comprises a light emitting diode (LED) module. In some embodiments, the LED module comprises components that are one or more of: a driver; an optical sensor; and a controller, wherein the components are electrically connected to provide a user-controlled illumination from the system. In an embodiment, the system further comprises an electrical wire positioned in a cable conduit for providing power to the LED module and any additional systems in modular connection with the system. In this manner, the light sensor may automatically ensure adequate light is received by a plant in the growroom.

[0029] In an embodiment, the optical light sources have a linear density per unit of length of structural member of greater than or equal to 1 per cm. In an embodiment, each optical light module comprises one or more LEDs, the optical light module providing radiant energy greater than or equal to 100 W. The number of point light sources and corresponding power per module can be tailored to the application of interest. For example, the module may be selected from a range of powers, such as between about 100 W up to about 1600 W.

[0030] The system and methods provided herein may be used to construct a wide variety of surfaces which may then be incorporated into a building. For example, in an embodiment, the system further comprises a surface connected to the structural element fastener, wherein the surface comprises a ceiling, a wall, a roof, or a floor. In embodiments, the surface is physically supported by the structural members. In an embodiment, the surface separates a first volume and a second volume, wherein the optical light source is positioned to illuminate the first volume and the heat sink is positioned in the second volume. In an embodiment, the second volume corresponds to an outside environment or a ceiling volume defined between the surface and a ceiling. In embodiments, for example, the fastener is a clamp, a shelf, a joist, a bracket, a screw, a rivet, or a combination of these positioned on an outer portion of the structural member. Any of the systems and methods provided herein may be used in a ceiling- related application, wherein the system provides illumination from a ceiling toward a floor surface and assists in supporting the ceiling, or at least minimally extends from the ceiling. In this manner, the sole source of lighting may be from the optical modules connected to the bottom surface of the structural member. The light systems may be connected or incorporated in a hybrid or green-building, including as described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/182,201 filed June 19, 2015 by Sharpe et al. and titled "Hybrid Building" (Atty Ref. 569200: 45-15P US), which is specifically incorporated by reference herein.

[0031] Provided herein are methods of making any of the structurally integrateable lighting systems. For example, the method may comprise providing a structural member comprising a top surface , a bottom surface and a longitudinal axis, with the surfaces opposibly configured relative to each other and separated from each other by a structural member thickness. A heat sink comprising at least one heat dissipating element having a heat dissipating longitudinal axis is thermally connected to an inner portion of the structural member and extends in a direction away from the top surface of the structural member. The heat dissipating longitudinal axis is substantially aligned with the structural member longitudinal axis. An optical light module having at least one optical light source is attached to the bottom surface of the structural member. In this manner, thermal conductivity is facilitated from the region in and around the optical light source to the heat sink.

[0032] In an embodiment, the method further comprises a step of supporting a surface with the structural member, such as by positioning a ceiling panel over a support surface or connected within a receiving slot of the structural member. Optionally, the ceiling panel may be fastened to the support surface, such as for a greenhouse ceiling panel fastened to the support surface by and adhesive or a fastener.

[0033] In an aspect, the method is for using any of the systems provided herein to illuminate a grow room or for plant growth. In an aspect, the method is more particularly using any of the structurally integrateable lighting systems provided herein to make a grow room, such as by connecting adjacent ceiling panels. Any of the ceiling panels may correspond to sections of a greenhouse ceiling, where the sections are at least partially optically transparent. Any of the ceiling panels herein may be optically opaque, such as corresponding to conventional drop ceiling panels. [0034] Without wishing to be bound by any particular theory, there may be discussion herein of beliefs or understandings of underlying principles relating to the devices and methods disclosed herein. It is recognized that regardless of the ultimate correctness of any mechanistic explanation or hypothesis, an embodiment of the invention can nonetheless be operative and useful.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0035] FIG. 1. Cross-sectional view of structural member along longitudinal axis. [0036] FIG. 2. Cross-sectional view of structural member with attached optional features.

[0037] FIG. 3. Three dimensional top view of structural member of FIG. 2.

[0038] FIG. 4. Support bracket and connection to structural member.

