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Title:
SUB-CARRIER SPACING SELECTION DEPENDING ON UE CAPABILITY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/035489
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Technology for an apparatus of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS) is disclosed. The source station can encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station. The source station can decode the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station. The source station can initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS values based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station. A memory interface can be configured to send to a memory the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station.

Inventors:
MUECK, Markus Dominik (Am Campeon 10-12, Neubiberg, Neubiberg, DE)
MIAO, Honglei (Erlenstegenstr. 37, Nuernberg, Nuernberg, DE)
KARLS, Ingolf (Sternstrasse 2, Feldkirchen, Feldkirchen, DE)
ROESSEL, Sabine (Liscowstrasse 1/b, Munich, Munich, DE)
MALMIRCHEGINI, Mehrzad (804 S. Winchester Blvd, Apt 5206San Jose, California, 92122, US)
SESIA, Stefania (Chemin de la Conque, Roquefort les Pins, Pins, FR)
HAUSNER, Josef (Schuetzenstr. 7, Germering, Germering, DE)
Application Number:
US2017/047662
Publication Date:
February 22, 2018
Filing Date:
August 18, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INTEL CORPORATION (2200 Mission College Blvd, Santa Clara, California, 95054, US)
International Classes:
H04L27/26; H04W28/18
Foreign References:
US20130051485A12013-02-28
Other References:
NOKIA ET AL: "On System Design for Multiple Numerologies - Initial Access", vol. RAN WG1, no. Gothenburg, Sweden; 20160822 - 20160826, 12 August 2016 (2016-08-12), XP051132313, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20160812]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HAYMOND, Alex W. (P.O. Box 1219, Sandy, Utah, 84091, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An apparatus of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS) comprising:

one or more processors configured to:

encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station;

decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and

initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station; and

a memory interface configured to send to a memory the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station.

2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

3. The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein the source station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

4. The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein the destination station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

5. The apparatus of claim 1 or 3, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to initiate the millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to:

encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the plurality of destination stations;

decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and

initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

7. The apparatus of claim 1 or 6, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values is based on a phase noise of the destination station.

8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to report an SCS specific channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback to a wireless network of the source station and the destination station to enable the wireless network to determine an SCS value and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the UE, based on the SCS specific CQI.

10. The apparatus of claim 1 or 6, wherein the selected SCS value is selected based on a quality of service (QoS) constraint of one or more of the source station or destination station.

11. The apparatus of claim 1 or 6, wherein the selected SCS value is selected based on a guard band of one or more of the source station or destination station.

12. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein:

the plurality of destination stations is comprised of one or more groups of UEs with each group determined based on a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the UEs in each group;

initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the one or more groups of UEs using a selected SCS value for each group that is based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the UEs in each group and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

13. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to initiate a decimeter wave communication or a centimeter wave communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on a minimum supported SCS value of the destination station and a minimum supported SCS value of the source station.

14. The apparatus of caim 1, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values comprises one or more of a minimum SCS value, a preferred SCS value, a list of preferred SCS values, a less preferred SCS value, a list of less preferred SCS values, and a list of all supported SCS values.

15. An apparatus of a user equipment (UE) configured for dual base subcarrier

spacing (SCS) comprising:

one or more processors configured to:

select a legacy base SCS of 15 kilohertz (kHz) for legacy radio access technologies; and select a new base SCS for a multiple use case comprising one or more of massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC), Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC), a mobile broadband (MBB) or a 5th Generation (5G) MBB use case,

wherein the new base SCS enables a uniform number of Cyclic Prefix (CP) samples across all Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols resulting in frequency -time resource units (FTRUs) that match a time grid of an integer multiple or an integer fraction of an atomic time unit of 1 millisecond (ms); and

a memory interface configured to send to a memory the new base SCS.

16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the new base SCS is one or more of 13.125 kHz, and 22.5 kHz.

17. The apparatus of claim 15 or 16, wherein the new base SCS is applied to the multiple use cases to provide an SCS comprising the base SCS multiplied by 2n, where:

n = -2 for the mMTC;

n = 1 for the MBB;

n = 3 for 5G MBB; and

n = 6 for the URLLC.

18. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein each of the multiple use cases include 192 CP samples, and 12 OFDM symbols.

19. The apparatus of claim 15 or 17, wherein an OFDM symbol count of the MBB use case is an integer multiple of the mMTC, 5G MBB, and URLLC, relative to the value of n.

20. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to select an SCS sampling frequency for each multiple use case that is derived from a base clock with a sampling frequency of 30.72 megahertz (MHz) using SCSact = SCSbase * 2 p/q, each multiple use case comprising:

where SCSact is the selected SCS sampling frequency and SCSbase is the base clock, p is a positive integer or zero and q is a positive integer.

21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to decode a value of p or q that is received from a wireless network of the UE.

22. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to select a value of p or q and encode the value of p or q for transmission to a wireless network of the UE.

23. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the one or more processors are further

configured to select the value of p or q based on one or more of a type of radio access technology (RAT) used by the UE or a type of service used by the UE selected from one of the selected use cases.

24. At least one machine readable storage medium having instructions embodied thereon for a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS), the instructions when executed by one or more processors at the source station perform the following: encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station;

decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and

initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

25. The at least one machine readable storage medium in claim 24, further comprising instructions, that when executed by one or more processors at the source station, perform the following:

encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

26. The at least one machine readable storage medium in claim 24, further comprising instructions, that when executed by one or more processors at the source station, perform the following:

encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values by the plurality of destination stations;

decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and

initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

27. The at least one machine readable storage medium in claim 24 or 26, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values is based on a phase noise of the destination station.

28. The at least one machine readable storage medium in claim 24, wherein the one more processors are further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

Description:
SUB-CARRIER SPACING SELECTION DEPENDING ON UE CAPABILITY

BACKGROUND

[0001] Wireless mobile communication technology uses various standards and protocols to transmit data between a node (e.g., a transmission station) and a wireless device (e.g., a mobile device). Some wireless devices communicate using orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) in a downlink (DL) transmission and single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) in uplink (UL). Standards and protocols that use orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for signal transmission include the third generation partnership project (3 GPP) long term evolution (LTE), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard (e.g., 802.16e, 802.16m), which is commonly known to industry groups as WiMAX (Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access), and the IEEE 802.11 standard, which is commonly known to industry groups as WiFi.

[0002] In 3GPP radio access network (RAN) LTE systems (e.g., Release 13 and earlier), the node can be a combination of Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) Node Bs (also commonly denoted as evolved Node Bs, enhanced Node Bs, eNodeBs, or eNBs) and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs), which communicates with the wireless device, known as a user equipment (UE). In 3GPP fifth generation (5G) LTE communication systems, the node is commonly referred to as a new radio (NR) or next generation Node B (gNodeB or gNB). The downlink (DL) transmission can be a communication from the node (e.g., eNodeB or gNodeB ) to the wireless device (e.g., UE), and the uplink (UL) transmission can be a communication from the wireless device to the node.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0003] Features and advantages of the disclosure will be apparent from the detailed description which follows, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which together illustrate, by way of example, features of the disclosure; and, wherein:

[0004] FIG. 1 illustrates a request trigger consisting of fields for automatic delivery of sub-carrier spacing (SCS) in accordance with an example;

[0005] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram that provides for an overall signaling flow between a source user equipment (UE) or Access Point (AP) and a destination UE or AP in accordance with an example;

[0006] FIG. 3 depicts functionality of an eNodeB in communication with multiple user equipments (UE) during multiple multicast transmissions in accordance with an example;

[0007] FIG. 4 depicts a table providing for a representative example of a 5G numerology in accordance with an example;

[0008] FIG. 5 depicts a table providing comparing the OFDM symbol timing between massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) and mobile broadband (MBB) in accordance with an example;

[0009] FIG. 6 depicts a table providing a list of possible SCSs with uniform cyclic prefixes (CP) in accordance with an example;

[0010] FIG. 7 depicts a table providing a numerology comparison of different vertical services with the Base SCS of 13.125 kHz, in accordance with an example;

[0011] FIG. 8 depicts a table providing a depiction of how a mMTC and the

MBB 13.125 system match on a timeline, in accordance with an example;

[0012] FIG. 9 depicts a table providing for SCS for clocks for different vertical services at 15kHz and 12.125kHz, in accordance with an example;

[0013] FIG. 10 depicts a flowchart of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS) in accordance with an example;

[0014] FIG. 11 depicts a flowchart of an apparatus of a user equipment (UE) configured for dual base subcarrier spacing (SCS) in accordance with an example;

[0015] FIG. 12 illustrates an architecture of a wireless network with various components of the network in accordance with some embodiments;

[0016] FIG. 13 illustrates example components of a device, in accordance with some embodiments;

[0017] FIG. 14 illustrates a diagram of a wireless device (e.g., UE) and a base station (e.g., eNodeB) in accordance with an example;

[0018] FIG. 15 illustrates example interfaces of baseband circuitry in accordance with some embodiments; and

[0019] FIG. 16 illustrates a diagram of a wireless device (e.g., UE) in accordance with an example.

