Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
STRUCTURE LAYER OF FLOOR AND WALL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2001/057329
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a constructional layer of floor and wall, which has been formed of constructional panels (4a-c) of floor and constructional panels (5) of wall and in this constructional layer there are mainly horizontal channels (8; 11; 18) in the constructional panels of floor and there are mainly vertical channels (27) in the constructional panels of wall to transfer and circulate gas, like air, with the help of the channels in the system of channels (6) constructed inside the constructional layer. Characteristic to constructional layer of floor and wall is the fact that there are constructional panels (4b, 4c) of floor on the floor at the place where floor and wall are connected and in these panels there is at least on one edge (12; 22; 23) at least one mainly vertical opening (14; 20) going to horizontal channels (11; 18) from the upper surface of the constructional panel to connect the channels (25, 27) of constructional panels (5) of wall with the channels (11; 18) of constructional panels of floor.

Inventors:
Gylling, Hans (Laiduntie 1 Kaavi, FIN-73600, FI)
Application Number:
PCT/FI2001/000099
Publication Date:
August 09, 2001
Filing Date:
February 05, 2001
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
Gylling, Hans (Laiduntie 1 Kaavi, FIN-73600, FI)
International Classes:
E02D31/00; E04B1/00; E04B1/70; E04B5/48; E04C2/52; (IPC1-7): E04B1/00; E04B5/48; E04C2/52
Foreign References:
DE538320C
SE458696B1989-04-24
SE340681B1971-11-29
DK165557B1992-12-14
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PATENTTITOIMISTO PITKÄNEN OY (PL 1750 Kuopio, FIN-70211, FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims
1. Constructional layer of floor and wall, which has been formed of constructional panels (4a4c) of floor and constructional panels (5) of wall, and in this constructional layer the constructional panels of floor include mainly horizontal channels (8; 11; 18) and the constructional panels of wall include mainly vertical channels (27) in order to transfer and circulate gas, like air, with the help of channels in system of channels (6) inside the constructional layer, characterized in that there are constructional panels (4b, 4c) of floor at the connection points of wall and floor on the floor and in these panels at least on one edge (12; 22,23) at least one mainly vertical opening (14; 20) from the upper surface of the constructional panel to horizontal channels (11; 18) to join the channels (25, 27) of the constructional panels (5) of wall with the channels (11; 18) of constructional panels of floor.
2. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to claim 1, characterized in that there is a cantilever (15; 21) higher from the rest of the upper surface at the upper part of the openings (14; 20) of the constructional panels (4b, 4c) of floor to join the constructional panels of floor and wall to each other an to prevent the access of mortar to openings.
3. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to claims 1 or 2, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that channels (8; 11; 18) of constructional panels (4ac) of floor, are crossing and inclined with respect to the edges of the constructional panel.
4. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to claim 3, characterized in that channels (11; 18) of constructional panels (4b, c) of floor are at least on one edge (12; 22,23) of the constructional panel blocked, and that there is one or more compartments (13; 19) on the blocked edge (12; 22; 23) connected to inclined channels (11; 18) to connect openings (14; 20) to inclined channels (11; 18).
5. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to any of claims 14 character i z e d in that there is a damp proof mass layer, like bitumen mass layer (36) between the constructional panels (1) of floor and the lower floor.
6. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to any of claims 15 character i z e d in that there are grooves (9; 16; 37) on the upper surface of constructional panels of floor for netlike fixing organs and for strengthening and sealing the panel walls.
7. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to any of claims 16 character i z e d in that there is at least one mainly horizontal groovelike channel (25) on the horizontal lower surface (24) of constructional panel (5) of wall and that there is at least one cantilever (29) tightly adjusted to horizontal channel at the place where mainly vertical channels (27) on the horizontal upper surface (26) are.
8. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to claim 7, characterized in that the height of the cantilever (29) on the upper surface (26) of the constructional panel (5) of wall is smaller than the depth of the channel (25) on the lower surface (24).
9. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to any of claims 18 character i z e d in that there is at least one mainly vertical channel (27) going through constructional panel to opposite side (26) from the horizontal groovelike channel (25) in the constructional panel (5) of wall.
10. Constructional layer of floor and wall according to any of claims 19 character i z e d in that there is at least one groove (31) in the first gable wall (30) of the constructional panel (5) of wall and at least one cantilever (33) tightly adjusted to the groove in the second gable wall (32) to connect constructional panels with each other side by side.
Description:
STRUCTURE LAYER OF FLOOR AND WALL The invention relates to a constructional layer of floor and wall, which has been formed with constructional panels of floor and constructional panels of wall, and there are mainly horizontal channels in constructional panels of floor and mainly vertical channels in constructional panels of wall in this constructional layer to transfer and circulate gas, like air, by means of channels in system of channels constructed inside the constructional layer.

