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Title:
STYRENE MALEAMIDE BLOCK COPOLYMER PIGMENT DISPERSANT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/125940
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Polymeric block copolymer dispersants made by controlled radical polymerization are disclosed that include polyacrylate solubilizing segments and styrene-maleic anhydride particulate anchoring segments. Desirably, a large percentage of the maleic anhydride units are reacted with an aminic reactant of 4 to 30 carbon atoms with 2 to 10 nitrogen atoms wherein at least one nitrogen is primary and the other is tertiary or three times bonded to carbon atoms.

Inventors:
SHOOTER, Andrew J. (9911 Brecksville Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 44141-3247, US)
JENNINGS, Robert A. (9911 Brecksville Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 44141-3247, US)
PERRIER, Sebastien (Kirby Corner Road, Coventry Warwickshire CV4 8UW, 8UW, GB)
AKRACH, Majda (Kirby Corner Road, Coventry Warwickshire CV4 8UW, 8UW, GB)
Application Number:
US2018/065676
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 14, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
LUBRIZOL ADVANCED MATERIALS, INC. (9911 Brecksville Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 44141-3247, US)
THE UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK (Kirby Corner Road, Coventry Warwickshire CV4 8UW, 8UW, GB)
International Classes:
C08F8/32; C08F212/08; C08F220/18; C08F222/06; C08F293/00; C09D11/326
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017132380A12017-08-03
WO2008122606A22008-10-16
Foreign References:
US20100081769A12010-04-01
US20100240826A12010-09-23
US20100099813A12010-04-22
JP2013241604A2013-12-05
US9416280B22016-08-16
US7838574B22010-11-23
US8153731B22012-04-10
DE102006062439A12008-07-03
US8129476B22012-03-06
DE102006062441A12008-07-03
US4755563A1988-07-05
US20120190795A12012-07-26
US8575285B22013-11-05
US9018325B22015-04-28
US8742045B22014-06-03
Other References:
POLYM. CHEM., vol. 1, 2010, pages 149 - 157
"Kirk-Othmer's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology", vol. 13, 1981, article "Industrial Microbial Agents"
CROWLEY ET AL.: "A Three-Dimensional Approach to Solubility", JOURNAL OF PAINT TECHNOLOGY, vol. 38, 1966, pages 269
IBERT MELLAN: "Compatibility and Solubility", 1968, NOYES DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
BODO MULLER; ULRICH POTH; LACKFORMULIERUNG; LACKREZEPTUR: "Lehrbuch fr Ausbildung und Praxis", 2003, VINCENTZ VERLAG
P.G.GARRAT: "Strahlenhartung", 1996, VINCENTZ VERLAG
E.W.FLICK: "Printing Ink and Overprint Varnish Formulations - Recent Developments", 1990, NOYES PUBLICATIONS
"Ullmann's Encyclopdie der technischen Chemie", vol. 15, 1978, pages: 613 - 628
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LAFERTY, Samuel et al. (29400 Lakeland Boulevard, Wickliffe, Ohio, 44092-2298, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A polymeric dispersant comprising, at least 55wt.%, 65wt.% or 75 wt.%, more desirably at least 85 wt.% and preferably at least 95 wt.% of a block copolymer structure of formula shown below:

{(solubilizing block)-(anchoring block) }v

wherein the solubilizing block or the anchoring block can occur first and optionally there is one additional solubilizing or one additional anchoring block but such that the total number of solubilizing blocks does not exceed the maximum value of v and the total number of anchoring blocks does not exceed the maximum value of v (such as 5, 3 or 2);

wherein the solubilizing block is -(A)x- and the anchoring block is a copolymer of the structure -{(B)y-(D)Z}U-;

x is at least 5; and desirably 5 to 150, and more preferably 5 to 100;

y is at least 1 and can be from 1 to 10, more desirably 1 to 5;

z is generally 1 but can be 2, or 3;

u is 1 to 25, preferably 2 to 10 or 20, more preferably 3 to 10 or 20;

u(y+z) is at least 5 and desirably from 5 to 100 or 5 to 50;

v is 1 to 5, preferably 1 to 3 and more preferably 1 to 2; and

with the remaining 45, 35, 25, 15, or 5 wt.% of the polymeric dispersant being chain initiating groups, chain terminating groups or inadvertently inserted repeating units, wherein repeating units of the A structure comprises about 25 to 80 wt.% of the dispersant, repeating units of the B structure comprises from about 5 to about 35 wt.% of the dispersant and combined repeating units of the D structure are from about 5 to about 50 wt.% of the dispersant, wherein said dispersant has a number average molecular weight at least 2500 daltons, preferably less than 75000 daltons, and more preferably 5000 to 20000 daltons;

wherein at least 90 mole% of the A units are selected from the group consisting of Ai,

A2, A3, A4, A 5 and A6 units;

wherein it is desirable that at least 80, 90, 95 or 98 mole% of the A repeat units in the block copolymer dispersant are selected from the groups consisting of Ai, A2, and A3 and the remainder of the A groups (such as 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less, 5 mole% or less and 2 mole% or less are selected from A4, A or A6. In one embodiment, it is desired that at least 80, 90, or 95 mole% of A is selected from Ai and the remaining amounts of A are selected from the other units A2 or A 3 in amounts of 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less and 5 mole% or less and, A4, A 5 and A6 in the amounts of 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less, and 5 mole% or less and 2 mole% or less based on the total amount of A repeating units in the block copolymer dispersant; wherein Al is represented by a free radically polymerized alkyl(meth)acrylate of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, preferably a repeat unit of the structure

wherein Ri is CH3 or H, and R2 is a linear or branched C1-20 alkyl group more desirably Ci- Ci6 alkyl group (optionally including 1 or 2 heteroatoms such oxygen (resulting occasionally in a hydroxyl group or ether linkage or nitrogen)) wherein * indicates a covalent bond to the next/adjacent repeating units in the polymer (or a covalent bond to the rest of a shown molecule); wherein A2 is represented by from polymerizing one or more repeating units di substituted (meth)acrylamide monomers and is according to the formula below

wherein Ri is as defined above and R9 and Rio individually are Ci-Cx alkyl or aromatic or combinations of alkyl and aromatic groups or combinations thereof, optionally with a hydroxyl group, and optionally R9 and Rio can be connected to each other to forma a C2-Ci6 cyclic groups, wherein the R9 and Rio groups are selected from an alkyl, alkanol or aromatic;

wherein A 3 is represented by one or more repeat units from radically polymerizing an aromatic acrylate monomer into the structure

wherein Rn is a C6-Ci2 aromatic or combination of aromatic and alkyl group optionally including hydroxyl group(s) and alkylene oxide group(s) substituted with an alkyl group;

wherein A4 is represented by a repeat unit from free radically polymerizing one or more aromatic vinyl monomer and would have the structure as shown below

A4

wherein Ri is H or methyl and R3 is one or more halogens, C1-C10 alkyl and/or aromatic group and preferably H or a Ci to C4 alkyl group, optionally including a halogen, one or more oxygen atom, and optionally including a nitrogen atom such as nitro group, the variable e can be 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5;

wherein As is represented by repeat unit from radically polymerizing one or more polyester (meth)acrylate monomer of the formula

wherein -O-R12 is at least one polymer chain comprising of a polyester with a number average molecular weight of at least 200;

wherein A6 is represented by a repeat unit from free radically polymerizing a

polyalkylene oxide (meth)acrylate (such as poly(ethylene glycol) (meth)acrylate) or a mixture of polyalkylene oxide (meth)acrylates of the formulae below

wherein Ri is selected from H or methyl and R13 is a polyalkylene oxide, preferably having a number average molecular weight of 200-3000 dalton or polypropylene glycol) (meth)acrylate having number average molecular weight of 200 to 3000;

wherein B is a repeating unit from radically polymerizing a styrene monomer of 8 to 20 carbon atoms, more desirably 8 to 10 carbon atoms (optionally with heteroatoms or halogen(s)) and more desirably an aromatically substituted styrene repeat unit of the formula

Formula 5 wherein Ri is H or methyl and R3 is one or more halogens, C1-C10 alkyl and/or aromatic group and preferably H or a Ci to C4 alkyl group, optionally including a halogen, one or more oxygen atom, and optionally including a nitrogen atom such as nitro group, the variable e can be 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5;

D individually is in each repeat unit is one or more C4-C6 dicarboxylic or anhydride thereof repeating unit with D consisting of Di, D2, D3 and D4 wherein Di has an anhydride structure, D2 having all carboxylic groups in acid or salt form, D3 has one acid group of the dicarboxylic acid reacted with an aminic reactant of 4 to 30 carbon atoms and 2 to 10 (more desirably 2 to 4 or 6) nitrogen atoms (optionally including one or two oxygen atoms), wherein at least one nitrogen atom is a primary or secondary amine capable of reacting with a carboxylic acid to form an amide or imide bond and at least one second nitrogen is a tertiary nitrogen or a nitrogen in an aromatic ring, or a tertiary nitrogen in an imidazole ring, wherein the aminic reactant can desirably be aminoalkylamine, a mono or dialkanolaminoalkyl amine and can be represented by the formulas HOR2(R3)NR4NHR5 or HO-R2(HO-R3)NR4NHR5, wherein R2, R3 and R4 are defined previously and R5 is H or an optionally substituted linear or branched hydrocarbyl group, or amine of the structure H2N-R4-N-(R5)(R6), amine functional imidazole, or amine functional pyridine group, such as the structures shown below

where the # symbol represents a primary or secondary amine group, if a secondary amine group the other substituent on the secondary amine is a linear or branched hydrocarbyl group

Formulas 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, wherein R4, Rs, and R6 are as later define and R7 and Rx are selected from H or a Ci-C6 linear, branched or cyclic alkyl groups, wherein # indicates the point of attachment to the primary or secondary amine linking atom of said amine species, and each of Formulas 6, 7, 8 and 9 are the Rn group below, or preferably D’i, D’2, D’3 and D’4; or D”i, D”2, D”3 and D”4 are as shown below:

D"i anhydride °"2 dicarboxylic

wherein the Rn group with the N or NH group of D’3 or D’4; or D”3 or D”4 represents the aminic reactant less one hydrogen atom;

wherein * indicates the point of attachment to the rest of the molecule, and the total number of combined repeat units of D’i, D’2, D’3 and D’4 equals the total number of D’ units; where at least 50 mole% of D’ = D’3 + D’4, preferably the mole% D’4 is greater than D’3 such that greater than 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 mole% of D’ = D’4 and optionally wherein less than 30 mofe%, more desirably less than 20 mole%, preferably less than 10 or in some embodiments less than 5 or 1 mole% of the total D units of the block copolymer dispersant that have amide or irnide linkages to the aminic reactant comprise amines that do not have a tertiary amine, an aromatic amine with a nitrogen in the aromatic ring, or an imidazole but rather are alkyl amines with C1-C20 carbon atoms for example methyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl amine or aromatic amines for example phenyl amine and phenyl ethyl amine.