[0020] Reference will now be made to the exemplary embodiments illustrated, and specific language will be used herein to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the technology is thereby intended. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0021] Before the present technology is disclosed and described, it is to be understood that this technology is not limited to the particular structures, process actions, or materials disclosed herein, but is extended to equivalents thereof as would be recognized by those ordinarily skilled in the relevant arts. It should also be understood that terminology employed herein is used for the purpose of describing particular examples only and is not intended to be limiting. The same reference numerals in different drawings represent the same element. Numbers provided in flow charts and processes are provided for clarity in illustrating actions and operations and do not necessarily indicate a particular order or sequence.

EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS

[0022] An initial overview of technology embodiments is provided below and then specific technology embodiments are described in further detail later. This initial summary is intended to aid readers in understanding the technology more quickly but is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the technology nor is it intended to limit the scope of the exampled subject matter.

[0023] OFDM waveforms are preferably used for wireless connectivity in wireless communication systems such as 3GPP LTE and 5G. The radio parameters to be chosen can depend on the propagation characteristics of the radio channel and radio carrier frequency, mobility, phase noise, and so forth. Additional important radio parameters include the transmission time interval (TTI), cyclic prefix (CP), and the sub-carrier spacing (SCS).

[0024] The 3 GPP NR specifies a flexible OFDM SCS to allow a more efficient wireless communication. OFDM SCS can be impacted by mobility (Doppler shift) and phase noise from the UE oscillator. It has been shown that phase noise can dominate the SCS implementation. One example uses the relationship between SCS and phase noise, which causes a common phase error (CPE) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), as a baseline. For example a UE can use a sufficiently wide sub-carrier spacing to avoid CPE and ICI, otherwise additional techniques for mitigation can be applied to compensate for CPE and ICI.

[0025] In 3GPP, proposed SCS values start from 15, 30 and 60 kHz for use in carrier frequencies that are below 6 GHz and 60, 120, 240 and 480 kHz for use in carrier frequencies that are above 6 GHz, for channel bandwidths that are up to several GHz. Theoretically with high phase noise, only a wider SCS can be supported. With low phase noise, a narrow SCS can also be supported. With narrow SCS, the overall spectrum efficiency is typically increased and thus this parameter set can be utilized if it is supported by the transmitter and receiver.

[0026] Currently, 3GPP NR specification proposals provide only options for an OFDM SCS. There is no implementation available which actually uses the proposed options to maximize the overall transmission efficiency and overall spectral efficiency. In one proposed solution, an SCS is selected that is compatible with all available communication links and delivers the optimal SCS.

[0027] Given the new flexibility of adjusting the sub-carrier spacing (SCS) and the impact of phase noise as well as Doppler, the implementation of how to do the SCS set-up and its dynamic adaptation needs to be solved for different usage scenarios.

[0028] The present technology describes embodiments and methods to implement an SCS set-up and adaptation, optimal for present phase noise and Doppler in a point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenario.

[0029] In one example, the point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenarios can set up a look-up-table (LUT) for grouped phase-noise, Doppler, and modulation and coding schemes (MCS) versus SCS

[0030] In one example, the point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenarios can communicate phase noise values between transmitter and receiver (UE and AP).

[0031] In one example, the point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenarios can be implemented in a point-to-point set-up, where the set up can choose a minimum SCS which is supported by both the transmitter and receiver.

[0032] In one example, the point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenarios can be implemented in a point-to-multipoint set-up, where the implementation can choose either a minimum SCS which is supported by the transmitter and all receivers or employ at least one point-to-multipoint transmissions with an SCS based on point-to-point.

[0033] In one example, the point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcast scenarios can be implemented in a broadcast set-up, wherein the scenarios can be configured to choose the minimum SCS which is supported by the transmitter and all receivers.

[0034] In one example, the implementation of the examples disclosed can comprise several methods. One method can comprise explicit phase noise feedback. During explicit phase noise feedback, the proposed implementation can set up a look-up-table (LUT) for grouped phase-noise, Doppler, modulation and coding schemes (MCS) versus SCS. In addition, the method can comprise a phase noise values exchange, configured to communicate phase noise values between transmitter and receiver for a user equipment and/or an application protocol.

[0035] Another method can comprise implicit phase noise feedback. During this method, the UE can create and maintain one or several preferred SCS-specific channel quality indicator (CQI) table(s), and report the CQI feedback associated with certain SCS to the network. Based on CQI feedback together with the SCS, the network can determine the SCS and MCS jointly for the UE.

[0036] In another method, the SCS selection can be based on phase noise (PN)/SCS feedbacks. During this method, the SCS setup and adaptation in a point-to-point (single UE scheduling) scenario can select a minimum SCS which fulfills the Quality of Service (QoS) level and the selected SCS is supported by the transmitter and receiver. In addition, the SCS setup and adaptation in a point-to-multipoint (multiple UEs co-scheduling) scenario can be configured to choose either a minimum SCS which is supported by the transmitter and all receivers or employs at least one point-to-multipoint transmission with an SCS based on point-to-point. Alternatively, the SCS setup and adaptation in a point-to- multipoint scenario can select a set of SCSes which fulfill the QoS levels of respective UEs and minimize the total transmission bandwidth of the network by taking into account the desired guard-band between different SCSs adopted for different UEs. The SCS setup and adaptation in a broadcast setup can select the minimum SCS which is supported by the transmitter and all receivers.

I. Phase Noise or SCS Capability Exchange

[0037] For both explicit phase noise (PN) feedback and implicit PN feedback, namely SCS feedback, a signaling procedure can be used to realize such information exchange between network and UE. A same signaling procedure can be applied to achieve both types of feedback. In the following paragraphs, the SCS feedback is focused on.

However, it can also be used for explicit PN feedback.

SCS Capability Feedback

[0038] Before initiating a user plane (UP) data exchange employing the optimal OFDM SCS parameter set, the respective capabilities of the transmitter and receiver can be exchanged. For example, the optimal OFDM SCS parameter set can be the smallest common SCS which is supported by the transmitter and receiver and fulfills the QoS levels of the UE. For this purpose, a protocol can be introduced which firstly allows the transmitter to request information on the OFDM SCS capabilities (i.e., the minimum SCS supported) and secondly allows the receiver to provide its capabilities. The "SCS Capability" are typically expressed by an integer "n>=0" in the range of [Nmin, Nmax], the values of which shall be specified in the standard, e.g., Nmin=-2, and Nmax = 5, in the following form: With "n" given, the subcarrier spacing is 2n * 15kHz.

[0039] In one example, as in FIG. 1, a request trigger can be configured to comprise fields for automatic delivery of sub-carrier spacing (SCS) 100. The requestor can automatically deliver its SCS alongside with its request to another station. In addition, the request trigger can comprise two fields. The first field 110 can include a trigger requesting a delivery of a minimum supported subcarrier spacing. The second field 120 can include information on a minimum supported subcarrier spacing by a source station. [0040] In one example there can be a configuration to initiate a decimeter wave communication or a centimeter wave communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS based on the minimum supported SCS of the destination station and the minimum supported SCS of the source station.

[0041] In one example there can be a plurality of supported SCS can comprise of a minimum SCS, a preferred SCS, a list of preferred SCS, a less preferred SCS, a list of less preferred SCS, and a list of all supported SCS.

[0042] FIG. 2 illustrates a diagram 200 that provides for an overall signaling flow between a source UE or AP 210 and a destination UE or AP 220. The source node 210 can plan to initiate U-plane mmWave communication. The source node 210 can encode a transmission to the destination node 220 where a trigger can request delivery of a minimum supported SCS, and transmit information on a minimum supported SCS by the destination station 220, to be decoded by the destination node or station 220. If the transmission is rejected, the destination node 220 can provide a transmission to the source node 210, comprising information on a minimum supported SCS by the destination station 210. The source station 210, can also be configured for initiation of millimeter wave (mmWave) communication that uses the smallest SCS supported by the source 210 and the destination 220.

[0043] In one example, in case of multiple destinations (and/or sources), the exchange is typically triggered by each source station in order to have full knowledge about the receiver capabilities of each source station in terms of Phase Noise, and thus the minimum supported SCS. The phase noise could be different for Uplink and Downlink (UL and DL). If this is valid, both values can be delivered, i.e. the minimum supported phase noise for transmission and reception modes.

Joint SCS and CSI feedback

[0044] In addition to the dedicated SCS capability signaling, ajoint SCS and CSI feedback can also be applied. Specifically, given an SCS, a UE can calculate the respective CSI/CQI values so that SCS-specific CQI/CSI tables are created and maintained by the UE. In response to the request from network, the UE can signal such an SCS-specific CQI/CSI feedback to the network. It should be noted that the SCS-specific CQI/CSI is carrier-dependent. In the support of carrier aggregation, e.g., aggregation of different carriers from different bands, including below and above 6 GHz (e.g., mmWave band), it is plausible that the SCS-specific CQI/CSI feedback can be associated with a selected carrier frequency, or range of carrier frequencies, as well.

II. Optimum Carrier Spacing in a Point-to-Point Setup

[0045] After applying the procedure outlined in Section I above, the source 210 has full information of the Carrier Spacing capabilities of the destination station(s) 220. The source can determine that the smallest possible SCS (i.e., the smallest valid value of n, where "n>=0" in 2n * 15kHz) which fulfills the QoS levels and is supported by both sides, i.e. the transmission and reception nodes.

III. Optimum Carrier Spacing in a Point-to-Multipoint Setup

[0046] The procedure outlined in Section I can be applied by the source to any target UE individually or by a per-mass request, i.e. all target devices can be jointly addressed by a single trigger message. The target UEs can deliver the requested information on sub- carrier spacing and finally, the best subcarrier spacing can be identified that is supported by all target UEs. This leads to a single numerology transmission scenario.

