Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SYNC SIGNAL DESIGN FOR ENHANCED COVERAGE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/096603
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A dual cover code (comprising two different cover codes) is applied to a sequence, e.g., a synchronization sequence, to generate a complex coded sequence used to synchronize or page (wake up) a wireless device. In one exemplary embodiment, the first cover code, e.g., a "real" cover code, is selected such that it provides good coding properties, e.g., a low likelihood of false detections when accumulating over multiple symbols. In some embodiments, this first cover code is the same for all cells. The second cover code, e.g., the "imaginary" cover code, is based at least in parts on cell information, e.g., the cell index, such that it is possible for a UE to confirm its camping cell in a simple and straightforward manner. The eNB transmits the complex coded sequence to the wireless device.

Inventors:
ÅSTRÖM, Magnus (Guldåkersvägen 12, LUND, SE-224 80, SE)
WALLÉN, Anders (Tegnergatan 24, YSTAD, SE-271 31, SE)
WANG, Yi-Pin Eric (1357 Grosventres Ct, FREMONT, CA, 94539, US)
Application Number:
EP2018/080133
Publication Date:
May 23, 2019
Filing Date:
November 05, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL) (164 83 STOCKHOLM, SE-164 83, SE)
International Classes:
H04J13/00; H04J13/10; H04L27/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014172515A12014-10-23
WO2018175249A12018-09-27
Other References:
MOTOROLA: "Orthogonal DM-RS Ports and length-4 OCC Design for Transparent MU-MIMO", 3GPP DRAFT; R1-103929 ORTHOGONAL DMRS LENGTH-4 OCCMU-MIMO, 3RD GENERATION PARTNERSHIP PROJECT (3GPP), MOBILE COMPETENCE CENTRE ; 650, ROUTE DES LUCIOLES ; F-06921 SOPHIA-ANTIPOLIS CEDEX ; FRANCE, vol. RAN WG1, no. Dresden, Germany; 20100628, 23 June 2010 (2010-06-23), XP050449432
QUALCOMM INCORPORATED: "NB-PSS and NB-SSS Design (Revised)", vol. RAN WG1, no. Sophia Antipolis, FRANCE; 20160322 - 20160324, 22 March 2016 (2016-03-22), XP051081092, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20160322]
ERICSSON: "Reduced system acquisition time for MTC", vol. RAN WG1, no. Reno, Nevada, USA; 20171127 - 20171201, 18 November 2017 (2017-11-18), XP051369278, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20171118]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ERICSSON (Patent Development, Torshamnsgatan 21-23, STOCKHOLM, 164 80, SE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A method performed by a wireless device (300,400), the method comprising:

receiving (100) a signal comprising cell information from a network node (500, 600), said received signal being encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both a first cover code and a second cover code different from the first cover code; calculating (1 10) a correlation between the received signal and an a priori known sequence; forming (120) an accumulation from multiple, periodic correlations calculated between the received signal and the a priori known sequence;

comparing (130) the accumulation with a detection threshold, wherein a detection is

determined if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold; and

synchronizing (140) the wireless device (300, 400) with the network node (500, 500) or page the wireless device (300, 400) responsive to the detection.

2. The method of claim 1 :

wherein receiving (100) the signal comprises receiving a sync signal; and

wherein the received sync signal is encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both the first cover code and the second cover code.

3. The method of claim 1 :

wherein receiving (100) the signal comprises receiving a paging signal; and

wherein the received paging signal is encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both the first cover code and the second cover code.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein the first cover code corresponds to synchronization of the wireless device (300, 400) with the network node (500, 600), and wherein the second cover code corresponds to paging information directed form the network node (500, 600) to the wireless device (300, 400).

5. The method of claim 1 further comprising obtaining paging information from the accumulation.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the wireless device (300, 400) is part of a paging group of one or more wireless devices (300, 400), and wherein the paging information relates to the paging group.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein the paging group comprises an addressed paging group, and wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify the addressed paging group.

8. The method of claim 6 wherein the paging information comprises an identifier of the paging group, said identifier transmitted by the network node (500, 600) when one or more of the wireless devices (300, 400) in the paging group is to be paged.

9. The method of any one of claims 1-8 wherein the period for the periodic correlations is equivalent to a symbol duration.

10. The method of any one of claims 1 -9 further comprising storing the multiple periodic correlations in memory.

1 1. The method of any one of claims 1 -10 wherein forming (120) the accumulation comprises computing combinations of xrezre , ximzre , ximzim , and xrezim , where zre represents a real portion of the aprior known sequence, zim represents an imaginary portion of the aprior known sequence, xre represents a real portion of the received signal, and xim represents an imaginary portion of the received signal.

12. The method of any one of claims 1-1 1 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network and paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

13. A computer program product for controlling a wireless device (300, 400), the computer program product comprising software instructions which, when run on at least one processing circuit (310) in the wireless device (300, 400), causes the wireless device (300, 400) to execute the method according to any one of claims 1-12.

14. A computer-readable medium comprising the computer program product of claim 13.

15. The computer-readable medium of claim 14 wherein the computer-readable medium comprises a non-transitory computer-readable medium.

16. A wireless device (300, 400) comprising: communication circuitry (320) configured to receive a signal comprising cell information from a network node (500, 600), said received signal being encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both a first cover code and a second cover code different from the first cover code; and

processing circuitry (310) configured to:

calculate a correlation between the received signal and an a priori known sequence; form an accumulation from multiple, periodic correlations calculated between the

received signal and the a priori known sequence;

compare the accumulation with a detection threshold, wherein a detection is

determined if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold; and

synchronize the wireless device (300, 400) with the network node (500, 600) or paging the wireless device (300, 400) responsive to the detection.

17. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 16:

wherein the communication circuitry (320) receives the signal by receiving a sync signal; and

wherein the received sync signal is encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both the first cover code and the second cover code.

18. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 16:

wherein the communication circuitry (320) receives the signal by receiving a paging signal; and

wherein the received paging signal is encoded by the network node (500, 600) using both the first cover code and the second cover code.

19. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 16 wherein the first cover code corresponds to synchronization of the wireless device (300, 400) with the network node (500, 600), and wherein the second cover code corresponds to paging information directed form the network node (500, 600) to the wireless device (300, 400).

20. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 16 wherein the processing circuitry (310) is further configured to obtain paging information from the accumulation.

21. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 20 wherein the wireless device (300, 400) is part of a paging group of one or more wireless devices (300, 400), and wherein the paging information relates to the paging group.

22. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 21 wherein the paging group comprises an addressed paging group, and wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify the addressed paging group.

23. The wireless device (300, 400) of claim 21 wherein the paging information comprises an identifier of the paging group, said identifier transmitted by the network node (500, 600) when one or more of the wireless devices (300, 400) in the paging group is to be paged.

24. The wireless device (300, 400) of any one of claims 16-23 wherein the period for the periodic correlations is equivalent to a symbol duration.

25. The wireless device (300, 400) of any one of claims 16-24 further comprising memory (330) configured to store the multiple periodic correlations.

26. The wireless device (300, 400) of any one of claims 16-25 wherein the processing circuitry (310) forms the accumulation by computing combinations of xrezre , ximzre , ximzim , and xrezim , where zre represents a real portion of the aprior known sequence, zim represents an imaginary portion of the aprior known sequence, xre represents a real portion of the received signal, and xim represents an imaginary portion of the received signal.

27. The wireless device (300, 400) of any one of claims 16-26 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network and paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

28. A method performed by a network node (500, 600) in a wireless network, the method comprising:

generating (200) a first cover code;

generating (200) a second cover code, different from the first cover code;

generating (210) a complex coded sequence for synchronizing or paging a wireless device (300, 400) by encoding a sequence using both the first and second cover codes; and transmitting (220) the complex coded sequence to the wireless device (300, 400).

29. The method of claim 28 wherein generating (210) the complex coded sequence comprises: applying the first cover code to a real part of the sequence to generate a real part of a complex coded sequence; and

applying the second cover code to an imaginary part of the sequence to generate an

imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

30. The method of claim 29 wherein applying the first and second cover codes to the respective real and imaginary parts of the sequence comprises:

multiplying each segment of the real part of the sequence with a corresponding element of the first cover code to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence; and multiplying each segment of the imaginary part of the sequence with a corresponding

element of the second cover code to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

31. The method of claim 30 wherein each segment of the real and imaginary parts of the sequence comprises an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing symbol.