2. The polymeric dispersant according to claim 1, wherein the aminic component reacted with the dicarboxylic acid repeat unit or anhydride thereof is selected from the group consisting of primary amine is selected from N,N-dimethylaminopropylamine, 4-(aminoethyl)morpholine, 2-(2-aminoethyl)-l -methyl pyrrolidine, l-(2-aminoethyl)pyrrolidine, 2-(2-aminoethyl pyridine), l-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, l-(2-aminoethyl)piperidine, l-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole, 4-(3- aminopropyl)morpholine, 1 -(3 -aminopropyl)-2-pipecoline, 1 -(3 -aminopropyl)-2-pyrrolidinone, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, 1,4, 7-trimethyl di ethyl enetriamine, di ethylene triamine,

tetraethylenepentamine, or a combination thereof.

3. The polymeric dispersant according to any of the previous claims, wherein said polymeric dispersant has a number average molecular weight of 5,000 to 20,000 dalton.

4. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-3, wherein D3 and D4 combined are at least 80 mole% of said D groups.

5. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-4, wherein at least 80 mole% of said A repeating units in said dispersant are Ai have an R2 group of 1 to 12 carbon atoms.

6. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-5, wherein at least 80 mole% of said B groups are non- substituted styrene repeating units.

7. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-6, wherein at least 80 mole% of said D units comprises at least one tertiary amine.

8. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-6, wherein at least 80 mole% of said D units comprises at least one imidazole or pyridine ring.

9. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-8, wherein said polymeric dispersant is a diblock copolymer.

10. The polymeric dispersant according to any of claims 1-8, wherein said polymeric dispersant is a triblock copolymer.

11. A composition comprising a particulate in dispersed form, a continuous media, and a polymeric dispersant any of claims 1 to 10; wherein said particulate interacts preferentially with said anchoring block(s), and said continuous media comprising a polar organic medium, or a non-polar organic medium interacts preferentially with said solubilizing block(s).

12. The composition of claim 11, wherein the composition is a millbase, paint or ink.

13. The composition of claims 11 or 12, wherein the particulate solid is a pigment or filler.

14. The composition of any of claims 11-13, further comprising a binder.

15. The composition of any of claims 11-14, wherein the composition is used in a color filter.

16. The composition of any of claims 11-13, wherein the polymeric dispersant is present in an amount ranging from 0.5 wt.% to 30 wt.%, or 1 wt.% to 25 wt.% of the composition.

17. A process for forming a polymeric dispersant comprising:

a) polymerizing by a controlled free radical polymerization at least one -Ax- block and at least one -(By-Dz)u- block and optionally multiple -Ax- blocks and -(By-Dz)u- blocks where A, B, D, x, y, z, and u are as defined in claim 1;

b) modifying said block copolymer by reacting at least 50 mole% of said D units with an aminic component having at least one amine reactive with carboxylic acid groups to form amide or imide bonds and at least one second amine group characterized as a tertiary amine or an amine in an aromatic ring or an amine in an imidazole ring; and

c) optionally wherein said polymeric dispersant has unreacted carboxylic acid groups from said D component and one or more of said carboxylic acid groups are reacted with aminic reactants to reduce the acidity of said D repeat units.

18. The process according to claim 18, wherein said controlled free radical polymerization involves a RAFT polymerization process.

19. The process according to claim 18, wherein said controlled free radical polymerization involves an OLRP polymerization process.

20. The process according to any of claims 18-20, wherein at least 80 mole percent of the A repeat units are an alkyl (meth)acrylate wherein the (meth) group is optionally present and the alkyl group is a Ci to C12 linear or branched alkyl group.

Description:
STYRENE MALEAMIDE BLOCK COPOLYMER PIGMENT DISPERSANT

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a polymeric dispersant from controlled radical polymerization of soluble (meth)acrylate or (meth)acrylamide blocks with styrene-maleic anhydride blocks. The anhydride groups of the styrene-maleic anhydride may be reacted with dialkylamino alkyl amines or aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic and/or heterocycles to form pendant tertiary amine type groups that can provide enhanced anchoring to a variety of pigments or particulate filler materials. The polymers may be diblock or up to ten alternating blocks.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Dispersants for pigments and other particulates are known. Dispersants generally have an anchoring portion of the molecule that has some attraction for and anchors to the pigment or particulate surfaces and a solubilizing portion that interacts favorably with the continuous phase. When the solubilizing portion is anchored to the pigment or particulate, the solubilizing portion acts as a barrier to aggregation of the particulate.

[0003] US 9,416,280 (W02008/122606) relates to a dispersant from a copolymer of a monomer (A) and a monomer (B) often B is maleic anhydride. The anhydride group is reacted with (i) a compound containing at least one tertiary or heterocyclic amine site and at least one additional groups capable of reacting with the dicarboxylic acid or anhydride thereof, and (ii) a polyetheramine.

[0004] US 7,838,574 relates to a pigment dispersion with a copolymer dispersant having a hydrophobic block (A) and a hydrophilic block (B).

[0005] US 8,153,731 (DE102006062439) relates to comb polymers made by reacting styrene- maleic anhydride copolymer with primary amino-terminated polyalkyl ene oxide used as a wetting agent and/or dispersant. US 8,129,476 (DE 102006062441 relates to similar comb polymers where the maleic anhydride units are derivatized with phosphate or quaternary ammonium functions.

[0006] US 4,755,563 relates to block copolymer dispersants containing ionic moieties. The block copolymers are preferably made by group transfer polymerization techniques and can be used as pigment dispersants. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] Controlled radical polymerization of block copolymer dispersant where the solvent solubilizing block(s) is typically (meth)acrylate and/or (meth)acrylamide repeat units and the anchoring block(s) and is typically styrene-maleic anhydride are useful to form dispersions of particulates in a nonpolar or polar organic medium. It is desirable if each block of solubilizing repeat units or anchoring repeat units is at least 5 and more desirably at least 10 consecutive units to enhance the surface activity of the final dispersant. Controlled free radical polymerization is useful to make such consecutive blocks of organic media soluble (such as acrylate type) repeating units and copolymer blocks of styrene type repeat units and free radically

polymerizable di or tricarboxylic acid monomers (such as maleic anhydride type) repeat units. Maleic anhydride likes to copolymerize in alternating steps with styrene free radically. So, the anchoring block typically has at least one styrene repeat unit between each maleic anhydride repeat unit.

[0008] A portion or all of the dicarboxylic acid repeating units are converted to having amide or imide linkages by reacting with an aminic species (having an amine group reactive with carboxylic acid to form an amide or imide linkage and at least one second amine group that is characterized as a tertiary amine or a cyclic amine containing structure (optionally with aromaticity) to form the final dispersant. The dicarboxylic acid (or anhydride thereof) groups of the styrene-maleic anhydride type segment may be reacted with dialkylamino alkyl amines and similar species (containing polyamines, imidazoles, pyrrolidine, morpholine, pyridine, piperidine, piperazine, pipecoline) containing at least one reactive primary amine and a tertiary amine or heterocyclic with an amine group(s) that can provide enhanced anchoring to a variety of pigments or particulate filler materials. The polymers may be diblock or up to 10 alternating blocks of solubilizing chains and anchoring chains.

[0009] It is desirable that the solubilizing chains not contain any significant amount of highly polar species such as (meth)acrylic acid repeat units. It is desirable that the anchoring block not contain highly polar groups or groups greater than 3 units of polyethylene oxide.

PET ATT, ED DESCRIPTION OF THU INVENTION

[0010] Block copolymers based on butylacrylate-co-styrene maleic anhydride post modified with dimethylamino propyl amine were found to be excellent pigment dispersants as fluid millbases and low pigment particle size distributions were achieved for the dispersion of Pigment Red 254.

[0011] Low particle size dispersions are desirable for highly transparent coatings such as those used in colour filters, also known as LCD (liquid crystal displays), or automotive tinted clear coats.

