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Title:
SULFONAMIDE-SUBSTITUTED CYANOPYRROLIDINES WITH ACTIVITY AS DUB INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/220355
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a class of sulfonamide-substituted cyanopyrrolidines of Formula (Ia) and (Ib) with activity as inhibitors of deubiquitilating enzymes, in particular, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 30 or ubiquitin specific peptidase 30 (USP30), having utility in a variety of therapeutic areas including cancer and conditions involving mitochondrial dysfunction: (Formulae (Ia), (Ib)).

Inventors:
STOCKLEY, Martin Lee (Moneta, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3AT, CB22 3AT, GB)
KEMP, Mark Ian (Moneta, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3AT, CB22 3AT, GB)
MADIN, Andrew (Moneta, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3AT, CB22 3AT, GB)
WOODROW, Michael David (Moneta, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3AT, CB22 3AT, GB)
Application Number:
GB2018/051454
Publication Date:
December 06, 2018
Filing Date:
May 30, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MISSION THERAPEUTICS LIMITED (Moneta, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB22 3AT, CB22 3AT, GB)
International Classes:
A61K31/40; A61K31/4025; A61K31/4155; A61K31/4439; A61K31/454; A61K31/496; A61K31/506; A61K31/5365; A61P3/00; A61P25/00; A61P29/00; A61P31/00; A61P35/00; C07D207/14; C07D401/12; C07D401/14; C07D403/12; C07D403/14; C07D487/04; C07D498/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009129371A12009-10-22
WO2007050522A12007-05-03
WO2009129370A12009-10-22
WO2001077073A12001-10-18
WO2017009650A12017-01-19
WO2016156816A12016-10-06
WO2016046530A12016-03-31
Foreign References:
CN103183673A2013-07-03
US6867221B22005-03-15
Other References:
AURICH H G ET AL: "ENANTIOMERICALLY PURE 3-OXA-2.7-DIAZABICYCLO 3.33?4OCTANES: PREPARATION, ANALYSIS OF CONFORMATION AND TEST FOR ENANTIOSELECTIVECATALYSIS", TETRAHEDRON, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 51, no. 38, 1 January 1995 (1995-01-01), pages 10497 - 10512, XP000942032, ISSN: 0040-4020, DOI: 10.1016/0040-4020(95)00283-E
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STRATAGEM IPM LIMITED (Meridian Court, Comberton RoadToft, Cambridge Cambridgeshire CB23 2RY, CB23 2RY, GB)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A compound of formula (I), which is selected from (la) and (lb):

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 0 to 4;

n is 0 or 1 ;

each R1 is independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, halo(Ci-Ce)alkyl, halo(Ci-C6)alkoxy, and (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-Ce)alkyl;

R2 and R3 are selected from hydrogen, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and (Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl;

or where R1 and N R2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, R1 together with R2 may form a

5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N;

L1 is selected from a covalent bond, (Ci-C4)alkylene, and (C2-C4)alkenylene;

L2 is selected from a covalent bond, (Ci-C4)alkylene, (C2-C4)alkenylene, and

(Co-C3)alkylene-X-(Co-C3)alkylene;

X is selected from O, S, SO, S02, N R4, N R4C(0), C(0)N R4, N R4C(0) N R5, C(O), C(0)0, OC(O), OC(0)0, SO2N R4, N R4S02, and N R4S02N R5; R4 and R5 are each independently selected from hydrogen, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-Ce)alkyl; group 'A' is selected from a 3 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; with the proviso that for the compound of formula (la) when L1 is a covalent bond, 'A' is linked to the sulfonamide via a ring C-atom; or A-U-N-R3 may optionally form a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, at least one of which is N; group 'B' is selected from a 3 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; and each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-Ce)alkyl, halo(Ci-Ce)alkyl, halo(Ci-C6)alkoxy, NH(Ci-Ce)alkyl, N((Ci-C6)alkyl)2, C(0)NH(Ci-C6)alkyl, C(0)N((Ci-C6)alkyl)2, NHC(0)(Ci-C6)alkyl, N(Ci-Ce)alkyl)C(0)(Ci-Ce)alkyl), C(0)(Ci-C6)alkyl, C(0)0(Ci-C6)alkyl, C02H, CONH2, S02NH(Ci-Ce)alkyl, and S02N((Ci-C6)alkyl)2; for use in the treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of UCHL1 or USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect, in a mammal.

2. A compound for use, according claim 1 , wherein

m is 0, 1 or 2.

3. A compound for use, according to either claim 1 or claim 2, wherein

each R1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, methoxy, and methoxymethyl;

R2 and R3 are selected from hydrogen and methyl;

or where R1 and NR2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, R1 together with R2 may form a morpholine, piperidine, or pyrrolidine ring.

4. A compound for use, according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein

L1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene.

5. A compound for use, according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein

L2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, methylene, OCH2, and NHC(O). 6. A compound for use, according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein

group 'A' is selected from indanyl, phenyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetralinyl, benzothiazolyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, thiazolyl, 1 ,2,4-triazolyl, and quinolinyl; or A-U-N-R3 may form a ring selected from azetidinyl, isoindolinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1 ,5-a]pyrazinyl.

7. A compound for use, according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein

group 'B' is selected from phenyl, oxazolyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, 1 ,2-thiazolidinyl, and thiazolyl.

8. A compound for use, according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, CF3, OCF3, and NHC(0)(Ci-C6)alkyl.

9. A compound for use, according to claim 8, wherein

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, CF3, OCF3, NHC(0)isobutyl.

10. A compound for use, according to claim 1 , which is selected from

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-2-sulfonamide;

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

(f?)-N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

(f?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

(4-(benzyloxy)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyrimidin-5-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide; N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-phenylpyridine-2-sulfonamide;

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4'-fluoro-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(piperidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(1 -methyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-6-phenoxypyridine-3-sulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-fluoro-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-isopropylbenzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide; (f?)-N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

(3aR, 6a f?)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)- carbonitrile;

rac-(4aR, 7af?)-4-tosylhexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)-carbonitrile;

rac-(4af?, 7aS)-4-((4-methylbenzyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)- carbonitrile;

N-(5-(N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-5- carboxamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide;

N-([1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1-cyanopyrrolidine-3-sulfonamide;

3-((4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(3-((4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile;

3-((4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(S)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(f?)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile;

3-((4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile;

(S)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(f?)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile; and

3-((3-phenoxyazetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile; a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer. 11. A method of treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of UCHL1 or USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect, in a mammal, comprising administering to said mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a compound as defined in any one of claims 1 to 10, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

12. Use of a compound as defined in any one of claims 1 to 10, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, in the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of UCHL1 or USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect.

13. A compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 10, a method according to claim 11 , or use according to claim 12, wherein the disorder or condition is selected from cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infection, bacterial infection, metabolic disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fibrosis; and preferably:

cancer (for example, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, kidney, gastric, colon, testicular, head and neck, pancreas, brain, melanoma, bone or other cancers of tissue organs and cancers of the blood cells, such as lymphoma and leukaemia, multiple myeloma, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma),

Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease, ischemia, stroke, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia;

PD related to mutations in a-synuclein, parkin and PINK1 , autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease (AR-JP) where parkin is mutated;

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammation, viral infections, MERS, SARS, bacterial infections, TB, metabolic disorders;

multiple sclerosis (MS), mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome; Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON); neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa-maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (NARP- MILS); Danon disease; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; metabolic disorders; heart failure; ischemic heart disease leading to myocardial infarction; psychiatric diseases, schizophrenia; multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD); mucolipidosis II (ML II); mucolipidosis III (ML III); mucolipidosis IV (ML IV); GMI-gangliosidosis (GM1); neuronal ceroid- lipofuscinoses (NCL1); Alpers disease; Barth syndrome; Beta-oxidation defects; carnitine- acyl-carnitine deficiency; carnitine deficiency; creatine deficiency syndromes; co-enzyme Q10 deficiency; complex I deficiency; complex II deficiency; complex III deficiency; complex IV deficiency; complex V deficiency; COX deficiency; chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia syndrome (CPEO); CPT I deficiency; CPT II deficiency; glutaric aciduria type II; Kearns-Sayre syndrome; lactic acidosis; long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD); Leigh disease or syndrome; lethal infantile cardiomyopathy (LIC); Luft disease; glutaric aciduria type II; medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD); myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome; mitochondrial cytopathy; mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome; mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome; myoneurogastointestinal disorder and encephalopathy; Pearson syndrome; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency; pyruvate carboxylase deficiency; POLG mutations; medium/short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (M/SCHAD) deficiency; and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency;

fibrosis or a fibrotic disorder associated with the accumulation of extracellular matrix constituents that occurs following trauma, inflammation, tissue repair, immunological reactions, cellular hyperplasia, and neoplasia;

fibrosis or a fibrotic disorder associated with major organ diseases, fibroproliferative disorders, and scarring associated with trauma;

fibrosis or a fibrotic disorder associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD), liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), kidney disease, heart or vascular disease, diseases of the eye, systemic and local scleroderma, keloids, hypertrophic scars, atherosclerosis, restenosis, Dupuytren's contracture, surgical complications, chemotherapeutics drug- induced fibrosis, radiation-induced fibrosis, accidental injury and burns, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and peritoneal fibrosis/peritoneal scarring;

fibrosis associated with interstitial lung disease is selected from sarcoidosis, silicosis, drug reactions, infections, collagen vascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP), interstitial lung disease, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA), bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis; and

fibrosis associated with liver cirrhosis is selected from cirrhosis associated with viral hepatitis, schistosomiasis and chronic alcoholism.

