Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SUBSTITUTED ALUMINUM NITRIDE FOR IMPROVED ACOUSTIC WAVE FILTERS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/010173
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A piezoelectric material comprises A1N doped with cations of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of: one of Sb, Ta, Nb, or Ge; Cr in combination with one or more of B, Sc, Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb; one of Nb and Ta in combination with one of Li, Mg, Ca, Ni, Co, and Zn; Ca in combination with one of Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, and Hf; Mg in combination with one of Si, Ge, and Ti; and one or more of Co, Sb, Ta, Nb, Si, or Ge in combination with one or more of Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb. The cations at least partially substitute for Al in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

Inventors:
HILL, Michael, David (20 Sylvan Road, Woburn, MA, 01801, US)
GAMMEL, Peter, Ledel (20 Sylvan Road, Woburn, MA, 01801, US)
Application Number:
US2018/040706
Publication Date:
January 10, 2019
Filing Date:
July 03, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SKYWORKS SOLUTIONS, INC. (20 Sylvan Road, Woburn, MA, 01801, US)
International Classes:
H01L41/187; H01L41/09; H03H9/17
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GERSTENZANG, Gregory, K. et al. (Lando & Anastasi, LLPRiverfront Office Park,One Main Street, Suite 110, Cambridge MA, 02142, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

CLAIMS

1. A piezoelectric material comprising:

AIN doped with cations of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of:

a) one of Sb, Ta, Nb, or Ge;

b) Cr in combination with one or more of B, Sc, Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb;

c) one of Nb and Ta in combination with one of Li, Mg, Ca, Ni, Co, and Zn; d) Ca in combination with one of Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, and Hf;

e) Mg in combination with one of Si, Ge, and Ti; and

f) one or more of Co, Sb, Ta, Nb, Si, or Ge in combination with one or more of Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb;

the cations at least partially substituting for Al in a crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

2. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having one of the formulas Ali-xGe3/4Xni/4xN or Ali-5/3xTa5+xD2/3xN,□ representing a vacancy in an Al site in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

3. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having the formula Ali-2xBxCrxN 0<x<0.15.

4. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having the formula Ali-5/3x-3yMg2yTax+yD2/3xN,□ representing a vacancy in an Al site in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

5. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having the formula Ali-2xMgxSixN 0<x<0.15.

6. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having the formula Ali-x-yCr3+xMniyN, Mm= Sc3+, Y3+, Sm3+...Yb3+, Sm3+...Yb3+ = any one or more of the Lanthanides with atomic numbers from 62-70.

7. The piezoelectric material of claim 1 having a Wurtzite crystal structure.

8. An acoustic wave resonator including the piezoelectric material of claim 1.

9. The acoustic wave resonator of claim 8 configured as a solidly mounted resonator.

10. The acoustic wave resonator of claim 8 configured as a film bulk acoustic resonator.

11. A filter including the acoustic wave resonator of claim 8.

12. The filter of claim 11 having a passband in the radio frequency band. 13. An electronic device module including the filter of claim 11.

14. An electronic device including the electronic device module of claim 13.

15. The electronic device of claim 14 wherein the electronic device module is a radio frequency electronic device module.

Description:
SUBSTITUTED ALUMINUM NITRIDE FOR IMPROVED ACOUSTIC WAVE FILTERS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent application Serial No. 62/529,742, titled "SUBSTITUTED ALUMINUM NITRIDE FOR IMPROVED ACOUSTIC WAVE FILTERS," filed July 7, 2017, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes.

BACKGROUND

Aluminum Nitride (A1N) is a piezoelectric material that has been used in Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) and Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) filters operating in the 1- 5 GHz range. Larger group IIIA nitrides (e.g., GaN and InN) show a dramatically decreasing piezoelectric coefficient going down the series. The properties of A1N may be modified with substitutions for aluminum such as scandium. However, there is still a need for improved electromechanical coupling, higher dielectric constants, greater sound velocities and better temperature stability for these materials which may lead to improved properties of the BAW filters. As used herein, the term "BAW filter" includes FBAR filters.

Desirable properties in piezoelectric materials that may be used in acoustic wave filters include the following:

• high speed of sound, for example, greater than 12,000 m sec

• good coupling constant, for example, greater than 5%

• high dielectric constant to decrease size of device

• stable materials system and crystal structure for deposition and integration

• wide band gap which provides for the material to be a good insulator with low

leakage

The relationship between various parameters of BAW filters and the material properties of the piezoelectric material utilized in such filters include the following:

• Increased bandwidth = Increased coupling factor k 2

• Steep edges for filter = Increased quality factor Q

• Filter thickness miniaturization = Increased sound velocity v= (c33/p) 1/2 ; C33 = elastic modulus, p = material density.

• Filter miniaturization in x-y plane = Increased dielectric constant

• Low leakage current, Better insulator = Wide band gap • Filter temperature stability = Temperature stability of piezoelectric response

Material properties of piezoelectric materials that are relevant to their performance when used in acoustic wave filters include the following:

• k, 2 = = d 33 2 / (c E 33 e 33 T ) = 7t 2 /4(l-(f s /f p )) = K 2 /(l+K 2 ) : K = e 33 2 e R eoc E 33 (kt 2 is the coupling coefficient, e 33 and d 33 are piezoelectric coefficients, c D 33 and c E 33 are elastic moduli, ε 33 is the dielectic constant, and ER is the relative dielctric constant. f s and f p are the series and parallel resonance frequencies respectively.)