[0012] According to the invention there is provided a polar or nonpolar solvent-based composition comprising a particulate solid, an organic solvent and a polymeric dispersant wherein:

at least 55 wt.%, 65 wt.%, or 75 wt.%, more desirably at least 85 wt.% and preferably at least 95 wt.% of a block copolymer structure of formula shown below:

{(solubilizing block)-(anchoring block) } v

wherein the solubilizing block or the anchoring block can occur first and optionally there is one additional solubilizing or one additional anchoring block but such that the total number of solubilizing blocks does not exceed the maximum value of v and the total number of anchoring blocks does not exceed the maximum value of v (such as 5, 3, or 2 depending on the range of v);

wherein the solubilizing block is -(A) x - and the anchoring block is a copolymer of the structure -{(B) y -(D) Z } U -;

x is at least 5; and desirably 5 to 150, and more preferably 5 to 100;

y is at least 1 and can be from 1 to 10, more desirably 1 to 5;

z is generally 1 when derived from polymerizing maleic anhydride but can be 2, 3, 4 or 5, especially when derived by other dicarboxylic acids or anhydrides such as itaconic acid;

u is 1 to 25, preferably 2 to 10 or 2 to 20, more preferably 3 to 10 or 3 to 20;

u(y+z) is at least 5, desirably from 5 to 100, more preferably 5 to 50;

v is 1 to 5, preferably 1 to 3 and more preferably 1 to 2; and

with the remaining 45, 35, 25, 15, or 5 wt.% of the polymeric dispersant being chain initiating groups, chain terminating groups or inadvertently inserted repeating units, wherein repeating units of the A structure comprises about 25 to 80 wt.% of the dispersant, repeating units of the B structure comprises from about 5 to about 35 wt.% of the dispersant and combined repeating units of the D structure are from about 5 to about 50 wt.% of the dispersant, wherein said dispersant has a number average molecular weight at least 2500 daltons, preferably less than 75000 daltons, and more preferably 5000 to 20000 daltons.

Solubilizing Block of the block copolymer dispersant.

[0013] It is desirable that at least 90, 95, 99 or 100 mole% of the A units are selected from the group consisting of Ai, A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , As and A 6 units, at least 80, 90, 95 or 98 mole% of the A repeat units in the block copolymer dispersant are selected from the groups consisting of Ai, A 2 , and A 3 and the remainder of the A groups (such as 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less, 5 mole% or less and 2 mole% or less) are selected from A 4 , A 5 , or A 6. In one embodiment, it is desired that at least 80, 90 or 95 mole% of A is selected from Ai and the remaining amounts of A are selected from the other units A 2 and or A 3 in amounts of 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less and 5 mole% or less and, A 4 , As and A 6 in the amounts of 20 mole% or less, 10 mole% or less, and 5 mole% or less, and 2 or 1 mole% or less based on the total amount of A repeating units in the block copolymer dispersant. Since A 4 is similar to a repeat unit in the anchoring segment of the block copolymer dispersant, we don’t want too many A 4 repeat units in the solubilizing portion of the block copolymer dispersant. Since As and A 6 can have high molecular weights, even a small molar amount of As or A 6 can add significant weight amounts of polar polymers to the block copolymer and thus these repeat units are also used in relatively low molar amounts.

[0014] Wherein Ai is as defined below one or more repeating units derived from an alkyl(meth)acrylate of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, preferably a repeat unit of the structure

wherein Ri is CH 3 or H, and R 2 is a linear or branched Ci- 20 alkyl group more desirably Ci- Ci 6 alkyl group, (optionally including 1 or 2 heteroatoms such oxygen (resulting occasionally in a hydroxyl group or ether linkage or nitrogen)) wherein * indicates a covalent bond to the next/adjacent repeating units in the polymer or a covalent bond to the rest of a shown molecule, Ai is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing an alkyl(meth)acrylate or mixture of alkyl(meth)acrylates, preferably alkyl acrylate and more preferably butyl acrylate. The (meth) means that a methyl group is optionally present. Typical alkyl (meth)acrylates that can be used as a co-monomer, include C 1-20 or desirably C 1 -C 16 alkyl polymerisable ethylenically unsaturated monomer include methyl (meth)acrylate, ethyl (meth)acrylate, propyl (meth)acrylate, isopropyl (meth)acrylate, butyl (meth)acrylate, isobutyl (meth)acrylate, hexyl (meth)acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl (meth)acrylate, nonyl (meth)acrylate, lauryl (meth)acrylate, stearyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, isodecyl (meth)acrylate, isobomyl (meth)acrylate. Typical (meth)acrylates with heteroatoms that can be used as a comonomer include hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate (e.g., HEMA), hydroxy butyl (meth)acrylate, ethylene glycol methyl ether (meth)acrylate, diethylene glycol ethyl ether (meth)acrylate, and di(ethylene glycol) 2-ethylhexyl ether (meth)acrylate.

[0015] Wherein A 2 is derived from polymerizing one or more repeating units disubstituted (meth)acrylamide monomers and is according to the formula below

wherein Ri is as defined above and R 9 and Rio individually are Ci-Cx alkyl or aromatic or combinations of alkyl and aromatic groups or combinations thereof, optionally with a hydroxyl group, and optionally R 9 and Rio can be connected to each other to form C2-C16 cyclic groups, wherein the R 9 and Rio groups are selected from an alkyl, alkanol or aromatic for example (meth)acrylamide, N-ethyl (meth)acrylamide, N-hydroxymethyl (meth)acrylamide, N- hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylamide, N’N-dimethyl (meth)acrylamide, N’N-diethyl

(meth)acrylamide, N-isopropyl (meth)acryl amide, N-(isobutoxymethyl) methacrylamide, 3- (methoxypropyl)(meth) acrylamide, N-tertbutyl (meth)acrylamide, N-phenyl(meth)acrylamide, and N-diphenylmethyl (meth)acrylamide.

[0016] A3 may be one or more repeat units from radically polymerizing an aromatic monomer of the structure

wherein Rn is an C 6 -Ci 2 aromatic or combination of aromatic and alkyl group optionally including hydroxyl group(s) and alkylene oxide group(s) substituted with an alkyl group for example an aromatic (meth)acrylate or mixtures of aromatic (meth)acrylates. Typical aromatic (meth) acrylates that can be used as co-monomer include, phenoxyethyl (meth)acrylate, ethylene glycol phenyl ether (meth)acrylate, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl (meth)acrylate and benzyl (meth)acrylate. Preferably benzyl (meth)acrylate is the A 3 repeat unit.

[0017] A 4 is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing one or more aromatic vinyl monomer and would have the structure as shown below

A 4

wherein Ri is H or methyl and R 3 is one or more halogens, C1-C10 alkyl and/or aromatic group and preferably H or a Ci to C 4 alkyl group, optionally including a halogen, one or more oxygen atom, and optionally including a nitrogen atom such as nitro group. The variable e can be 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. In one embodiment, at least 80 mole% of the R 3 is preferably H. In one embodiment, desirably 10 mole% or less, more desirably 5 mole% or less, and preferably 2 mole% or less of A units can be repeat units from an aromatic vinyl monomer such as A 4.

[0018] A 4 can be a repeat unit from radically polymerizing styrene or substituted styrene for example from polymerizing 4-acetoxystyrene, 4-benzhydryl styrene , 4-benzyl oxy-3- m ethoxy styrene , 2-bromostyrene , 3-bromostyrene, 4-bromostyrene, 4-/er/-butoxystyrene, 4- ter /-butyl styrene, 2-chlorostyrene, 3-chlorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene, 2,6-dichlorostyrene, 2,6- difluorostyrene, 3, 4-dimethoxy styrene , 2,4-dimethylstyrene, 2, 5 -dimethyl styrene , N,N- dimethylvinylbenzylamine, 4-ethoxystyrene, 2-fluorostyrene, 3-fluorostyrene, 4-fluorostyrene, 4- [A f -(m ethyl a i noethyl )ami no ethyl] styrene, 3 -methylstyrene, 4-methylstyrene, 3-nitrostyrene, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene, 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, 2,4,6- trimethylstyrene, 4-vinylanisole, 3-vinylbenzoic acid, 4-vinylbenzoic acid, 4-vinylbenzyl chloride, 4-vinylbiphenyl, 2-vinylnaphthalene.

[0019] As is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing one or more polyester (meth)acrylate monomer of the formula

wherein -O-R12 is at least one polymer chain comprising of a polyester with a number average molecular weight of at least 200. More desirably the number average molecular weight of each polyester segment (R12) on A is in the number average molecular weight range of 300 to

5000, or 500 to 3000, or 1000 to 2500 dalton. An example of a monomer comprising a polyester chain is hydroxyethylcaprolactone acrylate (HELCA)

[0020] In one embodiment, the -O-R12 portion of the As repeat unit from radically

polymerizing a monomer comprises of a polyester chain derived from polymerizing a lactone, dioxane-2,5-dione or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, or mixtures thereof. Examples of suitable lactones include b-propiolactone and optionally Ci -6 -alkyl substituted d-valerolactone and e- caprolactone such as -methyl-d-valerolactone, d-valerolactone, e-caprolactone, 2-methyl-a- caprolactone, 3 -methyl -e-caprolactone, 4-methyl -e-caprolactone, 5-tert butyl -e-caprolactone, 7- m ethyl -e-caprolactone, 4,4,6-a-caprolactone tri m ethyl -e-caprol actone 4,6,6-trimethyl-a- caprolactone, or mixtures thereof. Examples of suitable dioxane-2,5-diones include lactide or glycolide. In one embodiment, A is a monomer that contains at least one polyester chain derivable from d-valerolactone and e-caprolactone.

[0021] In another embodiment, the -O-R12 portion of A5 is derived from polymerizing hydroxy carboxylic acid that may be saturated or unsaturated, linear or branched. Examples of suitable hydroxy carboxylic acids are glycolic acid, lactic acid, 5-hydroxy valeric acid, 6-hydroxy caproic acid, ricinoleic acid, l2-hydroxy stearic acid, l2-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 5-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid 4-hydroxydecanoic acid, or mixtures thereof.

[0022] The polyester made by condensation reactions may be esterification products prepared by the reaction of one or more organic polycarboxylic acids or their anhydrides (e.g., of molecular weight less than 300 and more preferably less than 150 dalton) with one or more low molecular weight (e.g., less than 250 and more desirably less than 150 dalton) diol. Examples of suitable polyols for use in the reaction include polyglycol adipates, polyethylene terephthalate polyols, orthophthalic polyols and the like, and mixtures thereof.