14. A compound of formula (la) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 9, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 1 to 4;

one of the R1 groups and NR2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, and said R1 together with R2 forms a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N. 15. A compound formula (la) according to claim 14, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 1 ; L1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene;

L2 is a covalent bond;

group 'A' is phenyl; group 'B' is pyridyl; and

each phenyl and pyridyl ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, hydroxy, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, CF3, OCFs, NHC(0)isobutyl.

16. A compound of formula (la) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 9, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

n is O;

group 'A' is a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; with the proviso that for the compound of formula (la) when L1 is a covalent bond, 'A' is linked to the sulfonamide via a ring C-atom;

with the proviso:

(a) when m is 0; R2 is selected from (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and (Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl.

17. A compound of formula (la) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 9, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 0; n is 0; R2 is hydrogen; and

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring is substituted with, at least, 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from cyano, hydroxy, oxo, CF3, OCF3, and NHC(0)isobutyl.

18. A compound of formula (la) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 9, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

n is 1 ; and

group 'B' is a substituted 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S.

19. A compound of formula (lb) as defined in any one of claims 1 to 9, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

20. A compound of formula (lb) according to claim 19, wherein

m is 0 or 1 ; n is 0 or 1 ;

each R1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, methoxy, and methoxymethyl;

R3 is selected from hydrogen and methyl;

L1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene; L2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, and methylene;

group 'A' is selected from indanyl, phenyl, tetralinyl, benzothiazolyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, thiazolyl, 1 ,2,4-triazolyl, and quinolinyl;

or A-U-N-R3 may form a ring selected from azetidinyl, isoindolinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1 ,5-a]pyrazinyl;

group 'B' is selected from phenyl and pyridyl; and

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, hydroxy, and methyl. 21. A compound of formula (I), which is selected from:

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-2-sulfonamide;

N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

(f?)-N-(1 -cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , 1 '-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide;

(4-(benzyloxy)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyrimidin-5-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-phenylpyridine-2-sulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(piperidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(1-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-6-phenoxypyridine-3-sulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-isopropylbenzenesulfonamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide; (f?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide;

(3aR, 6a f?)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)- carbonitrile;

rac-(4aR, 7af?)-4-tosylhexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)-carbonitrile;

rac-(4af?, 7aS)-4-((4-methylbenzyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)- carbonitrile;

N-(5-(N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole-5- carboxamide;

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide;

N-([1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1-cyanopyrrolidine-3-sulfonamide;

3-((4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(3-((4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1 -carbonitrile; 3-((4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(S)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(R)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

3-((4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(S)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

(R)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile; and

3-((3-phenoxyazetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile;

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

22. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (la) or (lb) according to any one of claims 14 to 21 , or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

23. A compound of formula (la) or (lb) according to any one of claims 14 to 21 , a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer for use as a medicament. 24. A compound of formula:

(a) (Ma) or (Ilia):

wherein PG is a protecting group, preferably BOC or CBZ, and m, n, R1 , R2, L1 , L2, group 'A' and group 'B' are as defined in any one of claims 14 to 18, a tautomer thereof, or a salt of said compound or tautomer; or (b) (lib) or (1Mb):

wherein PG is a protecting group, preferably BOC or CBZ, and m, n, R1 , R3, L1 , L2, group 'A' and group 'B' are as defined in either claim 19 or claim 20, a tautomer thereof, or a salt of said compound or tautomer.

Description:
Sulfonamide-Substituted Cyanopyrrolidines with Activity as DUB Inhibitors

The present invention relates to a class of sulfonamide-substituted cyanopyrrolidines with activity as inhibitors of deubiquitilating enzymes, in particular, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 30 or ubiquitin specific peptidase 30 (USP30), uses thereof, processes for the preparation thereof and composition containing said inhibitors. These inhibitors have utility in a variety of therapeutic areas including cancer and conditions involving mitochondrial dysfunction.

Ubiquitin is a small protein consisting of 76 amino acids that can be reversibly attached to protein substrates. Protein ubiquitylation regulates many cellular functions including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, modification of cell surface receptors, regulation of DNA transcription and DNA repair. Thus, the ubiquitin proteasome system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous disease states including inflammation, viral infection, metabolic dysfunction, CNS disorders, and oncogenesis (Clague et al., Physiol Rev 93: 1289-1315, 2013).

Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are cleaved from protein substrates by isopeptidases called deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). There are approximately 100 DUBs in human cells, divided into sub-families based on sequence homology: ubiquitin C- terminal hydrolases (UCHs), ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs), ovarian tumour proteases (OTUs), Machado-Josephin domain proteases (MJDs), JAB1/MPN/MOV34 metalloproteases (JAMMs) or Sentrin-specific proteases (SENPs). The UCH family consisting of UCHL1 , UCHL3, UCHL5 and BAP1 are cysteine proteases that operate through an active site thiol. UCHs are believed to preferentially cleave small protein substrates and to be involved in the processing and recycling of ubiquitin (Komander et al., Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:550-563, 2009).

UCHL1 is a 223-amino acid protein whose expression is normally limited to the brain, peripheral nervous system, ovaries and testis in mammals. However, expression of UCHL1 has been reported to be up-regulated in several pathological conditions including cancer. Transgenic mice over-expressing UCHL1 are prone to malignancy, primarily lymphomas and lung tumours, demonstrating that UCHL1 is an oncogene (Hussain et al., Leukemia 24: 1641-1655, 2010). The oncogenic function of UCHL1 is further supported by clinical studies demonstrating that UCHL1 expression in tumours (including breast, colorectal, osteosarcoma and pancreatic) is inversely correlated with patient survival (Hurst-Kennedy et al., Biochem Res Int, 2012, Zheng et al., Cancer Lett 359:36-46). Thus, pharmacological inhibition of UCHL1 would serve as novel treatment for such cancers. Ubiquitin is a master regulator of mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose biogenesis, fusion and fission events are regulated by the post- translational regulation via ubiquitylation of many key factors such as mitofusins. While ubiquitin ligases such as parkin are known to ubiquitylate several mitochondrial proteins, until recently, deubiquitylating enzymes remained elusive. USP30 is a 517-amino acid protein which is found in the mitochondrial outer membrane. It is the sole deubiquitylating enzyme bearing a mitochondrial addressing signal and has been shown to deubiquitylate a number of mitochondrial proteins. It has been demonstrated that USP30 opposes parkin- mediated mitophagy and that reduction of USP30 activity can rescue parkin-mediated defects in mitophagy.

Mitochondrial dysfunction can be defined as diminished mitochondrial content (mitophagy or mitochondrial biogenesis), as a decrease in mitochondrial activity and oxidative phosphorylation, but also as modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Hence a role for mitochondrial dysfunctions in a very large number of aging processes and pathologies including but not limited to, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Amylotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis), cancer, diabetes, metabolic disorders, cardio-vascular diseases, psychiatric diseases (e.g. Schizophrenia), and osteoarthritis.

For example, Parkinson's disease affects around 10 million people worldwide (Parkinson's Disease Foundation) and is characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The exact mechanisms underlying PD are unclear; however mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly appreciated as a key determinant of dopaminergic neuronal susceptibility in PD and is a feature of both familial and sporadic disease, as well as in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Parkin is one of several proteins that have been implicated with early onset PD. While most PD cases are linked to defects in alpha- synuclein, 10% of Parkinson's cases are linked to specific genetic defects, one of which is in the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. Parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) collaborate to ubiquitylate mitochondrial membrane proteins of damaged mitochondria resulting in mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy results in increased oxidative stress, which has been described as a characteristic of PD. Inhibition of USP30 could therefore be a potential strategy for the treatment of PD. For example, PD patients with parkin mutations leading to reduced activity could be therapeutically compensated by inhibition of USP30.

It has been reported that depletion of USP30 enhances mitophagic clearance of mitochondria and enhances parkin-induced cell death. USP30 has also been shown to regulate BAX/BAK-dependent apoptosis independently of parkin over expression. Depletion of USP30 sensitises cancer cells to BH-3 mimetics such as ABT-737, without the need for parkin over expression. Thus, an anti-apoptotic role has been demonstrated for USP30 and USP30 is therefore a potential target for anti-cancer therapy.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system has gained interest as a target for the treatment of cancer following the approval of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade®) for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Extended treatment with bortezomib is limited by its associated toxicity and drug resistance. However, therapeutic strategies that target specific aspects of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway upstream of the proteasome, such as DUBs, are predicted to be better tolerated (Bedford et al., Nature Rev 10:29-46, 2011).

Fibrotic diseases, including renal, hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and can affect all tissues and organ systems. Fibrosis is considered to be the result of acute or chronic stress on the tissue or organ, characterized by extracellular matrix deposition, reduction of vascular/tubule/duct/airway patency and impairment of function ultimately resulting in organ failure. Many fibrotic conditions are promoted by lifestyle or environmental factors; however, a proportion of fibrotic conditions can be initiated through genetic triggers or indeed are considered idiopathic (i.e. without a known cause). Certain fibrotic disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), can be treated with non-specific kinase inhibitor (nintedanib) or drugs without a well-characterized mechanism of action (pirfenidone). Other treatments for organ fibrosis, such as kidney or liver fibrosis, alleviate pressure on the organ itself (e.g. beta blockers for cirrhosis, angiotensin receptor blockers for chronic kidney disease). Attention to lifestyle factors, such as glucose and diet control, may also influence the course and severity of disease.

