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Title:
SUBSTANCES AND METHOD FOR REPLACING NATURAL TOOTH MATERIAL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/142608
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A substance that sets in a relatively short time for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, the substance comprising untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate, or comprising untreated mineral trioxide aggregate, milled mineral trioxide aggregate and water. A method of making a substance that sets in a relatively short time for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, the method comprising milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization. A method for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material.

Inventors:
TORABINEJAD, Mahmoud (11741 Pecan Way, Loma Linda, California, 92354, US)
MOADDEL, Homayoun (36 Chaparral Drive, Pomona, California, 91766, US)
Application Number:
US2013/033164
Publication Date:
September 26, 2013
Filing Date:
March 20, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
LOMA LINDA UNIVERSITY (11145 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, California, 92350, US)
TORABINEJAD, Mahmoud (11741 Pecan Way, Loma Linda, California, 92354, US)
MOADDEL, Homayoun (36 Chaparral Drive, Pomona, California, 91766, US)
International Classes:
A61K6/02; A61C5/00; A61K6/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2005087178A12005-09-22
WO2004093734A22004-11-04
WO2011049629A22011-04-28
Foreign References:
US4652441A1987-03-24
Other References:
See also references of EP 2827828A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FARAH, David A. et al. (SHELDON MAK & ANDERSON PC, Third Floor100 Corson Stree, Pasadena California, 91103-3842, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

I . A substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, the substance comprising untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate, where the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate together are total mineral trioxide aggregate.

2. The substance of claim 1 , further comprising a liquid selected from the group consisting of a local anesthetic and water.

3. The substance of claim 1 , where the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and thirty times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

4. The substance of claim 1 , where the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and fifteen times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

5. The substance of claim 1 , where the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between eight and twelve times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

6. The substance of claim 1 , comprising between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

7. The substance of claim 1 , comprising between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

8. The substance of claim 1 , comprising between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

9. The substance of claim 1 , comprising between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

10. The substance of claim 1 , comprising 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

I I . The substance of claim 1 , comprising 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

12. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

13. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

14. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

15. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

16. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

17. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

18. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

19. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

20. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

21. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

22. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

23. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

24. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

25. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

26. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

27. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

28. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

29. The substance of claim 2, comprising between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

30. The substance of claim 2, comprising 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

31. The substance of claim 2, comprising 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

32. A method for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, the method comprising:

a) performing a dental procedure;

b) providing a substance according to any of claims 1-31 ;

c) using the substance to fill a space in the tooth; and

d) allowing the substance to set.

33. The method of claim 32, where the dental procedure is an endodontic procedure. 34. The method of claim 32, where the dental procedure comprises removing part of the natural tooth material of a tooth.

35. The method of claim 32, where the dental procedure comprises removing material that replaced natural tooth material.

36. The method of claim 32, where the dental procedure is selected from the group consisting of apexification, pulp capping, pulpotomy, regenerative endodontics, root canal filling, root-end filling, root perforation repair and sealer during filling or root canals.

37. A method of making a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the substance sets in a relatively short time, the method comprising:

a) selecting a material suitable for use in the method to make a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the material comprises particles having a median maximum particle diameter;

b) mixing the selected material with a non-aqueous liquid creating a mixture of the material and liquid;

c) providing an instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization;

d) placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization; and

e) actuating the instrument thereby milling the material within the mixture, thereby reducing the median maximum particle diameter, and thereby making the substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material.

38. The method of claim 37, where the material is mineral trioxide aggregate.

39. The method of claim 37, where the liquid is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol.

40. The method of claim 37, where the liquid is ethanol.

41. The method of claim 37, where the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 100 parts liquid.

42. The method of claim 37, where the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 20 parts liquid.

43. The method of claim 37, where the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 20 parts liquid.

44. The method of claim 37, where the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 10 parts liquid.

45. The method of claim 37, where the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of 1 part material to 9 parts liquid.

46. The method of claim 37, where mixing the material with a liquid comprises using a magnetic stir bar to produce a suspension.

47. The method of claim 37, where placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument comprises pouring the mixture into a reservoir of the instrument.

48. The method of claim 47, where the reservoir comprises a device for preventing premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument, and where the method further comprises actuating the device to prevent premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument.

49. The method of claim 48, where the device is an overhead propeller.

50. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and one hundred cycles.

51. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and fifty cycles.

52. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and thirty cycles.

53. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between five and thirty cycles.

54. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises using a pressure between 1000 to 70,000 psi.