[0023] The diols used in making the polyester can be aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic and include alkylene glycols, e.g., ethylene glycol, 1,2- and 1, 3-propylene glycols, 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4- and 2,3-butylene glycols, hexane diols, neopentyl glycol, l,6-hexanediol, l,8-octanediol and other glycols such as bisphenol-A, cyclohexane diol, cyclohexane dimethanol (l,4-bis- hydroxymethylcycohexane), 2-methyl-l, 3 -propanediol, 2, 2, 4-trimethyl- 1, 3 -pentanediol, 2-butyl- 2-ethyl prorane-l,3-diol, Versatic™ alcohols produced from CARDETR E10P (Hexion), triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, dibutylene glycol, polybutylene glycol, caprolactone diol, dimerate diol, hydroxylated bisphenols, polyether glycols, halogenated diols, and the like, and mixtures thereof. Preferred diols include ethylene glycol, butylene glycol, hexane diol, and neopentyl glycol.

[0024] Suitable carboxylic acids used in making the polyester include dicarboxylic acids and tricarboxylic acids and anhydrides, e.g., maleic acid, maleic anhydride, succinic acid, glutaric acid, glutaric anhydride, adipic acid, suberic acid, pimelic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, chlorendic acid, 1,2, 4-butane-tricarboxylic acid, phthalic acid, the isomers of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, fumaric acid, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and acid, dimeric fatty acids such as oleic acid, and the like, and mixtures thereof. Preferred polycarboxylic acids used in making the polyester polyols include aliphatic or aromatic dibasic acids. [0025] A 6 is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing a polyalkylene oxide (meth)acrylate (such as poly(ethylene glycol) (meth)acrylate) or a mixture of polyalkylene oxide

(meth)acrylates of the formulae below

wherein Ri is selected from H or methyl and R I3 is a polyalkylene oxide, preferably having a number average molecular weight of 200-3000 dalton or polypropylene glycol) (meth)acrylate having number average molecular weight of 200 to 3000.

Anchoring Block of the block copolymer dispersant

[0026] B is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing an aromatic vinyl monomer and would have a structure such as shown below

B

wherein Ri is H or methyl and R 3 is one or more halogens or C1-C10 alkyl and/or aromatic group and preferably H or a Ci to C 4 alkyl group, optionally including a halogen, one or more oxygen atom, and optionally including a nitrogen atom such as nitro group. The variable e can be 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. In one embodiment, at least 80 mole% of the R 3 is preferably H.

[0027] B is a repeat unit from radically polymerizing styrene or substituted styrene. For example, from polymerizing 4-acetoxystyrene, 4-benzhydryl styrene , 4-benzyl oxy-3- m ethoxy styrene , 2-bromostyrene , 3-bromostyrene, 4-bromostyrene, 4-/er/-butoxystyrene, 4- /c/7-butyl styrene, 2-chlorostyrene, 3-chlorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene, 2,6-dichlorostyrene, 2,6- difluorostyrene, 3, 4-dimethoxy styrene , 2,4-dimethylstyrene, 2, 5 -dimethyl styrene , NN- dimethylvinylbenzylamine, 4-ethoxystyrene, 2-fluorostyrene, 3-fluorostyrene, 4-fluorostyrene, 4- [A f -(m ethyl a i noethyl )ami no ethyl] styrene, 3 -methylstyrene, 4-methylstyrene, 3-nitrostyrene, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene, 3-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, 2,4,6- trimethylstyrene, 4-vinylanisole, 3-vinylbenzoic acid, 4-vinylbenzoic acid, 4-vinylbenzyl chloride, 4-vinylbiphenyl, 2-vinylnaphthalene.

[0028] Desirably Di + D 2 +D 3 + D 4 units = 100 mole% of D, where at least 50 mole% of D = D 3 + D 4 , preferably the mole% of D 4 is greater than D 3 such that greater than 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 mole% of D = D 4 . D’ is an example of a repeat unit from maleic anhydride monomer reacted with an aminic dialkylaminoalkylamine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, or an aminoafkyf substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle or mixtures thereof desirably having 4 to 6 carbon atoms, preferably D’ 3 (amide form) or D’ 4 (imide form) repeat units. D” is an example of a repeat unit from an itaconic acid monomer reacted with an aminic dialkylaminoalkylamine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, or an ami noalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle or mixtures thereof desirably having 4 to 6 carbon atoms, preferably D” 3 (amide form) or D” 4 (imide form) repeat units.

[0029] Examples of a dialkylaminoalkylamine include dimethylaminoethyiamine,

diethylaminopropylamine, or dimethylaminopropylamine . Examples of a suitable imidazole include l-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminobutyl)imidazole, l-(3-arninopentyl)imidazole, 1- (3-aminohexyi)imidazoie, l-(3-aminoheptyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminooctyl)imidazole, or mixtures thereof. Examples of suitable amino alkyl pyridines include 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyri dine, 3-(2~ aminoethyl)pyridine, 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine. Examples of pyridines include 2-(2- pyridyl)ethylamine, 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine, 4-(l-aminoethyl)pyridine, 3-(2- aminoethyl)pyridine, 2-(l-aminoethyl)pyridine, and l-pyri din-3 -yl-ethylamine, 2-(2- methylaminoethyl)pyridine, 4-(aminomethyl)pyridine, 2-amino-4-methylpyridine, 2-amino-6- methylpyridine, 2-amino-3-methylpyridine, 2-amino-3-methylpyridine, 4-amino-2- methylpyridine, 5-amino-2-methylpyridine, 3-amino-4-methylpyridine, 3-amino-5- methylpyridine, and 2-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)ethylamine. [0030] In addition, to a dialkylaminoalkylamine or aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle a non-tertiary nitrogen containing amine may be present. Examples of amines; that can be reacted with the dicarboxylic acid of the anchoring chain in lieu of the amines with tertiary nitrogen, aromatic nitrogen, heterocycle nitrogen, or imidazole; include alkyl amines with C -C 20 carbon atoms for example methyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl amine or aromatic amines for example phenyl amine and phenyl ethyl amine. Desirably, less than 30 mole%, more desirably less than 20 mo!e%, preferably less than 10 or in some embodiments less than 5 or 1 mole percent of the total D units of the block copolymer dispersant that have amide or imide linkages to the aminic reactant would comprise amines that do not have a tertiary amine, an aromatic amine with a nitrogen in the aromatic ring, or an imidazole. The

complementary amount (to make 100%) of the D units would be the dicarboxylic acid repeat units, the anhydride of the D unit, or the amide and imide form of the D units.

[0031] D is comprised of Di, D 2 , D 3 and D 4 and desirably Di, D 2 , D 3 and D 4 comprise at least 90, 95, 98, 99 or 100 mole% of D. D’ 3 (amide form) , andD’ 4 (imide form) or D” 3 (amide form) , and D” 4 (imide form) are examples of how repeat units from dicarboxylic acid monomer, D’ I (maleic anhydride) or D”i (itaconic acid) react with amines. Preferably D, or examples D’ I or D”i are optionally reacted with an aminic reactant that contains at least 1 and maybe up to 2, 3 or 4 nitrogen (amines) at least one of which is not reactive with carboxylic acid groups such as 1) tertiary amines or 2) amines where the nitrogen atom is part of a cyclic or heterocyclic ring, or 3) amines where the nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring or is bound to one carbon atom by a single bond and another carbon atom by a double bond (aromatic rings with amine therein and imidazoles). Tertiary amines are amines where the nitrogen is attached to at least three different aliphatic carbon atom groups. The aminic reactant desirably has at least 2 and up to 10, more desirably at least 2 and up to 6 or 8, and preferably at least 2 and up to 4 nitrogen atoms. The aminic reactant desirably has 4 to 30 carbon atoms, more desirably 4 to 20 carbon atoms and preferably 4 to 10 or 15 carbon atoms (optionally including one or two oxygen atoms). The aminic reactant reacts to the dicarboxylic acid or anhydride through a primary or secondary amine to form an amide or imide linkage as shown in D’ 3 and D” 3 (amide form) or D’ 4 and D” 5 (imide form).

[0032] In one embodiment, up to 10 or 20 mole% of the aminic reactant can have multiple primary or secondary amine groups such that it can couple two different block copolymer dispersants into a larger dispersant. In another embodiment, less than 10 mole% or less than 5 mole% or less than 2 mole% of the aminic reactant can have more than one amine group capable of forming an amide or imide bond with a dicarboxylic acid or anhydride thereof. The following structures show some of the potential derivatives of the aminic reactant and either maleic anhydride derived repeat units or itaconic acid derived repeat units in the block copolymer dispersant. In one embodiment, at least 80 mole% of the D units are reacted with an aminic reactant to form an amide or imide that contains a tertiary amine. In one embodiment, at least 80 mole% of the D units are reacted with an aminic reactant to form an amide or imide that contains an amine where the nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring or part of an imidazole ring. In one embodiment, at least 80 mole% of the D units are reacted with an aminic reactant to form an amide or imide that contains at least one of the group consisting of a tertiary amine, a nitrogen as part of an imidazole, and a nitrogen as part of an aromatic ring.

D 'i anhydride D 2 d i carboxyl i c

D"i anhydride °"2 d i carboxyl i c

[0033] ln addition to a dialkylaminoalkylamine or ami noalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle, a polyamine may be present such that 1-10% of the dicarboxylic groups are reacted and it is anticipated that these will induce some intern olecular crosslinking.

Examples of poly(amines) are ethyl enediamine, di ethylene triamine. Polyamines may contain secondary or tertiary amines for example tetraethyl ene pentamine or trimethyk!i ethyl enetriarnine.

[0034] The compound containing at least one tertiary or heterocyclic amine may be a dialkylaminoalkylamine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, an aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle, a dialkylaminoalkyl alcohol, a hydroxyalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle, or mixtures thereof.

[0035] In one embodiment, the compound containing at least one tertiary or heterocyclic amine may be a dialkylaminoalkylamine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, or mixtures thereof.