Preclinical models are available to study potential novel therapeutics, through their ability to model fibrosis pathology (e.g. collagen deposition) consistent with the human condition. Preclinical models can be toxin-mediated (e.g. bleomycin for lung and skin fibrosis), surgical (e.g. unilateral ureter obstruction model for acute tubulointerstitial fibrosis), and genetic (e.g. diabetic (db/db) mice for diabetic nephropathy). For example, both examples previously given for indicated IPF treatments (nintedanib and pirfenidone) show efficacy in the bleomycin lung fibrosis model.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a number of fibrotic diseases, with oxidative stress downstream of dysfunction being the key pathogenic mediator, alongside decreased ATP production. In preclinical models, disruption of the mitophagy pathway (through mutation or knockout of either parkin or PINK1) exacerbates lung fibrosis and kidney fibrosis, with evidence of increased oxidative stress. Accordingly, there is a need for compounds that are inhibitors of one or more DUBs such as UCHL1 and USP30, for the treatment of indications where inhibition of USP30 or UCHL1 is indicated.

Series of derivatives of cyano-substituted heterocycles are disclosed as deubiquitylating enzyme inhibitors in PCT applications WO 2016/046530, WO 2016/156816, WO 2017/009650, WO 2017/093718, WO 2017/103614, WO 2017/149313, WO 2017/109488, WO 2017/141036, WO 2017/163078, WO 2017/158381 , WO 2017/158388, PCT/GB2017/052971 , PCT/GB2017/052949, PCT/GB2017/052880, and PCT/GB2017/052882. Falgueyret et al., J.Med.Chem. 2001 , 44, 94-104, and PCT application WO 01/77073 refer to cyanopyrrolidines as inhibitors of Cathepsins K and L, with potential utility in treating osteoporosis and other bone-resorption related conditions. PCT application WO 2015/179190 refers to N-acylethanolamine hydrolysing acid amidase inhibitors, with potential utility in treating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. PCT application WO 2013/030218 refers to quinazolin-4-one compounds as inhibitors of ubiquitin specific proteases, such as USP7, with potential utility in treating cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory disorders and viral infections. PCT applications WO 2015/017502 and WO 2016/019237 refer to inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase with potential utility in treating disease such as autoimmune disease, inflammatory disease and cancer. Laine et al., ACS Med Chem Lett., 201 1 , 2, 132-147, and PCT applications WO 2009/026197, WO 2009/129365, WO 2009/129370, and WO 2009/129371 , refer to cyanopyrrolidines as inhibitors of Cathepsin C with potential utility in treating COPD. United States patent application US 2008/0300268 refers to polyaromatic compounds as inhibitors of tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFR. Song et al., ACS Med Chem Lett., 2012, 3, 450-453 refers to Cathepsin L inhibitors. Lonergan D., PCT application WO 2015/183987, refers to pharmaceutical compositions comprising deubiquitinase inhibitors and human serum albumin in methods of treating cancer, fibrosis, an autoimmune disease or condition, an inflammatory disease or condition, a neurodegenerative disease or condition or an infection. Lonergan notes that deubiquitinases, including UCHL5/UCH37, USP4, USP9X, USP1 1 and USP15, are said to have been implicated in the regulation of the TGF-beta signalling pathway, the disruption of which gives rise to neurodegenerative and fibrotic diseases, autoimmune dysfunction and cancer.

According to a first aspect, the present invention provides a compound of formula (I), which is selected from (la) and (lb):

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 0 to 4;

n is 0 or 1 ;

each R 1 is independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, halo(Ci-C e )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, and (Ci-C e )alkoxy(Ci-C e )alkyl;

R 2 and R 3 are selected from hydrogen, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and (Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl;

or where R 1 and N R 2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, R 1 together with R 2 may form a

5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N;

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, (Ci-C4)alkylene, and (C2-C4)alkenylene;

L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, (Ci-C4)alkylene, (C2-C4)alkenylene, and

(Co-C3)alkylene-X-(Co-C 3 )alkylene;

X is selected from O, S, SO, S0 2 , N R 4 , N R 4 C(0), C(0)N R 4 , N R 4 C(0) N R 5 , C(O), C(0)0, OC(O), OC(0)0, SO2N R 4 , N R 4 S0 2 , and N R 4 S0 2 N R 5 ;

R 4 and R 5 are each independently selected from hydrogen, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-Ce)alkyl;

group 'A' is selected from a 3 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N , O, and S; with the proviso that for the compound of formula (la) when L 1 is a covalent bond, 'A' is linked to the sulfonamide via a ring C-atom; or A-U-N-R 3 may optionally form a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, at least one of which is N;

group 'B' is selected from a 3 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; and

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-C e )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, NH(Ci-C e )alkyl, N((Ci-C 6 )alkyl) 2 , C(0)NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, C(0)N((Ci-C 6 )alkyl) 2 , NHC(0)(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, N(Ci-Ce)alkyl)C(0)(Ci-Ce)alkyl), C(0)(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, C(0)0(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, C0 2 H, CONH 2 , S0 2 NH(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, and S0 2 N((Ci-C 6 )alkyl) 2 ;

for use in the treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of USP30 or UCHL1 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect, in a mammal.

Unless otherwise indicated, alkyl, alkenyl, and alkoxy groups, including the corresponding divalent radicals, may be straight or branched and contain 1 to 6 carbon atoms and typically 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, pentyl and hexyl. Examples of alkoxy include methoxy, ethoxy, isopropoxy and n-butoxy.

Halo means fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo, in particular, fluoro or chloro.

Haloalkyl and haloalkoxy groups may contain one or more halo substituents. Examples are trifluoromethyl and trifluoromethoxy.

A carbocyclic ring may be monocyclic or bicyclic, saturated, partially saturated or aromatic. Examples of carbocyclic groups are cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, indanyl, indenyl, naphthyl, phenyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, and tetralinyl.

A heterocyclic ring may be monocyclic or bicyclic, including fused-bicyclic, saturated, partially saturated or aromatic. Examples of heterocyclic groups are azetidinyl, furyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, pyrrolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, imidazolyl, dioxolanyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolidinyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, triazolyl, thiazolidinyl, thiadiazolyl, pyranyl, pyridyl, piperidinyl, dioxanyl, morpholino, dithianyl, thiomorpholino, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, piperazinyl, sulfolanyl, tetrazolyl, triazinyl, azepinyl, oxazepinyl, thiazepinyl, diazepinyl, thiazolinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzoxazolyl, imidazopyridinyl, benzoxazinyl, benzothiazinyl, oxazolopyridinyl, benzofuranyl, quinolinyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, dihydroquinazolinyl, benzothiazolyl, phthalimido, benzofuranyl, benzodiazepinyl, indolyl, isoindolinyl, isoindolyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and tetrahydropyrazolopyrazinyl.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term substituted means substituted by one or more defined groups. In the case where groups may be selected from more than one alternatives, the selected groups may be the same or different. The term independently means that where more than one substituent is selected from more than one possible substituents, those substituents may be the same or different.

Preferred embodiments of the compound of formula (I) for use in the present invention are defined below.

Preferably, m is selected from 0, 1 , 2, 3 and 4.

More preferably, m is 0, 1 or 2.

Preferably, each R 1 is independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, ethoxy, methoxymethyl, and methoxyethyl.

More preferably, R 1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, and methoxy. Preferably, R 2 and R 3 are selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, ethoxy, methoxymethyl, and methoxyethyl.

More preferably, R 2 and R 3 are selected from hydrogen and methyl.

In the compound of formula (la), one of the R 1 groups and NR 2 may be situated on adjacent ring atoms. In this embodiment, said R 1 together with R 2 may form a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N.

Preferably, R 1 together with R 2 forms a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N and O, at least one of which is N.

More preferably, R 1 together with R 2 forms a morpholine, piperidine, or pyrrolidine ring. Preferably, L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, ethylene, propylene, isopropylene, ethenyl, and allyl.

More preferably, L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene.

Preferably, L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, ethylene, propylene, isopropylene, ethenyl, allyl, and (Co-Ci)alkylene-X-(Co-Ci)alkylene.

Preferably, X is selected from O, NR 4 , NR 4 C(0), and C(0)NR 4 .

Preferably, R 4 and R 5 are each independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, ethoxy, methoxymethyl, and methoxyethyl.

More preferably, R 4 and R 5 are each independently selected from hydrogen and methyl. Most preferably, L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, methylene, OCH2, and N HC(O).

In one preferred embodiment, group 'A' is an optionally substituted ring selected from a 6 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 5 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S.

More preferably, group 'A' is an optionally substituted ring selected from indanyl, phenyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetralinyl, benzothiazolyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, thiazolyl, 1 ,2,4-triazolyl, and quinolinyl.

In another preferred embodiment, A-L 1 -N-R 3 forms an optionally-substituted 4 to 10- membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, at least one of which is N .

More preferably, A-U-N-R 3 forms an optionally substituted ring selected from azetidinyl, isoindolinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and 4 , 5 , 6, 7-tetrahyd ropy razol o[ 1 , 5-a] py razi ny I .

Preferably, each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring of group 'A' and the ring formed from A- U-N-R 3 , may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, (Ci-Ce)alkyl, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy, (Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl, halo(Ci-C e )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, and N HC(0)(Ci-C 6 )alkyl.

More preferably, the optional substituents of group 'A' and the ring formed from A-L 1 -N-R 3 , are independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, ethoxy, methoxymethyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and N HC(0)isobutyl.

Most preferably, group 'A' and the ring formed from A-L 1 -N-R 3 , may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and N HC(0)isobutyl.

Preferably, group 'B' is an optionally substituted ring selected from a 6 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 5 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S.

More preferably, group 'B' is an optionally substituted ring selected from phenyl, and a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S.

Yet more preferably, group 'B' is an optionally substituted ring selected from phenyl, oxazolyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, 1 ,2- thiazolidinyl, and thiazolyl. Preferably, each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring of group 'B' may be optionally substituted with 1 to 4 substituents independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, (Ci-C e )alkyl, (Ci-C 6 )alkoxy, (Ci-Ce)alkoxy(Ci-C e )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkyl, halo(Ci-C 6 )alkoxy.