[0039] FIG. 5. Bottom view of two structural members and a surface panel. [0040] FIG. 6. Top close-up view of a light system, illustrating support bracket, fan, heat sink top end, and connection to a ceiling cross strut.

[0041] FIG. 7. Top view of the light system of FIG. 6 with a flat but corrugated celing panel and cross-strut supports connected thereto.

[0042] FIG. 8. Cross-section view of a strut holder fastened to the light system structural member, and a strut positioned therein.

[0043] FIG. 9. Perspective view of FIG. 8, illustrating the strut holder, cross-strut and top of the structural member, heat sink, and ceiling panel.

[0044] FIG. 10. Cross-section view of the light system, cross-strut, support bracket, and ceiling panel. The ceiling panel angled portion connects to a correspondingly angled portion of the light system ceiling paner receiving slot.

[0045] FIG. 11. Illustration of grow ceiling comprising ceiling panels formed of a translucent material, in this example polycarbonate panels. The inset illustrates connection of the ceiling panels to integrateable light systems.

[0046] FIG. 12. Illustration of integrateable light system end connections, as well as suspension from the outer ceiling.

[0047] FIG. 13. Support bracket for integrateable light system suspension from purlins and plate frame connections of an overhead ceiling. [0048] FIG. 14. Side view of light system, with the heat sink/thermal fins not shown, connected to a ceiling panel and cross-brace or strut. The ceiling panel may connect to the structural member via an angled receiving slot, as illustrated. The cross-brace may connect to a flat outer edge region of the light system structural member. A support bracket may mount as indicated to the structural member, for support from an outer ceiling.

[0049] FIG. 15. Cross-section view of an integrateable light system structural member for use with in any of the building, growrooms, or room portions thereof as described herein. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0050] In general, the terms and phrases used herein have their art-recognized meaning, which can be found by reference to standard texts, journal references and contexts known to those skilled in the art. The following definitions are provided to clarify their specific use in the context of the invention.

[0051] "Structural member" refers to a component of the system that is capable of providing some structural benefit. For example, in a ceiling application the structural member is configured to support a ceiling panel. In this manner, the system can be broadly characterized as providing functionality around illumination and structural support. IThe ceiling panel may be solely supported by the structural members provided herein, including individual ceiling panels that are supported by at least two distinct structural members of the present invention, such as two (corresponding to opposed ceiling panel edges) or four (corresponding to the entire outer perimeter of a four-edged ceiling panel). Similarly, "structurally integrateable" refers to the capability of the system to be conveniently, reliably, and cost-effectively integrated into a surface, such as a ceiling surface without adversely impacting ceiling performance. For example, the systems are configured to be low impact with a very small profile that extends out past a bottom surface of a ceiling. Similarly, the structural element is of relatively low-width so as to minimize any optical impact for transparent ceilings or visual detraction for opaque ceilings, while still achieving the desired structural support characteristics. [0052] "Optical light module" refers to a plurality of electrical components that in combination provide controllable light output. The module may include transformers, adaptors, controllers, optical detectors, optical sources, timers, clocks, integrated circuits, wireless transmitters/receivers, or any of a number of other components, depending on the desired end functionality. In an aspect, any of the modules herein may comprise one or more LEDs, including LEDs having light emission characteristics tailored for plant growth.

[0053] "Heat sink" refers to a component that is capable of storing and/or dissipating a relatively large amount of heat energy. Accordingly, it may provide thermal transfer to a second component that itself is relatively large, but positioned in a region that does not adversely impact a room that is desirably being cooled. Similarly, the heat sink may also refer to a heat exchanger that may be used to transfer thermal energy from the instant structural member to a surrounding environment, such as the outside or air flowing over the heat sink that may be vented or otherwise subsequently cooled. The present invention is compatible with a wide range of heat sinks and heat exchanger geometries, with corresponding air movers, so long as satisfactory thermal transfer is achieved and the heat sink can be efficiently positioned, connected, or formed from the structural member. [0054] "Thermally connected" refers to heat being able to transit or transfer between components, without impacting the desired function of the components. The thermal connection may provide good heat transfer between components, so that there is a measureable and substantial impact on temperature that would otherwise not occur but for the thermal connection. For example, in the instant technology, the thermal contact between the heat sink and structural component provides decreased temperature in the room region adjacent to the structural component bottom surface, particularly during use with energization of the light source and with airflow passing over the heat sink. The temperature decrease may be described quantitatively, such as greater than 1 °C, greater than 2 °C, greater than 5 °C, or between about 1 °C and 10 °C compared to a corresponding system without the heat sink or relative to a conventional lighting system, where the temperature differences may be even greater due to light sources that run "hot."