[0036] The dialkylaminoalkylamine may be represented by the formula R 2 (R 3 )NR 4 NH 2 wherein R 2 and R 3 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl moieties. R 2 and R 3 may be taken together to form a cyclic structure containing 5 to 8 carbon atoms. R 4 includes Ci to C12 linear or branched alkylene. [0037] Examples of a dialkylaminoalkylamine include dimethylaminoethylamine, diethylaminopropylamine, or dimethylaminopropylamine.

[0038] The substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine may be represented by the formula

R 2 (R 3 )NR 4 NHR 5 , wherein R 2 , R 3 and R 4 are defined above, and R 5 is H or an optionally substituted linear or branched hydrocarbyl group.

[0039] The dialkanolaminoalkyl amine may be represented by the formula HO-R 2 (HO- R 3 )NR 4 NHR 5 , wherein R 2 , R 3 and R 4 are defined previously. Examples of suitable

dialkanolaminoalkyl amine includes , -bis(2-hydroxyethyi)ethylenediamine and [2- aminoethyl (hy droxym ethyl )amino] methanol .

[0040] The aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic, heterocycle, or imidazole may include groups such as an imidazole, a pyridine a triazole, a pyrazole, a tetrazole, or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle includes an imidazole, optionally substituted with Ci- 4 groups. Examples of a suitable imidazole include l-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminobutyl)imidazole, l-(3- aminopentyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminohexyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminoheptyl)imidazole, l-(3- aminooctyl)imidazole, or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen is an imidazole. Examples of a suitable imidazole include examples include 2-aminoimidazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, l-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole, l-(3-aminopropyl)-2-methyl-liT- imidazole, 2-(liT-imidazol-l-yl)ethanamine, 2-(2-methyl-liT-imidazol-l-yl)ethylamine, or mixtures thereof. Another aminic reactant can include ¥-phenyl- ? -phenylenediamine.

[0041] The tertiary amine group of the dialkylaminoalkylamine, or the other nitrogen(s) attached with three covalent bonds to non-carbonyl carbon atoms (e.g., the imidazole, the aromatic amines, or the heteroatom cyclic structures) may be quatemised. Quaternising agents include alkyl halides, aralkyl halides, dialkyl carbonates, dialkyl sulphates or epoxides.

Particularly useful quaternising agents for the graft copolymer of Formula (1) include benzyl chloride, dimethyl sulphate, diethyl sulphate propylene oxide, or styrene oxide. Often epoxides are used in the presence of equal molar quantity of acid (such as acetic acid).

[0042] The degree of quaternising may be from greater than 1%, or greater than 10%, or greater than 20% and or 40% or more of the amine moieties. The degree of quaternising may be as high as 100%, or 95% or 90% of the amine moieties. In different embodiments, the degree of quatemising ranges from greater than 1% to 100%, or greater than 10% to 95%, or greater than 20% to 95%, or 40% to 90%.

[0043] The dispersant of the invention may be obtained by a process comprising 1) synthesis of a block copolymer and 2) reaction of block copolymer with dialkyl aminoalkyl amine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, an aminoalkyl substituted nitrogen containing aromatic, heterocycle, or imidazole. Alternatively, the styrene maleic anhydride copolymer could be generated, the maleic anhydride based repeating unit could be functionalized with the arninic reactant, and then one or more solubilizing blocks could be added to the styrene-maleic anhydride block.

[0044] The block copolymer may be synthesised from any living or controlled polymerization technique especially control radical polymerisation (CRP) processes e.g., cobalt catalysed chain transfer polymerisation, nitroxide mediated polymerisation, atom transfer radical polymerisation, iodine transfer polymerisation, selenium-centered radical-mediated polymerisation, telluride mediated polymerisation, stilbene-mediated polymerisation, organocatalyzed living radical polymerisation, and preferably reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation. The process may be carried out in an inert atmosphere or air. If the

polymerisation is performed in an inert atmosphere, nitrogen or argon are preferred.

[0045] The process is typically performed in the presence of solvent. A suitable solvent may be chosen from aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene and xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkyl esters of alkane carboxylic acids, dialkyl ketones and dialkyl and cyclic ethers such as diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran. Examples of suitable solvents include alkyl esters such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl formate, methyl propionate, m ethoxy propyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, or mixtures thereof.

[0046] The process to prepare the polymer of the invention may have a reaction temperature in the range -80 to 250° C, or 20 to 220° C or 40 to 200° C. The choice of solvent and initiator will may or may not have a limiting or non-limiting effect on the preferred polymerisation

temperature range.

[0047] An organocatalysed living radical polymerization (OLRP) process performed in ester solvent is preferred. OLRP polymerization are carried typically performed utilizing an alkyl iodide initiator in the presence of an organic catalyst as described in US 2012/190795, US 8,575,285B2, US 9,0l8,325B2 and US 8,742,045B2. Examples of initiators for OLRP are ethyl a-iodophenylacetate, 2-iodo-2-methylpropionitrile, ethyl 2-iodo-2-methylpropionate, ethyl 2- iodopropionate. The initiator may be synthesised in situ by reacting iodine with a free radical initiator for example 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (V65) or 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (V60). Examples of catalysts for OLRP are tributyl amine, tetra butyl ammonium iodide, N- iodosuccinimide, diethyl phosphonate, diphenylmethane, 2,6-Di-/er/-butyl-4-methylphenol and Vitamin E compounds.

[0048] A RAFT polymerisation process performed in an ester solvent is especially preferred.

RAFT polymerisations are carried out utilising thiocarbonylthio chain transfer agents, e.g., cyanomethyl methyl(phenyl)carbamodithioate, cyanomethyl dodecyl trithiocarbonate, 2-cyano- 2-propyl benzodithioate, 4-cyano-4-(phenylcarbonothioylthio)pentanoic acid, 2-cyano-2-propyl dodecyl trithiocarbonate, 4-cyano-4-[(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)sulfanyl]pentanoic acid, or 2- (dodecylthi ocarb onothi oylthi o)-2-methylpropi oni c aci d .

[0049] It is preferable to use a free radical initiator in the presence of RAFT agent or OLRP catalyst to accelerate the polymerization. The initiator may be an oil soluble azo or peroxide type initiator. Examples of Azo initiators and related Wako product codes are dimethyl 2,2'- azobis(2-methylpropionate) (V601), 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (V65), 2,2'- azobis(isobutyronitrile) (V60), 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (V70), 2,2'- azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile) (V59), or l,l'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (V40). Examples of peroxide initiators are dilauroyl peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, t-butyl perbenzoate, t-butyl peroxyacetate, t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate (Trigonox ® 21 S ex Akzo Nobel).

[0050] If a diblock copolymer is desired, the living polymerization is conducted sequentially (in any order of solubilizing and anchoring) once with the solubilizing monomer(s) and one with the anchoring monomers. If a tetrablock copolymer dispersant is desired, the living

polymerization is conducted sequentially four times. As the polymerization can switch from solubilizing monomer(s) to anchoring monomers or vice versa, the order of polymerization of the monomers is not critical.

[0051] In a typical RAFT or OLRP process, monomer component forming A (e.g., alkyl (meth)acrylate), free radical initiator and RAFT agent or OLRP initiator and catalyst are stirred in solvent under nitrogen at 60-100° C for 2-24 hours until all the monomer has converted to polymer. In one embodiment, it is desirable that monomer conversion of component A is greater than 95% to enhance blocking efficiency. Monomer components B and D are then charged and stirred under nitrogen for 60-100° C for 2-24 hours until all the monomer has converted to polymer. Additional initiators may be added at any time to increase reaction rate.

[0052] After the desired number of blocks of each segment are generated, the final polymer can be stirred under nitrogen with an aminic reactant comprising a dialkylaminoalkylamine, a substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, or an aminoalkyi substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle, or imidazole at temperatures from 0-300° C, preferably 25 to 200° C and especially 80-180° C. A reaction temperature of less than 100° C will typically favour formation of amides. Whereas, a reaction temperature of 150° C or greater will typically favour formation of imides if the amine reactant is a primary amine. The resultant copolymer may contain a mixture amide or imide groups and smaller amounts of di carboxylic acid and or anhydride.

[0053] On addition of the amine component, the RAFT agent may be cleaved from the polymer chain end. The resulting product may remain in the reaction solvent or be removed by a separation technique. An example of removing the cleaved RAFT agent from the polymer solution may be to filter through an ion exchange resin/activated carbon or separate the polymer from solution by precipitation.

[0054] The process of adding the aminic reactant and forming the amide or imide (or combinations thereof) is typically performed in the same solvent as the polymerisation reaction but may be performed in a different solvent. Suitable solvent may be chosen from aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene and xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkyl esters of alkane carboxylic acids, dialkyl ketones and dialkyl and cyclic ethers such as diethyl ether and

tetrahydrofuran. Examples of suitable solvents include alkyl esters such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl formate, methyl propionate, methoxy propyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, or mixtures thereof.

[0055] After the aminic reactant has been reacted onto the block copolymer, any quaternization of tertiary or other nitrogen atoms bound to aliphatic or aromatic carbons by three covalent bonds can be implemented. The reaction conditions for quaternization are well known to those skilled in the art.

[0056] The RAFT a gent may be removed before the addition of the dialkylaminoalkylamine, substituted dialkylaminoalkylamine, or aminoalkyi substituted nitrogen containing aromatic heterocycle. Examples of processes for removal of the RAFT agent are described in Polyrn. Chem., 2010, 1, 149-157. [0057] The polymeric dispersant is useful to disperse particulate matter in a polar or non-polar organic media.

[0058] The particulate solid present in the composition may be any inorganic or organic solid material which is substantially insoluble in the organic medium at the temperature concerned and which it is desired to stabilize in a finely divided form therein. The particulate solids may be in the form of a granular material, a fiber, a platelet or in the form of a powder, often a blown powder. In one embodiment, the particulate solid is a pigment.