More preferably, the optional substituents of group 'B' are independently selected from halo, cyano, hydroxy, oxo, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, methoxy, ethoxy, methoxymethyl, trifluoromethyl, and trifluoromethoxy.

Most preferably, group 'B' may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, oxo, methyl, methoxy, and CF3.

According to one preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (I) for use in the present invention is a compound of formula (la):

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 0, 1 or 2;

n is 0 or 1 ;

each R 1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, and methoxy;

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene;

L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, methylene, OCH2, and NHC(O); group 'A' is selected from a 6 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 5 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and NHC(0)isobutyl; and

group 'B' is selected from phenyl, and a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, oxo, methyl, methoxy, and CF3. According to another preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (I) for use in the present invention is a compound of formula (la):

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 1 or 2;

n is 0 or 1 ;

one of the R 1 groups and NR 2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, and said R 1 together with R 2 forms a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N;

the other, optional R 1 is selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, and methoxy;

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene;

L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, methylene, OCH2, and NHC(O); group 'A' is selected from a 6 to 10-membered carbocyclic ring, and a 5 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and NHC(0)isobutyl; and

group 'B' is selected from phenyl, and a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, oxo, methyl, methoxy, and CF3.

According to another preferred embodiment, the compound of formula (I) for use in the present invention is a compound of formula (lb): (lb) a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

m is 0, 1 or 2;

n is 0 or 1 ;

each R 1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, and methoxy;

L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, methylene, OCH2, and NHC(O);

A-U-N-R 3 forms a 4 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, at least one of which is N, which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, and NHC(0)isobutyl; and group 'B' is selected from phenyl, and a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 3 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, oxo, methyl, methoxy, and CF3.

Preferred compounds of formula (I) for use in the present invention are selected from:

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-2-sulfonamide (Ex. 1);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 2);

(f?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 3);

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 4);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 5);

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 6);

(f?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 7);

(4-(benzyloxy)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonami de (Ex. 8);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyrimidin-5-yl)benzenesulfonam ide (Ex. 9);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)benzene sulfonamide (Ex. 10);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-phenylpyridine-2-sulfonamide (Ex. 11);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4'-fluoro-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 12);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzenesulfona mide (Ex. 13);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(piperidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonam ide (Ex. 14); N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(1-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 15); N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-6-phenoxypyridine-3-sulfonamide (Ex. 16);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-fluoro-2-methylbenzenesulfon amide (Ex. 17);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-isopropylbenzenesulfonamide (Ex. 18);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin -2-yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 19);

( ?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)benze nesulfonarnide (Ex. 20); (3aR, 6a f?)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4 -b]pyrrole-5(1 H)- carbonitrile (Ex. 21);

rac-{4aR, 7a )-4-tosylhexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)-carbonitrile (Ex. 22); rac-(4aR, 7aS)-4-((4-methylbenzyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)- carbonitrile (Ex. 23);

N-(5-(N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1-me thyl-1 H-pyrazole-5- carboxamide (Ex. 24);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-((5-(trifluoromethy l)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 25);

N-([1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1-cyanopyrrolidine-3-sulfonamide (Ex. 26);

3-((4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1- carbonitrile (Ex. 27);

(3-((4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-c arbonitrile (Ex. 28);

3-((4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine -1-carbonitrile (Ex. 29);

3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1- carbonitrile (Ex. 30);

(S)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidin e-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 31);

( )-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine- 1-carbonitrile (Ex. 32);

3-((4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitri le (Ex. 33);

3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine- 1-carbonitrile (Ex. 34);

(S)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine -1-carbonitrile (Ex. 35);

(f?)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidin e-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 36); and

3-((3-phenoxyazetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboni trile (Ex. 37);

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer. According to a second aspect, the present invention provides a compound of formula (la) selected from (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v):

as defined herein in respect of the first aspect of the invention and preferred embodiments thereof, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, wherein:

(i) m is 1 to 4; and

one of the R 1 groups and NR 2 are situated on adjacent ring atoms, and said R 1 together with R 2 forms a 5 to 6-membered heterocyclic ring containing 1 to 2 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O and S, at least one of which is N; (ii) n is 0; and

group 'A' is a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; with the proviso that for the compound of formula (la) when L 1 is a covalent bond, 'A' is linked to the sulfonamide via a ring C-atom;

with the proviso that

(a) when m is 0; R 2 is selected from (Ci-Ce)alkyl and (Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl; and is preferably methyl;

(iii) m is 0;

n is 0;

R 2 is hydrogen; and

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring is substituted with, at least, 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from cyano, hydroxy, oxo, CF3, OCF3, and NHC(0)isobutyl;

(iv) n is 1 ; and

group 'B' is a substituted 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S;

(v) n is 0; and

group 'A' is a 3 to 10-membered heterocyclic ring comprising 1 to 4 heteroatoms independently selected from N, O, and S; with the proviso that for the compound of formula (la) when L 1 is a covalent bond, 'A' is linked to the sulfonamide via a ring C-atom;

with the proviso that

(a) when m is 0; R 2 is hydrogen; and

(b) when m is 1 to 4; R 2 is selected from (Ci-Ce)alkyl, and

(Ci-C6)alkoxy(Ci-C6)alkyl; and is preferably methyl.

In a preferred embodiment of the second aspect of the invention for the compounds of formula (la): (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v):

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene; and

L 2 is a covalent bond.

In a preferred embodiment of the second aspect of the invention for the compound of formula (la)(i):

m is 1 ;

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene.

L 2 is a covalent bond;

group 'A' is phenyl;

group 'B' is pyridyl;

each phenyl and pyridyl ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, cyano, hydroxy, methyl, isopropyl, methoxy, CF 3 , OCFs, NHC(0)isobutyl.

In a preferred embodiment of the second aspect of the invention for the compound of formula (la)(iv):

group 'B' is substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, oxo, methyl, methoxy, and CF3.

Preferred compounds of formula (I) according to the second aspect of the invention are selected from:

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-2-sulfonamide (Ex. 1);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 2);

(f?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 3);

(S)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-[1 , T-biphenyl]-4-sulfonamide (Ex. 4);

(4-(benzyloxy)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 8);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyrimidin-5-yl)benzenesulfonam ide (Ex. 9);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)benzene sulfonamide (Ex. 10);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-phenylpyridine-2-sulfonamide (Ex. 11);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzenesulfona mide (Ex. 13); N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(piperidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonam ide (Ex. 14);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-(1-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 15); N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-6-phenoxypyridine-3-sulfonamide (Ex. 16);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-isopropylbenzenesulfonamide (Ex. 18);

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2- yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 19);

( ?)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)benze nesulfonarnide (Ex. 20); (3aR, 6a f?)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4 -b]pyrrole-5(1 H)- carbonitrile (Ex. 21);

rac-{4aR, 7a )-4-tosylhexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)-carbonitrile (Ex. 22); rac-(4aR, 7aS)-4-((4-methylbenzyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1 ,4]oxazine-6(2H)- carbonitrile (Ex. 23);

N-(5-(N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1-me thyl-1 H-pyrazole-5- carboxamide (Ex. 24); and

N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)p yridin-2- yl)oxy)benzenesulfonamide (Ex. 25);

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

According to a third aspect, the present invention provides compound of formula (lb):

as defined herein in respect of the first aspect of the invention and preferred embodiments thereof, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

In a preferred embodiment of the third aspect of the invention:

m is 0 or 1 ;

n is 0 or 1 ;

each R 1 is independently selected from fluoro, cyano, methyl, methoxy, and methoxymethyl;

R 3 is selected from hydrogen and methyl;

L 1 is selected from a covalent bond, methylene, and ethylene; L 2 is selected from a covalent bond, an oxygen atom, and methylene;

group 'A' is selected from indanyl, phenyl, tetralinyl, benzothiazolyl, piperidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, thiazolyl, 1 ,2,4-triazolyl, and quinolinyl;

or A-U-N-R 3 may form a ring selected from azetidinyl, isoindolinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1 ,5-a]pyrazinyl;

group 'B' is selected from phenyl and pyridyl; and

each carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring may be optionally substituted with 1 to 2 substituents independently selected from chloro, fluoro, hydroxy, and methyl.

Preferred compounds of formula (I) according to the third aspect of the invention are selected from:

N-([1 ,1 '-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1-cyanopyrrolidine-3-sulfonamide (Ex. 26);

3-((4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1- carbonitrile (Ex. 27);

(3-((4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-c arbonitrile (Ex. 28);

3-((4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1- carbonitrile (Ex. 29);

3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine -1-carbonitrile (Ex. 30);

(S)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidin e-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 31);

(f?)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidi ne-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 32);

3-((4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitri le (Ex. 33);

3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-c arbonitrile (Ex. 34);

(S)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolid ine-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 35);

(f?)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidin e-1-carbonitrile (Ex. 36); and

3-((3-phenoxyazetidin-1-yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboni trile (Ex. 37);

a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (la) or (lb) according to either the second or third aspects of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

Pharmaceutical compositions of this invention comprise any of the compounds of the invention combined with any pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, adjuvant or vehicle. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are known to those skilled in the art and include, but are not limited to, preserving agents, fillers, disintegrating agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents, perfuming agents, antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, lubricating agents and dispersing agents, depending on the nature of the mode of administration and dosage forms. The compositions may be in the form of, for example, tablets, capsules, powders, granules, elixirs, lozenges, suppositories, syrups and liquid preparations including suspensions and solutions. The term "pharmaceutical composition" in the context of this invention means a composition comprising an active agent and comprising additionally one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The composition may further contain ingredients selected from, for example, diluents, adjuvants, excipients, vehicles, preserving agents, fillers, disintegrating agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, sweetening agents, flavouring agents, perfuming agents, antibacterial agents, antifungal agents, lubricating agents and dispersing agents, depending on the nature of the mode of administration and dosage forms.