55. The method of claim 37, where milling the material within the mixture comprises using a pressure of 30,000 psi.

56. The method of claim 37, where the method further comprises evaporating the liquid from the milled material.

57. The method of claim 37, where the method further comprises collecting the milled material after milling the material.

58. A substance made according to the method of any of claims 37-57.

Description:
SUBSTANCES AND METHOD FOR REPLACING NATURAL TOOTH MATERIAL CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present Application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Patent

Application 61/768,801 , titled "Substances and Method for Replacing Natural Tooth

Material, " filed February 25, 2013; United States Provisional Patent Application 61/712,058, titled "Substances and Method for Replacing Natural Tooth Material," filed October 10, 2012; and United States Provisional Patent Application 61/613,797, titled "Substances and Method for Replacing Natural Tooth Material," filed March 21 , 2012; the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (sold under the trade names gray or white

ProRoot ® MTA (Dentsply International Inc. , York, PA, US) is a substance currently used in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material in apexification, pulp capping, pulpotomy, regenerative endodontics, root canal filling, root-end filling and root perforation repair. While mineral trioxide aggregate has proven to be biocompatible and suitable for these procedures, mineral trioxide aggregate disadvantageously takes

approximately three hours to set. This extended time for setting usually requires a patient to return for a second visit to complete treatment increasing the cost and inconvenience of treatment. Further disadvantageously, irrigating the operative field before the mineral trioxide aggregate has set can evacuate some of the mineral trioxide aggregate thereby requiring an additional application of mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0003] Therefore, there is a need for a substance to replace natural tooth material that is not subject to these disadvantages.

SUMMARY

[0004] According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. The substance comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate, where the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate together are total mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance further comprises water. In one embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and thirty times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and fifteen times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between eight and twelve times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0005] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. The method comprises: a) performing a dental procedure; b) providing a substance according to the present invention; c) using the substance to fill a space in the tooth; and d) allowing the substance to set. In one embodiment, the dental procedure is an endodontic procedure. In another embodiment, the dental procedure comprises removing part of the natural tooth material of a tooth. In another embodiment, the dental procedure comprises removing material that replaced natural tooth material. In another embodiment, the dental procedure is selected from the group consisting of apexification, pulp capping, pulpotomy, regenerative endodontics, root canal filling, root-end filling, root perforation repair and sealer during filling or root canals.

[0006] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of making a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the substance sets in a relatively short time. The method comprises: a) selecting a material suitable for use in the method to make a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the material comprises particles having a median maximum particle diameter; b) mixing the selected material with a non-aqueous liquid creating a mixture of the material and liquid; c) providing an instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization; d) placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization; and e) actuating the instrument thereby milling the material within the mixture, thereby reducing the median maximum particle diameter, and thereby making the substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. In one embodiment, the material is mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the liquid is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. In a preferred embodiment, the liquid is ethanol. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 100 parts liquid. In another embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 20 parts liquid. In another embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 20 parts liquid. In another embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 10 parts liquid. In another embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of 1 part material to 9 parts liquid. In one embodiment, mixing the material with a liquid comprises using a magnetic stir bar to produce a suspension. In one embodiment, placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument comprises pouring the mixture into a reservoir of the instrument. In one embodiment, the reservoir comprises a device for preventing premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument, and the method further comprises actuating the device to prevent premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument. In one embodiment, the device is an overhead propeller. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and one hundred cycles. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and fifty cycles. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and thirty cycles. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between five and thirty cycles. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises is using a pressure between 1000 to 70,000 psi. In another embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises is using a pressure of 30,000 psi. In another embodiment, the method further comprises evaporating the liquid from the milled material. In another embodiment, the method further comprises collecting the milled material after milling the material. According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance made according to the method of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION

[0007] According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance that sets in a relatively short time for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. In one embodiment, the substance comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate (prepared by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization). In a preferred embodiment, the substance comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate, milled mineral trioxide aggregate and water. According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of making a substance that sets in a relatively short time for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance made according to the present method. According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing a substance according to the present invention. The substances and method will now be disclosed in detail.

[0008] As used in this disclosure, except where the context requires otherwise, the term "comprise" and variations of the term, such as "comprising," "comprises" and "comprised" are not intended to exclude other additives, components, integers or steps.

[0009] As used in this disclosure, except where the context requires otherwise, the method steps disclosed are not intended to be limiting nor are they intended to indicate that each step is essential to the method or that each step must occur in the order disclosed.