[0047] Alternatively, in another embodiment, the multicast transmission can be split into two or more independent transmissions, each of which employs a different subcarrier spacing and possibly further differences in parameter sets (e.g., the number of subcarriers, a maximum output power, etc.). This leads to mixed numerology transmission scenario. The basic principle of the functionality of this scenario is illustrated in FIG. 3.

[0048] FIG. 3 depicts functionality of an evolved Node B (eNodeB or gNodeB) in communication with multiple user equipments (UEs) during multiple multicast transmissions, within a single and mixed numerology situation. One or more multicast transmissions can comprise one or more gNodeBs operable to communicate with a plurality of UEs. The UEs can use the smallest SCS that is supported by all target stations, as described in Section I. In addition, any subsequent multicast transmissions can use the smallest SCS that is supported by the sub-set of stations, where all stations are grouped that are compatible with the group's SCS. In addition, in between multicast transmissions, there can be an increase of SCS from one subset of stations to the next subset of stations. [0049] In one example, the highest subcarrier spacing can be utilized in a multicast transmission that is compatible with the transmitter. In addition, the highest subcarrier spacing can be used that is supported by the sub-set of stations. All stations that are grouped within the subset are not compatible with smaller subcarrier spacings.

[0050] In one example, in a single numerology case where all UEs utilize the same SCS, this may impose more restrictions on scheduling flexibility and cause only those UEs with the same SCS support to be scheduled at the same time.

[0051] In one example, a mixed numerology transmission can improve the scheduling flexibility and overall system performance. Joint SCS selection among multiple co- scheduled UEs can take into account the total transmission power, bandwidth, system throughput, and so forth. Depending on the priority of fulfilling QoS levels for different UEs, the joint SCS selection can take this into account as well.

IV. Optimum Carrier Spacing in a Broadcast Setup

[0052] The procedure outlined in Section I can be applied by the source to any target UE individually or by a per-mass request, i.e. all target devices can be jointly addressed by a single trigger message. The target UEs can deliver the requested information on

Subcarrier Spacing and finally, the best subcarrier spacing can be identified which is supported by all target UEs.

[0053] Alternatively, the largest subcarrier spacing can be used in any case in order to be certain that all target stations can support the subcarrier spacing employed for the transmission.

[0054] FIG. 4 depicts a table providing for a representative example of a 5G numerology for subcarrier spacing. At the current point in time of the 5G study phase, the flexible OFDM numerology proposed for 5G is based on the LTE subcarrier spacing (SCS) of 15 kHz. The derived SCS f sc for the different 5G use cases are likely fsc = fo * 2 m where fo = 15 kHz and where m is an integer (0, and negative numbers included) and chosen from a set of possible values. A representative example of a 5G numerology that uses the 15 kHz as the "Base SCS" fo is shown in the table shown in FIG. 4.

[0055] Further in support, the following table provides for supported combinations of:

[0057] The table in FIG. 4 shows a currently likely set of different numerologies of different 5G vertical services. One of the goals of the 5G design is to provide a flexible design, where different vertical services with different underlying numerologies such as massive machine type communication (mMTC), mobile broadband (MBB), and Ultra- Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC) coexist with each other in the below 6 GHz frequency carrier range in a single cell and in particular with the existing LTE and narrowband internet-of-things (NB-IOT) radio access technologies (RATs).

[0058] FIG. 5 depicts a table providing a comparison of the OFDM symbol timing between mMTC and MBB. In the table of FIG. 5, the OFDM symbol timing between mMTC and MBB 15KHz is compared.

[0059] In one example, the conventional 15 kHz SCS numerology has the issue that two different CPs of the length 1) 2x 160 samples with 2K fast Fourier transform (FFT) for the first OFDM symbol of the slot and 2) 12x 144 samples with the 2K FFT for the other OFDM symbols of the slot are desired to exactly match the 0.5 ms slot boundary, which results in 14 OFDM symbols per 1ms. [0060] In another example, the non-uniform cyclic prefix (CP) will result in a timing mismatch between time grid boundaries ranging from 0.52 (μβ) to 1.56 (μβ). In addition, there can also be some instances where the time grids of 5G mMTC and the MBB_15kHz match.

[0061] In one example, when the time mismatches, several scenarios can occur. First, a reduction of the scheduling granularity in time domain can occur, as the time matching between two 5G RATs occurs only after a certain period. For instance, as can be seen in the table of FIG. 5, the time matching between mMTC and MBB_15kHz occurs after 24 MBB_15kHz OFDM symbols (slightly less than 2 ms) and the matching between mMTC and MBB_15kHz Resource Units (RUs) occurs after 4 ms. In another scenario, there can be a limitation of granularity of the blank time/ frequency subframe resources for forward compatibility. In another scenario, there can be a complication at the eNodeB scheduler.

[0062] In 3GPP, the base subcarrier spacing (base SCS) of 17.5 KHz had been proposed in the context of 5G; in the context of LTE, 17.0, 17.5, and 18.0 kHz Base SCS were discussed. As such, several different numerologies are disclosed for the base SCS and characterization of the underlying trade-offs of each numerology.

[0063] In accordance with one embodiment, a set of new Base SCSs are provided for new below 6GHz spectrum that is used for both MBB_15KHz and 5G mMTC. This enables a uniform number of Cyclic Prefix samples across OFDM symbols resulting in a matching time grid of integer multiples or integer fractions of 1 ms. As an example, we can have the following base SCS (C.f Section 2): 13.125kHz, or 22.5 kHz.

[0064] In one example, the advantages of a 1ms congruent universal air interface technology are manifold. When this occurs, there can be a high end 5G/6G device concept that facilitates operating in both MBB-15kHz and MBB BaseSCS deployments. In addition, the high-end 5G/6G device concept can facilitate internet of things (IOT) device concepts that can potentially operate in either LTE, MBB_15kHz or

MBB BaseSCS deployment numerology. Due to this device concept, a Multi-Base SCS Air Interface Technology can establish both coexistence with LTE and NB-IOT; and sustainable solution which facilitates re-farming between 5G mMTC and 5G MBB.

[0065] By defining the multi-base SCS or as a special case of a dual-Bas SCS for a 5G/6G device concept and air interface, it is possible to define a comprehensive set of frequency-time resource units based on integer multiples of time unit (= length of the shortest OFDM symbol) and integer multiples of a frequency unit (= width of slimmest subcarrier spacing) that would be matched with different resource unit boundaries, in particular with the legacy atomic time unit of 1 ms and simplify interference mitigation, RAT coexistence, and dynamic network slicing.

[0066] In one example there can be a plurality of supported SCS can comprise of a minimum SCS, a preferred SCS, a list of preferred SCS, a less preferred SCS, a list of less preferred SCS, and a list of all supported SCS.

[0067] In the following, the concept is captured based on the special case of the Dual- Base SCS. In contrast, if the 15 kHz Base SCS is used exclusively, in all FTRU definitions, numerous sub-types of FTRUs may be needed to capture the different time positions of long Cyclic Prefixes (160 samples) and short Cyclic Prefixes (144 samples) within an FTRU.

[0068] As FTRUs will not be integer multiples of a single time unit, they will also not be a vehicle to support dynamic resource allocation-based interference mitigation (e.g. between mMTC and MBB) and RAT coexistence or even dynamic network slicing where the amount of mMTC resources vs. the amount of MBB resources in the very same channel dynamically varies with the actual data traffic demand. As such, a new base SCS is proposed that allows for using uniform Cyclic Prefix lengths AND for exactly matching the 1 ms atomic time unit. Candidates are (besides the known 17, 17.5, and 18 kHz) also 13.125 and 22.5 kHz. The details of the selection of the new Base SCS are provided in the proceeding paragraphs.

[0069] In another example, there can be a new Base SCS in the 5G/6G air interface to develop a Multi-Base SCS 5G/6G air interface as well as Multi-Base SCS device concepts and network deployments. These multi-base concepts and interfaces can support a spectrum that can be gradually migrated to the new air interface technology.

[0070] In another example, in contrast to a single Base SCS 5G air interface technology, such devices (and network deployments) will support the following coexistence and migration scenarios:

· Coexistence between 5G mMTC (SCS = 15 kHz/3.75 kHz) and NB-IOT • Embedding of 5G mMTC (SCS = 15 kHz) in LTE and LTE guard bands

• Embedding of NB-IOT in 5G MBB- 15kHz (sub 6 GHz) deployment

• Embedding of LTE in 5G MBB- 15kHz (sub 6 GHz) deployment

• Embedding of 5G mMTC (new Base SCS) in 5G MBB- 15kHz (sub 6 GHz) deployment

• Embedding of 5G URLLC (new Base SCS) in 5G MBB-15kHz (sub 6 GHz) deployment

[0071] FIG. 6 depicts a table providing a list of possible SCSs with uniform cyclic prefixes (CP). Within the table of FIG. 6, the calculations are provided by the following equation that is under the assumption of a uniform number of CP samples per OFDM symbols:

where Μτ is the number of OFDM symbols per legacy subframe of 1ms. In addition NCP and NFFT denote the number of CP samples and FFT size respectively. The table in FIG. 6, provides for base subcarrier spacing, for NFFT=32 and different reasonable CP lengths.