The compounds of formula (I) are inhibitors of deubiquitylating enzymes, including in particular, either UCHL1 or USP30, or both.

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides a compound of formula (la) or (lb) according to either the second or third aspects of the invention, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer for use as a medicament.

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides a method of treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of UCHL1 or USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect, in a mammal, comprising administering to said mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) as defined herein, according to any one of the first, second, and third aspects of the invention, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer.

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides the use of a compound of formula (I) as defined herein, according to any one of the first, second, and third aspects of the invention, a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or tautomer, in the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of a disorder or condition where inhibition of UCHL1 or USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect.

In one preferred embodiment of all aspects of the invention, the disorder or condition is one where inhibition of UCHL1 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect. In a more preferred embodiment, the disorder or condition benefiting from UCHL1 activity is selected from cancer, neurodegenerative disorders (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammation, viral infections, including MERS or SARS, bacterial infections, including TB, metabolic disorders, and fibrosis. Preferred cancers include, for example, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, kidney, gastric, colon, testicular, head and neck, pancreas, brain, melanoma, bone or other cancers of tissue organs and cancers of the blood cells, such as lymphoma and leukaemia, multiple myeloma, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Fibrosis refers to the accumulation of extracellular matrix constituents that occurs following trauma, inflammation, tissue repair, immunological reactions, cellular hyperplasia, and neoplasia. Fibrotic disorders that may be treated by the compounds and compositions of the present invention include, inter alia, fibrosis/fibrotic disorders associated with major organ diseases, for example, interstitial lung disease (ILD), liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (hepatic fibrosis), kidney disease (renal fibrosis), heart or vascular disease (cardiac fibrosis) and diseases of the eye; fibroproliferative disorders, for example, systemic and local scleroderma, keloids and hypertrophic scars, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and Dupuytren's contracture; scarring associated with trauma, for example, surgical complications, chemotherapeutics drug- induced fibrosis (e.g. bleomycin-induced fibrosis), radiation-induced fibrosis, accidental injury and burns); retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease); and peritoneal fibrosis/peritoneal scarring in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, usually following renal transplantation. See, for example, Wynn, Thomas A., "Fibrotic disease and the TH1/TH2 paradigm", Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 August ; 4(8): 583-594. The present invention therefore relates to methods of treatment, and compounds and compositions used in said methods of fibrosis/fibrotic disorders of and/or associated with the major organs, the lung, liver, kidney, heart, skin, eye, gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, bone marrow, etc., and other diseases/disorders herein described.

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes disorders in which pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are the final common pathways of pathology, for example, sarcoidosis, silicosis, drug reactions, infections and collagen vascular diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). The fibrotic disorder of the lung includes, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP), interstitial lung disease, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA), bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of ILD and has no known cause.

Liver cirrhosis has similar causes to ILD and includes, for example, cirrhosis associated with viral hepatitis, schistosomiasis and chronic alcoholism.

Kidney disease, may be associated with diabetes, which can damage and scar the kidneys leading to a progressive loss of function, and also hypertensive diseases. Kidney fibrosis may occur at any stage of kidney disease, from chronic kidney disease (CKD) through to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney fibrosis can develop as a result of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension or diabetes, both of which place immense strain on kidney function which promotes a fibrotic response. However, kidney fibrosis can also be idiopathic (without a known cause), and certain genetic mitochondrial diseases also present kidney fibrosis manifestations and associated symptoms.

Heart disease may result in scar tissue that can impair the ability of the heart to pump. Diseases of the eye include, for example, macular degeneration and retinal and vitreal retinopathy, which can impair vision.

In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is directed to the treatment of Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

In another preferred embodiment, the present invention is directed to the treatment of kidney fibrosis.

In another preferred embodiment of all aspects of the invention, the disorder or condition is one where inhibition of USP30 is known, or can be shown, to produce a beneficial effect. In a more preferred embodiment, the disorder or condition benefiting from USP30 activity is selected from cancer and mitochondrial dysfunction. Preferred cancers include, for example, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, kidney, gastric, colon, testicular, head and neck, pancreas, brain, melanoma, bone or other cancers of tissue organs and cancers of the blood cells, such as lymphoma and leukaemia, multiple myeloma, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma.

The condition involving mitochondrial dysfunction may be selected from a condition involving a mitophagy defect, a condition involving a mutation in mitochondrial DNA, a condition involving mitochondrial oxidative stress, a condition involving a defect in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial biogenesis, a condition involving a defect in mitochondrial shape or morphology, and a condition involving a lysosomal storage defect.

In particular, the condition involving mitochondrial dysfunction may be selected from a neurodegenerative disease; multiple sclerosis (MS), mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome; Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON); cancer; neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa- maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (NARP-MILS); Danon disease; diabetes; diabetic nephropathy; metabolic disorders; heart failure; ischemic heart disease leading to myocardial infarction; psychiatric diseases, for example schizophrenia; multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD); mucolipidosis II (ML II); mucolipidosis III (ML III); mucolipidosis IV (ML IV); GMI-gangliosidosis (GM1); neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL1); Alpers disease; Barth syndrome; Beta-oxidation defects; carnitine-acyl-carnitine deficiency; carnitine deficiency; creatine deficiency syndromes; co-enzyme Q10 deficiency; complex I deficiency; complex II deficiency; complex III deficiency; complex IV deficiency; complex V deficiency; COX deficiency; chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia syndrome (CPEO); CPT I deficiency; CPT II deficiency; glutaric aciduria type II; Kearns-Sayre syndrome; lactic acidosis; long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD); Leigh disease or syndrome; lethal infantile cardiomyopathy (LIC); Luft disease; glutaric aciduria type II; medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD); myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome; mitochondrial cytopathy; mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome; mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome; myoneurogastointestinal disorder and encephalopathy; Pearson syndrome; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency; pyruvate carboxylase deficiency; POLG mutations; medium/short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (M/SCHAD) deficiency; and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency.

The condition involving mitochondrial dysfunction may be a CNS disorder, for example a neurodegenerative disease.

Neurodegenerative diseases include, but are not limited to, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease, ischemia, stroke, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia. The compounds of the invention are useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, including, but not limited to, PD related to mutations in a-synuclein, parkin and PINK1 , autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease (AR-JP) where parkin is mutated.

The compounds of the invention or pharmaceutical compositions thereof as described herein may be combined with one or more additional agents. The compounds may be combined with an additional anti-tumour therapeutic agent, for example chemotherapeutic drugs or inhibitors of other regulatory proteins. In one embodiment, the additional anti- tumour therapeutic agent is selected from a PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) inhibitor, a BRCA2 inhibitor and an ATM inhibitor. In another embodiment, the PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) inhibitor is an inhibitory RNA (RNAi) molecule (PARPi). In a further embodiment, PARP inhibitors may be selected from one or more of Iniparib (BSI 201), Olaparib (AZD-2281), Rucaparib (AG014699, PF-01367338) and Veliparib (ABT-888), MK- 4827, CEP-9722, E7016(GPI-21016), LT-673, MP-124, NMS-P118. In a further embodiment, the additional anti-tumour agent is a chemotherapeutic agent. Chemotherapeutic agents may be selected from olaparib, mitomycin C, cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, ionizing radiation (IR), camptothecin, irinotecan, topotecan, temozolomide, taxanes, 5-fluoropyrimidines, gemcitabine, and doxorubicin. For compounds of formula (I) where:

n is 0 and group 'A' is a carbocyclic ring optionally substituted by halo; or

n is 0, L 1 is a bond, and group 'A' is an unsubstituted, saturated heterocyclic ring; or alternatively, for compounds of formula (I) other than those of formula (la): (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v):

the use in cancer is preferably a cancer selected from, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, kidney, gastric, colon, testicular, head and neck, pancreas, brain, melanoma, bone or other cancers of tissue organs and cancers of the blood cells, such as lymphoma and leukaemia, multiple myeloma, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Additionally, or alternatively, for compounds of formula (I) other than those of formula (la): (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v), the disorder or condition may preferably be selected from neurodegenerative disorders, viral or bacterial infections, and metabolic disorders, and is preferably neurodegenerative disorders.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be administered in any suitably effective manner, for example orally in any orally acceptable dosage form including, but not limited to tablets, dragees, powders, elixirs, syrups, liquid preparations including suspensions, sprays, inhalants, tablets, lozenges, emulsions, solutions, cachets, granules and capsules. Such dosage forms are prepared according to techniques known in the art of pharmaceutical formulation. When in the form of sprays or inhalants the pharmaceutical compositions may be administered nasally. Suitable formulations for this purpose are known to those skilled in the art.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be administered by injection and may be in the form of a sterile liquid preparation for injection, including liposome preparations. The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may also be in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. These are formulated so that the pharmaceutical composition is solid at room temperature and liquid at body temperature to allow release of the active compound.

The magnitude of an effective dose of a compound will, of course, vary with the nature of the severity of the condition to be treated and the route of administration. The selection of appropriate dosages is within the remit of the physician. The daily dose range is about 10μg to about 100 mg per kg body weight of a human and non-human animal and in general may be around 10μg to 30mg per kg body weight per dose. The above dose may be given from one to three times per day.

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (la): (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v), according to the second aspect of the invention comprising reacting a compound of formula (IV) with an amine of formula (V), where PG is a protecting group, such as BOC or CBZ, to give a sulfonamide of formula (Ilia).