[0059] The particulate solid (typically a pigment or filler) may have an average particle size measured by light scattering measurements of from 10 nanometers to 10 microns, or desirably 10 nanometers to 1, 2, 3 or 5 microns, or more desirably 20 nanometers to 1, 2, 3 or 5 microns in diameter.

[0060] Examples of suitable solids are pigments for solvent inks; pigments, extenders, fillers, blowing agents and flame retardants for paints and plastic materials; dyes, especially disperse dyes; optical brightening agents and textile auxiliaries for solvent dyebaths; pigments for inks, toners and other solvent application systems; solids for oil-based and inverse-emulsion drilling muds; dirt and solid particles in dry cleaning fluids; metals; particulate ceramic materials and magnetic materials for ceramics, piezoceramic printing, refractories, abrasives, foundry, capacitors, fuel cells, ferrofluids, conductive inks, magnetic recording media, water treatment and hydrocarbon soil remediation; organic and inorganic nanodisperse solids; metal, metal oxides and carbon for electrodes in batteries, fibers such as wood, paper, glass, steel, carbon and boron for composite materials; and biocides, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals which are applied as dispersions in organic media.

[0061] In one embodiment, the solid is an organic pigment from any of the recognized classes of pigments described, for example, in the Third Edition of the Colour Index (1971) and subsequent revisions of, and supplements thereto, under the chapter headed“Pigments.”

Examples of organic pigments are those from the azo, disazo, trisazo, condensed azo, azo lakes, naphthol pigments, anthanthrone, anthrapyrimidine, anthraquinone, benzimidazolone, carbazole, diketopyrrolopyrrole, flavanthrone, indigoid pigments, indanthrone, isodibenzanthrone, isoindanthrone, isoindolinone, isoindoline, isoviolanthrone, metal complex pigments, oxazine, perylene, perinone, pyranthrone, pyrazoloquinazolone, quinacridone, quinophthalone, thioindigo, triarylcarbonium pigments, triphendioxazine, xanthene and phthalocyanine series, especially copper and/or zinc phthalocyanine and its nuclear halogenated derivatives, and also lakes of acid, basic and mordant dyes. Carbon black, although strictly inorganic, behaves more like an organic pigment in its dispersing properties. In one embodiment, the organic pigments are

phthalocyanines, especially copper phthalocyanines, monoazos, disazos, indanthrones, anthranthrones, quinacridones, diketopyrrolopyrroles, perylenes and carbon blacks.

[0062] Examples of inorganic pigments include metallic oxides such as titanium dioxide, rutile titanium dioxide and surface coated titanium dioxide, titanium oxides of different colours such as yellow and black, iron oxides of different colours such as yellow, red, brown and black, zinc oxide, zirconium oxides, aluminium oxide, oxymetallic compounds such as bismuth vanadate, cobalt aluminate, cobalt stannate, cobalt zincate, zinc chromate and mixed metal oxides of two or more of manganese, nickel, titanium, chromium, antimony, magnesium, cobalt, iron or aluminium, Prussian blue, vermillion, ultramarine, zinc phosphate, zinc sulphide, molybdates and chromates of calcium and zinc, metal effect pigments such as aluminium flake, copper, and copper/zinc alloy, pearlescent flake such as lead carbonate and bismuth oxychloride.

[0063] Inorganic solids include extenders and fillers such as ground and precipitated calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, calcium oxide, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, calcium phosphonate, barium sulphate, barium carbonate, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, natural magnesium hydroxide or brucite, precipitated magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, dolomite, aluminium trihydroxide, aluminium hydroperoxide or boehmite, calcium and magnesium silicates, aluminosilicates including nanoclays, kaolin, montmorillonites including bentonites, hectorites and saponites, ball clays including natural, synthetic and expandable, mica, talc including muscovites, phlogopites, lepidolites and chlorites, chalk, synthetic and precipitated silica, fumed silica, metal fibers and powders, zinc, aluminium, glass fibers, refractory fibers, carbon black including single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, reinforcing and non-reinforcing carbon black, graphite, Buckminsterfullerenes, asphaltene, graphene, diamond, alumina, quartz, perlite, pegmatite, silica gel, wood flour, wood flake including soft and hard woods, saw dust, powdered paper/fiber, cellulosic fibers such as kenaf, hemp, sisal, flax, cotton, cotton linters, jute, ramie, rice husk or hulls, raffia, typha reed, coconut fiber, coir, oil palm fiber, kapok, banana leaf, caro, curaua, henequen leaf, harakeke leaf, abaca, sugar cane bagasse, straw, bamboo strips, wheat flour, MDF and the like, vermiculite, zeolites, hydrotalcites, fly ash from power plants, incinerated sewage sludge ash, pozzolanes, blast fumace slag, asbestos, chrysotile, anthophylite, crocidolite, wollastonite, attapulgite and the like, particulate ceramic materials such as alumina, zirconia, titania, ceria, silicon nitride, aluminium nitride, boron nitride, silicon carbide, boron carbide, mixed silicon-aluminium nitrides and metal titanates; particulate magnetic materials such as the magnetic oxides of transition metals, often iron and chromium, e.g., gamma-Fe 2 0 3 , Fe 3 0 4 and cobalt-doped iron oxides, ferrites, e.g., barium ferrites; and metal particles, for instance metallic aluminium, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, silver, gold, palladium, and platinum and alloys thereof.

[0064] Other useful solid materials include flame retardants such as pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, decabromodiphenyl ether, hexabromocyclododecane, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, melamine cyanurate, antimony oxide and borates; biocides or industrial microbial agents such as those mentioned in tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the chapter entitled“Industrial Microbial Agents” in Kirk-Othmer’s Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 13, 1981, 3 rd Ed., and agrochemicals such as the fungicides flutriafen, carbendazim, chlorothalonil and mancozeb.

[0065] The continuous medium in this disclosure can be a polar organic solvent, a non-polar organic solvent, or a polymer or compatible blends of polymers and/or solvents (wherein compatible is used to indicate a one-phase system under the intended conditions of temperature, pressure, etc.). The organic medium present in the composition of the invention in one embodiment is a plastics material and in another embodiment is an organic liquid. The organic liquid may be a non-polar or a polar organic liquid. By the term“polar,” in relation to the organic liquid, it is meant that an organic liquid is capable of forming moderate to strong bonds as described in the article entitled“A Three-Dimensional Approach to Solubility” by Crowley, et al in Journal of Paint Technology, Vol. 38, 1966, at pg. 269. Such organic liquids generally have a hydrogen bonding number of 5 or more as defined in the above-mentioned article.

[0066] Examples of suitable polar organic liquids are amines, ethers, especially lower alkyl ethers, organic acids, esters, ketones, glycols, glycol ethers, glycol esters, alcohols and amides. Numerous specific examples of such moderately strongly hydrogen bonding liquids are given in the book entitled“Compatibility and Solubility” by Ibert Mellan (published in 1968 by Noyes Development Corporation) in Table 2.14 on pages 39-40 and these liquids all fall within the scope of the term polar organic liquid as used herein. [0067] In one embodiment, polar organic liquids are dialkyl ketones, alkyl esters of alkane carboxylic acids and alkanols, especially such liquids containing up to, and including, a total of 6 carbon atoms. As examples of the polar organic liquids include dialkyl and cycloalkyl ketones, such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone, di-isopropyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isobutyl ketone, methyl isoamyl ketone, methyl n-amyl ketone and cyclohexanone; alkyl esters such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl formate, methyl propionate, methoxypropyl acetate and ethyl butyrate; glycols and glycol esters and ethers, such as ethylene glycol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 3-methoxypropylpropanol,

3-ethoxypropylpropanol, 2-butoxy ethyl acetate, 3 -methoxypropyl acetate, 3-ethoxypropyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate; alkanols such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol and isobutanol (also known as 2-methylpropanol), terpineol and dialkyl and cyclic ethers such as diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran. In one embodiment, solvents are alkanols, alkane carboxylic acids and esters of alkane carboxylic acids. In one embodiment, the present invention is suitable for organic liquids that are substantially non-soluble in an aqueous medium. Furthermore, a person skilled in the art will appreciate that small quantities of an aqueous medium (such as glycols, glycol ethers, glycol esters and alcohols) may be present in the organic liquids provided the overall organic liquid is substantially non-soluble in an aqueous medium.

[0068] Examples of organic liquids, which may be used as polar organic liquids are thermoplastic extrudable or moldable plastics and film-forming resins such as are suitable for the preparation of inks, paints and chips for use in various applications such as paints and inks. Examples of such resins include polyamides, such as Versamid™ and Wolfamid™, and cellulose ethers, such as ethyl cellulose and ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose, nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate butyrate resins, including mixtures thereof. Examples of paint resins include short oil alkyd/melamine-formaldehyde, polyester/melamine-formaldehyde, thermosetting acrylic/melamine-formaldehyde, long oil alkyd, medium oil alkyd, short oil alkyd, polyether polyols and multi-media resins such as acrylic and urea/aldehyde.

[0069] The organic liquid may be a polyol, that is to say, an organic liquid with two or more hydroxy groups. In one embodiment, polyols include alpha-omega diols or alpha-omega diol ethoxylates.

[0070] In one embodiment, non-polar organic liquids are compounds containing aliphatic groups, aromatic groups or mixtures thereof. The non-polar organic liquids include non- halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., toluene and xylene), halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, chlorotoluene), non-halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., linear and branched aliphatic hydrocarbons containing six or more carbon atoms both fully and partially saturated), halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g.,

dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethane) and natural non-polar organics (e.g., vegetable oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, linseed oil, terpenes and glycerides).