• Signal to noise ratio (SNR) = e 3 i 2 /(eoe 33 tan5) 1/2

• f s , m (GHz) = Frequency of the point of minimum impedance, which is close to and theoretically equal to the series resonance frequency

• f p (GHz) = Parallel resonance frequency

• Longitudinal sound velocity vi = (c 33 /p) 1/2

• FOM (Figure of Merit) = k 2 eff , m x Q

A chart of impedance vs. frequency for an example of an acoustic wave filter showing locations of the series resonance frequency and the parallel resonance frequency is illustrated in FIG. 1.

At microwave frequencies, the dielectric constant of a material is dominated by ionic polarizability. A chart illustrating the dielectric polarizabilities of various trivalent cations vs. crystal radius is illustrated in FIG. 2. The Clausius-Mossetti relation for dielectric constant is as follows:

-αο = 3/4π [(V m )(e'-l)/(e'+2)]

= total ionic polarizability

• Vm = molar volume

• ε' = dielectric constant of material

• % indicates individual ionic polarizabilities.

- ε' = (3V m +8na D )/(3V m - 4παο)

Covalancy effects "blur" the ionic model. Doped A1N may show characteristics of both ionic and covalent bonding depending on the dopant(s) used.

AIN-based resonators show a temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) drift in the range of -25 to -30 ppm/ °C. For comparison, the TCF of GaN is about -18 ppm/ °C. The TCF drift of the resonant frequency is dominated by the thermal drift in elastic modulus. Excess thermal drift of the resonant frequency is problematic in that a layer of silicon dioxide (S1O2) may need to be deposited on the resonator to compensate for the TCF drift of the resonant frequency, leading to a reduced coupling factor (k 2 ) and spurious resonances. Doping AIN with a material such as scandium (Sc) does little to adjust the TCF.

The sound velocity of a material is related to the bulk modulus and density of the material per the equation:

v=(K/p) 1/2

• K = Bulk Modulus of Material

• p = Density

The Longitudinal Sound Velocity of a material may be calculated by the formula:

The acoustic velocities and other selected material parameters of various electromechanical materials are illustrated in the table of FIG. 3. 4H type hexagonal stacked silicon carbide (SiC) (Wurtzite) has a very high sound velocity (13,100 m/s). A solid solution of AIN with SiC, however, is not feasible.

Various nitrides, including AIN, gallium nitride (GaN), and indium nitride (InN) all assume the Wurtzite crystallographic structure with the space group c 4 6 V . Space group refers to the 3 dimensional symmetry features shown in a periodic lattice. An illustration of this structure is shown in FIG. 4. The Wurtzite structure includes tetrahedrally co-ordinated cations and anions in an AB type hexagonal structure. The Wurtzite structure exhibits the highest symmetry possible that is compatible with spontaneous polarization. The key crystallographic parameters of the Wurtzite crystal structure include hexagonal c, hexagonal a, and bond length u. These parameters are illustrated in FIG. 4. In AIN, the c-axis bond is elongated relative to the others. These crystallographic parameters for AIN, GaN, and InN are as shown in Table 1 below:

Table 1

In the above table, u is the bond length. It is typically dimensionless and expressed as a fraction of the dimensional c parameter. The bond length in A can be determined by (c/a) multiplied by u. Wurtzite structured nitrides are more like II- VI materials (ZnO) rather than other III- V materials. Wurtzite structured nitrides have the same sign of piezoelectric coefficient and high Born effective charges (iconicity). Bond length (u) gets longer and c/a gets smaller from GaN -> InN -> AIN. Various material parameters, including spontaneous polarization, Born effective charge, and piezoelectric constants for various III-V Wurtzite nitrides AIN, GaN, and InN and II- VI Wurtzite oxides are illustrated in the table of FIG. 5A. Additional properties of AIN, GaN, and InN are illustrated in the table of FIG. 5B.

ZnO may be considered a model for Wurtzite structured III-V nitrides such as AIN or GaN. ZnO has greater piezoelectric coefficients than AIN or GaN, a higher effective charge than GaN, and a greater polarization response to strain than GaN. Enhanced piezoelectric response for smaller cations substituting for Zn 2+ in ZnO has been observed. Without being bound to a particular theory, it is believed that the piezoelectric response in ZnO occurs due to the rotation of non-colinear bonds around the c axis. The substitution of smaller highly charged ions for Zn in ZnO enhances this rotation (e.g., substituting V 5+ for Zn 2+ ). Not many ions are smaller than Al (for example, Si 4+ ) in AIN, although this mechanism may enhance piezoelectricity in GaN. The high charge on V 5+ or Ta 5+ , possibly charge compensated with aluminum vacancies, may enhance this rotation effect in AIN. Without being bound to a particular theory, it is also believed that defects may play a role in enhancement of piezoelectricity in doped ZnO and AIN since charge balance and the Grimm-Summerfeld concept are violated by the presence of defects. Charge compensation may be accomplished by anti-site defects (NAI), nitrogen interstitials (N or Al vacancies in doped AIN.

AIN exhibits various properties that have made it attractive for use as a piezoelectric material in acoustic wave resonators and filters. These properties include:

• Wide Bandgap (6.2 eV)

• High Thermal Conductivity (2 W/cm-K)

• High Electrical Resistivity (1 x 10 16 Ω-cm)

• High Breakdown Voltage (5 x 10 5 V/cm)

• High Quality Factor (3,000 at 2 GHz for BAW)

• Moderate Coupling Coefficient (6.5% for BAW)

• Moderate Piezoelectric Coefficient (e33 = 1.55 C/m2)

• High Longitudinal Acoustic Velocity (11,300 m/s for BAW)

• Low Propagation Losses

• Easy to prepare c-axis oriented films • Chemically stable

• Compatible with IC-technology processes

Other than BN, very little work has been performed to characterize the piezoelectric properties of IIIA nitride - AIN solid solutions. The results of examination of the lattice constant and energy gap of Al x Gai- x N solid solutions are illustrated in FIGS. 6A and 6B. AlxGai-xN exhibits a continuous solid solution.