Additionally, one compound of formula (Ilia) may be converted into another compound of formula (Ilia), for example via a Suzuki coupling of a bromo-aryl or bromo-heteroaryl group.

Sulfonamide (Ilia) may be deprotected using standard methods to give amine (lla), which may then be reacted with cyanogen bromide to give the compound of formula (la).

(R^m (lla)

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides an intermediate of formula (lla) or (Ilia) wherein PG is a protecting group, preferably BOC or CBZ, and m, n, R 1 , R 2 , L 1 , L 2 , group 'A' and group 'B' are as defined herein for the compound of formula (la): (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v), a tautomer thereof, or a salt of said compound or tautomer. According to a further aspect, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (lb) according to the third aspect of the invention comprising reacting an amine of formula (VI), with a compound of formula (VII) where PG is a protecting group, such as BOC or CBZ, to give a sulfonamide of formula (lllb).

Additionally, one compound of formula (lllb) may be converted into another compound of formula (lllb), for example via a Suzuki coupling of a bromo-aryl or bromo-heteroaryl group.

Sulfonamide (lllb) may be deprotected using standard methods to give amine (lib), which may then be reacted with cyanogen bromide to give the compound of formula (lb).

According to a further aspect, the present invention provides an intermediate of formula (lib) or (lllb) wherein PG is a protecting group, preferably BOC or CBZ, and m, n, R 1 , R 3 , L 1 , L 2 , group 'A' and group 'B' are as defined herein for the compound of formula (lb), a tautomer thereof, or a salt of said compound or tautomer. Pharmaceutical acceptable salts of the compounds of formula (I) include the acid addition and base salts (including di-salts) thereof.

Suitable acid addition salts are formed from acids which form non-toxic salts.

Examples include the acetate, aspartate, benzoate, besylate, bicarbonate/carbonate, bisulfate, camsylate, citrate, edisylate, esylate, fumarate, gluceptate, gluconate, glucuronate, hibenzate, hydrochloride/chloride, hydrobromide/bromide, hydroiodide/iodide, hydrogen phosphate, isethionate, D- and L-lactate, malate, maleate, malonate, mesylate, methylsulfate, 2-napsylate, nicotinate, nitrate, orotate, palmate, phosphate, saccharate, stearate, succinate sulfate, D-and L-tartrate, and tosylate salts. Suitable base salts are formed from bases which form non-toxic salts. Examples include the aluminium, ammonium, arginine, benzathine, calcium, choline, diethylamine, diolamine, glycine, lysine, magnesium, meglumine, olamine, potassium, sodium, tromethamine and zinc salts.

For a review on suitable salts, see Stahl and Wermuth, Handbook of Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2002).

A pharmaceutical acceptable salt of a compound of formula (I) may be readily prepared by mixing together solutions of the compound of formula (I) and the desired acid or base, as appropriate. The salt may precipitate from solution and be collected by filtration or may be recovered by evaporation of the solvent.

Pharmaceutical acceptable solvates in accordance with the invention include hydrates and solvates wherein the solvent of crystallization may be isotopically substituted, e. g. D2O, acetone-de, DMSO-d 6 .

Also within the scope of the invention are clathrates, drug-host inclusion complexes wherein, in contrast to the aforementioned solvates, the drug and host are present in non- stoichiometric amounts. For a review of such complexes, see J. Pharm Sci, 64 (8), 1269- 1288 by Haleblian (August 1975).

Hereinafter all references to compounds of formula (I) include references to salts thereof and to solvates and clathrates of compounds of formula (I) and salts thereof.

The invention includes all polymorphs of the compounds of formula (I) as hereinbefore defined.

Also, within the scope of the invention are so-called "prodrugs" of the compounds of formula (I). Thus, certain derivatives of compounds of formula (I) which have little or no pharmacological activity themselves can, when metabolised upon administration into or onto the body, give rise to compounds of formula (I) having the desired activity. Such derivatives are referred to as "prodrugs".

Prodrugs in accordance with the invention can, for example, be produced by replacing appropriate functionalities present in the compounds of formula (I) with certain moieties known to those skilled in the art as "pro-moieties" as described, for example, in "Design of Prodrugs" by H Bundgaard (Elsevier, 1985).

Finally, certain compounds of formula (I) may themselves act as prodrugs of other compounds of formula (I).

Certain derivatives of compounds of formula (I) which contain a nitrogen atom may also form the corresponding N-oxide, and such compounds are also within the scope of the present invention.

Compounds of formula (I) containing one or more asymmetric carbon atoms can exist as two or more optical isomers. Where a compound of formula (I) contains an alkenyl or alkenylene group, geometric cis/trans (or ZIE) isomers are possible, and where the compound contains, for example, a keto or oxime group, tautomeric isomerism ('tautomerism') may occur. It follows that a single compound may exhibit more than one type of isomerism.

Included within the scope of the present invention are all optical isomers, geometric isomers and tautomeric forms of the compounds of formula, including compounds exhibiting more than one type of isomerism, and mixtures of one or more thereof.

Cis/trans isomers may be separated by conventional techniques well known to those skilled in the art, for example, fractional crystallisation and chromatography.

Conventional techniques for the preparation/isolation of individual stereoisomers include the conversion of a suitable optically pure precursor, resolution of the racemate (or the racemate of a salt or derivative) using, for example, chiral HPLC, or fractional crystallisation of diastereoisomeric salts formed by reaction of the racemate with a suitable optically active acid or base, for example, tartaric acid.

The present invention also includes all pharmaceutically acceptable isotopic variations of a compound of formula (I). An isotopic variation is defined as one in which at least one atom is replaced by an atom having the same atomic number, but an atomic mass different from the atomic mass usually found in nature.

Examples of isotopes suitable for inclusion in the compounds of the invention include isotopes of hydrogen, such as 2 H and 3 H, carbon, such as 13 C and 14 C, nitrogen, such as 15 N, oxygen, such as 17 0 and 18 0, phosphorus, such as 32 P, sulphur, such as 35 S, fluorine, such as 18 F, and chlorine, such as 36 CI. Substitution of the compounds of the invention with isotopes such as deuterium may afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example, increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements, and hence may be preferred in some circumstances.

Certain isotopic variations of the compounds of formula (I), for example, those incorporating a radioactive isotope, are useful in drug and/or substrate tissue distribution studies. The radioactive isotopes tritium, and 14 C, are particularly useful for this purpose in view of their ease of incorporation and ready means of detection.

Isotopic variations of the compounds of formula (I) can generally be prepared by conventional techniques known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described in the accompanying Examples and Preparations using appropriate isotopic variations of suitable reagents.

Synthetic methodologies

Compounds of formula (I) may be prepared by the skilled person using common general knowledge and the procedures described in WO 01/77073, WO 2009/026197, WO 2009/129365, WO 2009/129370, and WO 2009/129371.

Compounds of formula (I) may also be prepared as described below. Where appropriate, the individual transformations within a scheme may be completed in a different order. The following schemes describe general synthetic methods whereby intermediate and target compounds of the present invention may be prepared. Additional representative compounds and stereoisomers, racemic mixtures, diastereomers and enantiomers thereof may be synthesized using the intermediates prepared in accordance to the general schemes and other materials, compounds and reagents known to those skilled in the art. Enantiomers may be separated using standard techniques, such as Chiral HPLC, for example, using column CHIRALART SA 250x4.6mm 5 μι ι.

All the compounds were characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LCMS) or 1 H NMR or both.

Abbreviations:

BOC Te/f-butyloxycarbonyl

CAS Chemical Abstracts Service

d Doublet (NMR signal)

DCM Dichloromethane

DIPEA Diisopropylethylamine

DMA Dimethylacetamide DMF N,N-Dimethylformamide

DMSO Dimethyl sulfoxide

dppf 1 ,1 '-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene

EDC 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide

ES Electrospray

EtOAc Ethyl acetate

Fmoc Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl

Fmoc-OSu 9-Fluorenylmethyl N-succinimidyl carbonate

h Hour(s)

HATU 1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1 H-1 ,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium

3-oxide hexafluorophosphate

HOBt 1 - H y d roxy be nzotri azo I e

HPLC High performance liquid chromatography

I PA Isopropyl alcohol

LCMS Liquid chromatography mass spectrum

m Multiplet (NMR signal)

MeCN Acetonitrile

MS Mass Spectrum

min Minute(s)

rt Room temperature

RT Retention time

s Singlet (NMR signal)

SFC Supercritical fluid chromatography

T3P 2,4,6-Tripropyl-1 ,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphorinane-2,4,6-trioxide TEA Triethylamine

TFA Trifluoroacetic acid

THF Tetrahydrofuran

w/v weight per volume

Analytical Methods LCMS

Method C

Column BEH C18, 50x2.1 mm, 1.7μηι or equivalent

Mobile Phase (A) 5mM Ammonium acetate + 0.1 % formic acid in water

(B) 0.1 % Formic acid in MeCN

Flow Rate 0.55 ml/min

Time %B

Gradient 0.01 5

0.40 5

0.80 35

1.20 55

2.50 100

3.30 100

Method D

Column Agilent TC-C18, 50x2.1 mm, 5μηι

Mobile Phase (A) 0.04% TFA in water

(B) 0.02% TFA in MeCN

Flow Rate 0.8 ml/min

Time %B

Gradient 0 0

0.4 1

3.4 100

4 100

Temperature 50°C

Method E

Column XBridge Shield RP18, 50x2.1 mm, 5μηι

Mobile Phase (A) 0.05% Ammonia in water

(B) MeCN

Flow Rate 0.8 ml/min

Time %B

Gradient 0 0

0.4 5

3.4 100

4 100

Temperature 40°C

General Method A

a. Triethylamine, DCM, 0°C - rt, 48h; b. TFA, DCM or 6N HCI, MeOH, 100°C, 16h; CNBr, NaHCOs, DMF, 0°C - rt, 2h

General Method B

A = C or N a. Triethylamine, DCM, rt, 30 min; b. RB(OH) 2 , PdCI 2 (PPh 3 )2, NaCOs, DMF, 100°C, 3h or R (amine), NaOtBu, Pd2dba3, 2-(dicyclohexyl phosphino) biphenyl, toluene, 80°C, 2h; c.TFA, DCM, rt, 2h; d. CNBr, K 2 C0 3 , THF, rt, 1 h.