[0072] For the table in FIG. 6, it can be taken into account that the constraint that the base

SCS is a rational multiple of 15KHz, i.e. SCS = - lSKHz, where p and q are prime with respect to each other and preferably are not large numbers. The constraint facilitates simple phase lock loop (PLL) reprogramming for NR vs. LTE. Considering the CP overhead (as shown in the last column of the table in FIG. 6), the SCS value of 13.125 kHz can be selected as a Base SCS for 5G/6G in accordance with an example

embodiment.

[0073] FIG. 7 depicts a table providing a numerology comparison of different vertical services with the Base SCS of 13.125 kHz. While studying 13.125 kHz as a new base SCS, it can be observed that an exact match with the 1ms time grid based on 12 OFDM symbols and uniform CPs can be considered.

[0074] In one example, the SCS of other use cases can be derived from the 3.125 kHz Base SCS by multiplying by powers of 2. For instance, it can be observed that a 5G MBB SCS of 13.125 kHz x 2 3 = 105MHz can be achieves, as well as the 5G URLLC SCS of 13.125 kHz x 2 6 = 840MHz from the 2 nd Base SCS 15 kHz as well simplifying the design of a Dual Base SCS Device concept for 5G MBB and 5G URLLC.

[0075] In one embodiment, for the Internet-of-Things domain the reasonable SCS of 13.125 kHz x 2 "2 = 3.28125 kHz for massive MTC and SCS of 13.125 kHz to support emergency calls over mMTC solutions (Vo5G mMTC) can be utilized.

[0076] FIG. 8 depicts a table providing a depiction of how an mMTC and the

MBB 13.125 kHz system match on a timeline. It is demonstrated in the table of FIG. 8, how the 5G mMTC and the MBB 13.125 system (for the sub 6 GHz LTE re-framing) match on the time line such that rather fine-granular FTRUs can be defined. For a Dual Base SCS device concept design, the concept can start from the LTE Clock of 30.72 MHz and derive either the 15 kHz SCS or the new Base SCS sampling frequencies for the 5G MBB, 5G URLLC, and the 5G mMTC use cases by a series of integer multiplications and divisions. This is further demonstrated in the table of FIG. 9, which illustrates how to reach the use-case specific SCS from 15 kHz as well as 13.125 kHz Base SCS for the 30.72 MHz clock.

[0077] In one embodiment, as set of base SCS is defined, i.e. the proposal can be extended to a multi-base SCS air interface and a multi-base SCS device concept. A set Ssubset of possible base SCS, for example, is given by a sub-ensemble of the values illustrated in the table of FIG. 8. The set of base SCS, can be called Ssubset = {SObase,

S lbase. . . SNbase} . The UE can indicate which subset it supports via capability signaling. A certain set of base SCS can be defined and each associated to a certain capability signaling. The UE can indicate which subset is supported.

[0078] In one embodiment, when synchronizing to the network, a certain base SCS, e.g. SObase is assumed. However, afterwards the network and the device can change the base SCS within the Ssubset in order to better cover the use cases the device is intended to cover or simply in order to provide optimal performance in a typical environment. This can be done in one of several ways. One way that this can be done is autonomously by the network via e.g. system information or set in a semi-static manner via e.g. RRC signaling. This can also be done when autonomously requested by the UE. According to this method, the UE can indicate to the network via appropriate signaling that the base SCS should be changed. In addition, this can be done, with any combination of the two examples disclosed within this disclosure.

[0079] In one example, the choice of the base SCS SCSbase from Subset can be done in a semi-static manner, e.g. the basic numerology can be negotiated upon starting the communication process. The actual SCS SCSact and the related numerology, however, can be chosen dynamically. The network and the UE can use a method to dynamically adapt the SCSact, based on dynamic signaling, that indicates which scaled value is used for a certain transmission.

[0080] In one example, the actual subcarrier spacing SCSact used by the network and the UE can be represented as: subcarrier spacing for transmission T: SCSbase * 2 P where p is a positive or negative integer or 0 which may either be chosen from a limited set p = {pi ... PN} or where p is an integer between a Pmax >= p >= Pmin.

[0081] In one embodiment, the value of the parameters 'p', can be indicated dynamically in several ways. The value of p can be indicated dynamically via downlink control information (DCI) or media access control (MAC) control element (CE) in a case when the network autonomously selects the preferred value of p and q. The dynamic indication can also take place via UE signaling in case the UE autonomously selects the best values of p and q. The selection of the best values of p and q can be done based on which type of RAT the UE camps (e.g. it samples into an IOT standalone carrier); which type of services the devices will serve (e.g. an IOT device or a URLLC or eMBB device); or a combination of the two. The indication can also be a combination of the prior disclosed embodiments and examples.

[0082] FIG. 10 provides a functionality of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS). The source station can comprise one or more processors configured to encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station 1010. The one or more processors are configured to decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS received from the destination station 1020. The one or more processors are configured to initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS based on the plurality of supported SCS of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS of the source station 1030. The source station can also be comprised of a memory interface configured to send to a memory the plurality of supported SCS of the destination station.

[0083] In one embodiment, the one or more processors can further be configured to initiate a switch to a largest SCS and exchange corresponding information between the source station and the destination station. In addition, the one or more processors can initiate a switch back to the plurality of SCS.

[0084] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

[0085] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

[0086] In one embodiment the destination station can be one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

[0087] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to initiate the user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS of the destination station and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[0088] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values by the plurality of destination stations. The one or more processors can also be further configured to decode the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations. The one or more processors can also be configured to initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[0089] In one embodiment the plurality of supported SCS values can be based on a phase noise of the destination station. [0090] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up- table (LUT) based on a plurality of SCS values associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

[0091] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to report an SCS specific channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback to a wireless network of the source station and the destination station to enable the network to determine an SCS value and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the UE, based on the SCS specific CQI.

[0092] In one embodiment the selected SCS can be selected based on a quality of service (QoS) constraint of one or more of the source station or destination station.

[0093] In one embodiment the selected SCS can be selected based on a guard band of one or more of the source station or destination station.

[0094] In one embodiment the plurality of destination stations is comprised of one or more groups of UEs with each group determined based on a plurality of supported SCS values of the UEs in the group. In addition, the apparatus can initiate a user plane (u- plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the one or more groups of UEs using a selected SCS value for each group that is based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the UEs in each group and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[0095] In one embodiment, the one or more processors are further configured to initiate a decimeter wave communication or a centimeter wave communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on a minimum supported SCS values of the destination station and a minimum supported SCS values of the source station.

[0096] In one embodiment, the plurality of supported SCS values can comprise of a minimum SCS value, a preferred SCS value, a list of preferred SCS values, a less preferred SCS value, a list of less preferred SCS values, and a list of all supported SCS values.

[0097] FIG. 11 provides functionality 1100 of a user equipment (UE) configured for a dual base subcarrier spacing (SCS). The UE can comprise one or more processors configured to select a legacy base SCS of 15 kilohertz (kHz) for legacy radio access technologies 1110. The UE can comprise one or more processors configured to select a new base SCS for a multiple use case comprising massive Machine Type

Communications (mMTC), Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC), a mobile broadband (MBB) or a 5th Generation (5G) MBB use case, wherein the new base SCS enables a uniform number of Cyclic Prefix (CP) samples across all Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols resulting in frequency -time resource units (FTRU) that match a time grid of an integer multiples or an integer fraction of an atomic time unit of 1 millisecond (ms) 1120.

[0098] In one embodiment, the new base SCS can be one or more of 13.125 kHz, and 22.5 kHz.

[0099] In one embodiment, the new base SCS is applied to the multiple use cases to provide an SCS comprising the base SCS multiplied by 2n, where: n = -2 for the mMTC; n = 1 for the MBB; n = 3 for 5G MBB; and n = 6 for the URLLC.

[00100] In one embodiment each of the multiple use cases include 192 CP samples, and 12 OFDM symbols.

[00101] In one embodiment, an OFDM symbol count of the MBB use case is an integer multiple of the mMTC, 5G MBB, and URLLC, relative to the value of n.

[00102] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to select an SCS sampling frequency for each multiple use case that is derived from a base clock with a sampling frequency of 30.72 megahertz (MHz) using SCSact = SCSbase * each multiple use case comprising:

where SCSact is the selected SCS sampling frequency and SCSbase is the base clock, p is a positive integer or zero and q is a positive integer.

[00103] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to select an SCS value of the base SCS multiplied by 2 P , where p is a positive or negative integer or zero.

[00104] In one embodiment, the one or more processors can be further configured to decode a value of p or q that is received from a wireless network of the UE.

[00105] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to select a value of p or q and encode the value of p or q for transmission to a wireless network of the UE.

[00106] In one embodiment the one or more processors can be further configured to select the value of p based on one or more of a type of radio access technology (RAT) used by the UE or a type of service used by the UE selected from one of the selected use cases.

[00107] FIG. 12 illustrates architecture of a wireless network with various components of the network in accordance with some embodiments. A system 1200 is shown to include a user equipment (UE) 1201 and a UE 1202. The UEs 1201 and 1202 are illustrated as smartphones (i.e., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non-mobile computing device, such as Personal Data Assistants (PDAs), pagers, laptop computers, desktop computers, wireless handsets, or any computing device including a wireless

communications interface. In some embodiments, any of the UEs 1201 and 1202 can comprise an Internet of Things (IoT) UE, which can comprise a network access layer designed for low-power IoT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An IoT UE can utilize technologies such as machine-to-machine (M2M) or machine-type communications (MTC) for (machine initiated) exchanging data with an MTC server and/or device via a public land mobile network (PLMN), Proximity -Based Service (ProSe) or device-to-device (D2D) communication, sensor networks, or IoT networks. An IoT network describes interconnecting uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the internet infrastructure) having short-lived connections, in addition to background applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) executed by the IoT UE.