Additional work comparing the properties of SiC, GaN, InN, ZnO, and CdSe has shown that decreasing Phillips Ionicity leads to larger elastic constants and larger sound velocities as illustrated in FIGS. 7 A and 7B.

The properties of AIN doped with Sc have been investigated. ScN has a rock salt structure. The c/a ratio in the Wurtzite structure of AIN decreases with Sc additions (c/a for AIN is 1.601; c/a for Al. 88 Sc.i 2 N is 1.575). Modelling predicts that intermediate hexagonal crystallographic structures may be present in Sc-doped AIN. The change in crystallographic structure vs. c/a ratio for Sco.5Alo.5N is illustrated in FIGS. 8A and 8B. FIGS. 8A and 8B ultimately indicate the same c/a ratio and show the energy penalty paid in deviating from the optimum c/a ratio. The u parameter is larger around Sc sites. There is a shallow energy well in the c direction. Sc decreases covalency and increases piezoelectricity of the doped AIN. Density functional theory reveals that the substitution of Sc for Al leads to the softening of the Wurtzite phase. This is due to a competition of Al 3+ and Sc 3+ about the coordination of nitrogen. Al 3+ prefers tetrahedral coordination whereas Sc 3+ prefers 5 or 6 fold coordination. This leads to a frustrated system. Potential wells for ions become less deep and ionic displacements become larger as Sc is substituted for Al in AIN. With increased

concentrations of Sc the e33 piezoelectric coefficient increases while the C33 elastic constant decreases. Larger, more electropositive ions like Y 3+ , Yb 3+ , etc. may also exhibit this effect. A comparison between various properties of AIN and Al. 88 Sc.i 2 N is illustrated in FIG. 8C and comparisons between the properties of AIN and AIN doped with other concentrations of Sc are illustrated in FIGS. 8D-8H.

Another doped AIN material that has been studied to some extent is Y x Ali -x N.

Yttrium has a larger ionic radius, is more electropositive, and is less costly than scandium. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory indicate high phase stability for the Wurtzite structure of Y x Ali- x N (x = 0.75). Nonetheless poor crystallinity has been observed in Y x Ali- x N films. Y x Ali- x N exhibits a large affinity for oxygen and water (YOOH groups). The band gap of Y x Ali- x N is reduced from 6.2 eV (AIN) to 4.5 eV at x=0.22. A larger decrease in elastic coefficient and a larger increase in d33 and e33 is observed in Y x Ali- x N than in Sc-doped A1N. The observed increase in permittivity for Y x Ali- x N is similar to Sc-doped material. Charts illustrating the change in ε Γ , e33, e 3 i, d33, and d3i with different amounts of Y dopant in Y x Ali- x N are illustrated in FIGS. 9A-9C.

There has been some work performed investigating the properties of A1N with coupled substitution of Mg and Zr, Mg and Ti, or Mg and Hf for Al. These materials exhibit improved piezoelectric coefficients relative to A1N but lower elastic coefficients (and likely sound velocities and Q). Charts illustrating the piezoelectric coefficients and elastic coefficients of A1N with coupled substitution of Mg and Zr, Mg and Ti, and Mg and Hf for Al for different dopant concentration are illustrated relative to piezoelectric coefficients and elastic coefficients of Sc x Ali- x N in FIGS. 10A and 10B. Various properties of

(Mg.5Zr.5)o.i3Alo.87N and (Mg.5Hf.5)o.i3Alo.87N vs. those of A1N are tabulated in FIG. IOC.

Numerous studies have been performed on Wurtzite B x Ali- x N y (0.001 < x < 0.70, 0.85 < y < 1.05). Films having up to 8% B have been successfully synthesized. Ab initio results indicate that increased covalency indicates increases in the elastic constant C33 and the acoustic velocity with increasing B. Decreased ionicity leads to decreased e33 and k 2 with increasing boron concentration. Dielectric constant is expected to decrease with increasing boron concentration. Boron addition to A1N leads to greater hardness, higher sound velocity, and a wider band gap than un-doped A1N films. Peak broadening is observed due to structural disorder and increased c/a ratio. The lattice constants of synthesized films decrease more than predicted by Vegard's law. Calculated and observed material properties for B x Ali- x Ny with different quantities of B are illustrated in the graphs of FIGS. 11 A - 1 IF.

A1N with Cr or Mn substituted for Al in A1N has been investigated for use as dilute magnetic semiconductors. Sputtered films showed good c-axis orientation. The resistivity of Al.93Cr.07N and Al.91Mn.09N vs. temperature is illustrated in FIG. 12A. Additional material properties of Cr-doped A1N are illustrated in FIGS. 12B and 12C. The Mn-doped material shows a higher resistivity than Cr-doped material. Specifically with regard to the Cr-doped material, no 3d transition metal shows as marked a preference for octahedral coordination as Cr 3+ . Therefore, forcing Cr into A1N would likely cause distortions potentially enhancing k 2 . CrN is isostructural with ScN (halite structure). XPS binding energy indicates that Cr is present in Cr-doped A1N as Cr 3+ . XANES peak for disallowed ls-3d transition indicates Cr is present in low symmetry (tetrahedral) sites. Cr induces lattice strain and deforms the A1N Wurtzite structure. The sound velocity of Al.937Cr.063N (11,490 m s) is greater than that of un-doped A1N. Al.937Cr.063N has been observed to exhibit a lower k 2 (5.6%) than A1N (7.9%), higher TCF values (-39 ppmTC), and higher ε' (Capacitance) 91 pF/m vs. 82 pF/m for substituted AIN, which is unexpected in that most other substitutions which decrease the coupling factor also decrease the dielectric constant (and thus the capacitance). Inversion domains (Regions of opposite polarity) have been observed. Ferromagnetism has been observed in Cr 3+ doped AIN.