General Method C

Fmoc-OSu; b. HCI, Dioxane; c. CNBr, NaHCOs; d. piperidine; e. RS0 2 diethylamine, DCM. General Method D

a. R'R"NH, triethylamine, DCM; b. TFA, DCM; c. CNBr, NaHCOs.

Compounds in Table 1 were synthesised according to General Method A.

Table 1

Compounds in Table 2 were synthesised according to general method B.

Table 2

Compounds in Table 3 were synthesised according to general method C.

Table 3

Example 20

(R)-N-(1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)benz en

Step 1. tert-Butyl (R)-3-((4-bromo-N-meth lphenyl)sulfonamido) pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylate)

To a stirred solution of te/f-butyl (ft)-3-(methylamino)pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylate (CAS no. 199336-83-9, Available from Combi Blocks) (0.500 g, 2.50 mmol) in THF was added TEA (0.756 g, 7.49 mmol) at 0°C under nitrogen and stirred for 10 min at the same temperature. A solution of 4-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride (CAS No. 98-58-8, available from Combi- blocks) (0.636 g, 2.50 mmol) in THF (1 mL) was slowly added to the reaction mixture at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield te/f-butyl (R)-3-((4-bromo-N-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)- pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylate [1.00 g, 95.5% (crude)]. LCMS: Method C, 2.427 min, MS: ES+363.1 , 365.1 (M-56). Step 2. tert-Butyl (R)-3-((N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)pyrrolid in carboxylate

mixture of te/f-butyl (f?)-3-((4-bromo-N-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1- carboxylate (1.0g, 2.39 mmol) and pyridine-3-boronic acid (CAS No. 1692-25-7, available from Combi-blocks) (0.293 g, 2.39 mmol) in DMF-water (3:2; 5 mL) was added Na2CC>3 (0.505 g, 4.77 mmol). Resulting mixture was degassed (by purging nitrogen through the reaction solution) for 15 to 20min. Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.275 g, 0.24 mmol) was added into the reaction solution and the resulting mixture was stirred at 110°C for 16h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and diluted with water (110 mL) and was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield te/f-butyl (f?)-3-((N- methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylate (0.5g, 1.199 mmol) as crude mass. LCMS: Method C, 2.035 min, MS: ES+ 418.3.

Step 3. (R)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)-N-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulf onamide TFA salt

To a solution of (f?)-3-((N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonamido)pyrroli dine-1- carboxylate (0.4 g, 0.96 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added TFA (1 mL) at 0°C and the resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 4h. Reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude was azeotropically distilled with diethyl ether (2 x 10 mL) and dried under reduced pressure to afford (f?)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)- N-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide TFA salt

(0.4 g, quantitative). LCMS: Method C, 1.377 min, MS: ES+318.3.

Step 4. (R)-N-( 1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)- benzenesulfonamide

To a stirred solution (f?)-N-methyl-4-(pyridin-3-yl)-N-(pyrrolidin-3-yl)-benzenesu lfonamide TFA salt (0.400 g, 0.93 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (0.384 g, 2.78 mmol) at 0°C. CNBr (0.118 g, 1.11 mmol) was added into the reaction mixture at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The resulting reaction mixture was poured in to water (50 mL) and was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). Combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was purified by Combi-flash Column chromatography (silica; eluted with 2.5 % MeOH in DCM) yielding title compound (0.080 g, 0.23 mmol). LCMS: Method B, 3.096 min, MS: ES+ 343.1 [M+1]; 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm: 9.00 (d, J=2 Hz, 1 H), 8.66 (dd, J=4.8, 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.19 (dt, J=8.0, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.01 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.93 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.57 - 7.54 (m, 1 H), 4.64-4.60 (m, 1 H), 3.45 - 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.33 - 3.29 (m, 1 H), 3.20 -3.15 (m, 1 H), 2.72 (s, 3H), 1.88 - 1.83 (m, 1 H), 1.79 - 1.73 (m, 1 H).

Example 21

(3aR, 6aR)- 1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]p yrrole-5( 1H)- carbonitrile

Step 1. tert-butyl rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo-[3 ,4- b]pyrrole-5( 1 H)-carboxylate

To a stirred solution of 4-bromobenzene sulfonyl chloride (CAS No. 98-58-8, available from Alfa Aesar) (0.2 g, 0.78 mmol) and te/f-butyl rac-(3aS,6aS)-hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole- 5(1 H)-carboxylate (CAS No. 180975-51-3, available from Enamine) (0.166 g, 0.78 mmol) in THF (10 ml_) was added K2CO3 (0.324 g , 2.35 mmol) at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 8h. The resulting reaction mixture was diluted with water (200 ml_) and was extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 100 ml_). Combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield te/f-butyl rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4- bromophenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)-carboxylate (0.350 g, Quantitative) as crude mass. LCMS: Method C, 2.667 min, MS: ES+448.3, 450.3 (M+18).

Step 2. tert-butyl (3aR,6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrro lo-[3,4- b]pyrrole-5( 1 H)-carboxylate

To a mixture of te/f-butyl rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl)- hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)-carboxylate (0.350 g, 0.81 mmol) , pyridine-3- boronic acid (CAS No. 1692-25-7, available from Combiblocks) (0.120 g, 0.98 mmol) and in DMF-water (4: 1 ; 17.5 ml_) was added K2CO3 (0.224g, 1.62 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed (by purging nitrogen through the solution) for 30 min. PdC idppf) (0.060 g, 0.08 mmol) was added into the reaction mixture and the resulting mixture was stirred at 80°C for 2h. Reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, diluted with saturated aqueous NaHCC>3 (350 ml_) and was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 ml_). The combined organic phase was dried over Na2S0 4 , filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was purified by Flash column chromatography (eluting with 3% MeOH in DCM) to yield te/f-butyl rac-(3aR, 6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexa- hydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)-carboxylate (0.350 g, 0.82 mmol). LCMS: Method C, 2.160 min, MS: ES+430.5

Step 3. rac-(3aR, 6aR)- 1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)octahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]p yrrole TFA salt

To a stirred solution of te/f-butyl rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3- yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrrole-5(1 H)-carboxylate (0.350 g, 0.82 mmol) in DCM (20 ml_) was added TFA (2 ml_) at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was further azetropically distilled with diethyl ether (3 x 10 ml_) and dried under reduced pressure to afford rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl) octahydropyrrolo [3,4-b]pyrrole TFA salt (0.210 g, quantitative) as crude mass. LCMS: Method C, 1.472 min, MS: ES+330.29

Step 4. (3aR,6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrro lo[3,4-b]pyrrole- 5(1H)-carbonitrile

To a stirred solution rac-(3aR,6aR)-1-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl) octahydropyrrolo [3,4-b]pyrrole TFA salt (0.200 g, 0.45 mmol) in THF (20 ml_) was added K 2 C0 3 (0.333 g, 2.41 mmol) at 0°C followed by the addition of CNBr (0.051 g, 0.48 mmol) at the same temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The resulting reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and resulting residue was purified by flash column chromatography (eluting with 3.0 % MeOH in DCM) yielding the title compound (0.150 g, 0.423 mmol). LCMS: Method A, 3.698 min, MS: ES+ 354.9 [M+1]; 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6): 8.96 (d, J = 2Hz, 1 H), 8.65 - 8.64 (m, 1 H), 8.19 - 8.17 (m, 1 H), 8.02 (d, J, 8.4 Hz, 2 H), 7.95 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.54 - 7.57 (m, 1 H), 4.05 - 4.01 (m, 1 H), 3.58 (d, J=7.2Hz, 2 H), 3.56 - 3.48 (m, 1 H), 3.41 - 3.28 (m, 1 H), 3.35 (dd, J = 10.0 & 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.18 - 3.14 (m, 1 H), 1.74 - 1.62 (m, 1 H), 1.65 - 1.71 (m, 2 H). Example 22

rac-(4aR, 7aR)-4-tosylhexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1,4]oxazine-6(2H)-carbon itrile

The title compound was synthesised via general method A using pyrrolo[3,4-b]-1 ,4- oxazine-6(2H)-carboxylic acid, hexahydro-1 , 1-dimethylethyl ester, (4aR,7aS) in step a. LCMS: Method D, 2.591 min, MS: ES+ 345.1 [M+1]. Example 23

rac-(4aR aS)-4-((4-methylbenzyl)sulfonyl)hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-b][1,4] oxazine-6(2H) carbonitrile

The title compound was synthesised via general method A using pyrrolo[3,4-b]-1 ,4- oxazine-6(2H)-carboxylic acid, hexahydro-1 , 1-dimethylethyl ester, (4aR,7aS) in step a. LCMS: Method D, 2.591 min, MS: ES+ 322.4 [M+1].

Example 24 N-(5-(N-( 1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)sulfamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)- 1 -methyl- 1H-pyrazole- 5-carboxamide

Step 1. pyridin-2-amine was heated to 150 °C in chlorosulfonic acid to afford 6- aminopyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride which was used crude in the next reaction.