32. The method of any one of claims 28-31 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

33. The method of claim 32 wherein the paging information relates to a paging group comprising one or more of wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

34. The method of claim 33 wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

35. The method of claim 33 wherein the paging information comprises an identifier of the paging group comprising one or more of the wireless devices (300, 400), said identifier transmitted by the network node (500, 600) when one or more of the wireless devices (300,

400) in the paging group is to be paged.

36. The method of any one of claims 32-35 further comprising incorporating the paging information with a cell identifier identifying a cell of the network node (500, 600).

37. The method of any one of claims 28-36 wherein generating (200) the first and second cover codes comprises scrambling at least one of an initial first cover code and an initial second cover code using a scrambling sequence to generate at least one of the first and second cover codes.

38. The method of any one of claims 28-37 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network and paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

39. The method of claim 38 wherein the paging information relates to a paging group comprising one or more of wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400), and wherein the cover code common to the plurality of cells in the wireless network comprises a cover code common to the paging group and the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

41. The method of any one of claims 28-40 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a fixed cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network.

42. The method of claim 41 wherein generating (200) the first cover code comprises generating the fixed cover code that minimizes a false detection rate for the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

43. The method of any one of claims 41-42 wherein the network node (500, 600) is associated with one of a plurality of cells in the wireless network, and wherein the other of the first and second cover codes comprises cell information for the cell associated with the network node (500, 600).

44. The method of any one of claims 28-43 wherein the first cover code comprises a fixed cover code and the second cover code comprises a cell information cover code, and wherein generating (210) the complex coded sequence comprises:

applying the fixed cover code to the real part of the sync sequence to generate a real part of the complex coded sequence; and

applying the cell information cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence to

generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

45. A computer program product for controlling a network node, the computer program product comprising software instructions which, when run on at least one processing circuit in the network node (500, 600), causes the network node (500, 600) to execute the method according to any one of claims 28-44.

46. A computer-readable medium comprising the computer program product of claim 45.

47. The computer-readable medium of claim 46 wherein the computer-readable medium comprises a non-transitory computer-readable medium.

48. A network node (500, 600) in a wireless network, the network node (500, 600) comprising:

processing circuitry (510) configured to:

generate a first cover code;

generate a second cover code, different from the first cover code; and

generate a complex coded sequence by encoding a sync sequence using both the first and second cover codes; and

communication circuitry (520) configured to transmit the complex coded sequence to a wireless device (300, 400).

49. The network node (500, 600) of claim 48 wherein the processing circuitry (510) generates the complex coded sequence by:

applying the first cover code to a real part of a sync sequence to generate a real part of a complex coded sequence; and

applying the second cover code to an imaginary part of the sync sequence to generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

50. The network node (500, 600) of claim 49 wherein the processing circuitry (510) applies the first and second cover codes to the respective first and second parts of the sync sequence by: multiplying each segment of the real part of the sync sequence with a corresponding element of the first cover code to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence; and

multiplying each segment of the imaginary part of the sync sequence with a corresponding element of the second cover code to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

51. The network node (500, 600) of claim 50 wherein each segment of the real and imaginary parts of the sync sequences comprises an Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing symbol.

52. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 48-51 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

53. The network node (500, 600) of claim 52 wherein the paging information relates to a paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

54. The network node (500, 600) of claim 53 wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

55. The network node (500, 600) of claim 53 wherein the paging information comprises an identifier of the paging group comprising the one or more wireless devices (300, 400), and wherein the communication circuitry (520) is further configured to transmit said identifier when one or more of the wireless devices (300, 400) in the paging group is to be paged.

56. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 52-55 wherein the processing circuitry (510) is further configured to incorporate the paging information with a cell identifier identifying a cell of the network node (500, 600).

57. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 48-56 wherein the processing circuitry (510) generates the first and second cover codes by scrambling at least one of an initial first cover code and an initial second cover code using a scrambling sequence to generate at least one of the first and second cover codes.

58. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 48-57 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network and paging information directed towards the wireless device (300, 400).

59. The network node (500, 600) of claim 58 wherein the paging information relates to a paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400), and wherein the cover code common to the plurality of cells in the wireless network comprises a cover code common to the paging group and the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

60. The network node (500, 600) of claim 59 wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group comprising one or more wireless devices (300, 400) including the wireless device (300, 400).

61. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 48-60 wherein one of the first and second cover codes comprises a fixed cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network.

62. The network node (500, 600) of claim 61 wherein the processing circuitry (510) generates the first cover code by generating the fixed cover code that minimizes a false detection rate for the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

63. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 61-62 wherein the network node (500, 600) is associated with one of a plurality of cells in the wireless network, and wherein the other of the first and second cover codes comprises cell information for the cell associated with the network node (500, 600).

64. The network node (500, 600) of any one of claims 48-63 wherein the first cover code comprises a fixed cover code and the second cover code comprises a cell information cover code, and wherein the processing circuitry (510) generates the complex coded sequence by: applying the fixed cover code to the real part of the sync sequence to generate a real part of the complex coded sequence; and

applying the cell information cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence to

generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

6o

Description:
SYNC SIGNAL DESIGN FOR ENHANCED COVERAGE

BACKGROUND

LTE subframe design

The structure of the 14 symbol subframe in Long Term Evolution (LTE) is time-wise divided into one control part up to three symbols long, and a data part with the remaining at least 1 1 symbols. Figure 1 shows one exemplary structure of an LTE subframe. Furthermore, all broadcast signaling, e.g., Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS), Secondary

Synchronization Signal (SSS), and Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH), is saved in the central six Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) of the carrier, to assist the initial access procedure and allow for power boosting of such signals. For Machine-Type Communications (MTC) or Narrow Band Internet of Things (NB-loT) networks sharing that structure, a prerequisite is that the above structure is maintained. Hence, typically only 1 1 symbols are assumed to be available for the additional channels that are introduced for MTC and NB-loT. Frequency-wise, the networks can be located anywhere in the carrier, and typically not in the central six PRBs.

LTE network synchronization

In order to connect to a network, a device needs to perform network synchronization (sync). This is for adjusting the frequency of the device relative to the network, and for finding the proper timing of the network. In LTE, sync is performed with several signals:

The Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS) allows for network detection with a high frequency error, up to tens of parts per million (ppm). Additionally, the PSS provides a network timing reference. In LTE, Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences are used as PSS signals. ZC

sequences are of constant amplitude and appear both in time and frequency domain. Thus, a ZC sequence may be multiplexed in the frequency domain together with other data but detected in the time domain, allowing for a simplified detector. Three different sequences allow for an initial cell identification with reasonable complexity, e.g., based on correlation of the received signal in time domain with these known sequences. LTE systems transmit a PSS in one Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol per every five subframes (or every 5 ms). When the user equipment (UE) has no information about the timing of these PSS transmissions, such as at initial cell search or after a considerable timing drift when not having a sustained connection to the network, it must have its receiver turned on for 5 ms to guarantee not to miss a PSS transmission, even if the PSS transmission itself uses ~70 ps.

The Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS) allows for more accurate frequency adjustments and channel estimation while at the same time providing fundamental network information. For LTE, m-sequences were selected. In total 168 basic SSS sequences are

l defined in order for the network to use PSS and SSS to represent in total 504 cell identities (IDs). Having detected the SSS, the UE may continue to read the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) in order to identify the master information block (MIB) followed by the system information blocks (SIB) 1 and 2 prior to performing random access. The SSS is also transmitted in one OFDM symbol every five subframes of 5 ms.

The ReSynchronization Signal (RSS) was proposed in 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) RAN1 #90bis meeting to improve the synchronization performance of PSS and SSS. Because only one symbol every 5 ms (or 1 /70 th ) is used for synchronization,

accumulating sufficient energy for a reliable detection will require accumulation over a substantial duration, during which time the radio is fully active and the baseband performs correlation operations, mostly on non-sync symbols. The RRS is instead proposed to have a longer periodicity (100s of ms) but also a longer duration (whole subframes), such that more sync energy may be accumulated faster.