Ti may also be substituted for Al in AIN. In such materials, the oxidation state of the Ti is unknown, although presumed to be Ti 3+ . Al-Ti-N films form a single phase Wurtzite structure when Ti content is less than 16%. Large Ti atoms cause a shift in the 2 theta values for x-ray diffraction peaks. Crystal lattice parameters increase with increasing concentrations of Ti. Compressive strains reduce crystallinity when additional Ti is added. Ti-Al segregation has been observed above 4% Ti. Sound velocity and k 2 decrease with increasing Ti content. Dielectric constant increases with Ti content. The TCF of Ti-doped AIN is slightly lower than that of AIN. FIG. 13 illustrates the electromechanical coupling factor, longitudinal velocity, and dielectric constant of Al(o.5-x)Ti x No.5 as a function of x.

Additional elements that may be substituted for Al in AIN include tantalum (Ta) and vanadium (V). The oxidation states of these elements when substituting for Al in AIN are assumed to be Ta 3+ and V 3+ . The crystallographic c parameter is reduced when AIN is doped with V, but increased when AIN is doped with Ta. When AIN is doped with more than about 7% V, the crystallinity of the material is destroyed. A VN phase begins to appear at 6.4% V. For Ta, segregation is observed when Ta is doped into AIN at 3.2% or more. Acoustic velocity and k 2 drop as V content increases, but ε' increases. Charts illustrating changes in acoustic velocity and dielectric constant of AIN doped with varying amounts of V and Ta are illustrated in FIGS. 14A and 14B, respectively.

The limit for Al substitution by Ta in AIN appears to be 5.1 atomic percent. Ta may be substituted for Al in AIN with excellent c-axis orientation. Like Sc 3+ , Ta 5+ is larger than Al 3+ . However, unlike with Sc 3+ substitution, the c/a ratio does not decrease with substitution of Al 3+ in AIN with Ta 5+ . Instead, both c and a lattice constants increase. FIG. 14C illustrates how the c and a lattice constants in AIN change with different amounts of Ta doping. Raman, TEM and XPS suggest no second phases or compositionally inhomogeneous regions appear with Ta substitution for Al in AIN. Elastic losses within the Ta-Al-N crystal lattice may be due to disorder due to defects. Ta 5+ is less electropositive than Sc 3+ , however a large increase in d33 is observed in Ta-doped AIN. (See FIG. 14D.) It has been hypothesized that the increase in d33 observed in Ta-doped AIN may be due to ease of bond bending.

Small ions promote bond rotation. Small ions may be easily moved under an applied electric field (e.g., V 5+ in ZnO). A similar effect may apply to Ta 5+ in AIN because of large lattice expansion. Ta 5+ is not expected to be that much smaller than Al 3+ so it is uncertain why there is an increase in the d33 piezoelectric coefficient. This is possibly associated with charge compensating defects.

In some examples, AIN may be doped with oxygen. For example, oxygen may be present in sputtering gas used during deposition of AIN-based films. Despite the increasing ionicity of oxygen, the magnitude of the piezoelectric coefficient of oxygen-doped AIN does not increase. Without being bound to a particular theory, it is possible that oxygen defects in AIN may be compensated by aluminum vacancies (DAI). Further, the presence of oxygen in AIN may cause second phase AI2O3 to form. It thus may be difficult to control the anion stoichiometry. Accordingly, in doped AIN, it may be preferable to avoid anion mixing, but rather to make all adjustments on a cation basis.

The addition of dopants into AIN may cause one or more of a number of types of crystallographic defects. One type of defect involves electronic substitutions. For example, Si substituted for Al in AIN may act as a deep level donor (320 meV) which may reduce the conductivity of the material, while C substituted for Al in AIN may act as a deep level acceptor (500 meV). Point defects include vacancies, interstitials, and anti-site defects. In AIN, vacancies are more energetically favorable than interstitials or anti-site defects. For Al vacancies atomic displacement away from the vacancy is observed. For N vacancies atomic displacement toward the vacancy is observed. Stacking faults in AIN include { 1120} stacking fault configurations. Stacking faults may be a preferred region for substitutional ions or Al vacancies. Systematic vacancies may be caused by substitution of Al in AIN by some elements. For example, Ta 5+ and Zr 4"1" doping of AIN would be compensated for by native defects such as Al vacancies (VAI or DAI). Smaller ions than Al 3+ or Ta 5+ may form elastically driven defect couples with 2DAI - 3TaAi. The DAI and TaAi vacancies or substitutions may expand nearest neighbor N tetrahedral. Si 4+ may contract nearest neighbor N tetrahedral forming defect couples with VAI"

SUMMARY

In accordance with a first aspect, there is provided a piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric material comprises AIN doped with cations of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of: one of Sb, Ta, Nb, or Ge; Cr in combination with one or more of B, Sc, Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb; one of Nb and Ta in combination with one of Li, Mg, Ca, Ni, Co, and Zn; Ca in combination with one of Si, Ge, Ti, Zr, and Hf; Mg in combination with one of Si, Ge, and Ti; and one or more of Co, Sb, Ta, Nb, Si, or Ge in combination with one or more of Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb. The cations at least partially substitute for Al in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

In some embodiments, the piezoelectric material has one of the formulas Ali- x Ge3/4 X ni/4xN or Ali-5/3 X Ta 5+ x D2/3 X N,□ representing a vacancy in an Al site in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material, 0 < x < 0.25.