[0055] "Operably connected" refers to a configuration of elements, wherein an action or reaction of one element affects another element, but in a manner that preserves each element's functionality. For example, an optical module operably connected to the structural member refers to flow of heat to the heat sink to provide desired thermal transfer without affecting the ability to power the light source and illuminate a desired region beneath the structural member bottom surface. [0056] "User-controlled illumination output" may refer to any number of desirable illumination parameters, such as intensity, duration, cycle, wavelength, that may be manually or automatically controlled by a user.

[0057] "Drop ceiling" refers to a secondary ceiling that is hung below the main structural ceiling. Typically, drop ceilings may be used for aesthetic reasons, such as to hide ductwork, electrical wiring, piping, and various lighting components.

[0058] Provided herein are structurally integrateable and minimally invasive lighting systems. A lighting element is incorporated into a structural member of a building or surface in such a way that heat generated by the lighting element is conducted through the structural member into a secondary area or room and away from the room in which the light is supplied. In this manner, the lighting is both unobtrusive, corresponding in size and shape to conventional structural support elements commonly found between adjacent drop ceiling tiles, and energy efficient, including in terms of the power required to illuminate and/or for room cooling to dissipate heat generated by the lights. [0059] Any of the systems and methods may include additional convective cooling, such as fans or blowers, or active cooling, such as air conditioning, in the secondary area in which heat is transferred, including for example, by any of the multi-stage systems described in U.S. Pub. No. 2015/0233626. The secondary area may be outside of the structure in question so that excess heat is removed from the building.

Alternatively, the secondary area may be inside the building or structure. In either case, cooling costs are potentially reduced by reducing the amount of volume required to be climate controlled, or by removing excess heat from the secondary area via more efficient methods than those employed in the primary area receiving the light.

[0060] Optionally, the light source provided are high-intensity LED modules. These modules may include an LED chip(s), LED driver, light sensor, and printed circuit board in some cases mounted directly on to the structural member. The system additionally may employ intelligent light sensors for dimming the LED light sensors, turning the LEDs off during periods of inactivity, or otherwise further reducing power consumption.

[0061] FIG. 1 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a structural member 20. A light source, such as an optical light module or portion thereof (not shown in FIG. 1 but see 202 of FIG. 2), is positioned on the bottom surface 30 of the structural member 20, while the heat sink 100 transfers heat away from the structural member 20. The light source is positioned to direct light in a direction away from the bottom surface. With respect to the bottom 30 and top 40 surfaces, a longitudinal axis correspondingly runs in a direction that is in and out of the page. The heat sink may comprise a plurality of heat dissipating elements 101 and 106, in this example heat dissipating fins.

Optionally, some heat dissipating elements may be of different lengths, with fin 106 illustrated as having a shorter length than fin 101. Referring to FIG. 1 , a longitudinal axis of the heat dissipating elements runs in a direction that is in and out of the page. The heat sink is specially configured for heat convection in a direction away from the bottom surface toward the top surface, to the fins and thereby to an environment surrounding the fins. In this manner, heat can be convected from a room adjacent to the bottom surface to a region above the room, such as with respect to a surface that forms part of a drop ceiling. The structural member has a surface support 102 configured to connect to a surface, for example a ceiling or glass panel. The surface support 102 may be positioned at an outer edge 21 of the top surface 40, such as two support surfaces 102 positioned at two outer edges 21 , with the heat sink 100 and outer members 107 disposed thereinbetween. The outer edge 21 defines, in part, a surface area available for contact with a ceiling panel (e.g., the width), with the other dimension orthogonal to dimension 21 defining the length. In this manner, the structural member 20 is