The most common problems in residential buildings of today are moisture in the structures and problems arising from this and the fact that hazardous gases, like radon, from the soil get into the indoor air. Moisture is formed because of the condensing of the moisture in the soil and moisture in the air. Furthermore moisture can easily be formed in the structures of floor and walls through wet rooms, if structures used in inner surfaces are not tight enough. This is the way moisture can reach structures of intermediate floors. Gases, hazardous to people, from the soil, like radon, are spread into the indoor air usually through chinks in joints of structures or straight through structures, if they are made of some material that is porous and pervious to gases.

Moisture in lower floor in present buildings has been tried to minimise by organizing sufficient ventilation in lower floor by building a wooden floor with crawl space or by a ventilated lower floor. Access of gases to indoor air has been prevented by a ventilated lower floor by means of separate radon-exhauster or radon well. Building of a ventilated lower floor to a present building is though extremely difficult and expensive. To solve these problems different kinds of ventilated constructional layers, made of slabs, bricks or other constructional elements have been developed to be mounted on the lower floor.

These can naturally be mounted also on upper layers and on intermediate floors.

Moisture problems in walls have been tried to prevent nowadays by improving water insulation in wet rooms, among other things, and by calling attention to air ventilation.

Furthermore different kinds of ventilated wall constructions have been developed to prevent moisture in walls. The purpose of these constructions is to make the possible moisture disappear from wall constructions before problems occur. Known ventilated wall constructions are made of wall construction, inside of which a hollow space or special channels are organized where it is possible to circulate air. System of channels is usually constructed by building a wall out of bricks with channels and mounting these bricks in a certain order on each other or next to each other to create a wall construction with channels in order to circulate air inside the wall.

The problem of present ventilated constructional layers, made out of constructional panels is the difficulty of mounting and financial costs for that. It is difficult to join floor constructions with channels to wall constructions with channels especially in present ventilated constructional layers. When using present constructional panels, separate joints are to be made at connecting points of floor and wall channel systems or joint must be organized, for instance, by a tight space, left between the edges of wall and floor, and to which channels of wall and floor are connected. Furthermore masonry of the present known constructional panels of walls demands carefulness so that mortar is not fallen into the channels of constructional panels and that when mounting the channels of constructional panels must be placed exactly to match in order to form a system of channels. Furthermore present ventilated constructional panels are not meant to be placed, for instance, on existing, dried floor and wall constructions, but original constructions must first be taken down.

The aim of this invention is to create a constructional layer of floor and wall, by means of which earlier mentioned problems are solved. The purpose of the invention is especially to create a constructional layer of floor and wall, where channels inside of the constructional layers of floor and wall can be with ease joined to each other. In addition to this the aim of the invention is to create a constructional layer of floor and wall, the mounting of which does not demand exact matching of the constructional panels, and in which the access of mortar to system of channels inside of the constructional layer is prevented.

The aim of the invention is achieved by the constructional layer of floor and wall, characteristic of which is what has been presented in the claims.

Characteristic of the constructional layer of floor and wall according to the invention is that there are constructional panels at the connecting points of wall and floor on the floor, and in these constructional panels there is at least on one edge at least one, mainly vertical, up to horizontal channels from the upper surface of the constructional panel reaching opening to connect the channels of constructional panels of floor to channels of constructional panels of wall. When constructional panels of wall with channel in the lower surface to be matched with openings in constructional panel of floor are placed to match these openings, systems of channels of floor and wall can be connected to each other simply and easily without separate connecting constructions between systems of channels of floor and wall.

In addition to this, there is no need to match the constructional panels of wall longitudinal with the wall exactly at the point where the opening is, but the places of the constructional panels of wall can be chosen longitudinal with the wall moderately freely. Because of this

the building of constructional layer with channels of floor and wall can be accomplished clearly faster and with financially lower costs.

In an advantageous application of the invention there is a cantilever upwards from the upper surface at the upper point of the openings of the constructional panels of floor to connect the constructional panels of floor and wall to each other and to prevent the access of mortar to openings. When a constructional panel of wall with a groove-like channel at least on the lower surface matching to a cantilever is connected with constructional panels of floor, the connecting point of channels of floor and wall is placed above the connecting point of constructional panels. Thus mortar, used to fasten the joint between the panels is placed under the orifice of the openings and is not able to flow into the openings. This prevents the stoppage of openings and channels although masonry would be carried out quickly, carelessly and using relatively large amount of mortar. Furthermore because of the cantilever in the constructional panel of floor, the constructional panels of wall can always be placed exactly to the right place without special adjusting, which makes the mounting and/or masonry of constructional panels easier and faster.