In some embodiments, the piezoelectric material has the formula Ali-2 X B x Cr x N 0<x<0.15.

In some embodiments, the piezoelectric material has the formula Ali- 5 /3 X - 3yMg2yTa x+ yD2/3 X N,□ representing a vacancy in an Al site in the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material, 1 > 5/3x + 3y, 0 < x < 0.3, 0 < y < 0.25.

In some embodiments, the piezoelectric material has the formula Ali-2 X Mg x Si x N 0<x<0.15.

In some embodiments, the piezoelectric material has the formula Ali- x - y Cr 3+ x M ni y N, M m = Sc 3+ , Y 3+ , Sm 3+ ...Yb 3+ , Sm 3+ ...Yb 3+ = any one or more of the Lanthanides with atomic numbers from 62-70.

The piezoelectric material may have a Wurtzite crystal structure.

In some embodiments, an acoustic wave resonator includes the piezoelectric material. The acoustic wave resonator may be configured as a solidly mounted resonator. The acoustic wave resonator may be configured as a film bulk acoustic resonator.

In some embodiments, a filter includes the acoustic wave resonator. The filter may have a passband in the radio frequency band.

In some embodiments, an electronic device module includes the filter.

In some embodiments, an electronic device includes the electronic device module. The electronic device module may be a radio frequency electronic device module.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a chart of impedance vs. frequency for an example of an acoustic wave filter;

FIG. 2 is a chart illustrating the dielectric polarizabilities of various trivalent cations vs. crystal radius;

FIG. 3 is a table of selected material parameters of various electromechanical materials;

FIG. 4 illustrates the Wurtzite crystallographic structure; FIG. 5A is a table of selected material parameters for various III-V Wurtzite nitrides and II- VI Wurtzite oxides;

FIG. 5B is a table of selected material parameters of AIN, GaN, and InN;

FIG. 6A is a chart of lattice constant vs. x in Al x Gai- x N;

FIG. 6B is a chart of energy gap vs. x in Al x Gai- x N;

FIG. 7A is a chart of elastic constant vs. Phillips Ionicity for selected compounds;

FIG. 7B is a chart of sound velocity vs. Phillips Ionicity for selected compounds;

FIG. 8A is a chart illustrating the change in crystallographic structure vs. c/a ratio in FIG. 8B is another chart illustrating the change in crystallographic structure vs c/a ratio in Sco.5Alo.5N;

FIG. 8C is a table of select material properties of AIN and Al.88Sc.12N.

FIG. 8D is a table of select material properties of AIN and AIN doped with various concentrations of Sc.

FIG. 8E is a chart of k 2 and Q-factor for AIN doped with various concentrations of Sc;

FIG. 8F is a chart of ε Γ and tan δ for AIN doped with various concentrations of Sc;

FIG. 8G is a chart of FOM for AIN doped with various concentrations of Sc;

FIG. 8H is a chart of TCF for AIN doped with various concentrations of Sc;

FIG. 9A is a chart of ε Γ for AIN doped with various concentrations of Y;

FIG. 9B is a chart of e33 and e 3 i for AIN doped with various concentrations of Y;

FIG. 9C is a chart of d 33 , and d 3 i for AIN doped with various concentrations of Y;

FIG. 10A is a chart of e 33 vs. dopant concentration for AIN doped with Sc, and with coupled substitution of Mg and Zr, Mg and Ti, and Mg and Hf for Al;

FIG. 10B is a chart of c 33 vs. dopant concentration for AIN doped with Sc, and with coupled substitution of Mg and Zr, Mg and Ti, and Mg and Hf for Al;

FIG. IOC is a table of selected material properties of AIN, (Mg.5Zr.5)o.i 3 Alo.87N and (Mg.5Hf.5)o.i 3 Al 0 .87N;

FIG. 11 A is a chart of c 33 vs. boron concentration in boron-doped AIN;

FIG. 1 IB is a chart of e 33 vs. boron concentration in boron-doped AIN;

FIG. 11C is a chart of crystal lattice parameter c vs. boron concentration in boron- doped AIN;

FIG. 1 ID is a chart of k 2 vs. boron concentration in boron-doped AIN;

FIG. 1 IE is a chart of crystal unit cell volume vs. boron concentration in boron-doped

AIN; FIG. 1 IF is a chart of crystal lattice parameters c and a vs. boron concentration in boron-doped AIN;

FIG. 12A is a chart of material resistivity vs. temperature for Al.93Cr.07N and

FIG. 12B is a chart of lattice constant vs. Cr concentration in Cr-doped AIN;

FIG. 12C is a chart of effective d33 vs. Cr concentration in Cr-doped AIN;

FIG. 13 is a chart of k 2 , v s , and dielectric constant vs. Ti concentration in Ti-doped

AIN;

FIG. 14A is a chart of acoustic velocity and dielectric constant vs. V content in V- doped AIN;

FIG. 14B is a chart of acoustic velocity and dielectric constant vs. Ta content in Ta- doped AIN;

FIG. 14C is a chart of lattice constant vs. Ta content in Ta-doped AIN;

FIG. 14D is a chart of piezoelectric coefficient d33 vs. Ta content in Ta-doped AIN;

FIG. 15 illustrates conflicting tradeoffs in materials properties for different dopants in

AIN;

FIG. 16 is a table indicating the expected effect of various dopants on selected material properties of doped AIN;

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of an example of a solidly mounted resonator (SMR)

BAW;

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view of an example of an FBAR BAW; and

FIG. 19 is a schematic view of a filter than may include SMR BAW and/or FBAR BAW devices;

FIG. 20 is a block diagram of a front-end module in which the filter of FIG. 19 may be implemented; and