To resynchronize to a network, a device may use both the PSS and the SSS sequences, if it can be assumed that no movement has occurred whereby the sequences are already known. This is also possible for some mobility provided the UE has information about its neighboring cells. By using both sequences, the UE has twice as many samples for a time domain correlation operation compared to the case when only one of the two were used. However, since only two symbols out of (14x5=) 70 symbols in a 5 ms interval are used, for Machine-to-Machine (M2M, see more below) channel conditions with extremely low signal to noise ratios (SNRs), averaging over multiple PSS/SSS symbols is a very expensive operation due to the sparse sync transmission. Up to 640 symbols or even more may be necessary for the worst situations, implying sync durations of almost two seconds. From a power

consumption perspective, this is extremely costly, and a significant limitation in device longevity. It should be noted here that while initial access synchronization will be as costly, such initial access synchronization is typically only performed once whereas

resynchronization may be performed continuously with a periodicity of tens of seconds.

Hence, from a cost perspective, resynchronization is a substantially larger problem than initial synchronization.

NB-loT synchronization

Narrowband PSS (NPSS) and Narrowband SSS (NSSS) are used by an NB-loT UE to perform cell searches, which includes time and frequency synchronization, and cell identity detection. Because the legacy LTE synchronization sequences occupy six PRBs, they cannot be reused for NB-loT that use a one PRB wide spectrum. A new design is thus introduced. NPSS is transmitted in subframe #5 in every 10 ms frame, using the last 1 1 OFDM symbols in the subframe. NPSS detection is one of the most computationally demanding operations from a UE perspective. To allow efficient implementation of NPSS detection, NB-loT uses a hierarchical sequence. For each of the 1 1 NPSS OFDM symbols in a subframe, either z or -z is transmitted, where z is the time domain base sequence generated based on a length-1 1 Zadoff-Chu sequence with root index 5. Each of the length-1 1 ZC sequence is mapped to the lowest 1 1 subcarriers within the NB-loT PRB. The symbol alteration sequence of z or -z is controlled by a cover code c = [l 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1] T . The cover code may be implemented for two reasons. First, implementing the cover code allows UEs in good coverage to stop detection prior to the whole subframe is received by identifying the sequence pattern, and thereby save some power. Second, and more importantly, implementing the cover code reduces the amount of false detections that may appear when the same ZC sequence is repeated multiple times. For example, see Figures 2A and 2B, which compares temporal detection peaks for different cover codes. Figure 2A shows an example of temporal detection peaks for a cover code of all 1s. Figure 2B shows an example of temporal detection peaks for the NB-loT PSS cover code.

To detect the code, the received signal is multiplied with the complex conjugate of the Zadoff-Chu sequence itself, z * . The maximum value that results from this multiplication, and that also exceeds a threshold value, indicates a detection.

Idle mode operations

For many M2M use cases, power consumption is vital. Then the device or UE is expected to sleep for long durations, and perform its idle mode operations when it wakes up for receiving paging information. Waking up from a long sleep, the UE is required to perform multiple tasks. For idle mode, the UE is required to perform the following operations:

1. Network resynchronization

a. Time-frequency synchronization

b. Reconfirm cell ID

2. Serving cell and occasionally also neighboring cell measurements

3. Decode paging

a. Detect Wake-Up Signal (WUS), and if found

b. Decode xPDCCH (xPhysical Downlink Control Channel), where x is M for MTC and N for NB-loT

For MTC, operations 1 a and 1 b are at present handled by reading PSS and SSS, a very expensive operation due to the low and time-wise evenly distributed sync density in those signals. The proposed RSS is also a candidate for this, provided it can be performed efficiently.

3GPP M2M work item There has been a lot of work in the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) on specifying technologies to cover Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and/or Internet of Things (loT) related use cases. Work for 3GPP Release 13 and 14 includes enhancements to support Machine-Type Communications (MTC) with new UE categories (Cat-M1 , Cat-M2), supporting reduced bandwidth of 6 physical resource blocks (PRBs) (up to 24 PRBs for Cat-M2), and Narrowband loT (NB-loT) providing a new radio interface (and UE categories Cat-NB1 and Cat-NB2).

We will refer to the LTE enhancements introduced in 3GPP Release 13,14 and 15 for MTC as“eMTC”, including (not limiting to) support for bandwidth limited UEs, Cat-M1 , and support for coverage enhancements. This is to separate discussion from NB-loT (notation here used for any standard Release), although the supported features are similar on a general level.

There are multiple differences between“legacy” LTE and the procedures and channels defined for eMTC and for NB-loT. Some important differences include new physical channels, such as the physical downlink control channels, called MPDCCH in eMTC and NPDCCH in NB-loT, and a new physical random access channel, NPRACH, for NB-loT.

In 3GPP Release 15, there is a common work item objective in the approved work items for both NB-loT and Rel-15 enhancements for eMTC. One of the objectives for efeMTC are found in 3GPP RP-170732, stating:

“Improved latency:

• Reduced system acquisition time o Improved cell search and/or system information (including MIB and SIB1-BR) acquisition performance

• Connected mode Discontinuous Recdeption (DRX) is (For Further Study) FFS

Further objectives are, e.g.,

Improved power consumption:

• Power consumption reduction for physical channels [RAN1 lead, RAN2, RAN4] Study and, if found beneficial for idle mode paging and/or connected mode DRX, specify physical signal/channel that can be efficiently decoded or detected prior to decoding the physical downlink control/data channel.

In 3GPP RAN1#90bis meeting the following working assumption was agreed:

• For idle mode,

• In specifying a power saving physical signal to indicate whether the UE needs to decode subsequent physical channel(s) for idle mode paging, select a candidate among the following power saving physical signals: • ‘Wake-up signal or Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)’ with new periodic sync signal

• ‘Wake-up signal or DTX’ without new periodic sync signal

• Study till the next meeting how to ensure sufficient sync performance.

• Consider potential synergies with the Wl objective on Reduced system acquisition time.

SUMMARY

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method performed by a wireless device. The method comprises receiving a signal comprising cell information from a network node. The received signal being encoded by the network node using both a first cover code and a second cover code different from the first cover code. The method further comprises calculating a correlation between the received signal and an a priori known sequence, and forming an accumulation from multiple, periodic correlations calculated between the received signal and the a priori known sequence. The method further comprises comparing the accumulation with a detection threshold, wherein a detection is determined if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold, and synchronizing the wireless device with the network node or page the wireless device responsive to the detection.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a computer program product for controlling a wireless device. The computer program product comprising software instructions which, when run on at least one processing circuit in the wireless device, causes the wireless device to execute the wireless device method above.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a wireless device comprising communiation circuitry and processing circuitry. The communication circuitry is configured to receive a signal comprising cell information from a network node. The received signal is encoded by the network node using both a first cover code and a second cover code different from the first cover code. The processing circuitry is configured to calculate a correlation between the received signal and an a priori known sequence, and form an accumulation from multiple, periodic correlations calculated between the received signal and the a priori known sequence. The processing circuitry is further configured to compare the accumulation with a detection threshold, wherein a detection is determined if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold, and synchronize the wireless device with the network node or page the wireless device responsive to the detection.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method performed by a network node in a wireless network. The method comprises generating a first cover code, and generating a second cover code, different from the first cover code. The method further comprises generating a complex coded sequence for synchronizing or paging a wireless device by encoding a sequence using both the first and second cover codes, and transmitting the complex coded sequence to the wireless device.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a computer program product for controlling a network node. The computer program product comprises software instructions which, when run on at least one processing circuit in the network node, causes the network node to execute the network node method above.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a network node in a wireless network. The network node comprises processing circuitry and communication circuitry. The processing circuitry is configured to generate a first cover code, generate a second cover code, different from the first cover code, and generate a complex coded sequence by encoding a sync sequence using both the first and second cover codes. The communication circuitry is configured to transmit the complex coded sequence to a wireless device.