In the second advantageous application of the invention channels inside constructional panels of floor are crossing and diagonally placed against the edges of constructional panels. Bernold-phenomenon, e. g. appearance of whirls and prevention of flow in the channels perpendicularly with regard to flow is prevented by crossing channels of constructional panels of floor that are diagonally placed with regard to direction of flow of air. Consequently drying and ventilating of the structure is accomplished steadily and therefore the time that is needed for the structure to get dry is clearly shorter when using the structure according to the invention than when using known structures.

In the third advantageous application of the invention channels of constructional panels of floor are closed at least on one edge of the constructional panel and in the closed edge there is one or several compartments connected to diagonal channels to connect openings to diagonal channels. This way diagonal channels can be connected to openings relatively simply and reliably. Furthermore this way a strong structure that steadily bears the load of the constructional layer of wall in the area near the openings can be created.

In the fourth advantageous application of the invention there is a layer of damp proof mass, like bitumen mass, between the constructional panels of floor and lower floor. Because of the layer of damp proof mass moisture and hazardous gases are not able to get into the structures and indoor air through constructional panels, but go advantageously to the

channels of constructional panels of floor and from there to channels of exhaust air of the building.

In the fifth advantageous application of the invention grooves are made on the upper surface of constructional panels of floor for net-like fixing organs and for supporting and sealing of plate walls. Because of the reinforcement net mounted into the grooves the structure becomes steady and strong and therefore tight at the joints. Furthermore a plate wall, separated by an air space from the other wall structure can be tightly supported to constructional panels of floor with the help of the grooves.

In the sixth advantageous application of the invention there is at least one mainly horizontal groove-like channel in the horizontal lower surface of the constructional panel of wall and at least one cantilever to be fixed tightly to horizontal channel mainly at the point of vertical channels on the horizontal upper surface of constructional panel. This is how constructional panels of wall can be connected to each other in direction of thickness of wall to mach exactly without special adjusting operations. Furthermore with the help of the cantilever like with the help of the constructional panel of floor access of mortar to the channels of constructional panels of wall is prevented. Because of this mounting and masonry of this kind of constructional panels are clearly easier and faster than of earlier known constructional panels of wall.

In the seventh advantageous application of the invention the height of the cantilever of the upper surface of the constructional panel of wall is smaller than the depth of channel of the lower surface. This way groove-like channels on the lower surface of constructional panels can be formed to be horizontal channels that go between every row of panels and inside the wall and channels that are connected to vertical channels between them simply and advantageously so, that the channels are not blocked during the masonry of the panels.

In the eighth advantageous application of the invention there is at least one mainly vertical from the horizontal groove-like channel through constructional panel to the opposite side going channel in the constructional panel of wall. This way horizontal channels are to be connected reliably and simply to each other vertically to the wall. Furthermore vertical channels need not necessarily match vertically to wall in a constructional layer of wall made of this kind of constructional panels, because vertical channels are connected to groove-like channels on the lower surface. Therefore this kind of constructional panels need not be adjusted, but it is enough to put constructional panels against each other side by side and on top of each other in order to accomplish a wall construction with channels.

This makes it easier and faster to build a constructional layer of wall.

In the ninth advantageous application of the invention there is at least one groove in the first gable wall of constructional panel of wall and at least one cantilever to be tightly adjusted to the groove in the second gable wall in order to connect constructional panels of wall to each other side by side. This way it is made easier to adjust constructional panels next to each other and the joint between panels is made more tight and the constructional layer of wall more straight in a simple and useful way.

In the following the invention is presented more detailed referring to the accompanying drawings, in which figure 1 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of a constructional layer of floor and wall according to the invention, figure 2 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of a constructional panel of floor to be mounted in the central part of the floor of the constructional layer according to figure 1, figure 3 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of a constructional panel of floor to be mounted next to the wall of constructional layer according to figure 1, figure 4 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of constructional panel of floor to be mounted to the corner of constructional layer according to figure 1, figure 5 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of constructional panel of wall to be mounted on the wall of constructional layer according to figure 1, and figure 6 illustrates a partial sectioned perspective view of the connection point of wall and floor of constructional layer according to figure 1.