FIG. 21 is a block diagram of a wireless device in which the filter of FIG. 19 may be implemented.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Analysis of crystal chemical systematics from previous work has provided insights into how specific chemical substituents for aluminum (Al) in aluminum nitride (AIN) affect various properties of interest of the material. Disclosed herein are new chemical substituent combinations for AIN that may be used to form a piezoelectric material for use in acoustic wave filters such as Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) and Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) filters. Advantages of the solutions disclosed herein over previous solutions are that multiple material properties may be simultaneously optimized (for example, electromechanical coupling and sound velocity). Based on the knowledge of crystal chemistry and previous work, there appears to be a series of mutually exclusive property combinations resulting from doping for Al in AlN-based piezoelectric materials. For example, substitutions which form a more ionic bond with nitrogen than aluminum (such as scandium) will improve the coupling and dielectric constant whereas substitutions which form a more covalent bond with nitrogen than aluminum (such as boron) will improve the sound velocity and decrease viscoelastic losses. Disclosed herein are AlN-based piezoelectric materials which may exhibit improvements in multiple properties or which may exhibit extreme enhancements for specific individual properties (e.g. dielectric constant).

The most frequently cited additive to AIN is scandium (Sc). Scandium is more electropositive than Al. Increased ionicity of Sc 3+ relative to Al 3+ increases the piezoelectric coupling of Sc-doped AIN as compared to un-doped AIN. Sc 3+ is also larger than Al 3+ . Distortion of the crystal lattice of AIN due to the presence of Sc 3+ substituted for Al 3+ increases the piezoelectric coefficient of Sc-doped AIN as compared to un-doped AIN. The loss of covalency due to the presence of Sc 3+ substituted for Al 3+ however, increases viscoelastic losses.

Y, Yb and other small lanthanides are larger ions than Sc 3+ and are more

electropositive than Sc. Substitution of Al 3+ in AIN with ions of these elements may enhance both piezoelectric effect and viscoelastic losses. Heavier polarizable atoms such as Yb 3+ should improve the dielectric constant of the doped AIN more than lighter atoms such as Sc 3+ and Y 3+ . Multiple isovalent substitutions (A1N:B, Sc or A1N:B, Yb) may also be used.

In contrast with Sc, Y, and Yb, boron (B) forms a much smaller ion than Al and is less electropositive than Al. Boron would form a more covalent bond with N than Al.

Piezoelectric coupling may be expected to decrease slightly with B substitution for Al in AIN, but viscoelastic losses should decrease as well. The increased covalency of B-N bonds relative to Al-N bonds should increase the bulk modulus of B -doped AIN as compared to un- doped AIN. Light B atoms substituting for Al should also decrease the density of B-doped AIN as compared to un-doped AIN. Both effects should combine to give greater acoustic velocity (v=(K/p) 1/2 , K = Bulk Modulus of Material; p = Density).

Dopants for Al in AIN which enhance Q, elastic modulus, and sound velocity of the material appear to work against improved coupling coefficients and higher dielectric constants. This is represented schematically in FIG. 15. Simultaneous additions of different dopants and/or doping A1N to facilitate 3d electron interactions or to form ordered vacant lattice sites may provide the benefits associated with both highly electropositive and weakly electropositive dopants.

In transition metals, the d-electron manifold greatly complicates bonding. Ions may have preference for octahedral or tetrahedral coordination depending on d electron count. For example, Cr 3+ has extremely strong preference for octahedral coordination. If forced into a tetrahedral site, this may create strong lattice distortions enhancing piezoelectricity (even though the Cr 3+ ion is not as electropositive as Sc). Coupled substitution of B and Cr may produce lattice distortions enhancing piezoelectricity without viscoelastic losses. Other ions such as V 3+ , Mn 3+ , and Co 3+ can be useful as dopants to improve the properties of A1N.

These ions can adjust to different oxidation states with Co 3+ having several spin states per oxidation state and can thus exhibit multiple different ionic radii.

In some embodiments, vacant lattice sites (0 electrons) may also be incorporated into the tetrahedral framework of Grimm-Summerfeld rules. An example is y-Ga2S3 which is a 32Ο63 type. Aluminum vacancies in A1N may be considered a quadruplet of non-bonding orbitals (lone pairs) in the tetrahedral structure. Aluminum vacancies in A1N may increase viscoelastic losses (especially if mobile) or enhance piezoelectric distortion without increasing ionicity.

Other compounds which may be useful in mixing with A1N to form a doped A1N material include the 4305 4 compounds such as Si3N 4 and Ge3N 4 . Ge3N 4 crystallizes in a defect-containing Wurtzite structure where cation vacancies are ordered. Increasing p orbital character in non-bonding orbitals leads to the tendency for sp 2 (planar) hybridization of bonding orbitals which may distort lattice the crystal lattice. Solid solutions such as Ali- xGe3/ 4x ni/ 4x N and Ali- x Si3/ 4x ni/ 4 xN are also of interest, where□ represents a vacancy in an Al site of the crystal structure of the piezoelectric material.

In solid solutions of A1N with GaN and InN, k 2 and sound velocity are expected to drop. The dielectric constant of the material may therefore increase slightly relative to un- doped A1N along with the c/a ratio due to assumed linear relationships in properties.

The expected effect of various dopants on various material properties of A1N are tabulated in FIG. 16.

A listing of different A1N based piezoelectric materials that may exhibit desirable properties for use in acoustic wave resonators or filters and the expected effect of the dopant(s) on the base A1N material is presented in Table 2 below: Table 2

leading to a set of potential ionic sizes. Single doping will likely lead to 3+ state but 4+ and 2+ states may be induced by co-doping with Mg 2+ or Zr 4"1" (or Hf 4+ ) respectively.