[00108] The UEs 1201 and 1202 are configured to access a radio access network (RAN)— in this embodiment, an Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) 1210. The UEs 1201 and 1202 utilize connections 1203 and 1204, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below); in this example, the connections 1203 and 1204 are illustrated as an air interface to enable communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol, a code-division multiple access (CDMA) network protocol, a Push-to-Talk (PTT) protocol, a PTT over Cellular (POC) protocol, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) protocol, a 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) protocol, and the like.

[00109] In this embodiment, the UEs 1201 and 1202 may further directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 1205. The ProSe interface 1205 may alternatively be referred to as a sidelink interface comprising one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a Physical Sidelink Control Channel (PSCCH), a Physical Sidelink Shared Channel (PSSCH), a Physical Sidelink Discovery Channel (PSDCH), and a Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel (PSBCH).

[00110] The UE 1202 is shown to be configured to access an access point (AP) 1206 via connection 1207. The connection 1207 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.11 protocol, wherein the AP 1206 would comprise a wireless fidelity (WiFi) router. In this example, the AP 1206 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below).

[00111] The E-UTRAN 1210 can include one or more access points that enable the connections 1203 and 1204. These access points can be referred to as access nodes, base stations (BSs), NodeBs, RAN nodes, RAN nodes, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (i.e., terrestrial access points) or satellite access points providing coverage within a geographic area (i.e., a cell). The E-UTRAN 1210 may include one or more RAN nodes 1211 for providing macrocells and one or more RAN nodes 1212 for providing femtocells or picocells (i.e., cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, and/or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells).

[00112] Any of the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 1201 and 1202. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 can fulfill various logical functions for the E- UTRAN 1210 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility management.

[00113] In accordance with some embodiments, the UEs 1201 and 1202 can be configured to communicate using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 over a multicarrier communication channel in accordance various communication techniques, such as an Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[00114] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 to the UEs 1201 and 1202, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time- frequency grid, called a resource grid or time-frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane

representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM subcarrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time- frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource element. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this represents the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be allocated. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[00115] The physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) carries user data and higher- layer signaling to the UEs 1201 and 1202. The physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) carries information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PDSCH channel, among other things. It also informs the UEs 1201 and 1202 about the transport format, resource allocation, and H-ARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 102 within a cell) is performed at any of the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 1201 and 1202, and then the downlink resource assignment information is sent on the PDCCH used for (i.e., assigned to) each of the UEs 1201 and 1202.

[00116] The PDCCH uses control channel elements (CCEs) to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex-valued symbols are first organized into quadruplets, which are then permuted using a sub-block inter-leaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH is transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE corresponds to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as resource element groups (REGs). Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols are mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmitted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the downlink control information (DCI) and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=l, 2, 4, or 8).

[00117] The E-UTRAN 1210 is shown to be communicatively coupled to a core network— in this embodiment, an Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network 1220 via an SI interface 1213. In this embodiment the SI interface 1213 is split into two parts: the S l-U interface 1214, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 and the serving gateway (S-GW) 1222, and the Sl-MME interface 1215, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 1211 and 1212 and the mobility management entities (MMEs) 1221.

[00118] In this embodiment, the EPC network 1220 comprises the MMEs 1221, the S- GW 1222, the Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway (P-GW) 1223, and a home subscriber server (HSS) 1224. The MMEs 1221 are similar in function to the control plane of legacy Serving General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Support Nodes (SGSN). The MMEs 1221 manage mobility aspects in access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. The HSS 1224 comprises a database for network users, including subscription-related information to support the network entities' handling of communication sessions. The EPC network 1220 may comprise one or several HSSs 1224, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 1224 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming/addressing resolution, location dependencies, etc.

[00119] The S -GW 1222 terminates the S 1 interface 1213 towards the E-UTRAN 1210, and routes data packets between the E-UTRAN 1210 and the EPC network 1220. In addition, the S-GW 1222 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3GPP mobility. Other

responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement.

[00120] The P-GW 1223 terminates an SGi interface toward a PDN. The P-GW 1223 routes data packets between the EPC network 1223 and el2ernal networks such as a network including the application server 1230 (alternatively referred to as application function (AF)) via an Internet Protocol (IP) interface 1225. Generally, the application server 1230 is an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS Packet Services (PS) domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). In this embodiment, the P-GW 1223 is shown to be communicatively coupled to an application server 1230 via an IP communications interface 1225. The application server 1230 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., Voice-over- Internet Protocol (VoIP) sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 1201 and 1202 via the EPC network 1220.

[00121] The P-GW 1223 may further be a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection. Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCRF) 1226 is the policy and charging control element of the EPC network 1220. In a non-roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with a User Equipment's (UE) Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE's IP-CAN session: a Home PCRF (H-PCRF) within a HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 1226 may be communicatively coupled to the application server 1230 via the P- GW 1223. The application server 1230 may signal the PCRF 1226 to indicate a new service flow and selecting the appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) and charging parameters. The PCRF 1226 may provision this rule into a Policy and Charging

Enforcement Function (PCEF) (not shown) with the appropriate traffic flow template (TFT) and QoS class of identifier (QCI), which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server.

[00122] FIG. 13 illustrates example components of a device 1300 in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the device 1300 may include application circuitry 1302, baseband circuitry 1304, Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 1306, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 1308, one or more antennas 1310, and power management circuitry (PMC) 1312 coupled together at least as shown. The components of the illustrated device 1300 may be included in a UE or a RAN node. In some embodiments, the device 1300 may include less elements (e.g., a RAN node may not utilize application circuitry 1302, and instead include a processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC). In some embodiments, the device 1300 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory/storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/output (I/O) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device (e.g., said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) implementations).

[00123] The application circuitry 1302 may include one or more application processors. For example, the application circuitry 1302 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The processor(s) may include any combination of general-purpose processors and dedicated processors (e.g., graphics processors, application processors, etc.). The processors may be coupled with or may include memory /storage and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory /storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the device 1300. In some embodiments, processors of application circuitry 1302 may process IP data packets received from an EPC. [00124] The baseband circuitry 1304 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The baseband circuitry 1304 may include one or more baseband processors or control logic to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 1306 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1306. Baseband processing circuity 1304 may interface with the application circuitry 1302 for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 1306. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1304 may include a third generation (3G) baseband processor 1304A, a fourth generation (4G) baseband processor 1304B, a fifth generation (5G) baseband processor 1304C, or other baseband processor(s) 1304D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., second generation (2G), sil3h generation (6G), etc.). The baseband circuitry 1304 (e.g., one or more of baseband processors 1304A-D) may handle various radio control functions that enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry 1306. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 1304A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 1304G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1304E. The radio control

functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments,

modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 1304 may include Fast- Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/demapping functionality. In some embodiments, encoding/decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 1304 may include convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments.

[00125] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1304 may include one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 1304F. The audio DSP(s) 1304F may be include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments. Components of the baseband circuitry may be suitably combined in a single chip, a single chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board in some embodiments. In some embodiments, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 1304 and the application circuitry 1302 may be implemented together such as, for example, on a system on a chip (SOC).

[00126] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1304 may provide for communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1304 may support communication with an evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (EUTRAN) or other wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), a wireless local area network (WLAN), a wireless personal area network (WPAN). Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry 1304 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry.

[00127] RF circuitry 1306 may enable communication with wireless networks using modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various embodiments, the RF circuitry 1306 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 1306 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 1308 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 1304. RF circuitry 1306 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 1304 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 1308 for transmission.

[00128] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry 1306 may include mixer circuitry 1306a, amplifier circuitry 1306b and filter circuitry 1306c. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1306 may include filter circuitry 1306c and mixer circuitry 1306a. RF circuitry 1306 may also include synthesizer circuitry 1306d for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 1308 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 1306d. The amplifier circuitry 1306b may be configured to amplify the down-converted signals and the filter circuitry 1306c may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or band-pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 1304 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a necessity. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[00129] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 1306d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 1308. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 1304 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 1306c.

[00130] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1306a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1306a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1306a may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1306a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1306a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super-heterodyne operation.

[00131] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 1306 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 1304 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 1306.

[00132] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the

embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[00133] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1306d may be a fractional -N synthesizer or a fractional N/N+l synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 1306d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[00134] The synthesizer circuitry 1306d may be configured to synthesize an output frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1306a of the RF circuitry 1306 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1306d may be a fractional N/N+l synthesizer.

[00135] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a necessity. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 1304 or the applications processor 1302 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the applications processor 1302. [00136] Synthesizer circuitry 1306d of the RF circuitry 1306 may include a divider, a delay-locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DPA). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[00137] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 1306d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 1306 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[00138] FEM circuitry 1308 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from one or more antennas 1310, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 1306 for further processing. FEM circuitry 1308 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 1306 for transmission by one or more of the one or more antennas 1310. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 1306, solely in the FEM 1308, or in both the RF circuitry 1306 and the FEM 1308.