[0071] In one embodiment, the organic liquid comprises at least 0.1% by weight, or 1% by weight or more of a polar organic liquid based on the total organic liquid. The organic liquid optionally further comprises water in amounts 10 wt.% or less, 5 wt.% or less or 2 wt.% or less in a polar organic media and water in amounts of 5 wt.% or less, 2 wt.% or less, or 1 wt.% or less in non-polar organic media based on the weight of the media. In one embodiment, the continuous media is substantially free of water meaning it is less than 500 ppm, 200 ppm or 100 ppm based on the weight of the media. In another embodiment, the limitation with respect to the wt.% or ppm of water will be based on the weight of the dispersion, which generally describes the millbase, coating or ink and comprises dispersed particulate, dispersant, and the polar or non polar media, and optional additives such as resins, viscosity modifiers, defoamers, etc.

[0072] If desired, the compositions of the present invention may contain other ingredients, for example resins (where these do not already constitute the organic medium), binders, co-solvents, cross-linking agents, fluidising agents, wetting agents, anti-sedimentation agents, plasticisers, surfactants, dispersants other than the compound of the present invention, humectants, anti- foamers, anti-cratering agents, rheology modifiers, heat stabilizers, light stabilizers, UV absorbers, antioxidants, leveling agents, gloss modifiers, biocides and preservatives.

[0073] If desired, the compositions containing plastic material may contain other ingredients, for example dispersants other than the compound of the present invention, antifogging agents, nucleators, blowing agents, flame retardants, process aids, surfactants, plasticisers, heat stabilizers, UV absorbers, anti-oxidants, fragrances, mould release aids, anti-static agents, anti microbial agents, biocides, coupling agents, lubricants (external and internal), impact modifiers, slip agents, air release agents and viscosity depressants.

[0074] The compositions typically contain from 1 to 95% by weight of the particulate solid (dispersed phase), the precise quantity depending on the nature of the solid and the quantity depending on the nature of the solid and the relative densities of the continuous media. For example, a composition in which the solid is an organic material, such as an organic pigment, in one embodiment contains from 15 to 60% by weight of the solid whereas a composition in which the solid is an inorganic material, such as an inorganic pigment, filler or extender, in one embodiment contains from 40 to 90% by weight of the solid based on the total weight of composition.

[0075] The compositions containing an organic liquid may be prepared by any of the conventional methods known for preparing dispersions. Thus, the solid, the organic medium and the dispersant may be mixed in any order, the mixture then being subjected to a mechanical treatment to reduce the particles of the solid to an appropriate size, for example by high speed mixing, ball milling, basket milling, bead milling, gravel milling, sand grinding, attritor grinding, two or three roll milling, plastic milling until the dispersion is formed. Alternatively, the solid may be treated to reduce its particle size independently or in admixture with either the organic medium or the dispersant, the other ingredient or ingredients then being added and the mixture being agitated to provide the composition. The composition can also be made by grinding or milling the dry solid with the dispersant and then adding the liquid medium or mixing the solid with the dispersant in a liquid medium in a pigment flushing process.

[0076] The composition containing the plastic material may be prepared by any of the conventional methods known for preparing thermoplastic compounds. Thus, the solid, the thermoplastic polymer, and the dispersant may be mixed in any order, the mixture then being subjected to a mechanical treatment to reduce the particles of the solid or disperse them in an appropriate size, for example, by Banbury mixing, ribbon blending, twin-screw extrusion, twin- roll milling, compounding in a Buss co-kneader, or similar equipment. Master batches of the pigments in the particular plastic or rubber can also be made and that master batch can then be diluted with addition plastic or rubber to make the final composition.

[0077] The composition of the present invention is particularly suited to liquid dispersions. In one embodiment, such dispersion compositions comprise:

a) from 0.5 to 80 parts of a particulate solid;

b) from 0.1 to 79.6 parts of the polymeric dispersant; and

c) from 19.9 to 99.4 parts of an organic liquid

wherein all relative parts are by weight and the amounts (a) +(b) +(c) = 100. [0078] In one embodiment, component a) comprises from 0.5 to 30 parts of a pigment and such dispersions are useful as (liquid) inks, paints and millbases.

[0079] If a composition is required comprising a particulate solid and the polymeric dispersant in dry form, the organic liquid is typically volatile so that it may be readily removed from the particulate solid by a simple separation means such as evaporation. In one embodiment, the composition comprises the organic liquid.

[0080] If the dry composition consists essentially of the polymeric dispersant and the particulate solid, it typically contains at least 0.2%, at least 0.5% or at least 1.0% of polymeric dispersant based on weight of the particulate solid. In one embodiment, the dry composition contains not greater than 100%, not greater than 50%, not greater than 20% or not greater than 10% by weight of the polymeric dispersants based on the weight of the particulate solid.

[0081] As disclosed herein, the compositions of the invention are suitable for preparing millbases wherein the particulate solid is milled in an organic liquid in the presence of said polymeric dispersant.

[0082] Thus, according to a still further aspect of the invention, there is provided a millbase comprising a particulate solid, an organic liquid and the polymeric dispersant.

[0083] Typically, the millbase contains from 20 to 70% by weight particulate solid based on the total weight of the millbase. In one embodiment, the particulate solid is not less than 10 or not less than 20% by weight of the millbase. Such millbases may optionally contain a binder added either before or after milling.

[0084] In one embodiment, the binder is a polymeric material capable of binding the composition on volatilization of the organic liquid.

[0085] Binders are polymeric materials including natural and synthetic materials. In one embodiment, binders include poly(meth)acrylates, polystyrenics, polyesters, polyurethanes, alkyds, polysaccharides such as cellulose, nitrocellulose, and natural proteins such as casein.

The binder may be nitrocellulose. In one embodiment, the binder is present in the composition at more than 100% based on the amount of particulate solid, more than 200%, more than 300% or more than 400%.

[0086] The amount of optional binder in the millbase can vary over wide limits but is typically not less than 10%, and often not less than 20% by weight of the continuous/liquid phase of the millbase. In one embodiment, the amount of binder is not greater than 50% or not greater than 40% by weight of the continuous/liquid phase of the millbase.

[0087] The amount of dispersant in the millbase is dependent on the amount of particulate solid but is typically from 0.5 to 5% by weight of the millbase.

[0088] Dispersions and millbases made from the composition of the invention are particularly suitable for use in non-aqueous and solvent free formulations in which energy curable systems (ultra-violet, laser light, infra-red, cationic, electron beam, microwave) are employed with monomers, oligomers, etc. or a combination present in the formulation. They are particularly suitable for use in coatings such as paints, varnishes, inks, other coating materials and plastics. Suitable examples include their use in low, medium and high solids paints, general industrial paints including baking, two component and metal coating paints such as coil and can coatings, powder coatings, UV-curable coatings, wood varnishes; inks, such as flexographic, gravure, offset, lithographic, letterpress or relief, screen printing and printing inks for packaging printing, non-impact inks such as inkjet inks including continuous inkjet and drop on demand inkjet which include thermal, piezo and electrostatic, phase change inks and hot melt wax inks, inks for ink-jet printers and print varnishes such as overprint varnishes; polyol and plastisol dispersions; non- aqueous ceramic processes, especially tape-casting, gel-casting, doctor-blade, extrusion and injection moulding type processes, a further example would be in the preparation of dry ceramic powders for isostatic pressing; composites such as sheet moulding and bulk moulding

compounds, resin transfer moulding, pultrusion, hand-lay -up and spray -lay -up processes, matched die moulding; construction materials like casting resins, cosmetics, personal care like nail coatings, sunscreens, adhesives, toners such as liquid toners, plastics materials and electronic materials such as coating formulations for colour filter systems in displays including organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices, liquid crystal displays and electrophoretic displays, glass coatings including optical fiber coatings, reflective coatings or anti -reflective coatings, conductive and magnetic inks and coatings. They are useful in the surface modification of pigments and fillers to improve the dispersibility of dry powders used in the above applications. Further examples of coating materials are given in Bodo Muller, Ulrich Poth, Lackformulierung und Lackrezeptur, Lehrbuch fir Ausbildung und Praxis, Vincentz Verlag, Hanover (2003) and in P.G.Garrat, Strahlenhartung, Vincentz Verlag, Hanover (1996). Examples of printing ink fonnulations are given in E.W.Flick, Printing Ink and Overprint Varnish Formulations - Recent Developments, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge NJ, (1990) and subsequent editions.

[0089] In one embodiment, the composition of the invention further includes one or more additional known dispersants.

[0090] The polymeric dispersant of the invention herein is useful for making various particulate dispersions that go into inks, coatings, LCD (liquid crystal display) panels, and pigmented or filled polymer systems. A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. In another embodiment, the color filter composition is for a Quantum dot color filter.

[0091] The novel copolymers are especially useful in color filter application. In one embodiment, the color filter composition is comprising a) photo resist binder, b) transparent pigment, c) optionally a solvent and/or optionally a photoinitiator or a photolatent catalyst, and d) dispersant which is block copolymer of any of the appended composition or process claims.

[0092] The term photo resist binder refers to a photosensitive resin which is preferably an acid- curable resin or a photo curable resin such as acrylate, photo curable acrylate oligomer, polyester, a!kyd, melamine, urea, epoxy and phenolic resins or mixtures thereof. Acid- curable resins of that kind are generally known and are described, for example, in“Ullmann’s

Encyclopdie der technischen Chemie,” Edition 4, Vol. 15 (1978), pp. 613-628. Preferred are (meth)acrylate/(meth)aery!ic acid copolymers.