configured to be structurally integrateable with a surface, with the bottom surface 30 positioned on one side of a support surface 102 and the top surface 40 positioned on the opposite surface of the support surface 102. In an aspect, the surface area of surface support 102 is defined by the dimension 21 by the length of the structural member 20. For example, dimension 21 may be selected from a range of between about 0.5 cm and 5 cm, and the length of structural member from a range of between about 0.5 m and 4 m, for a surface area of between 25 cm 2 and 2000 cm 2 . The surface area in contact with a ceiling panel is correspondingly defined by a length of the ceiling panel by the dimension 21 that may be between about 0.5 cm and 5 cm. Typical ceiling panels may be between about 2 ft x 2 ft and 6 ft x 20 ft, between about 4 ft x 4 ft and 4 ft x 18 ft, or about 4 ft x 18 ft, or any sub-combinations thereof, with surface area of support surface in contact with a ceiling panel calculated therefrom. A single system of the instant invention may be configured to support multiple ceiling panels along the length of the structural member 20. Optionally, a cable conduit 104, formed between an outer cable conduit member 107 and an inner cable conduit member 108, can receive wiring or a conduit through the structural member. A longitudinal axis of the cable conduit runs in a direction that is in and out of the page of FIG. 1. Additionally, a mounting slot 105 may be included that is capable of receiving a fastener to position additional devices or structures above the structural member 20, such as a fan, power supply, mounting brackets, and the like. A cover fastener 103 connected to bottom surface 30 may be configured to attach a cover, lens or diffuser to the structural member, thereby covering and protecting a light source. The cover fastener, as illustrated, may provide a first clasp and a second clasp at a distal end of the cover fastener, or any other means for securing the cover fastener, such as snap-fit

connections, screws, clips, adhesives. Cover separation distance is schematically illustrated as 80.

[0062] FIG. 2 illustrates the structural member 20 and heat sink 100 with a surface, such as ceiling panel 204, that may be part of a drop ceiling or greenhouse glass ceiling, supported by the support surface 102. This figure additionally shows an optical light module comprising a plurality of light sources 202 which in this example may be an LED with a driver, optical sensor and controller incorporated within the module. An optional cover 205 is connected to the cover fasteners or clasps 103 to disperse light from the optical light module 202. A power supply 208 may be fastened to the system via fasteners such as screws to a mounting plate 206. Support bracket 207 may be used to further support the light system to an outer ceiling or roof. The power supply 208 may be used to facilitate power to the light module and/or other components, such as fans to drive airflow across the heat sink.

[0063] FIG. 3 is a perspective view of FIG. 2 and illustrates the longitudinal axis along structural member 20. The heat sink 100 is open and exposed to the environment above the structural member 20. Optional power supply 208 and support bracket 207 are also shown, in this case adjacent to each other to provide additional support to compensate for weight of the power supply. Optional fans 303 are included along the length of the support member 303 to provide convective cooling to the heat sink 100.

[0064] EXAMPLE 1 : DROP-STYLE CEILING

[0065] One application for the structurally integrated and passively cooled light systems provided herein is as a replacement for a conventional drop-style ceilings, including those found in traditional building spaces. The incorporation of the systems provided herein into the drop ceiling may supplement or even replace conventional fluorescent tube lighting. For example, conventional grids that support the drop ceiling may instead be at least partially replaced with any of the systems provided herein, so that the grid that supports the ceiling panels are also light sources. As desired, the light sources of the instant systems may be aligned in one direction of the grid, or they may correspond to the two directions of the grid that supports square or rectangularly-shaped ceiling panels. A light source, such as an LED, placed directly on the instant bottom surface of the structural members can provide high-efficiency and high-energy lighting in a cost effective and unobtrusive manner. Advantageously, the heat generated by the LED is removed from the office area below and directed into the space above the drop ceiling. The area above the drop ceiling may then be convectively cooled, and the air directed outside of the building by fans either placed on the structural support itself or by external fans. This can significantly decrease the cost of cooling the office space below the ceiling, which is typically performed by a climate control system, such as central air, having a much a larger energy requirement. Additionally, the LEDs are higher efficiency than traditional fluorescent lighting.