In the application of constructional layer of wall and floor according to figure 1 the floor 1 has been made of constructional panels 4a-c of floor, which have been attached side by side to the floor, and the walls 2 and 3 of constructional panels 5 of wall, which have been attached on each other and side by side to the wall. This way to the constructional layer of the floor 1 and walls 2 and 3 a uniform system of channels 6 is made, to circulate gas, like air. There are three different types of constructional panels of floor in the application according to figure 1; the floor panel 4a to be placed in the middle of the floor, the constructional panel 4b to be placed next to the wall, and the constructional panel 4c to be placed in the corner (not presented in figure 1). Different types of constructional panels of floor are presented more detailed in figures 2-4. In the application according to figure 1 the walls are made of constructional panels 5 of wall, which are all alike. The constructional panel of wall is presented more detailed in figure 5. Furthermore the system of channels 6 of the constructional layer according to figure 1 is connected to ventilation system that is functioning in a manner known per se (not presented in figures 1-6).

To the application presented in figure 2 of constructional panel 4a of floor to be mounted in the middle part of the floor belongs a slab 7, on the lower surface of which channels 8 have been constructed, that are crosswise and placed in 45° angle against the edges of the slab and open from the lower surface of the slab and cross section of which is rectangular.

On the upper surface of the slab 7 there are lower grooves with inclined edges 9 on the edges and crosswise in the direction of the edges over the middle point for concrete reinforcement net.

In figure 3 there is a constructional panel 4b that belongs to the constructional layer of floor made out of constructional panels in figures 1 and 2, and that is the outermost panel, partly under the wall, and that is connected to the channels of constructional panels of wall.

It has been constructed, like the constructional panel in figure 2, from slab 10, on the lower surface in the middle and on the edges that are connected to other constructional panels of which similar channels 11, like in the panels in figure 2, have been made. Furthermore to the edge 12 next to the wall of slab 10 right-angled, blocked from the edges compartments 13, have been made. At the place where these compartments are there are openings 14, cross section of which is rectangular and which go through constructional panel in vertical direction. The purpose of the openings is to connect constructional layer of floor with system of channels with the wall construction with system of channels. There is a right- angled cantilever 15, suitable to the groove in the constructional panel of wall at the place where the openings are. Because of it the constructional panel of wall can be mounted on the constructional panel of floor suitable in relation to openings so, that the openings 14 in the constructional panel of floor match in direction of thickness of the wall with the groove-like channels in the constructional panel of wall. Naturally also in this constructional panel of wall on the upper surface of the slab 10 in the edges that are to be connected with other slabs and in the middle there are grooves 16 with inclined edges that match with grooves of the slab of the constructional panel in figures 1 and 2 for the reinforcement net.

In figure 4 there is the constructional panel 4c of floor to be mounted in the corner. It has been constructed in a similar way as the application in figure 3 of the slab 17, on the lower surface of which there are crossing channels 18, which have a connection to openings 20 through compartments 19. As distinct from the constructional panel in figure 3 it includes openings 20 and cantilevers 21 at the point where they are, to two edges 22 and 23 that are situated perpendicular to each other. This way with constructional panels 5 of wall that are mounted at the point where the openings 20 and cantilevers 21 are, a rectangular corner which is connected to system of channels on floor can be constructed. Also this

constructional panel includes grooves 37 on the upper surface for concrete reinforcement bars.

Constructional panel 5 of wall according to figure 5 includes a horizontal groove-like channel 25 on the lower surface 24,4 pcs of vertical hole-like channels 27 which are situated with even intervals longitudinally with the constructional panel, going from the horizontal groove-like channel through the constructional panel up to upper surface 26, U- shaped grooves 28, which are constructed to both edges of the upper surface for the reinforcement bars, a rectangular cantilever 29, which has been constructed to match inside the horizontal groove-like channel at the point where the hole-like channels in the middle of the upper surface are, a vertical rectangular groove 31 from the groove-like channel 25 to the upper surface in the front gable 30 and a rectangular cantilever 33 to match the groove 31 in the back gable 32. Furthermore the constructional panel according to figure 1 includes also the level side walls 34 and 35, one against the outer wall or the separating wall of the building and the other serves as the inside wall of the room to be lined with the constructional layer.

When the constructional panels 5 of wall are placed side by side parallel with the length of the wall and on each other parallel with height they form an upright wall, inside of which there are horizontal and vertical channels. Because of the horizontal groove-like channel 25 in the lower edge of the constructional panel of the wall the position of the wall panels with regard to each other and to openings 14 and 20 on the edges of the floor can be chosen freely parallel with the length of the wall. This way panels of wall need not be matched with regard to each other and/or floor. This makes the mounting of the constructional layer of wall easier and more advantageous than by using equivalent prior known constructions.