Reduced electrical conductivity is a risk at high doping levels.

Ali- x Sb 3+ x N Sb 3+ shows very high ionic polarizabilities leading to the potential for enhanced dielectric constant either for single doping or coupled doping with other ions. However, there is a risk that the Sb will adopt the Sb 3 state and substitute for Nitrogen. The effect on k 2 is uncertain since the lone pair would enhance asymmetry in the Al site but the increased covalency would not.

All-5/3xTa 5+ x D 2/3xN Improvement in the piezoelectric coefficient

□ = Aluminum vacancy expected for small additions of Ta.

Ali-3xMg 2 xTa 5 xN Improvement in the piezoelectric coefficient is observed for small additions.

Expect similar improvement in k 2 as the Mg/Zr or

Mg/Hf co-doped materials with higher ε' due to higher polarizability than Zr or Hf.

Acoustic velocity effect unknown.

All-5/3x-3yMg 2+ 2yTa 5+ x +y D 2/3xN There can be a continuous series of Ta additives compensated by vacancies and Mg 2+ .

Expect similar improvement in k 2 as the Mg/Zr or

Mg/Hf co-doped materials with higher ε' due to higher polarizability than Zr or Hf.

Acoustic velocity effect unknown.

All-5/3x-3yLi + yTa 5+ x+ y D 2/3xN Expect similar improvement in k2 as the Mg/Zr or

Mg/Hf co-doped materials with higher ε' due to higher polarizability than Zr or Hf.

Acoustic velocity effect unknown.

Ali-5/3xNb 5+ x D 2/3xN, Ali-3xMg 2+ xNb 5+ xN, Same chemistries as with Ta 5+ . All-5/3x-3yLi + y Nb 5+ x+y D 2/3xN, ΟΓ Nb 5+ more likely to be reduced than Ta 5+ .

All-5/3x-3yMg 2+ 2y Nb 5+ x+y D 2 /3xN

Combinations of Nb and Ta as well.

Ali- x Ge3/4xD i/4xN or Ali- x Si3/4xn i/4xN Possible increase in piezoelectric coefficient and Si and Ge doping. coupling without significant decrease in sound velocity. However, it is likely Si and Ge partition onto both the A1N sites without the need charge compensating defects. Covalency would increase in both cases.

Ali-2xMg 2+ xSi 4+ xN Using Mg 2+ to bias Si into Al site for charge

compensation. Possible double effect on k 2 and d33. Large electropositive ions will boost k 2 . The Si 4+ may behave as a small charged ion (as in doped ZnO) and contribute to the k 2 . More likely, it will enhance covalence and potentially give a solution with enhanced k 2 without the sound velocity degradation and viscoelastic losses.

Ali-2xMg 2+ xTi 4+ xN Ti 3+ may forms and MgAi may be charge

compensated with Magnesium vacancies. d° states in 1st row transition metals such as Ti 4+ and V 5+ unlikely to be stabilized in A1N.

As discussed above, the various materials disclosed herein may be useful as piezoelectric materials in BAW resonators. In some implementations, the various materials disclosed herein may also be useful as piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators or filters. One type of BAW resonator is a solidly mounted resonator

(SMR). One example of an SMR BAW is illustrated in FIG. 17, generally at 100. The SMR BAW is formed on a substrate 105, for example, a silicon substrate. A layer of piezoelectric material 110 is disposed on the substrate 105 between an upper electrode 115 and a lower electrode 120. The layer of piezoelectric material 110 may include or consist of any of the materials disclosed herein. The layer of piezoelectric material 110 has a thickness of λ/2, where λ is the resonant frequency of the SMR BAW 100. A Bragg reflector or acoustic mirror 125 including alternating layers of high impedance material 130, for example, S1O2, and low impedance material 135, for example, Mo or W, is disposed below the lower electrode 120 and helps confine acoustic energy to the piezoelectric material 110 rather than leaking away through the substrate 105. Each layer of material 120, 135 may have a thickness of λ/4.

An example of an FBAR BAW is illustrated in FIG. 18, generally at 200. The FBAR

BAW 200 includes a piezoelectric material film 210 disposed on a substrate 205, for example, a silicon substrate, between an upper electrode 215 and a lower electrode 220. A cavity 225 is formed below the piezoelectric material film 210 (and optionally below the lower electrode 220) and above the upper surface of the substrate 205 to allow for the piezoelectric material film 210 to vibrate. The piezoelectric material film 210 may include or consist of any of the materials disclosed herein.

Examples of SMR BAW and/or FBAR BAW resonators including any of the materials disclosed herein as their piezoelectric elements may be combined together to form a filter. One example of a filter arrangement that may be useful in filtering signals in the radio frequency (RF) range may be a ladder filter 300 as illustrated schematically in FIG. 19. The ladder filter 300 includes a plurality of series resonators Rl, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 connected in series between an input port 305 and an output port 310 and a plurality of parallel resonators R7, R8, and R9 having first sides electrically connected between a pair of the series resonators and second sides electrically connected to a reference voltage, for example, ground. The resonant and anti -resonant frequencies of the resonators R1-R9 may be selected such that the ladder filter 300 passes RF energy within a desired passband from the input port 305 to the output port 310 while attenuating RF energy at frequencies outside of the passband. It should be appreciated that the number and arrangement of series and/or parallel resonators included in the ladder filter may vary based on the desired frequency response of the filter.