[0066] For a drop-ceiling application, or any other application requiring additional support, various support brackets and fasteners may be utilized to reliably secure the structural member to a more permanent building element, such as a ceiling member that separates the outside environment from the inside. For example, FIG. 4 shows a support bracket 207 fastened directly to the outer lateral surfaces of the structural member 20. The support bracket 207 has a pair of fastener arms 410 412 with a distal end terminating in a female clasp fastener 403 which connects to a male clasp fastener 402 on a distal end of the structural member, including an outer cable conduit member 107 (see also FIG. 1 ) or any other distally extending member that, in turn, is connected to the structural member. The support bracket 207 may have a proximate end 405 formed from longitudinally extending member 420 configured to receive or connect to a wire 404 which may then be used to hang the structural member 20 from another structural component of the building in which the drop ceiling is being installed.

[0067] FIG. 5 shows a perspective view of two structural members 20 containing a plurality of optical light sources 500 with a ceiling panel 204 ready for support between the two structural members 20. [0068] FIGs. 6-10, illustrate various structural elements and related components that may be used to reliably integrate the light systems with a ceiling, including for providing a ceiling of sufficient strength upon which a person can walk. For example, cross- support struts and polycarbonate ceiling panels may be used as illustrated to provide good strength and rigidity without sacrificing desired light transmission characteristics, with corresponding specially configured holders, clamps or fasteners for connection to the structural member. In this manner, good light transmission characteristics are maintained, while facilitating the ability for a person to walk or stand on the grow ceiling.

[0069] FIG. 6 illustrates a top close-up view of a lighting system, with a support bracket 207, fan 303, heat sink 100. The heat sink 100 is connected to a ceiling cross- strut 600 by a strut holder 601.

[0070] FIG. 7 is a top view of the lighting system of FIG. 6 with a flat, corrugated ceiling panel 204 and cross-strut 600 supports connected thereto.

[0071] FIG. 8 illustrates a cross-section view of a strut holder 601 fastened to the lighting system structural member 20, and a cross-strut 600 positioned therein.

[0072] FIG. 9 is a perspective view of FIG. 8, showing the strut holder 601 , cross- strut 600 structural member 20.

[0073] FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of the lighting system heat sink 100, cross- strut 600, support bracket 207, and ceiling panel 204.

[0074] FIG. 11 illustrates a ceiling panel 204 supported by a pair of integrateable lighting systems 501 on opposing ends of the ceiling panel, with a transverse cross-strut 600 providing further structural support. FIG. 12 provides detailed views of a grow ceiling capable of use with any of the integrated light systems provided herein, and support brackets 207, ceiling panels 204, and transverse cross-struts 600. The ceiling panels may comprise corrugated polycarbonate, with "corrugation" or "corrugate" referring to a localized stepped-type shape of the ceiling panel. FIG. 13 further illustrates the light system support bracket 207 for connection to outer ceiling structural elements, such as purlins 1300 and plate frame 1301 connections. The support bracket 207 may comprise an adjuster 1302 for adjusting support bracket 207 length to match distance to the outer ceiling, so as to maintain level.

[0075] FIGs. 14-15 provide additional details of the connection between a ceiling panel and structural member of the integrateable light system. For simplicity in the top panel of FIG. 14, the heat sink is not illustrated. The edge of a polycarbonate ceiling panel 204 with corrugations fits into a slanted receiving slot 1400. As desired, additional structural support is provided by struts 600 connected to an outer edge of the structural member 20. This is further illustrated in the bottom panel. FIG. 15 is a cross-section of the structural member 20 of the light system, with the heat sink 100 illustrated.