Figure 6 shows how the system of channels of floor is connected by constructional panel 4b, placed by the wall to constructional panels 5 of wall which form the system of channels of wall. Vertical openings 14 in the constructional panels 4b of floor placed by the wall are connected to horizontal groove-like channels 25 on the horizontal lower surfaces of constructional panels of wall, which have a connection through vertical channels 27 further up to horizontal channels of the next constructional layer of panels. There are cantilevers 15 and 21 at the place where the openings of constructional panels of floor are, placed next to the wall and in the corners, in order to match the first row of constructional panels of wall with the openings 14 and 20 in the constructional panels of floor. The purpose of the cantilevers is also to prevent the access of mortar to openings which could block the opening or the channels of the floor below it. Similar way the purpose of the cantilevers 29 in the constructional panels of wall is to make it easier to mount the

constructional layers of walls and to prevent the blockage of the channels, which are formed in them. The channels 8,11 and 18 are crossing in this application. The purpose of the crossing approach is to create an even flow in the floor and to prevent the development of the Bernold-fenomenon at the crossing points of the channels. The direction of flow in the walls is mainly vertical, so there the channels 25 and 27 can be organised for instance according to figure 1 in the direction of the direction of flow and perpendicular to it. In figure 6 the damp proof mass layer 36 that is used between the constructional panels of floor and other construction of floor is also presented. In this application it is a bitumen mass layer of suitable thickness. It helps to prevent the access of dampness and hazardous gases to areas between system of channels of constructional panels where the effect of ventilation is less significant than at the place where the channels are.

The constructional panels of wall and floor according to the invention can be made of different kinds of materials. As material suitable are different kinds of setting, laid materials, like concrete, but also different kinds of plastics and metals are possible. The size and shape of constructional panels can vary, in that case they can be of other shape and size than the constructional panels presented in figures 2-5. The system of channels and grooves for the reinforcement net can be made by using, for example, moulding technique or by working them afterwards. The shape and direction of the channels of constructional panels of floor can to some extent vary. It is flow technically advantageous if the channels are crossing and in diagonal position with the direction of the edges of the constructional panels. There is no demand, however, that they should be, for example, exactly in 45° angle, also other diagonal angles with the edges are advantageous in this respect. The rectangular shape of the cross section of the channels is simple and advantageous to make, but the shape of channels can also be of other kind, for instance vaulted. As distinct from the application according to figure 5 there can be horizontal groove-like channels 25 on the lower or upper surface or on both surfaces of the constructional panels of wall and also for instance on the side wall which is against the wall. There can be one or more vertical channels 27 that go through the constructional panel. They can be either hole-like or groove-like ones. The direction of the channels need not be exactly the vertical direction of the constructional layer of the wall made of the panels, it can vary for instance according to the position and direction of other channels.

The vertical channels must, however, go through the constructional panel so that vertical channels are formed between the horizontal channels. This way air or some other suitable gas may be transferred and circulated in the system of channels formed this way. The shape of the cross section of the channels of constructional panels can also vary.

The access of moisture arising from the soil to constructions of walls and floors of a building can effectively be prevented by a constructional layer according to the invention.

At the same time access of radon and other possible hazardous gases arising from the soil to the indoor air is prevented. Constructional panels of floor can be fixed to different kinds of lower and intermediate floors and between them and other constructions of floor other insulation materials or vapor barriers than bitumen mass can be used. Ventilated constructional layer of wall and floor according to the invention can be connected to the same ventilating system or air circulation can be organised for instance with a few ventilating systems separately. Air ventilation can be either mechanical or gravity- operated and also heat recollection system can be included in air ventilation system.

Constructional layer according to the invention can be used in many different kinds of buildings. It is suitable in building new and in renovation building. A ventilated constructional layer can be built for instance as an answer to high humidity problems in old buildings. Constructional layers, made of ventilated constructional panels according to the invention can be used in constructing new buildings in floor and in all or only in some critical walls from the point of view of high humidity.

Constructional panels that form constructional layer of wall and floor can include also additional parts like cantilevers, grooves or holes for connecting and attaching panels with each other. This kind of additional grooves and/or holes can be made suitable with different kinds of fixing organs and this way joints of constructional panels can be strengthened with some concrete reinforcement suitable for this purpose like reinforcement rod. If needed, joints can be sealed with different kinds of sealants. Furthermore between constructional panels and other constructions different kinds of insulation materials against moisture and/or vapor barriers can be used when required.

The invention is not defined to the advantageous applications presented above, it can also vary within the framework of inventional idea according to the claims.




 
Previous Patent: SOUND ABSORBING PANEL

Next Patent: SEALING WEB FOR CONSTRUCTIONS