Referring to FIG. 20, there is illustrated a block diagram of one example of a front- end module 400, which may be used in an electronic device such as a wireless

communications device (e.g., a mobile phone) for example. The front-end module 400 includes an antenna duplexer 410 having a common node 412, an input node 414, and an output node 416. An antenna 510 is connected to the common node 412. The front-end module 400 further includes a transmitter circuit 432 connected to the input node 414 of the duplexer 410 and a receiver circuit 434 connected to the output node 416 of the duplexer 410. The transmitter circuit 432 can generate signals for transmission via the antenna 510, and the receiver circuit 434 can receive and process signals received via the antenna 510. In some embodiments, the receiver and transmitter circuits are implemented as separate components, as shown in FIG. 20; however in other embodiments these components may be integrated into a common transceiver circuit or module. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the front-end module 400 may include other components that are not illustrated in FIG. 20 including, but not limited to, switches, electromagnetic couplers, amplifiers, processors, and the like.

The antenna duplexer 410 may include one or more transmission filters 422 connected between the input node 414 and the common node 412, and one or more reception filters 424 connected between the common node 412 and the output node 416. The passband(s) of the transmission filter(s) are different from the passband(s) of the reception filters. Each of the transmission filter(s) 422 and the reception filter(s) 424 may include one or more resonators including one or more embodiments of the piezoelectric material as disclosed herein. An inductor or other matching component 440 may be connected at the common node 412.

In certain examples, each of the acoustic wave elements used in the transmission filter 422 or the reception filter 424 include the same piezoelectric material. This structure reduces the effect of changes in temperature upon the frequency responses of the respective filter, in particular, reducing degradation in the passing or attenuation characteristics due to changes in the temperature, because each acoustic wave element changes similarly in response to changes in the ambient temperature.

FIG. 21 is a block diagram of one example of a wireless device 500 including the antenna duplexer 410 shown in FIG. 20. The wireless device 500 can be a cellular phone, smart phone, tablet, modem, communication network or any other portable or non-portable device configured for voice or data communication. The wireless device 500 can receive and transmit signals from the antenna 510. The wireless device includes an embodiment of a front-end module 400' similar to that discussed above with reference to FIG. 20. The front- end module 400' includes the duplexer 410, as discussed above. In the example shown in FIG. 21 the front-end module 400' further includes an antenna switch 450, which can be configured to switch between different frequency bands or modes, such as transmit and receive modes, for example. In the example illustrated in FIG. 21, the antenna switch 450 is positioned between the duplexer 410 and the antenna 510; however, in other examples the duplexer 410 can be positioned between the antenna switch 450 and the antenna 510. In other examples the antenna switch 450 and the duplexer 410 can be integrated into a single component. The front end module 400' includes a transceiver 430 that is configured to generate signals for transmission or to process received signals. The transceiver 430 can include the transmitter circuit 432, which can be connected to the input node 414 of the duplexer 410, and the receiver circuit 434, which can be connected to the output node 416 of the duplexer 410, as shown in the example of FIG. 20.

Signals generated for transmission by the transmitter circuit 432 are received by a power amplifier (PA) module 460, which amplifies the generated signals from the transceiver 430. The power amplifier module 460 can include one or more power amplifiers. The power amplifier module 460 can be used to amplify a wide variety of RF or other frequency-band transmission signals. For example, the power amplifier module 460 can receive an enable signal that can be used to pulse the output of the power amplifier to aid in transmitting a wireless local area network (WLAN) signal or any other suitable pulsed signal. The power amplifier module 460 can be configured to amplify any of a variety of types of signal, including, for example, a Global System for Mobile (GSM) signal, a code division multiple access (CDMA) signal, a W-CDMA signal, a Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal, or an EDGE signal. In certain embodiments, the power amplifier module 460 and associated components including switches and the like can be fabricated on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates using, for example, high-electron mobility transistors (pHEMT) or insulated-gate bipolar transistors (BiFET), or on a Silicon substrate using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors.

Still referring to FIG. 21, the front-end module 400' may further include a low noise amplifier module 470, which amplifies received signals from the antenna 510 and provides the amplified signals to the receiver circuit 434 of the transceiver 430.

The wireless device 500 of FIG. 21 further includes a power management sub- system 520 that is connected to the transceiver 430 and manages the power for the operation of the wireless device 500. The power management system 520 can also control the operation of a baseband sub-system 530 and various other components of the wireless device 500. The power management system 520 can include, or can be connected to, a battery (not shown) that supplies power for the various components of the wireless device 500. The power management system 520 can further include one or more processors or controllers that can control the transmission of signals, for example. In one embodiment, the baseband subsystem 530 is connected to a user interface 540 to facilitate various input and output of voice and/or data provided to and received from the user. The baseband sub-system 530 can also be connected to memory 550 that is configured to store data and/or instructions to facilitate the operation of the wireless device, and/or to provide storage of information for the user.

Having described above several aspects of at least one embodiment, it is to be appreciated various alterations, modifications, and improvements will readily occur to those skilled in the art. Such alterations, modifications, and improvements are intended to be part of this disclosure and are intended to be within the scope of the invention. It is to be appreciated that embodiments of the methods and apparatuses discussed herein are not limited in application to the details of construction and the arrangement of components set forth in the foregoing description or illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The methods and apparatuses are capable of implementation in other embodiments and of being practiced or of being carried out in various ways. Examples of specific implementations are provided herein for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to be limiting. One or more features of any embodiment disclosed herein may be added to or substituted for any one or more features of any other embodiment. Also, the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use herein of

"including," "comprising," "having," "containing," "involving," and variations thereof is meant to encompass the items listed thereafter and equivalents thereof as well as additional items. References to "or" may be construed as inclusive so that any terms described using "or" may indicate any of a single, more than one, and all of the described terms. Any references to front and back, left and right, top and bottom, upper and lower, and vertical and horizontal are intended for convenience of description, not to limit the present systems and methods or their components to any one positional or spatial orientation. Accordingly, the foregoing description and drawings are by way of example only.