In one exemplary embodiment, a network node (e.g., an eNB) provides synchronization information to one or more wireless devices in a wireless network. To that end, the network node generates first and second (different) cover codes, and uses both the first and second cover codes to encode a sequence to generate a complex coded sequence for synchronizing or paging a wireless device. The network node subsequently transmits the complex coded sequence to the wireless device. The wireless device, upon receipt of the complex coded sequence, calculates a correlation between the received signal and the apriori known sequence. The wireless device forms an accumulation from multiple periodic correlations calculated between the received signal and the a priori known sequence, and compares the accumulation with a detection threshold, where detection is determined if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold. The wireless device synchronizes with the network node or wakes up responsive to the detection.

In one exemplary embodiment, the network node encodes the sequence by applying the first cover code to a real part of a sequence to generate a real part of a complex coded sequence, and applying the second cover code to an imaginary part of the sequence to generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence. For example, the network node may multiply each segment (e.g., OFDM symbol) of the real part of the sequence with a corresponding element of the first cover code to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence, and may multiply each segment (e.g., OFDM symbol) of the imaginary part of the sequence with a corresponding element of the second cover code to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence. In some embodiments, the cover codes are applied over multiple subframes, where in other embodiments, the same cover codes are repeated (i.e., applied again) each subframe. In some embodiments, one of the first and second cover codes comprises a fixed cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network (e.g., one that minimizes a false detection rate for the cell(s) in the wireless network), while the other of the first and second cover codes comprises cell information (e.g., cell identifier, master information block (MIB)/ System information block (SIB) information update, etc.).

In one exemplary embodiment, forming the accumulation comprises computing combinations of represents a real portion of the apriori known sync sequence, represents an imaginary portion of the aprior known sync sequence, re represents a real portion of the received signal, and represents an imaginary portion of the received signal.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Figure 1 shows an Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) frame structure with a normal cyclic prefix and a 20 MHz system bandwidth.

Figure 2A shows an example of temporal detection peaks for a cover code of all 1s. Figure 2B shows an example of temporal detection peaks for the NB-loT PSS cover code.

Figure 3 shows a method of synchronizing or waking up a wireless device according to exemplary embodiments of the solution presented herein.

Figure 4 shows a method of providing a complex coded sequence by a network node to a wireless device according to exemplary embodiments of the solution presented herein.

Figure 5 shows a wireless device device according to one exemplary embodiment.

Figure 6 shows a wireless device according to another exemplary embodiment.

Figure 7 shows a network node according to one exemplary embodiment.

Figure 8 shows a network node according to another exemplary embodiment.

Figure 9 shows an exemplary wireless network applicable to the solution presented herein.

Figure 10 shows an exemplary UE applicable to the solution presented herein.

Figure 11 shows an exemplary virtualization environment applicable to the solution presented herein.

Figure 12 shows an exemplary telecommunications network applicable to the solution presented herein.

Figure 13 shows an exemplary host computer applicable to the solution presented herein. Figure 14 shows an exemplary method implemented in a communication system in accordance with embodiments of the solution presented herein.

Figure 15 shows another exemplary method implemented in a communication system in accordance with embodiments of the solution presented herein. Figure 16 shows another exemplary method implemented in a communication system in accordance with embodiments of the solution presented herein.

Figure 17 shows another exemplary method implemented in a communication system in accordance with embodiments of the solution presented herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

There currently exist certain challenge(s) for efficient network synchronization. As was presented previously, the NPSS provides a synchronization (sync) signal with good time- frequency performance, but it does not provide the cell information. While some discussions involve using the cell identity (ID) as a cover code, such use may result in some indices having significantly worse false detection performance. Another attractive feature, is to be able to detect a synchronization (sync) signal from another cell without knowing its cell ID. Presently, no sync signal addresses all of these features. Hence, there is a need for a sync signal design that provides the above described properties for efficient network synchronization, especially in poor coverage situations where multiple sequential symbols are needed for synchronization.

Certain aspects of the present disclosure and their embodiments may provide solutions to these or other challenges.

The solution presented herein is a method to apply a dual cover code (comprising two different cover codes) on repeated sync symbols. The dual cover code disclosed herein comprises two different cover codes: a first cover code and a second cover code. In one exemplary embodiment, the dual cover code operates such that the first cover code, e.g., a “real” cover code, is selected such that it provides good coding properties, e.g., a low likelihood of false detections when accumulating over multiple symbols. In some embodiments, this first cover code is the same for all cells. The second cover code, e.g., the“imaginary” cover code, is based at least in parts on cell information, e.g., the cell index, such that it is possible for a UE to confirm its camping cell in a simple and straightforward manner. The eNB generates a complex coded sequence for transmission by encoding a sync sequence with both the first and second cover codes.

It is beneficial if a resynchronization signal has the following properties:

• It is optional for the network, and configurable per cell.

• The time/frequency resources for each burst and the periodicity are

configurable.

• It shall be possible to configure the resynchronization signal such that it is adjusted to the needs imposed by access procedures such as paging monitoring, random access, and radio resource management, RRM, measurements. In general, when configuring an RSS, the following aspects can be taken into account:

• Enabling efficient synchronization for a targeted class of UEs in the sense that there is a large probability that such UEs can obtain synchronization using a single RSS burst.

• Parameters classifying targeted UEs may, for example, concern

o Targeted coverage level in the cell, for example quantified as a Maximum Coupling Loss (MCL),

o Typical extended Discontinuous Reception ((e)DRX) cycles configured in the network, along with possible Wake-up signals configured in the network and supported by the network,

o Typical traffic patterns such as sensor reporting intervals,

• Viable solutions also for UEs not belonging to the targeted classes, or when single- burst reception fails for other reasons. For example, it would be beneficial if the UE is able to combine information obtained from several sync bursts. It will still be beneficial for such a UE to use the RSS, without the additional network overhead that would be required to tailor the RSS towards these UEs.

• The amount of total overhead should be kept limited. There may for example be a tradeoff between the amount of resources occupied by each burst, and the periodicity of the bursts. This tradeoff is related to what parameters above are considered as the main target. For example, UEs in high MCL conditions but with low activity patterns may favor long but infrequent RSS bursts, whereas more active UEs in moderate MCL conditions may favor shorter but more frequent RSS bursts.

The primary purpose of the RSS is to recover frequency and time synchronization with the network. However, in a scenario where mobility must be considered, it may be necessary to confirm that the UE is actually synchronizing to the correct cell. This is for example valid for paging, e.g. when a wake-up signal is used. Therefore, there is a large benefit if the RSS can be used to for cell confirmation, similar to the Cell ID conveyed in the legacy PSS/SSS.

Further, it may be beneficial to convey also other information in the RSS such as indication that the MIB or some other system information has changed, or access barring information. Thereby, it is possible that the system acquisition time may be reduced. Similarly, a 1 -bit indicator may be added to the MIB to indicate whether the contents of SIB1 -BR have changed. This may partly reduce the benefit of introducing the same information also in the RSS, but if MIB reading can be omitted, this may further reduce the system acquisition time.

In one exemplary realization, an RSS sequence is constructed the same way as the PSS, namely as a length-63 Zadoff-Chu sequence. This base sequence can be generated in frequency domain, converted into time domain using a size-128 IFFT with a cyclic prefix of 9 or 10 samples. This base time sequence is then repeated over, for example, 1 1 subsequent OFDM symbols in each subframe, avoiding the legacy LTE control region. For each OFDM symbol, the sequence is multiplied with a cover code. This combined sequence may then be repeated over consecutive subframes, using an additional cover code.

In a typical receiver implementation, a correlation operation will be performed on the short time sequence, and the output of the correlator is stored in order to accumulate between different instances. This is similar to a typical implementation of the PSS reception for initial cell search. Each of the repeated base time sequences will contribute with a peak after the correlator, which can be added constructively using the applied cover code in order to produce a combined peak that can be detected. If the propagation channel is fairly constant over the transmission, and if there is no or only a small frequency error, coherent addition of the correlator output for each base sequence can be used, otherwise some form of non-coherent method may have to be used. If the frequency error is small to moderate, coherent accumulation can be partially used over a group of symbols, and non-coherent accumulation can be used between the groups.

For larger frequency errors, e.g., above 1 kHz, the results using a receiver implementation outlined above may start to deteriorate. One way of resolving this is by having multiple hypothesis assuming frequency errors in larger steps. This corresponds to applying a phase rotation in the time domain for each of the frequency error hypotheses. Note that this rotation does not have to be applied to all received samples, but may be performed on the correlator output before combining them using the applied cover code.