[0093] Preferable examples of copolymers are copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate and (rnelh)- acrylic acid, copolymers of benzyl (rneth)acrylate and (meth)acrylic acid, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate/, ethyl (meth)acrylate and (meth)acrylic acid, copolymers of benzyl (meth)aery!ate, (melh)acrylie acid and styrene, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acrylate,

(meth)acrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate/, butyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid and styrene, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate, benzyl (metb)acrylate, (meth)acry!ic acid and hydroxyphenyl (meth)acrylate, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid and polymethyl (meth)acrylate macromonomer, copolymers of benzyl (meth)aorylate, (meth)acrylic acid and polymethyl (meth)acrylate macromonomer, copolymers of tetrahydrofurfuryl (meth)acrylate, styrene and (meth)acryiie acid, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)aery!ic acid and polystyrene macromonomer, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid and polystyrene macro- monomer, copoiymers of benzyl (methiacrylate, (meth)acty!ic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)- acrylate and polystyrene maeromonomer, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, 2- hydroxypropyl (nieth)acrylate and poly styrene macro monomer, copolymers of benzyl

(meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, 2 -hydroxy-3 -phenoxypropyl (meth)acrylate and polymethyl (meth)acrylate macromonomer, copolymers of methyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, 2- hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate and polystyrene maeromonomer, copolymers of benzyl (meth)- acrylate, (rneth)acrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate and polymethyl (meth)acrylate maeromonomer, copolymers of N- phenylmaleimide, benzyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid and styrene, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, N-phenyl- maleimide, mono-[2- (meth)acryloyloxyethyl] succinate and styrene, copolymers of allyl (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, N-phenylmaleimide, mono-[2-(meth)acryloyloxyethyl] succinate and styrene, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acryiate, (meth)acrylic acid, N-phenylmaleimide, glycerol mono(meth)acrylate and styrene, copolymers of benzyl (meth)acryiate, [omega]- carboxypolycaproiactone mono(meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, N-phenylmaleimide, glycerol mono(meth)acrylate and styrene, and copolymers of benzyl (meth)- acrylate, (meth)acrylic acid, N-cyclohexylmaleimide and styrene.

[0094] A photo curable acrylate oligomer is preferably present in addition to the photo curable resin. Photo curable acrylate oligomers usable herein include dipentaerythritol hexaacry! (DPHA), dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate (DPP A), pentaerythrito! tri acrylate (PETTA), trimethylol- propane triaciylate (TMPTA), and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and the like.

[0095] The term transparent pigment refers to a pigment which gives a transparently colored ink when dispersed. The pigment may be inorganic or preferably organic, for example carbon black or pigments of the l-aminoanthraquinone, anthanthrone, anthrapyrimidine, azo, azomethine, quinacridone, quinacridonequinone, quinophthalone, dioxazine,

diketopyrrolopyrrole, flavanthrone, indanthrone, isoindoline, isoindolinone, isoviolanthrone, perinone, perylene, phthaiocyanine, pyranthrone or thioindigo series, including those, where applicable, in the form of metal complexes or lakes, in particular unsubstituted or partially halogenated phthaioeyanines such as copper, zinc or nickel phthalocyanines, 1 ,4-diketo-3,6- diaryl-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles, dioxazines, isoindolinones, indanthrones, perylenes and quinacridones. Azo pigments may be, for example, mono- or dis-azo pigments from any known sub-class, obtainable, for example, by coupling, condensation or lake formation.

EXAMPLES

Comparative Example 1

[0096] CE1 is a comb type copolymer with a styrene maleic anhydride back bone and pendant polyether chains. The synthesis is based on Example 10 from W02008/122606A except propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate replaces ethyl acetate

[0097] Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (ex: Cray Valley, 3000 Mn, 12.5 parts by weight) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (80 parts) were stirred under nitrogen at 25° C for 3 hours. Surfonamine B200 (ex Huntsman, 40.75 parts) was added over a period of 35 minutes. The reaction was stirred at 25° C for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was then heated to 60° C for 3 hours. A sample (61.6 parts) was removed at this stage. To the remaining reaction mixture (71.4 parts), 3 -(dimethylamino)-l -propylamine (0.09 parts) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (0.25 parts) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 hours at 80° C. The resulting yellow liquid had solids 40.1 wt.% with Mn = 5070 and Mw = 23150 as determined by GPC against polystyrene standards.

Comparative Example 2

[0098] n-Butyl methacrylate (490 parts), butyl-2-methyl-2-

[(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)sulfanyl] propionate (CTA-l ex Lubrizol, 118.62 parts) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (792.10 parts) were stirred under nitrogen at 80° C. 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (2.32 parts) propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (20 parts) were charged over 2 hours at 80° C.

[0099] Butyl methacrylate (980 parts) and 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (2.32 parts) in propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (580 parts) was charged to reaction over 9 hours at 80° C. An additional charge of propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (201.16 parts) was added to the reaction mixture after 50% of the butyl methacrylate had reacted. The reaction mixture was then heated at 80° C for a further 3 hours until the monomer conversion had exceeded 80 % as determined by solids content. The resulting polymer had molecular weight Mn = 7800 and Mw = 11300 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards). [0100] Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (205.92 parts) was then charged to reaction vessel. 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (630 parts) was fed to reaction over 1 hour, while simultaneously feeding 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (1.16 parts) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (290 parts) over 2 hours.

[0101] After the end of the 2-hour initiator feed, the reaction mixture was heated at 80° C for 10 hours until the monomer conversion reached 100%. The resulting product was an amber liquid at 50.5 wt.% solids with Mn = 9600 and Mw = 14200 as determined by GPC

(tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards).

Intermediate A

[0102] n-Butyl acrylate (320 parts), butyl-2-methyl-2-[(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)sulfanyl] propionate (CTA-l ex Lubrizol, 13 parts), 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (0.256 parts) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (474 parts) were stirred at 70° C under nitrogen for 5 hours. 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (0.256 parts) was added and the reaction stirred at 70° C for 6.5 hours until monomer conversion had exceeded 90% as determined by solids content. The resulting polymer had molecular weight Mn = 11500 and Mw = 15200 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran eluent, polystyrene standards).

[0103] Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (34 parts), maleic anhydride (61.20 parts), styrene (64.97 parts) and 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (0.128 parts) were added and the reaction was stirred under nitrogen at 70° C for 22 hours until monomer conversion exceeded 95% by solids content. The resulting polymer was an amber liquid with Mn = 11400 and Mw = 21200 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran with 1% eluent, polystyrene standards).

Example 1

[0104] Intermediate A (225 parts) and 3 -(dimethylamino)-l -propylamine (14.78 parts) were stirred at 70° C under nitrogen for 3 hours. Dean-Stark apparatus with condenser was fitted and the reaction was heated to 110° C for 23.5 hours under nitrogen. The resulting product was a brown liquid at 41.6 wt.% solids with Mn = 13000 and Mw = 17800 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards). Imide formation was confirmed by infrared.

Example 2

[0105] Intermediate A (225 parts) and l-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole (18.11 parts) were stirred at 70° C under nitrogen for 6 hours. Dean-Stark apparatus with condenser was fitted and the reaction was heated to 110° C for 41 hours under nitrogen. The resulting product was a brown liquid at 37.5 wt.% solids with Mn = 11100 and Mw = 13900 as determined by GPC

(tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards). Imide formation was confirmed by infrared.

Example 3

[0106] Intermediate A (225 parts) and 3-picolylamine (15.64 parts) were stirred at 70° C under nitrogen for 3 hours. Dean-Stark apparatus with condenser was fitted and the reaction was heated to 110° C for 21 hours under nitrogen. The resulting product was a dark red liquid at 43.8 wt.% solids with Mn = 10700 and Mw = 15600 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards). Imide formation was confirmed by infrared.

Example 4

[0107] Intermediate A (225 parts) and 4-picolylamine (15.64 parts) were stirred at 70° C under nitrogen for 3 hours. Dean-Stark apparatus with condenser was fitted and the reaction was heated to 110° C for 44 hours under nitrogen. The resulting product was a dark red liquid at 44.6 wt.% solids with Mn = 10900 and Mw = 15400 as determined by GPC (tetrahydrofuran with 1% triethylamine eluent, polystyrene standards). Imide formation was confirmed by infrared.

Dispersion testing

[0108] Examples 1-4 (1 part based on 100% active material) was dissolved in propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (8 parts). Glass beads (17 parts, 1 mm diameter) and red pigment (1 part, Irgaphor ® Red S3621, ex BASF) were added and the contents were milled on a horizontal shaker for 48 hours. The resultant millbase was a fluid dispersion with the exception of

Comparative Examples 1 and 2, which both gelled.

[0109] The particle size (PS) of the mill base was evaluated by diluting the dispersions (0.1 parts) with propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (20 parts) and evaluated using a Nanotrac particle size analyser.

Dispersion stability

[0110] The millbases were then heated in an oven at 40-45° C for 96 hours and the particle size (PS) of the mill base was evaluated by diluting the dispersions (0.1 parts) with propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (20 parts) and evaluated using a Nanotrac particle size analyzer. The millbases remained stable by particle size with the exception of CE1.

[0111] Each of the documents referred to above is incorporated herein by reference, including any prior applications. Except in the Examples, or where otherwise explicitly indicated, all numerical quantities in this description specifying amounts of materials, reaction conditions, molecular weights, number of carbon atoms, and the like, are to be understood as modified by the word“about.” It is to be understood that the upper and lower amount, range, and ratio limits set forth herein may be independently combined. Similarly, the ranges and amounts for each element of the invention can be used together with ranges or amounts for any of the other elements.

[0112] As used herein, the transitional term“comprising,” which is synonymous with “including,”“containing,” or“characterized by” is inclusive or open-ended and does not exclude additional, unrecited elements or method steps. However, in each recitation of“comprising” herein, it is intended that the term also encompass, as alternative embodiments, the phrases “consisting essentially of’ and“consisting of,” where“consisting of’ excludes any element or step not specified and“consisting essentially of’ permits the inclusion of additional unrecited elements or steps that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristics of the composition or method under consideration.

[0113] While certain representative embodiments and details have been shown for the purpose of illustrating the subject invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in this art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the subject invention. In this regard, the scope of the invention is to be limited only by the following claims.