[0010] As used in this disclosure, except where indicated otherwise, "mineral trioxide aggregate, " and "untreated mineral trioxide aggregate," mean the substance generally sold under the trade name gray or white ProRoot ® MTA (Dentsply International Inc. , York, PA, US). As will be understood by those with skill in the art with respect to this disclosure, before mixing with liquid to cause the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate to set, mineral trioxide aggregate is mixture of a refined Portland cement and bismuth oxide, and generally comprises a mixture of bismuth oxide, dicalcium silicate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite, tricalcium aluminate and tricalcium silicate. Additionally, "mineral trioxide aggregate, " and "untreated mineral trioxide aggregate," also mean the substance generally sold under the trade name white ProRoot ® MTA (Dentsply International Inc. , York, PA, US), which is similar in composition to gray ProRoot ® MTA except that white ProRoot ® MTA lacks tetracalcium alumino-ferrite.

[0011] Unless specified otherwise, all ratios given in this disclosure are by weight.

[0012] As used in this disclosure, "relatively short time" means between five minutes and twenty minutes, a clinically desirable setting time for substances that replace natural tooth material.

[0013] As used in this disclosure, "median maximum particle diameter size" means that 50% of the sample has a smaller maximum particle diameter and 50% of the sample has a larger maximum particle diameter.

[0014] As used in this disclosure, "milled" in reference to substances and methods of the present invention means "impingement of particles at high shear rate and impact by high pressure homogenization. "

[0015] According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. The substance sets within a tooth in a relatively short time, minutes rather than hours as is usual for currently used substances. In one embodiment, the substance comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate (prepared by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization). In a preferred embodiment, the substance comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate, milled mineral trioxide aggregate and water. Mineral trioxide aggregate as currently used, such as sold under the trade name gray or white ProRoot ® MTA (Dentsply International Inc. , York, PA, US), was tested to determine the maximum particle diameter size of the mineral trioxide aggregate particles before contacting with liquid for setting. Mineral trioxide aggregate particles (hereinafter referred to as "untreated mineral trioxide aggregate") were found to have a maximum particle diameter of between 0.7 and 42.2 microns with a median of 3.5 microns and a standard deviation of 4.1 microns. A study was performed to determine the effect of adding mineral trioxide aggregate that had been milled by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization (hereinafter referred to as "milled mineral trioxide aggregate" in the context of the present invention) to the setting time of untreated mineral trioxide aggregate, where milling the mineral trioxide aggregate reduced the maximum particle diameter to between 0.16 and 2.45 microns with a median of 0.49 microns, and a standard deviation of 0.5 microns. That is, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate had a median maximum particle diameter size approximately eight times the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. The study was performed following ISO standard 6876: 1986 for dental materials which specifies the requirements for dental materials used as filling materials. The milled mineral trioxide aggregate was prepared as follows. First, untreated mineral trioxide aggregate (gray

ProRoot ® MTA) was obtained from Dentsply International Inc. (York, PA, US). The starting median particle size for the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate was determined to be 3.8 microns. The untreated mineral trioxide aggregate was mixed with ethanol in a ratio of 1 to 9 by weight using a magnetic stir bar to produce a suspension. The suspension was poured into the reservoir of an M-110EH Microfluidizer ® (Microfluidics, Newton, MA, US) with an overhead propeller mixer also in the reservoir (to prevent premature settling causing a concentration gradient in the check-valve of the processor due to the high density of mineral trioxide aggregate). The suspension was forced at extreme high pressure through a very small diamond orifice. The high pressures (up to 40,000 psi/) used delivers the product into the interaction chamber using a constant pressure pumping system. Precisely engineered microchannels within the chamber range from 50-500 microns and generate unsurpassed shear and impact forces that cause homogenization and de-agglomerates the mineral trioxide aggregate particles. The temperature was regulated by a heat exchanger, and the lack of moving parts maximizes uptime. The use of M-110EH Microfluidizer ® equipment forced the entire dispersion through the same tortuous path, and as a result, produced tighter/smaller particle size distributions than other technologies. It also creates a narrower particle size distribution. Next, the suspension was milled for between five and thirty cycles in a G10Z (87 microns) diamond Interaction Chamber (IXC) at 30,000 psi and the maximum particle diameter size was measured during the cycles. In general, the suspension can be milled for between two and one hundred cycles. Further in general, the suspension can be milled at pressure between 1000 to 70,000. The median maximum particle diameter size of the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate was reduced to 0.49 microns after fifty passes, thereby producing the milled mineral trioxide aggregate, or approximately an eight- fold reduction in median particle size. Next, the ethanol was evaporated off in an oven at 65 °C and the solids were collected for analysis of the effects of adding the milled mineral trioxide aggregate to untreated mineral trioxide aggregate to the setting time of untreated mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0016] Referring now to Table 1 , there are shown the results of this study.