Step 2. 6-aminopyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride was added to tert-butyl 3-aminopyrrolidine-1- carboxylate using general method A, step a to afford t-butyl 3-((6-aminopyridine)-3- sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylate.

Step 3. t-butyl 3-((6-aminopyridine)-3-sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1 -carboxylate and 1-methyl- 1 H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid were heated to 70°C with 50% T3P in ethyl acetate, triethylamine and THF for 30 h to afford tert-butyl 3-((6-(1 -methyl- 1 H-pyrazole- 5- carboxamido)pyridine)-3-sulfonamido)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylat e.

Step 4. The title compound was synthesised following the procedure of general method A, steps b-c. LCMS: Method B, 2.998 min, MS: ES+ 376.13 [M+1]; 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- d6) δ 1 1.32 (s, 1 H), 8.77 (d, J = 2.4Hz, 1 H), 8.37 (d, J = 8.4Hz, 1 H), 8.24 - 8.26 (m, 2 H), 7.55 (d, J = 2 Hz, 1 H), 7.34 (d, J = 2 Hz, 1 H), 4.1 (s, 3 H), 3.78 - 3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.31 - 3.46 (m, 3 H), 3.09 - 3.12 (m, 1 H), 1.88 -1.99 (m, 1 H), 1.66 - 1.74 (m, 1 H). Example 25 N-( 1-cyanopyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-methyl-4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)pyri din-2- yl) oxy) benzenesulfonamide

The title compound was synthesised via general method C using tert-butyl 3- (methylamino)pyrrolidine-l-carboxylate in step a. LCMS: Method D, 3.046 min, MS: ES+ 427.2 [M+1].

Compounds in Table 4 were synthesised according to General Method D.

Table 4

LCMS LCMS RT

Ex R'R"N- Name MS (ES+)

Method (min)

3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-

30 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile D 2.824 354.1

(S)-3-((4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-

31 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile B 4.586 370.5

(R)-3-(( 4-(4-chlorophenyl) piperidin- 1-

32 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile B 4.561 370.5

3-( (4-benzylpiperidin- 1-

33 D 3.107 334.2 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile

3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-

34 B 4.129 326.3 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile

(S)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-

35 B 4.211 326.3 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile

LCMS LCMS RT

Ex R'R"N- Name MS (ES+)

Method (min)

(R)-3-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)azetidin-1-

36 B 4.220 326.3 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile

3-( (3-phenoxyazetidin- 1-

37 A 4.239 308.0 yl)sulfonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonitrile

Biological Activity of Compounds of the Invention

Abbreviations:

TAMRA carboxytetramethylrhodamine

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PBS phosphate buffered saline

EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Tris 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1 ,3-propanediol

NP-40 Nonidet P-40, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol

BSA bovine serum albumin

PNS peripheral nervous system

BH3 Bcl-2 homology domain 3

PTEN phosphatase and tensin homologue In vitro UCHL1 inhibition assay

Expression and purification of UCHL1

The UCHL1 construct was PCR amplified and cloned into a pFLAG-CMV-6a vector (Sigma- Aldrich) with an N-terminal FLAG tag. HEK293T cells were transfected with FLAG-UCHL1 using TranslT-LT1 transfection reagent (Mirus) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were harvested 40 hours after transfection. Cells were washed once with PBS and scraped in lysis buffer (50mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150mM NaCI, 3mM EDTA, 0.5% NP40, 10% glycerol, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol, protease inhibitors (complete mini, Roche) and phosphatase inhibitors (PhosSTOP mini, Roche). Lysates were incubated for 30 min on ice and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 10 min at 4°C. Soluble supernatant was added to FLAG affinity resin (EZview Rad ANTI-FLAG M2 affinity gel, Sigma-Aldrich) equilibrated in low salt buffer (20mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150mM NaCI, 0.5mM EDTA, 5mM beta- mercaptoethanol) and incubated at 4°C for 3 hours rotating. The resin was spun at 2000 rpm for 2 min and the supernatant was removed. The resin was washed two times with low salt buffer and one time with high salt buffer (20mM Tris, pH 7.5, 500mM NaCI, 0.5mM EDTA, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol, protease inhibitors (complete mini, Roche) and phosphatase inhibitors (PhosSTOP mini, Roche). To elute the bound UCHL1 , elution buffer (10mM Tris, pH 7.5, 150mM NaCI, 0.5mM EDTA, 10% glycerol, 0.5% NP40, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol, 0.15mg/ml 3x FLAG peptide (Sigma-Aldrich)) was added to the resin and incubated at 4°C for 2.5 hours rotating. The resin was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30 seconds, and the supernatant containing purified FLAG-UCHL1 was removed and stored at -80°C. UCHL1 biochemical kinetic assay

Reactions were performed in duplicate in black 384 well plates (small volume, Greiner 784076) in a final reaction volume of 21 μΙ. UCHL1 was diluted in reaction buffer (20mM Tris, pH 7.5, "l OOmM NaCI, 0.05% Tween 20, 0.5mg/ml BSA, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol) to the equivalent of 0, 0.01 , 0.05, 0.1 , 0.5, and Ι μΙ/well. Buffer was optimised for optimal temperature, pH, reducing agent, salts, time of incubation, and detergent. Reactions were initiated by the addition of 50nM of TAMRA labelled peptide linked to ubiquitin via an iso- peptide bond as fluorescence polarisation substrate. Reactions were incubated at room temperature and read every 2 min for 120 min. Readings were performed on a Pherastar Plus (BMG Labtech). λ Excitation 540nm; λ Emission 590nm.

UCHL1 biochemical IC50 assay

Dilution plates were prepared at 21 times the final concentration (2100μΜ for a final concentration of 100μΜ) in 50% DMSO in a 96-well polypropylene V-bottom plate (Greiner #651201). A typical 8-point dilution series to be 30, 10, 3, 1 , 0.3, 0.1 , 0.03, 0.01 μΜ final. Reactions were performed in duplicate in black 384 well plates (small volume, Greiner 784076) in a final reaction volume of 21 μΙ. Either 1 μΙ of 50% DMSO or diluted compound was added to the plate. UCHL1 was diluted in reaction buffer (20mM Tris, pH 7.5, 100mM NaCI, 0.05% Tween 20, 0.5mg/ml BSA, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol) to the equivalent of 0.05μΙ/ννβΙΙ and 10μΙ of diluted UCHL1 was added to the compound. Enzyme and compound were incubated for 30 min at room temp. Reactions were initiated by the addition of 50nM of TAMRA labelled peptide linked to ubiquitin via an iso-peptide bond as fluorescence polarisation substrate. Reactions were read immediately after addition of substrate and following a 2-hour incubation at room temperature. Readings were performed on a Pherastar Plus (BMG Labtech). λ Excitation 540 nm; λ Emission 590 nm.

Activity of Exemplary Compounds in UCHL1 biochemical IC50 assay

Ranges:

Α<0.1 μΜ;

0.1 <Β<1 μΜ;

1 <Ο<10μΜ;

10μΜ<ϋ<100μΜ Example IC50 range Example IC50 range

1 D 13 C

2 C 14 D

3 D 15 C

4 C 16 D

5 D 18 D

6 D 19 B

8 C 20 C

9 C 24 D

11 D 25 C

12 C 26 D

In vitro USP30 inhibition assay

USP30 biochemical kinetic assay. Reactions were performed in duplicate in black 384 well plates (small volume, Greiner 784076) in a final reaction volume of 21 μΙ. USP30 CD (57- 517, # 64-0057-050 Ubiquigent) was diluted in reaction buffer (40mM Tris, pH 7.5, 0.005% Tween 20, 0.5mg/ml BSA, 5mM beta-mercaptoethanol) to the equivalent of 0, 0.005, 0.01 , 0.05, 0.1 and Ο.δμΙ/well. Buffer was optimised for optimal temperature, pH, reducing agent, salts, time of incubation, and detergent. Reactions were initiated by the addition of 50nM of TAMRA labelled peptide linked to ubiquitin via an iso-peptide bond as fluorescence polarisation substrate. Reactions were incubated at room temperature and read every 2 min for 120 min. Readings were performed on a Pherastar Plus (BMG Labtech). λ Excitation 540 nm; λ Emission 590 nm. USP30 biochemical IC50 assay

Dilution plates were prepared at 21 times the final concentration (2100μΜ for a final concentration of 100μΜ) in 50% DMSO in a 96-well polypropylene V-bottom plate (Greiner #651201). A typical 8-point dilution series would be 100, 30, 10, 3, 1 , 0.3, 0.1 , 0.03μΜ final. Reactions were performed in duplicate in black 384 well plates (small volume, Greiner 784076) in a final reaction volume of 21 μΙ. Either 1 μΙ of 50% DMSO or diluted compound was added to the plate. USP30 was diluted in reaction buffer (40mM Tris, pH 7.5, 0.005% Tween 20, 0.5mg/ml BSA, 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol) to the equivalent of 0.05μΙ/ννβΙΙ and 10μΙ of diluted USP30 was added to the compound. Enzyme and compound were incubated for 30 min at room temp. Reactions were initiated by the addition of 50nM of TAMRA labelled peptide linked to ubiquitin via an iso-peptide bond as fluorescence polarisation substrate. Reactions were read immediately after addition of substrate and following a 2-hour incubation at room temperature. Readings were performed on a Pherastar Plus (BMG Labtech). λ Excitation 540 nm; λ Emission 590 nm. Activity of Exemplary Compounds in USP30 biochemical IC50 assay

Ranges:

Α<0.1 μΜ;

0.1 <Β<1 μΜ;

1 <0<10μΜ;

10μΜ<ϋ<100μΜ