[00139] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 1308 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry may include an LNA to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 1306). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 1308 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 1306), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission (e.g., by one or more of the one or more antennas 1310).

[00140] In some embodiments, the PMC 1312 may manage power provided to the baseband circuitry 1304. In particular, the PMC 1312 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMC 1312 may often be included when the device 1300 is capable of being powered by a battery, for example, when the device is included in a UE. The PMC 1312 may increase the power conversion efficiency while providing desirable implementation size and heat dissipation

characteristics.

[00141] While FIG. 13 shows the PMC 1312 coupled only with the baseband circuitry 1304. However, in other embodiments, the PMC 13 12 may be additionally or alternatively coupled with, and perform similar power management operations for, other components such as, but not limited to, application circuitry 1302, RF circuitry 1306, or FEM 1308.

[00142] In some embodiments, the PMC 1312 may control, or otherwise be part of, various power saving mechanisms of the device 1300. For example, if the device 1300 is in an RRC_Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the device 1300 may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power.

[00143] If there is no data traffic activity for an extended period of time, then the device 1300 may transition off to an RRC Idle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The device 1300 goes into a very low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The device 1300 may not receive data in this state, in order to receive data, it can transition back to RRC Connected state.

[00144] An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[00145] Processors of the application circuitry 1302 and processors of the baseband circuitry 1304 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 1304, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 1304 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., transmission communication protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a radio resource control (RRC) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a medium access control (MAC) layer, a radio link control (RLC) layer, and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a physical (PHY) layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below. [00146] FIG. 14 illustrates example components of a device in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the device 1400 may include application circuitry 1402, baseband circuitry 1404, Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 1406, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 1408, and one or more antennas 1410, coupled together at least as shown. The components of the illustrated device 1400 may be included a UE or a RAN node. In some embodiments, the device 1400 may include less elements (e.g., a RAN node may not utilize application circuitry 1402, and instead include a processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC). In some embodiments, the device 1400 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory /storage, display, camera, sensor, and/or input/output (I/O) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device (e.g., said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) implementations).

[00147] The application circuitry 1402 may include one or more application processors. For example, the application circuitry 1402 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The processor(s) may include any combination of general-purpose processors and dedicated processors (e.g., graphics processors, application processors, etc.). The processors may be coupled with and/or may include memory /storage and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory /storage to enable various applications and/or operating systems to run on the system. In some embodiments, processors of application circuitry 1402 may process IP data packets received from an EPC.

[00148] The baseband circuitry 1404 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The baseband circuitry 1404 may include one or more baseband processors and/or control logic to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 1406 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1406. Baseband processing circuity 1404 may interface with the application circuitry 1402 for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 1406. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1404 may include a second generation (2G) baseband processor 1404a, third generation (3G) baseband processor 1404b, fourth generation (4G) baseband processor 1404c, and/or other baseband processor(s) 1404d for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., fifth generation (5G), 6G, etc.). The baseband circuitry 1404 (e.g., one or more of baseband processors 1404a-d) may handle various radio control functions that enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry 1406. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 1404a-d may be included in modules stored in the memory 1404g and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 1404e. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments, modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 1404 may include Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, and/or constellation mapping/demapping functionality. In some embodiments,

encoding/decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 1404 may include convolution, tail- biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, and/or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)

encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments.

[00149] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry may include one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 1404f. The audio DSP(s) 1404f may be include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments. Components of the baseband circuitry may be suitably combined in a single chip, a single chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board in some embodiments. In some embodiments, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 1404 and the application circuitry 1402 may be implemented together such as, for example, on a system on a chip (SOC).

[00150] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1404 may provide for communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 1404 may support communication with an evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (EUTRAN) and/or other wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), a wireless local area network (WLAN), a wireless personal area network (WPAN). Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry 1404 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry. [00151] RF circuitry 1406 may enable communication with wireless networks using modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 1406 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 1408 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 1404. RF circuitry 1406 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 1404 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 1408 for transmission.

[00152] In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the RF circuitry 1406 may include mixer circuitry 1406a, amplifier circuitry 1406b and filter circuitry 1406c. The transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 1406 may include filter circuitry 1406c and mixer circuitry 1406a. RF circuitry 1406 may also include synthesizer circuitry 1406d for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 1408 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 1406d. The amplifier circuitry 1406b may be configured to amplify the down-converted signals and the filter circuitry 1406c may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or band-pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 1404 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a necessity. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[00153] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 1406d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 1408. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 1404 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 1406c. The filter circuitry 1406c may include a low-pass filter (LPF), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[00154] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1406a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and/or upconversion respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1406a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1406a may be arranged for direct downconversion and/or direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 1406a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 1406a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super-heterodyne operation.

[00155] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 1404 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 1406.

[00156] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the

embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[00157] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be a fractional -N synthesizer or a fractional N/N+l synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[00158] The synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be configured to synthesize an output frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 1406a of the RF circuitry 1406 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be a fractional N/N+l synthesizer. [00159] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a necessity. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 1404 or the applications processor 1402 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the applications processor 1402.

[00160] Synthesizer circuitry 1406d of the RF circuitry 1406 may include a divider, a delay-locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DPA). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[00161] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 1406d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 1406 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[00162] FEM circuitry 1408 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from one or more antennas 1410, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 1406 for further processing. FEM circuitry 1408 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 1406 for transmission by one or more of the one or more antennas 1410.

[00163] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 1408 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry may include a low-noise amplifier (LNA) to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 1406). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 1408 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 1406), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission (e.g., by one or more of the one or more antennas 1410.

[00164] In some embodiments, the device 1400 comprises a plurality of power saving mechanisms. If the device 1400 is in an RRC Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the device may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power.

[00165] If there is no data traffic activity for an extended period of time, then the device 1400 may transition off to an RRC Idle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The device 1400 goes into a very low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The device cannot receive data in this state, in order to receive data, it can transition back to

RRC Connected state.

[00166] An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[00167] Processors of the application circuitry 1402 and processors of the baseband circuitry 1404 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 1404, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, and/or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 1404 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., transmission communication protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a radio resource control (RRC) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a medium access control (MAC) layer, a radio link control (RLC) layer, and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a physical (PHY) layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[00168] FIG. 15 illustrates example interfaces of baseband circuitry in accordance with some embodiments. As discussed above, the baseband circuitry 1404 of FIG. 14 may comprise processors 1404A-1404E and a memory 1404G utilized by said processors. Each of the processors 1404A-1404E may include a memory interface, 1504A-1504E, respectively, to send/receive data to/from the memory 1404G.

[00169] The baseband circuitry 1404 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as a memory interface 1512 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from memory external to the baseband circuitry 1404), an application circuitry interface 1514 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry 1402 of FIG. 14), an RF circuitry interface 1516 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 1406 of FIG. 14), and a wireless hardware connectivity interface 1518 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth® components (e.g., Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components).

[00170] FIG. 16 provides an example illustration of the wireless device, such as a user equipment (UE), a mobile station (MS), a mobile wireless device, a mobile

communication device, a tablet, a handset, or other type of wireless device. The wireless device can include one or more antennas configured to communicate with a node, macro node, low power node (LPN), or, transmission station, such as a base station (BS), an evolved Node B (eNB), a baseband processing unit (BBU), a remote radio head (RRH), a remote radio equipment (RRE), a relay station (RS), a radio equipment (RE), or other type of wireless wide area network (WWAN) access point. The wireless device can be configured to communicate using at least one wireless communication standard such as, but not limited to, 3 GPP LTE, WiMAX, High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), Bluetooth, and WiFi. The wireless device can communicate using separate antennas for each wireless communication standard or shared antennas for multiple wireless communication standards. The wireless device can communicate in a wireless local area network

(WLAN), a wireless personal area network (WPAN), and/or a WWAN. The wireless device can also comprise a wireless modem. The wireless modem can comprise, for example, a wireless radio transceiver and baseband circuitry (e.g., a baseband processor). The wireless modem can, in one example, modulate signals that the wireless device transmits via the one or more antennas and demodulate signals that the wireless device receives via the one or more antennas.

[00171] FIG. 16 also provides an illustration of a microphone and one or more speakers that can be used for audio input and output from the wireless device. The display screen can be a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, or other type of display screen such as an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display. The display screen can be configured as a touch screen. The touch screen can use capacitive, resistive, or another type of touch screen technology. An application processor and a graphics processor can be coupled to internal memory to provide processing and display capabilities. A non-volatile memory port can also be used to provide data input/output options to a user. The non-volatile memory port can also be used to expand the memory capabilities of the wireless device. A keyboard can be integrated with the wireless device or wirelessly connected to the wireless device to provide additional user input. A virtual keyboard can also be provided using the touch screen.

Examples

[00172] The following examples pertain to specific technology embodiments and point out specific features, elements, or actions that can be used or otherwise combined in achieving such embodiments.

[00173] Example 1 includes an apparatus of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS) comprising, one or more processors configured to: encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station; and a memory interface configured to send to a memory the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station.

[00174] Example 2 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

[00175] Example 3 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 2, wherein the source station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

[00176] Example 4 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 2, wherein the destination station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

[00177] Example 5 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 3, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to initiate the millimeter wave (mmWave)

communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00178] Example 6 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the plurality of destination stations; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00179] Example 7 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 6, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values is based on a phase noise of the destination station.