Figure 3 depicts a method in accordance with particular embodiments. The method, which is performed by a wireless device, is for obtaining network synchronization towards eNB transmitting cell information in repetitions of a sync sequence in a sync signal comprising multiple adjacent symbols in one or more subframes. The method comprises receiving a signal comprising cell information from a network node, where the received signal is encoded by the network node using both a first cover code and a second (different) cover code (block 100). The method further includes calculating a correlation between the received signal and an a priori known sequence (block 1 10), and forming an accumulation from multiple periodic correlations calculated between the received signal and the a priori known sequence (block 120). The method further includes comparing the accumulation with a detection threshold (block 130), where a detection is determined if the accumulation exceeds the detections threshold, and synchronizing the wireless device with the network node or waking up the wireless device responsive to the detection (block 140).

Figure 4 depicts a method in accordance with other particular embodiments. The method, which is performed by a network node, or a base station, provides synchronization information to one or more wireless devices in a wireless network. The method comprises generating a first cover code, and generating a second cover code, different from the first cover code (block 200). The method further comprises generating a complex coded sequence for synchronizing or paging a wireless device by encoding a sequence using both the first and second cover codes (block 210), and transmitting the complex coded sequence to the wireless device (block 220).

Note that the apparatuses described above may perform the methods herein and any other processing by implementing any functional means, modules, units, or circuitry. In one embodiment, for example, the apparatuses comprise respective circuits or circuitry configured to perform the steps shown in the method figures. The circuits or circuitry in this regard may comprise circuits dedicated to performing certain functional processing and/or one or more microprocessors in conjunction with memory. For instance, the circuitry may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory, cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory may include program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein, in several embodiments. In embodiments that employ memory, the memory stores program code that, when executed by the one or more processors, carries out the techniques described herein.

Figure 5 for example illustrates a wireless device 300 as implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments. As shown, the wireless device 300 includes processing circuitry 310 and communication circuitry 320. The communication circuitry 320 (e.g., radio circuitry) is configured to transmit and/or receive information to and/or from one or more other nodes, e.g., via any communication technology. Such communication may occur via one or more antennas that are either internal or external to the wireless device 300. The processing circuitry 310 is configured to perform processing described above, such as by executing instructions stored in memory 330. The processing circuitry 310 in this regard may implement certain functional means, units, or modules.

Figure 6 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a wireless device 400 in a wireless network according to still other embodiments (for example, the wireless network shown in Figure 9). As shown, the wireless device 400 implements various functional means, units, circuits, or modules, e.g., via the processing circuitry 310 in Figure 5 and/or via software code. These functional means, units, circuits, or modules, e.g., for implementing the method(s) herein, include for example: correlation unit/circuit/module 410, accumulation unit/circuit/module 420, and comparison unit/circuit/module 430, and communication unit/circuit/module 440.

Communication unit/circuit/module 440 is configured to receive a signal comprising cell information from a network node, where the received signal is encoded by the network node using both a first cover code and a second (different) cover code. Correlation

unit/circuit/module 410 is configured to correlate the received signal with an apriori known sequence. Accumulation unit/circuit/module 420 is configured to form an accumulation from multiple periodic correlations calculated between the received sequence and the a priori known sequence. Comparison unit/circuit/module 430 is configured to compare the accumulation with a detection threshold, where the wireless device 400 determines a detection if the accumulation exceeds the detection threshold. Communication unit/circuit/module 440 is further configured to synchronize the wireless device with the network node or wake up the wireless device responsive to the detection.

Figure 7 illustrates a network node 500 as implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments. As shown, the network node 500 includes processing circuitry 510 and communication circuitry 520. The communication circuitry 520 is configured to transmit and/or receive information to and/or from one or more other nodes, e.g., via any communication technology. The processing circuitry 510 is configured to perform processing described above, such as by executing instructions stored in memory 530. The processing circuitry 510 in this regard may implement certain functional means, units, or modules.

Figure 8 illustrates a schematic block diagram of a network node 600 in a wireless network according to still other embodiments (for example, the wireless network shown in Figure 9). As shown, the network node 600 implements various functional means, units, circuits, or modules, e.g., via the processing circuitry 510 in Figure 7 and/or via software code. These functional means, units, circuits, or modules, e.g., for implementing the method(s) herein, include for example: cover code generation unit/circuit/module 610, encoding unit/circuit/module 620, and communication unit/circuit/module 630. Cover code generation unit/circuit/module 610 is configured to generate a first cover code, and to generate a second cover code, different from the first cover code. Encoding unit/circuit/module 620 is configured to generate a complex coded sequence for synchronizing or paging a wireless device by encoding a sequence using both the first and second cover codes. Communication unit/circuit/module 630 is configured to transmit the complex coded sequence to provide synchronization information to one or more wireless devices in a wireless network.

Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that embodiments herein further include corresponding computer programs.

A computer program comprises instructions which, when executed on at least one processor of an apparatus, cause the apparatus to carry out any of the respective processing described above. A computer program in this regard may comprise one or more code modules corresponding to the means or units described above.

Embodiments further include a carrier containing such a computer program. This carrier may comprise one of an electronic signal, optical signal, radio signal, or computer readable storage medium.

In this regard, embodiments herein also include a computer program product stored on a non-transitory computer readable (storage or recording) medium and comprising instructions that, when executed by a processor of an apparatus, cause the apparatus to perform as described above.

Embodiments further include a computer program product comprising program code portions for performing the steps of any of the embodiments herein when the computer program product is executed by a computing device. This computer program product may be stored on a computer readable recording medium.

Additional embodiments will now be described. At least some of these embodiments may be described as applicable in certain contexts and/or wireless network types for illustrative purposes, but the embodiments are similarly applicable in other contexts and/or wireless network types not explicitly described.

Dual cover code encoding

The solution presented herein is a way to apply dual cover codes in the

synchronization sequence to enable efficient network synchronization for waking up UEs. As previously presented, cover codes may be a means to avoid false detections in a repetitive sequence structure, which is also why it is difficult to use cover codes for cell ID transmission. Some indices will present very poor performance with respect to false detections, e.g., an index composed of only ones. The solution presented herein presents a novel way to convey cell information by using dual cover codes. The main application is to use one code for cell information, e.g., cell ID, paging information, MIB/SIB updates or enhanced access barring, whereas the other code is a warrant for stability such that it provides a stable code with small false detection likelihood. Below two arbitrary codes are used, denoted c re and c im , respectively. For example, the real code may provide a code comprising cell information, and the imaginary code may comprise a fixed code with attractive false detection properties.

In one exemplary embodiment, the solution presented herein is a method in a network node, e.g., an eNB, for transmitting cell information in repetitions of a sync sequence in a sync signal comprising multiple adjacent symbols, e.g., within a subframe. It is also possible to straightforwardly expand it to cover multiple subframes in case a longer sync signal is needed, e.g., due to extended coverage. In this example, a first cover code is determined for the real part of the sync sequence, and a second cover code, different from the first cover code, is also determined for the imaginary part of the sync sequence. For both codes goes that one of the first and second cover codes may at least in part, comprise cell information, and in other parts a preamble and/or post-amble, whereas the other of the first and second cover codes may comprise a fixed code for, e.g., improved false detection properties. Also, combinations thereof may be possible. Here it is also worth noting that the dual codes may be seen as one complex cover code too, where one of the first and second cover codes is the real part of the complex cover code, while the other of the first and second cover codes is the imaginary part of the complex cover code. Cell information, in this case, may be information that is needed for a UE waking up from an extended sleep period, typically cell ID data, or information about the UE needing to update its MIB/SIB etc. The fixed code that is used for improved false detection rate may e.g., be determined from an exhaustive search where the code resulting in the smallest false peaks for all possible cell information codes, is selected. Other methods to select codes are not precluded. Having determined the codes, the eNB repeatedly codes the sync sequence with both of the selected first and second cover codes such that one of the first and second cover codes is encoded on the real part of the sync sequence, and the other of the first and second cover codes is encoded on the imaginary part of the sync sequence. The eNB transmits the resulting complex coded sync sequences corresponding to transmitting the whole codeword, e.g., within a subframe. Hence, the length of the cover codes may be chosen to be equal to the number of symbols in a subframe that are available for the sync signal. The sequence may furthermore be repeatedly transmitted, over multiple subframes, where each subframe may also be allocated its own cover code, allowing for efficient decoding with low false detection rate.