[0076] EXAMPLE 2: AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

[0077] Another useful application of the systems provided herein is for supplemental artificial lighting in agricultural buildings, including greenhouses and growhouses, including in any of the buildings or rooms described in U.S. Provisional Patent

Application No. No. 62/182,201 filed June 19, 2015 by Sharpe et al. and titled "Hybrid Building" (Atty Ref. 569200: 45-15P US). In this example, heat generated by the optical light module is transferred into a space separate from the grow or cultivation room. The placement of the supplemental light within the support structure provides minimal shadow footprint. "Minimal shadow footprint" may be quantifiably defined as the amount by which a non-optically transparent element of the lighting system extends past a bottom ceiling surface. The instant invention is specially designed and configured to have a low footprint, such as less than about 10 cm, less than 5 cm, less than 1 cm, or less than about 0.5 cm. In contrast, while conventional greenhouses with supplemental lighting to provide light during night or overcast conditions, those lighting methods create shade and block sunlight that would otherwise be used by the plants such as by having lights suspended and dropping down from the ceiling. This invention thus reduces the effect of shading caused by supplemental lighthouses providing increased efficiency during periods of natural light.

[0078] Greenhouses are also much hotter than outdoor temperatures, typically 10- 25 Q C, and often require significant climate control in order to achieve temperatures ideal for growth of plants. Cooling costs represent a significant expense to greenhouse operators. By transferring heat created by supplemental light sources, either outside or to a secondary space outside of the cultivation room, the systems provided herein can further reduce energy costs associated with cooling and climate control.

STATEMENTS REGARDING INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

AND VARIATIONS

[0079] All references throughout this application, for example patent documents including issued or granted patents or equivalents; patent application publications; and non-patent literature documents or other source material; are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties, as though individually incorporated by reference, to the extent each reference is at least partially not inconsistent with the disclosure in this application (for example, a reference that is partially inconsistent is incorporated by reference except for the partially inconsistent portion of the reference).

[0080] The terms and expressions which have been employed herein are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments, exemplary embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the concepts herein disclosed may be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of this invention as defined by the appended claims. The specific embodiments provided herein are examples of useful embodiments of the present invention and it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be carried out using a large number of variations of the devices, device components, methods, and steps set forth in the present description. As will be obvious to one of skill in the art, methods and devices useful for the present methods can include a large number of optional composition and processing elements and steps.

[0081] When a group of substituents is disclosed herein, it is understood that all individual members of that group and all subgroups, are disclosed separately. When a Markush group or other grouping is used herein, all individual members of the group and all combinations and subcombinations possible of the group are intended to be individually included in the disclosure.

[0082] Every formulation or combination of components described or exemplified herein can be used to practice the invention, unless otherwise stated.

[0083] Whenever a range is given in the specification, for example, a temperature range, an angle range, a light intensity range, a time range, or a composition or concentration range, all intermediate ranges and subranges, as well as all individual values included in the ranges given are intended to be included in the disclosure. It will be understood that any subranges or individual values in a range or subrange that are included in the description herein can be excluded from the claims herein. [0084] All patents and publications mentioned in the specification are indicative of the levels of skill of those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. References cited herein are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety to indicate the state of the art as of their publication or filing date and it is intended that this information can be employed herein, if needed, to exclude specific embodiments that are in the prior art. For example, when composition of matter are claimed, it should be understood that compounds known and available in the art prior to Applicant's invention, including compounds for which an enabling disclosure is provided in the references cited herein, are not intended to be included in the composition of matter claims herein. [0085] As used herein, "comprising" is synonymous with "including," "containing," or "characterized by," and is inclusive or open-ended and does not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps. As used herein, "consisting of" excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claim element. As used herein,

"consisting essentially of" does not exclude materials or steps that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristics of the claim. In each instance herein any of the terms "comprising", "consisting essentially of" and "consisting of" may be replaced with either of the other two terms. The invention illustratively described herein suitably may be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations which is not specifically disclosed herein. [0086] One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that starting materials, biological materials, reagents, synthetic methods, purification methods, analytical methods, assay methods, and biological methods other than those specifically exemplified can be employed in the practice of the invention without resort to undue experimentation. All art-known functional equivalents, of any such materials and methods are intended to be included in this invention. The terms and expressions which have been employed are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention that in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred

embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the concepts herein disclosed may be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of this invention as defined by the appended claims.