TABLE 1

*A11 tests were done using a ratio of three parts solids (milled mineral trioxide aggregate and untreated mineral trioxide aggregate) to one part distilled water (600 mg solids/200 liquid).

As can be seen, combining 75 % or 50% with untreated mineral trioxide aggregate

(comprising a maximum particle diameter of between 0.7 and 42.2 microns with a median of 3.8 microns) with 25 % or 50% , respectively, milled mineral trioxide aggregate (comprising a maximum particle diameter of between 0.16 and 2.45 microns with a median of 0.49 microns), and then mixing the combination with one part water to three parts (combined mineral trioxide aggregate) by weight reduced setting time from hours to between

approximately six and fourteen minutes. Using one part water with three parts 100% milled mineral trioxide aggregate by weight also reduced the setting time to between six to seven minutes similar to the reduction achieved with the combination of 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate in water; however, as there are costs associated with milling mineral trioxide aggregate and no apparent advantages with respect to setting time for increasing the amount of milled mineral trioxide aggregate in the substance, it is preferred to use the minimum amount of milled mineral trioxide aggregate in the substance suitable for reducing setting time to a clinically acceptable amount as will be understood by those with skill in the art with respect to this disclosure. Further, because distilled water is non-toxic in the clinical setting, inexpensive and readily available, distilled water is preferred as the mineral trioxide aggregate combination solvent for the substance of the present invention.

[0017] In one embodiment, the substance according to the present invention comprises untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and milled mineral trioxide aggregate by high pressure homogenization. In one embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and twelve times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between five and ten times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the untreated mineral trioxide aggregate comprises a median maximum particle diameter size of between seven and eight times larger than the median maximum particle diameter size of the milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0018] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. The substance sets within a tooth in a relatively short time, minutes rather than hours. In one embodiment, the substance comprises a combination of milled mineral trioxide aggregate, untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and a liquid. In one embodiment, the liquid is water. In a preferred embodiment, the water is distilled water. In one embodiment, the water is selected from the group consisting of deionized water, filtered water, slurry water and tap water. In another embodiment, the liquid is a local anesthetic, such as for example lidocaine hydrochloride, with or without epinephrine bitartrate. Other local anesthetic can also be used, as will be understood by those with skill in the art with respect to this disclosure.

[0019] In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 50% and 95 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 5 % and 50% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0020] In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 60% and 90% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 10% and 40% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0021] In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 1 % and 99.9% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.1 % and 99% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In another embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between

20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 25 % and 99.5 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 0.5 % and 75 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 40% and 99% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 1 % and 60% milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises between 45 % and 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and between 25 % and 55 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises between 70% and 80% total mineral trioxide aggregate and between 20% and 30% water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0022] In one embodiment, the substance comprises 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 75 % untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % milled mineral trioxide aggregate. In one embodiment, the substance comprises 75 % total mineral trioxide aggregate and 25 % water, where the total mineral trioxide aggregate comprises 50% untreated mineral trioxide aggregate and 50% milled mineral trioxide aggregate.

[0023] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of making a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the substance sets in a relatively short time, minutes as compared to hours. The method comprises milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization to reduce particle size thereby producing milled particles, rather than ball milling as is currently generally used. Ball milling comprises contacting the particles to be reduced in size with a grinding media in a chamber, where the grinding media is different in composition from the particles, and where repeated contact with the grinding media reduces the size of the particles, thereby producing milled particles. The grinding media is frequently one or more than one ball, such as for example one or more than one glass ball, from which the method is named. By contrast, milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization according to the present invention comprises forcing particles through a channel using pressure, where repeated contact of the particles to be reduced in size with each other and with the pressure and the channel walls reduces the size of the particles, thereby producing milled particles. While milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure

homogenization has been used in other fields, it has never been used in connection with the preparation of substances for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. Further, the method of milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization according to the present invention produces milled particles that have unexpected advantages over all other used methods, in particular decreasing the setting time of the milled particles, as disclosed in this disclosure, when the milled particles are used by themselves or when the milled particles are combined with unmilled particles in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. Additionally, milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization takes less time to reduce particle size than ball milling. Further, pieces of the grinding media used in ball milling can contaminate the milled particles produced as the grinding media wears, while the method of milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization does not use a grinding media that can contaminate the milled particles produced. Additionally, the particle size reduction of the milled particles produced by ball milling is less uniform than the particle size reduction of the milled particles produced by milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization, and the decreased uniformity of the milled particles produced by ball milling increases their setting time as compared with the setting time for milled particles produced by milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization that have a more uniform size. Further, the particle size of the milled particles produced by ball milling is generally larger than the particle size of the milled particles produced by milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization, and the larger particle size of the milled particles produced by ball milling increases their setting time as compared with the setting time for milled particles that have a smaller particle size produced by milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization. Additionally, instruments used in ball milling are more difficult to clean in preparation for reuse than instruments used in milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization according to the present invention, because in ball milling the milled particles must be separated from the grinding media, where in milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization, the milled particles are merely flushed out of the instrument as there is no grinding media. Because of these advantages, milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization is more efficient and cost effective than ball milling for making a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material.

[0024] As disclosed above, the method of making a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the substance sets in a relatively short time, minutes as compared to hours, comprises milling by high shear and impact

impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization to reduce particle size thereby producing milled particles. The method comprises, first, selecting a material suitable for use in the method to make a substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material, where the material comprises particles having a median maximum particle diameter. In one embodiment, the material is mineral trioxide aggregate, such as for example mineral trioxide aggregate (gray ProRoot ® MTA, Dentsply International Inc. , York, PA, US).

[0025] Next, the method comprises mixing the selected material with a liquid creating a mixture of the material and liquid. Water is generally used in milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization, however, water cannot be used in the present method because it would cause the material to set prematurely.

Therefore, the liquid must be non-aqueous. In one embodiment, the liquid is an alcohol, though any suitable non-aqueous liquid can be used as will be understood by those with skill in the art with respect to this disclosure. In one embodiment, the liquid is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. In a preferred embodiment, the liquid is ethanol. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 100 parts liquid. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 1 and 20 parts liquid. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 20 parts liquid. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of between 1 part material to between 5 and 10 parts liquid. In one embodiment, the material is mixed with the liquid in a ratio of 1 part material to 9 parts liquid. In a preferred embodiment, mixing the material with a liquid comprises using a magnetic stir bar to produce a suspension.

[0026] Then, the method comprises providing an instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization. In one embodiment, the instrument provided is an M-110EH Microfluidizer ® (Microfluidics, Newton, MA, US), though any suitable instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization can be used, as will be understood by those with skill in the art with respect to this disclosure.

[0027] Next, the method comprises placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument for milling by high shear and impact impingement of particles using high pressure homogenization. In one embodiment, placing the mixture of material and liquid into the instrument comprises pouring the mixture into a reservoir of the instrument. In a preferred embodiment, the reservoir comprises a device for preventing premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument, and the method further comprises actuating the device to prevent premature settling of the mixture which would cause a concentration gradient within the instrument or a part of the instrument. In one embodiment, the device is an overhead propeller.

[0028] Then, the method comprises actuating the instrument thereby milling the material within the mixture, thereby reducing the median maximum particle diameter, and thereby making the substance for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. In one embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and one hundred cycles. In one embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and fifty cycles. In one embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between two and thirty cycles. In one embodiment, milling the material within the mixture comprises cycling the instrument between five and thirty cycles. In one embodiment, milling the material is performed at a pressure between 1000 to 70,000 psi. In one embodiment, milling the material is performed at a pressure of 30,000 psi. In one embodiment, the method further comprises evaporating the liquid from the milled material. For example, in one embodiment, the liquid is ethanol, and evaporating the liquid from the milled material comprises placing the milled material and liquid in an oven at 65 °C for sufficient time to evaporate the ethanol. In one embodiment, the method further comprises collecting the milled material after milling the material.

[0029] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a substance made according to the present method. In one embodiment, the substance is a substance according to the present invention. [0030] According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for use in general dentistry and in endodontics to replace natural tooth material. The method comprises, first performing a dental procedure. In one embodiment, the dental procedure is an endodontic procedure. In one embodiment, the dental procedure comprises removing part of the natural tooth material of a tooth. In another embodiment, the dental procedure comprises removing material that replaced natural tooth material. In a preferred

embodiment, the dental procedure is selected from the group consisting of apexification, pulp capping, pulpotomy, regenerative endodontics, root canal filling, root-end filling, root perforation repair and sealer during filling or root canals. Next, the method comprises providing a substance according to the present invention. Then, the method comprises using the substance to fill a space in the tooth, and allowing the substance to set.

[0031] Although the present invention has been discussed in considerable detail with reference to certain preferred embodiments, other embodiments are possible. Therefore, the scope of the appended claims should not be limited to the description of preferred

embodiments contained in this disclosure. All references cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.