This exemplary method may, for example, be implemented as follows. Assume the sync sequence is a Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequence, which may be defined as:

where k represents the position (subcarrier), 0 < k < N zc , u represents an index (the ZC root), 0 < u < N zc , q represents a complex number, and N zc represents the length of the ZC sequence. This sequence may furthermore be generated in the frequency domain and IFFTed to the time domain (e.g., z n) = F l [z ( k )) ). Fortunately, the ZC in frequency domain becomes a ZC also in the time domain if N zc is chosen as a prime number.

The above ZC sequence z{n) is defined for one symbol. The number of samples in that symbol is controlled by the number of subcarriers that are being used and the smallest power of two exceeding that number, for LTE sync it is 128. Hence, for LTE, where 72 carriers are used for sync, a 128 and the ZC sequence becomes slightly oversampled. Disregarding the oversampling, one symbol may be expressed as:

Coding is performed per symbol, hence every symbol is coded separately for all symbols in the subframe. Assume the m th encoded symbol is represented as y( ) , for

0 < m < M - 1 , where M represents the cover code length, and the cover code c may be expressed as:

c = [c (0)... c (M - l)] ,

then, the coded sequence for transmission may be represented as:

y( ) = c( )z .

When the cover code comprises first and second codes, e.g., a first code c re for the real part of the sync sequence and a second code c im for the imaginary part of the sync sequence, the coded sequence for transmission may be represented by:

where z re and z im are the real and imaginary parts of the complex sync sequence z , respectively.

The above description of the basic embodiment of the solution presented herein can be varied in numerous ways.

In some embodiments, the part of the cover code conveying information is encoded by binary representation of a Physical Cell ID (PCID). In the LTE standard, there are 504 PCID values, which may be represented by nine bits. If the length of the cover code is larger than this number, for example 1 1 as for the NB-loT NPSS signal described above, the remaining bits may be chosen in different ways. In some embodiments, they comprise a fixed known pre- and/or post-amble, In some embodiments they comprise additional cell information, such as information about updates of cell broadcast information in MIB or SIB, or enhanced access barring as described above.

In some embodiments, the cell information comprises paging information directed towards one or more wireless devices. This can be done in several ways, of which a number of example embodiments are provided herein.

In a first embodiment for conveying paging information, the wireless device to be paged is assigned to one or more paging groups comprising one or more wireless devices, and the paging information comprises an identifier of the paging group which is transmitted by the eNB when one or more wireless devices in the group is to be paged. For example, the different groups may be represented by one specific element (bit) in the part of the cover code conveying information, such that the signaled bit value indicates whether any wireless device in the group is paged or not. In another example, N elements of the cover code represents 2 W groups, and the signaled value in these N elements indicate one group being paged. Some of these group identities may then have special meanings, for example including one group with zero members, to be used when no wireless device is to be paged. Similarly, one or more group identities may be used to represent a larger number of groups, e.g., all groups. The partitioning of wireless devices into groups may be based on a dedicated configuration of the wireless device, a standardization document basing the group number on e.g., a UE identity, or any combination of such methods.

In a second embodiment for conveying paging information, this is combined with the embodiment described above for conveying the Physical Cell ID, such that the information conveying part of the cover code is being transmitted by the eNB only in case there is a wireless device that shall be paged in the cell. This way, a fixed (e.g., real) part of the cover code, as described above, can be used by the wireless device for detecting the signal sent from the eNB, whereas a paging information can be determined based on an additional detection of the variable (e.g. imaginary) part of the cover code. A failure to detect such paging information can be interpreted by the wireless device that it is not being paged at this occasion. Such a decision can, for example, be based on comparing the relative magnitudes of correlation peaks corresponding to the different respective parts of the cover code, and/or a noise level. Several variations of this embodiment can be envisioned. E.g., it can be applied to only a subset of the cover code elements representing the Cell ID, thereby enabling differentiation between different paging groups, as described above.

In a third embodiment for conveying paging information, this is done using the part of the cover code which so far has been described as being“fixed”. For example, each paging group as described above can be assigned different“fixed” (e.g., real) cover codes, to be transmitted when a wireless device in the group is being paged. These different, paging group dependent, cover codes should then be selected such that they have good auto- and cross- correlation properties in order to provide similar performance regardless of which paging group a certain wireless device belongs to. Similar to what was described above, one cover code may be used to represent that no wireless device is being paged in this cell. A wireless device may try to combine correlation results using different assumptions on the used cover code in order to confirm e.g. time and frequency synchronization, but only considered itself to be paged in case the detected cover code corresponds to the paging group to which it is assigned. In a fourth embodiment for conveying paging information, this is done by using different base sequences for depending on paging group currently being paged.

The above embodiments for conveying paging information may be used separately or combined, and may also be used with any other suitable embodiment described herein. In particular, if the cover code is sufficiently long, for example using repetitions, the described paging related embodiments may be applied only to a part of the (repeated) cover code. Also, some embodiment may be applied to certain parts of the cover code, and another

embodiment may be applied to other parts of the cover code.

It shall also be noted that, even if the solution presented herein is described as a means for providing network synchronization for a wireless device, the presented

embodiments can be used solely for the purpose of conveying e.g. paging information, as has been described herein, regardless if the wireless device has obtained network synchronization prior to applying the solution presented herein. As such, the signal described as a

synchronization signal herein can equally be regarded as a wake-up signal (WUS), being transmitted by the network to provide paging information to wireless devices.

In some embodiments, the cell information is further encoded, for example using a convolutional encoder, which may be particularly useful if the length of the cover code is larger than the number of bits required to represent the conveyed cell information. For example, it may be used to whiten the cell information such that the likelihood of -1 s and 1 s in the cover code are more equal, even if e.g., a cell ID itself may have a binary representation using mostly -1 s or 1 s. When the sync sequence, and hence the complete cover code, extends over N symbols spanning multiple subframes as described above, the encoding may be done over all N symbols in the sequence to produce an encoded cover code of length N. In other embodiments, the encoding step produces a cover code which is shorter than N, and this is then repeated, at least in parts, to produce a complete cover code extending over N symbols.

In some embodiments, the cover code is further scrambled using a known scrambling sequence. This can be done separately for one or both of the first and second cover codes, or it can be done in a combined way for the complex cover code, using a real or complex scrambling sequence. These embodiments may advantageously be combined with embodiments for conveying paging information. For example, one scrambling code can be used to indicate a specific paging group, as described above. A wireless device can then combine the correlation results assuming its assigned scrambling code to determine whether the device has been paged or not. Similar to what was described above, a particular scrambling code may be used to indicated that no device is currently being paged. In some of these embodiments, the scrambling code (i.e., the scrambling code used to indicate that a wireless device in a paging group is being paged) is applied to only one of the first and second cover codes, whereas for the other cover code the used scrambling code (if any) does not depend on whether the wireless device is being paged.

Efficient detection

The corresponding method for a wireless device, e.g., a UE, for detecting the above proposed algorithm is presented below. From the UE perspective, it is beneficial if all hypothesis testing with respect to cell ID can be performed post correlation, e.g., the same fundamental sequence is used for all cell IDs and symbols. Then the numerically complex correlation operation may be reduced to a minimum with only one sequence to correlate towards.

One exemplary UE method for obtaining network sync towards an eNB that is transmitting a repetitive sync signal where cell information is provided in a cover code between different symbols of at least parts of the sync duration. Per this exemplary

embodiment, the UE correlates a received signal with an a priori known sync sequence.

Accumulates are formed from multiple periodic correlates, where the distance between correlates corresponds to the symbol period. The accumulates from different symbols are also individually sign shifted according to a hypothesized cover code for which a detection is attempted. The accumulated correlates are compared with a threshold, where a maximum accumulated correlate that is also exceeding the threshold value indicates a detection instant. To get a practical implementation of the above, correlates are stored in memory, separated according to a scheme that is described in more detail below. This is to be able to compute accumulates efficiently for different cover codes and over different time hypothesis.