[00180] Example 8 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a

[00181] Example 9 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to report an SCS specific channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback to a wireless network of the source station and the destination station to enable the wireless network to determine an SCS value and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the UE, based on the SCS specific CQI.

[00182] Example 10 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 6, wherein the selected SCS value is selected based on a quality of service (QoS) constraint of one or more of the source station or destination station.

[00183] Example 11 includes the apparatus of example 1 or 6, wherein the selected SCS value is selected based on a guard band of one or more of the source station or destination station.

[00184] Example 12 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein: the plurality of destination stations is comprised of one or more groups of UEs with each group determined based on a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the UEs in each group; initiate a user plane (u- plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the one or more groups of UEs using a selected SCS value for each group that is based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the UEs in each group and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00185] Example 13 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to initiate a decimeter wave communication or a centimeter wave communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on a minimum supported SCS value of the destination station and a minimum supported SCS value of the source station.

[00186] Example 14 includes the apparatus of example 1, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values comprises one or more of a minimum SCS value, a preferred SCS value, a list of preferred SCS values, a less preferred SCS value, a list of less preferred SCS values, and a list of all supported SCS values. [00187] Example 15 includes an apparatus of a user equipment (UE) configured for dual base subcarrier spacing (SCS) comprising: one or more processors configured to: select a legacy base SCS of 15 kilohertz (kHz) for legacy radio access technologies; and select a new base SCS for a multiple use case comprising one or more of massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC), Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency

Communications (URLLC), a mobile broadband (MBB) or a 5th Generation (5G) MBB use case, wherein the new base SCS enables a uniform number of Cyclic Prefix (CP) samples across all Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols resulting in frequency -time resource units (FTRUs) that match a time grid of an integer multiple or an integer fraction of an atomic time unit of 1 millisecond (ms); and a memory interface configured to send to a memory the new base SCS.

[00188] Example 16 includes the apparatus of example 15, wherein the new base SCS is one or more of 13.125 kHz, and 22.5 kHz.

[00189] Example 17 includes the apparatus of example 15 or 16, wherein the new base SCS is applied to the multiple use cases to provide an SCS comprising the base SCS multiplied by 2n, where: n = -2 for the mMTC; n = 1 for the MBB; n = 3 for 5G MBB; and n = 6 for the URLLC.

[00190] Example 18 includes the apparatus of example 15, wherein each of the multiple use cases include 192 CP samples, and 12 OFDM symbols.

[00191] Example 19 includes the apparatus of example 15 or 17, wherein an OFDM symbol count of the MBB use case is an integer multiple of the mMTC, 5G MBB, and URLLC, relative to the value of n.

[00192] Example 20 includes the apparatus of example 15, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to select an SCS sampling frequency for each multiple use case that is derived from a base clock with a sampling frequency of 30.72 megahertz (MHz) using SCSact = SCSbase * 2 p/q , each multiple use case comprising:

MBB 7 8 26.88 13.125

Base Clock 1 1 30.72 15 eMBB 7 1 215.04 105

URLLC 56 (7*8) 1 1720.32 840 where SCSact is the selected SCS sampling frequency and SCSbase is the base clock, p is a positive integer or zero and q is a positive integer.

[00193] Example 21 includes the apparatus of example 20, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to decode a value of p or q that is received from a wireless network of the UE.

[00194] Example 22 includes the apparatus of example 20, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to select a value of p or q and encode the value of p or q for transmission to a wireless network of the UE.

[00195] Example 23 includes the apparatus of example 20, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to select the value of p or q based on one or more of a type of radio access technology (RAT) used by the UE or a type of service used by the UE selected from one of the selected use cases.

[00196] Example 24 includes at least one machine readable storage medium having instructions embodied thereon for a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS), the instructions when executed by one or more processors at the source station perform the following: encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and initiate a millimeter wave

(mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00197] Example 25 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 24, further comprising instructions, that when executed by one or more processors at the source station, perform the following: encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station. [00198] Example 26 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 24, further comprising instructions, that when executed by one or more processors at the source station, perform the following: encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values by the plurality of destination stations; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00199] Example 27 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 24 or 26, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values is based on a phase noise of the destination station.

[00200] Example 28 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 24, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

[00201] Example 29 includes an apparatus of a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS) comprising: one or more processors configured to: encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station; and a memory interface configured to send to a memory the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station.

[00202] Example 30 includes the apparatus of example 29, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station; or wherein the one or more processors are further configured to initiate the millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00203] Example 31 includes the apparatus of example 29 or 30, wherein the destination station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP) or the source station is one or more of a user equipment (UE) or an access point (AP).

[00204] Example 32 includes the apparatus of example 29, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the plurality of destination stations; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00205] Example 33 includes the apparatus of example 29, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station; or report an SCS specific channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback to a wireless network of the source station and the destination station to enable the wireless network to determine an SCS value and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the UE, based on the SCS specific CQI.

[00206] Example 34 includes the apparatus of example 29, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: report an SCS specific channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback to a wireless network of the source station and the destination station to enable the wireless network to determine an SCS value and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the UE, based on the SCS specific CQI; or initiate a decimeter wave communication or a centimeter wave communication with the destination station using a smallest SCS value based on a minimum supported SCS value of the destination station and a minimum supported SCS value of the source station. [00207] Example 35 includes the apparatus of example 29 or 34, wherein the selected SCS value is selected based on a quality of service (QoS) constraint of one or more of the source station or destination station or selected based on a guard band of one or more of the source station or destination station.

[00208] Example 36 includes the apparatus of example 29, wherein: the plurality of destination stations is comprised of one or more groups of UEs with each group determined based on a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the UEs in each group; initiate a user plane (u- plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the one or more groups of UEs using a selected SCS value for each group that is based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the UEs in each group and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station; and wherein the plurality of SCS values comprises one or more of a minimum SCS value, a preferred SCS value, a list of preferred SCS values, a less preferred SCS value, a list of less preferred SCS values, and a list of all supported SCS values.

[00209] Example 37 includes apparatus of a user equipment (UE) configured for dual base subcarrier spacing (SCS) comprising: one or more processors configured to: select a legacy base SCS of 15 kilohertz (kHz) for legacy radio access technologies; and select a new base SCS for a multiple use case comprising one or more of massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC), Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC), a mobile broadband (MBB) or a 5th Generation (5G) MBB use case, wherein the new base SCS enables a uniform number of Cyclic Prefix (CP) samples across all Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols resulting in frequency -time resource units (FTRUs) that match a time grid of an integer multiple or an integer fraction of an atomic time unit of 1 millisecond (ms); and a memory interface configured to send to a memory the new base SCS.

[00210] Example 38 includes the apparatus of example 37, wherein the new base SCS is one or more of 13.125 kHz, and 22.5 kHz; or applied to the multiple use cases to provide an SCS comprising the base SCS multiplied by 2n, where: n = -2 for the mMTC; n = 1 for the MBB; n = 3 for 5G MBB; and n = 6 for the URLLC.

[00211] Example 39 includes the apparatus of example 37, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to select an SCS sampling frequency for each multiple use case that is derived from a base clock with a sampling frequency of 30.72 megahertz (MHz) using SCSact = SCSbase * 2 p/q , each multiple use case comprising:

[00212] where SCSact is the selected SCS sampling frequency and SCSbase is the base clock, p is a positive integer or zero and q is a positive integer.

[00213] Example 40 includes the apparatus of example 39, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: decode a value of p or q that is received from a wireless network of the UE; select a value of p or q and encode the value of p or q for transmission to a wireless network of the UE; or select the value of p or q based on one or more of a type of radio access technology (RAT) used by the UE or a type of service used by the UE selected from one of the selected use cases.

[00214] Example 41 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium having instructions embodied thereon for a source station configured for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS), the instructions when executed by one or more processors at the source station perform the following: encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and initiate a millimeter wave

(mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00215] Example 42 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 41, further comprising instructions, that when executed by one or more processors at the source station, perform the following: encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station; encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values by the plurality of destination stations; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00216] Example 43 includes the at least one machine readable storage medium in example 41, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

[00217] Example 44 includes a source station operable for variable subcarrier spacing (SCS), the source station comprising: means for encode a request, to a destination station, for delivery of a plurality of supported SCS values, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values are supported by the destination station; means for decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the destination station; and means for initiate a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with the destination station using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of the destination station and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00218] Example 45 includes the source station of example 44, further comprising: encode information on the plurality of supported SCS values of the source station to the destination station.

[00219] Example 46 includes the source station of example 44, further comprising: encode a request, to a plurality of destination stations, for delivery of the plurality of supported SCS values by the plurality of destination stations; decode one or more of the plurality of supported SCS values received from the plurality of destination stations; and initiate a user plane (u-plane) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication with one or more of the plurality of destination stations using a selected SCS value based on the plurality of supported SCS values of one or more destination stations in the plurality of destination stations and a plurality of supported SCS values of the source station.

[00220] Example 47 includes the source station of example 44 or 46, wherein the plurality of supported SCS values is based on a phase noise of the destination station.

[00221] Example 48 includes the source station of example 44, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to determine a modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for the source station using a look-up-table (LUT) based on a minimum SCS value associated with the phase noise of the destination station.