Mathematical description of the decoding process

The following provides one example of the mathematical description of the decoding process implemented by the UE. The multiplication of two complex variables x , x = x re + jx im

, and z , z z n + jz im , is given by:

In the present case, the variables correspond to a received signal x and a (Zadoff- Chu) reference sequence, z, that for a complete symbol is expressed in vector form z, that is repeated on a symbol basis, albeit with different cover codes for each symbol. Hence, both z re and z im in z, due to the first and second cover codes, c re and c im , respectively, may be both positive and negative value of the Zadoff-Chu sequence z, presented below for an arbitrary sample z, Z — C Z

Z im— C im Z im resulting in the following expression:

As can be seen above, it is possible to construct four hypotheses of xz * from two combinations each of of c re and c im , respectively, i.e.,

It is furthermore the case that the products x re z re and x im z re are related to c re whereas the products x. z. and x z. are related to c. .

The above is described for one cover code element. Each sample in the same symbol is coded with the same cover code value, whereas different symbols are coded with different code word elements. Since, the cover code is coded per symbol, the same cover code values are used when constructing the correlates of that symbol. However, in OFDM systems, there is a fixed relation between the number of samples in a symbol, represented by K, where K for MTC typically is 137 samples. To represent the temporal side, boldface script represents vectors. The correlate related to c re is consequently calculated as: and the correlate related to c re is produced correspondingly. Because only every K lb correlate should be combined when composing the multi-symbol correlates, where now each has its own cover code element, the aggregated correlate, s(h), for sample n, and for c re is: where c re is the L element long cover code, corresponding to combining L OFDM symbols, that is projected on the real axis.

Assuming c re is known, the correct timing, n is then found as: h = arg max |ff(«)| .

The above receiver implementation is described under the assumption that the sequence to detect is encoded with an a priori known cover code. This is, for example, typically the case when the encoded cell information represents a known Cell ID. It also applies in cases when such a cover code has undergone coding using, e.g. a convolutional encoder, or if it has been scrambled as described above.

In cases where there is some further, unknown, information conveyed, the receiver may hypothesize the possible different messages, and conclude that the hypothesized message producing the largest correlation peak represents the unknown information. In many cases, one of the messages is more likely to happen than others, for example a message confirming that broadcasted system information has not been changed. For some embodiments, the relative sizes of the parts of the calculated correlation result corresponding to a fixed (e.g., real) and a potentially varying (e.g. imaginary) part of the cover code. If the part

corresponding the fixed cover code is substantially larger than the part corresponding to the varying cover code, say by at least predetermined threshold factor, it may be concluded that the broadcasted system information has changed. Note that any applied scrambling and/or further encoding must be taken into account before comparing the sizes of a fixed and potentially varying part. Although the subject matter described herein may be implemented in any appropriate type of system using any suitable components, the embodiments disclosed herein are described in relation to a wireless network, such as the example wireless network illustrated in Figure 9. For simplicity, the wireless network of Figure 9 only depicts network 906, network nodes 960 and 960b, and WDs 910, 910b, and 910c. In practice, a wireless network may further include any additional elements suitable to support communication between wireless devices or between a wireless device and another communication device, such as a landline telephone, a service provider, or any other network node or end device. Of the illustrated components, network node 960 and wireless device (WD) 910 are depicted with additional detail. The wireless network may provide communication and other types of services to one or more wireless devices to facilitate the wireless devices’ access to and/or use of the services provided by, or via, the wireless network.

The wireless network may comprise and/or interface with any type of communication, telecommunication, data, cellular, and/or radio network or other similar type of system. In some embodiments, the wireless network may be configured to operate according to specific standards or other types of predefined rules or procedures. Thus, particular embodiments of the wireless network may implement communication standards, such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Long Term Evolution (LTE), Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-loT), and/or other suitable 2 nd Generation (2G), 3 rd Generation (3G), 4 th Generation (4G), or 5 th Generation (5G) standards; wireless local area network (WLAN) standards, such as the IEEE 802.11 standards; and/or any other appropriate wireless communication standard, such as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), Bluetooth, Z-Wave and/or ZigBee standards.

Network 906 may comprise one or more backhaul networks, core networks, IP networks, public switched telephone networks (PSTNs), packet data networks, optical networks, wide- area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), wireless local area networks (WLANs), wired networks, wireless networks, metropolitan area networks, and other networks to enable communication between devices.

Network node 960 and WD 910 comprise various components described in more detail below. These components work together in order to provide network node and/or wireless device functionality, such as providing wireless connections in a wireless network. In different embodiments, the wireless network may comprise any number of wired or wireless networks, network nodes, base stations, controllers, wireless devices, relay stations, and/or any other components or systems that may facilitate or participate in the communication of data and/or signals whether via wired or wireless connections.

As used herein, network node refers to equipment capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate directly or indirectly with a wireless device and/or with other network nodes or equipment in the wireless network to enable and/or provide wireless access to the wireless device and/or to perform other functions (e.g., administration) in the wireless network. Examples of network nodes include, but are not limited to, access points (APs) (e.g., radio access points), base stations (BSs) (e.g., radio base stations, Node Bs, evolved Node Bs (eNBs) and NR NodeBs (gNBs)). Base stations may be categorized based on the amount of coverage they provide (or, stated differently, their transmit power level) and may then also be referred to as femto base stations, pico base stations, micro base stations, or macro base stations. A base station may be a relay node or a relay donor node controlling a relay. A network node may also include one or more (or all) parts of a distributed radio base station such as centralized digital units and/or remote radio units (RRUs), sometimes referred to as Remote Radio Heads (RRHs). Such remote radio units may or may not be integrated with an antenna as an antenna integrated radio. Parts of a distributed radio base station may also be referred to as nodes in a distributed antenna system (DAS). Yet further examples of network nodes include multi-standard radio (MSR) equipment such as MSR BSs, network controllers such as radio network controllers (RNCs) or base station controllers (BSCs), base transceiver stations (BTSs), transmission points, transmission nodes, multi-cell/multicast coordination entities (MCEs), core network nodes (e.g., Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), Mobility Management Entities (MMEs)), Operation and Maintenance (O&M) nodes, Operations Support System (OSS) nodes, Self Optimized Network (SON) nodes, positioning nodes (e.g., Evolved-Serving Mobile Location Centers (E-SMLCs)), and/or MDTs. As another example, a network node may be a virtual network node as described in more detail below. More generally, however, network nodes may represent any suitable device (or group of devices) capable, configured, arranged, and/or operable to enable and/or provide a wireless device with access to the wireless network or to provide some service to a wireless device that has accessed the wireless network.

In Figure 9, network node 960 includes processing circuitry 970, device readable medium 980, interface 990, auxiliary equipment 984, power source 986, power circuitry 987, and antenna 962. Although network node 960 illustrated in the example wireless network of Figure 9 may represent a device that includes the illustrated combination of hardware components, other embodiments may comprise network nodes with different combinations of components. It is to be understood that a network node comprises any suitable combination of hardware and/or software needed to perform the tasks, features, functions and methods disclosed herein. Moreover, while the components of network node 960 are depicted as single boxes located within a larger box, or nested within multiple boxes, in practice, a network node may comprise multiple different physical components that make up a single illustrated component (e.g., device readable medium 980 may comprise multiple separate hard drives as well as multiple RAM modules).

Similarly, network node 960 may be composed of multiple physically separate components (e.g., a NodeB component and a RNC component, or a BTS component and a BSC component, etc.), which may each have their own respective components. In certain scenarios in which network node 960 comprises multiple separate components (e.g., BTS and BSC components), one or more of the separate components may be shared among several network nodes. For example, a single RNC may control multiple NodeB’s. In such a scenario, each unique NodeB and RNC pair, may in some instances be considered a single separate network node. In some embodiments, network node 960 may be configured to support multiple radio access technologies (RATs). In such embodiments, some components may be duplicated (e.g., separate device readable medium 980 for the different RATs) and some components may be reused (e.g., the same antenna 962 may be shared by the RATs). Network node 960 may also include multiple sets of the various illustrated components for different wireless

technologies integrated into network node 960, such as, for example, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), Wide Code Division Multiplexing Access (WCDMA), LTE, New Radio (NR), WiFi, or Bluetooth wireless technologies. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chip or set of chips and other components within network node 960. Processing circuitry 970 is configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being provided by a network node. These operations performed by processing circuitry 970 may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 970 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored in the network node, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Processing circuitry 970 may comprise a combination of one or more of a

microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other network node 960 components, such as device readable medium 980, network node 960 functionality. For example, processing circuitry 970 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 980 or in memory within processing circuitry 970. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features, functions, or benefits discussed herein. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 970 may include a system on a chip (SOC).