[00222] Any of the radio links described herein may operate according to any one or more of the following radio communication technologies and/or standards including but not limited to: a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) radio

communication technology, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) radio

communication technology, an Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) radio communication technology, and/or a Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio communication technology, for example Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Freedom of Multimedia Access (FOMA), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE Advanced), Code division multiple access 2000 (CDMA2000), Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Mobitex, Third Generation (3G), Circuit Switched Data (CSD), High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (Third Generation) (UMTS (3G)), Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (Universal Mobile Telecommunications

System) (W-CDMA (UMTS)), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), High Speed Packet Access Plus (HSPA+), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System-Time- Division Duplex (UMTS-TDD), Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access (TD- CDMA), Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA), 3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 8 (Pre-4th Generation) (3GPP Rel. 8 (Pre-4G)), 3 GPP Rel. 9 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 9), 3 GPP Rel. 10 (3rd

Generation Partnership Project Release 10) , 3GPP Rel. 11 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 11), 3 GPP Rel. 12 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 12), 3 GPP Rel. 13 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 13), 3GPP Rel. 14 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 14), 3GPP Rel. 15 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 15), 3 GPP Rel. 16 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 16), 3GPP Rel. 17 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 17), 3GPP Rel. 18 (3rd Generation

Partnership Project Release 18), 3 GPP 5G, 3 GPP LTE Extra, LTE- Advanced Pro, LTE Licensed-Assisted Access (LAA), MuLTEfire, UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA), Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA), Long Term Evolution Advanced (4th Generation) (LTE Advanced (4G)), cdmaOne (2G), Code division multiple access 2000 (Third generation) (CDMA2000 (3G)), Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution- Data Only (EV-DO), Advanced Mobile Phone System (1st Generation) (AMPS (1G)), Total Access Communication System/Extended Total Access Communication System (TACS/ETACS), Digital AMPS (2nd Generation) (D-AMPS (2G)), Push-to-talk (PTT), Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone System (IMTS), Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony), MTD (Swedish abbreviation for

Mobiltelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D), Public Automated Land Mobile (Autotel/PALM), ARP (Finnish for Autoradiopuhelin, "car radio phone"), NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), High capacity version of NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) (Hicap), Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Mobitex, DataTAC, Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN), Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Circuit Switched Data (CSD), Personal Handy -phone System (PHS), Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (WiDEN), iBurst, Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), also referred to as also referred to as 3GPP Generic Access Network, or GAN standard), Zigbee, Bluetooth(r), Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) standard, mmWave standards in general (wireless systems operating at 10-300 GHz and above such as WiGig, IEEE 802. Had, IEEE 802.11 ay, etc.), technologies operating above 300 GHz and THz bands, (3GPP/LTE based or IEEE 802.11 p and other) Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-X (V2X) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) communication technologies, 3GPP cellular V2X, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) communication systems such as Intelligent-Transport-Systems and others, etc.

[00223] Aspects described herein can be used in the context of any spectrum management scheme including dedicated licensed spectrum, unlicensed spectrum,

(licensed) shared spectrum (such as LSA = Licensed Shared Access in 2.3-2.4 GHz, 3.4- 3.6 GHz, 3.6-3.8 GHz and further frequencies and SAS = Spectrum Access System in 3.55-3.7 GHz and further frequencies). Applicable spectrum bands include IMT

(International Mobile Telecommunications) spectrum (including 450 - 470 MHz, 790 - 960 MHz, 1710 - 2025 MHz, 2110 - 2200 MHz, 2300 - 2400 MHz, 2500 - 2690 MHz, 698-790 MHz, 610 - 790 MHz, 3400 - 3600 MHz, etc). Note that some bands are limited to specific region(s) and/or countries), IMT-advanced spectrum, IMT-2020 spectrum (expected to include 3600-3800 MHz, 3.5 GHz bands, 700 MHz bands, bands within the 24.25-86 GHz range, etc.), spectrum made available under FCC's "Spectrum Frontier" 5G initiative (including 27.5 - 28.35 GHz, 29.1 - 29.25 GHz, 31 - 31.3 GHz, 37 - 38.6 GHz, 38.6 - 40 GHz, 42 - 42.5 GHz, 57 - 64 GHz, 71 - 76 GHz, 81 - 86 GHz and 92 - 94 GHz, etc), the ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) band of 5.9 GHz (typically 5.85-5.925 GHz) and 63-64 GHz, bands currently allocated to WiGig such as WiGig Band 1 (57.24-59.40 GHz), WiGig Band 2 (59.40-61.56 GHz) and WiGig Band 3 (61.56-63.72 GHz) and WiGig Band 4 (63.72-65.88 GHz), the 70.2 GHz - 71 GHz band, any band between 65.88 GHz and 71 GHz, bands currently allocated to automotive radar applications such as 76- 81 GHz, and future bands including 94-300 GHz and above. Furthermore, the scheme can be used on a secondary basis on bands such as the TV White Space bands (typically below 790 MHz) where in particular the 400 MHz and 700 MHz bands are promising candidates. Besides cellular applications, specific applications for vertical markets may be addressed such as PMSE (Program Making and Special Events), medical, health, surgery, automotive, low-latency, drones, etc. applications.

[00224] Aspects described herein can also implement a hierarchical application of the scheme is possible, e.g. by introducing a hierarchical prioritization of usage for different types of users (e.g., low/medium/high priority, etc.), based on a prioritized access to the spectrum e.g. with highest priority to tier-1 users, followed by tier-2, then tier-3, etc. users, etc.

[00225] Aspects described herein can also be applied to different Single Carrier or OFDM flavors (CP-OFDM, SC-FDMA, SC-OFDM, filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC), OFDMA, etc.) and in particular 3 GPP NR (New Radio) by allocating the OFDM carrier data bit vectors to the corresponding symbol resources.

[00226] Various techniques, or certain aspects or portions thereof, may take the form of program code (i.e., instructions) embodied in tangible media, such as floppy diskettes, compact disc-read-only memory (CD-ROMs), hard drives, non-transitory computer readable storage medium, or any other machine-readable storage medium wherein, when the program code is loaded into and executed by a machine, such as a computer, the machine becomes an apparatus for practicing the various techniques. In the case of program code execution on programmable computers, the computing device may include a processor, a storage medium readable by the processor (including volatile and nonvolatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device. The volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements may be a random-access memory (RAM), erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), flash drive, optical drive, magnetic hard drive, solid state drive, or other medium for storing electronic data. The node and wireless device may also include a transceiver module (i.e., transceiver), a counter module (i.e., counter), a processing module (i.e., processor), and/or a clock module (i.e., clock) or timer module (i.e., timer). In one example, selected components of the transceiver module can be located in a cloud radio access network (C-RAN). One or more programs that may implement or utilize the various techniques described herein may use an application programming interface (API), reusable controls, and the like. Such programs may be implemented in a high level procedural or object oriented programming language to communicate with a computer system. However, the program(s) may be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. In any case, the language may be a compiled or interpreted language, and combined with hardware implementations.

[00227] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group) that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[00228] It should be understood that many of the functional units described in this specification have been labeled as modules, in order to more particularly emphasize their implementation independence. For example, a module may be implemented as a hardware circuit comprising custom very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits or gate arrays, off-the-shelf semiconductors such as logic chips, transistors, or other discrete components. A module may also be implemented in programmable hardware devices such as field programmable gate arrays, programmable array logic, programmable logic devices or the like.

[00229] Modules may also be implemented in software for execution by various types of processors. An identified module of executable code may, for instance, comprise one or more physical or logical blocks of computer instructions, which may, for instance, be organized as an object, procedure, or function. Nevertheless, the executables of an identified module may not be physically located together, but may comprise disparate instructions stored in different locations which, when joined logically together, comprise the module and achieve the stated purpose for the module.

[00230] Indeed, a module of executable code may be a single instruction, or many instructions, and may even be distributed over several different code segments, among different programs, and across several memory devices. Similarly, operational data may be identified and illustrated herein within modules, and may be embodied in any suitable form and organized within any suitable type of data structure. The operational data may be collected as a single data set, or may be distributed over different locations including over different storage devices, and may exist, at least partially, merely as electronic signals on a system or network. The modules may be passive or active, including agents operable to perform desired functions.

[00231] Reference throughout this specification to "an example" or "exemplary" means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the example is included in at least one embodiment of the present technology. Thus, appearances of the phrases "in an example" or the word "exemplary" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment.

[00232] As used herein, a plurality of items, structural elements, compositional elements, and/or materials may be presented in a common list for convenience. However, these lists should be construed as though each member of the list is individually identified as a separate and unique member. Thus, no individual member of such list should be construed as a de facto equivalent of any other member of the same list solely based on their presentation in a common group without indications to the contrary. In addition, various embodiments and example of the present technology may be referred to herein along with alternatives for the various components thereof. It is understood that such embodiments, examples, and alternatives are not to be construed as defacto equivalents of one another, but are to be considered as separate and autonomous representations of the present technology.

[00233] Furthermore, the described features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments. In the following description, numerous specific details are provided, such as examples of layouts, distances, network examples, etc., to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the technology. One skilled in the relevant art will recognize, however, that the technology can be practiced without one or more of the specific details, or with other methods, components, layouts, etc. In other instances, well-known structures, materials, or operations are not shown or described in detail to avoid obscuring aspects of the technology.

While the forgoing examples are illustrative of the principles of the present technology in one or more particular applications, it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that numerous modifications in form, usage and details of implementation can be made without the exercise of inventive faculty, and without departing from the principles and concepts of the technology. Accordingly, it is not intended that the technology be limited, except as by the examples set forth below.