In some embodiments, processing circuitry 970 may include one or more of radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 972 and baseband processing circuitry 974. In some embodiments, radio frequency (RF) transceiver circuitry 972 and baseband processing circuitry 974 may be on separate chips (or sets of chips), boards, or units, such as radio units and digital units. In alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 972 and baseband processing circuitry 974 may be on the same chip or set of chips, boards, or units

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being provided by a network node, base station, E-UTRAN NodeB (eNB) or other such network device may be performed by processing circuitry 970 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 980 or memory within processing circuitry 970. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 970 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 970 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 970 alone or to other components of network node 960, but are enjoyed by network node 960 as a whole, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally. Device readable medium 980 may comprise any form of volatile or non-volatile computer readable memory including, without limitation, persistent storage, solid-state memory, remotely mounted memory, magnetic media, optical media, random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), mass storage media (for example, a hard disk), removable storage media (for example, a flash drive, a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non-volatile, non-transitory device readable and/or computer-executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 970. Device readable medium 980 may store any suitable instructions, data or information, including a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 970 and, utilized by network node 960. Device readable medium 980 may be used to store any calculations made by processing circuitry 970 and/or any data received via interface 990. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 970 and device readable medium 980 may be considered to be integrated.

Interface 990 is used in the wired or wireless communication of signalling and/or data between network node 960, network 906, and/or WDs 910. As illustrated, interface 990 comprises port(s)/terminal(s) 994 to send and receive data, for example to and from network 906 over a wired connection. Interface 990 also includes radio front end circuitry 992 that may be coupled to, or in certain embodiments a part of, antenna 962. Radio front end circuitry 992 comprises filters 998 and amplifiers 996. Radio front end circuitry 992 may be connected to antenna 962 and processing circuitry 970. Radio front end circuitry may be configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 962 and processing circuitry 970. Radio front end circuitry 992 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 992 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of filters 998 and/or amplifiers 996. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 962. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 962 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 992. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 970. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components.

In certain alternative embodiments, network node 960 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 992, instead, processing circuitry 970 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 962 without separate radio front end circuitry 992. Similarly, in some embodiments, all or some of RF transceiver circuitry 972 may be considered a part of interface 990. In still other embodiments, interface 990 may include one or more ports or terminals 994, radio front end circuitry 992, and RF transceiver circuitry 972, as part of a radio unit (not shown), and interface 990 may communicate with baseband processing circuitry 974, which is part of a digital unit (not shown).

Antenna 962 may include one or more antennas, or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals. Antenna 962 may be coupled to radio front end circuitry 990 and may be any type of antenna capable of transmitting and receiving data and/or signals wirelessly. In some embodiments, antenna 962 may comprise one or more omni-directional, sector or panel antennas operable to transmit/receive radio signals between, for example, 2 GHz and 66 GHz. An omni-directional antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals in any direction, a sector antenna may be used to transmit/receive radio signals from devices within a particular area, and a panel antenna may be a line of sight antenna used to

transmit/receive radio signals in a relatively straight line. In some instances, the use of more than one antenna may be referred to as MIMO. In certain embodiments, antenna 962 may be separate from network node 960 and may be connectable to network node 960 through an interface or port.

Antenna 962, interface 990, and/or processing circuitry 970 may be configured to perform any receiving operations and/or certain obtaining operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment. Similarly, antenna 962, interface 990, and/or processing circuitry 970 may be configured to perform any transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a network node. Any information, data and/or signals may be transmitted to a wireless device, another network node and/or any other network equipment.

Power circuitry 987 may comprise, or be coupled to, power management circuitry and is configured to supply the components of network node 960 with power for performing the functionality described herein. Power circuitry 987 may receive power from power source 986. Power source 986 and/or power circuitry 987 may be configured to provide power to the various components of network node 960 in a form suitable for the respective components (e.g., at a voltage and current level needed for each respective component). Power source 986 may either be included in, or external to, power circuitry 987 and/or network node 960. For example, network node 960 may be connectable to an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet) via an input circuitry or interface such as an electrical cable, whereby the external power source supplies power to power circuitry 987. As a further example, power source 986 may comprise a source of power in the form of a battery or battery pack which is connected to, or integrated in, power circuitry 987. The battery may provide backup power should the external power source fail. Other types of power sources, such as photovoltaic devices, may also be used. Alternative embodiments of network node 960 may include additional components beyond those shown in Figure 9 that may be responsible for providing certain aspects of the network node’s functionality, including any of the functionality described herein and/or any functionality necessary to support the subject matter described herein. For example, network node 960 may include user interface equipment to allow input of information into network node 960 and to allow output of information from network node 960. This may allow a user to perform diagnostic, maintenance, repair, and other administrative functions for network node 960.

As used herein, wireless device (WD) refers to a device capable, configured, arranged and/or operable to communicate wirelessly with network nodes and/or other wireless devices. Unless otherwise noted, the term WD may be used interchangeably herein with user equipment (UE). Communicating wirelessly may involve transmitting and/or receiving wireless signals using electromagnetic waves, radio waves, infrared waves, and/or other types of signals suitable for conveying information through air. In some embodiments, a WD may be configured to transmit and/or receive information without direct human interaction. For instance, a WD may be designed to transmit information to a network on a predetermined schedule, when triggered by an internal or external event, or in response to requests from the network. Examples of a WD include, but are not limited to, a smart phone, a mobile phone, a cell phone, a voice over IP (VoIP) phone, a wireless local loop phone, a desktop computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a wireless cameras, a gaming console or device, a music storage device, a playback appliance, a wearable terminal device, a wireless endpoint, a mobile station, a tablet, a laptop, a laptop-embedded equipment (LEE), a laptop-mounted equipment (LME), a smart device, a wireless customer-premise equipment (CPE) a vehicle-mounted wireless terminal device, etc.. A WD may support device-to-device (D2D) communication, for example by implementing a 3GPP standard for sidelink communication, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and may in this case be referred to as a D2D communication device. As yet another specific example, in an Internet of Things (loT) scenario, a WD may represent a machine or other device that performs monitoring and/or measurements, and transmits the results of such monitoring and/or measurements to another WD and/or a network node. The WD may in this case be a machine-to-machine (M2M) device, which may in a 3GPP context be referred to as an MTC device. As one particular example, the WD may be a UE implementing the 3GPP narrow band internet of things (NB-loT) standard. Particular examples of such machines or devices are sensors, metering devices such as power meters, industrial machinery, or home or personal appliances (e.g. refrigerators, televisions, etc.) personal wearables (e.g., watches, fitness trackers, etc.). In other scenarios, a WD may represent a vehicle or other equipment that is capable of monitoring and/or reporting on its operational status or other functions associated with its operation. A WD as described above may represent the endpoint of a wireless connection, in which case the device may be referred to as a wireless terminal. Furthermore, a WD as described above may be mobile, in which case it may also be referred to as a mobile device or a mobile terminal.

As illustrated, wireless device 910 includes antenna 91 1 , interface 914, processing circuitry 920, device readable medium 930, user interface equipment 932, auxiliary equipment 934, power source 936 and power circuitry 937. WD 910 may include multiple sets of one or more of the illustrated components for different wireless technologies supported by WD 910, such as, for example, GSM, WCDMA, LTE, NR, WiFi, WiMAX, NB-loT, or Bluetooth wireless technologies, just to mention a few. These wireless technologies may be integrated into the same or different chips or set of chips as other components within WD 910.

Antenna 91 1 may include one or more antennas or antenna arrays, configured to send and/or receive wireless signals, and is connected to interface 914. In certain alternative embodiments, antenna 911 may be separate from WD 910 and be connectable to WD 910 through an interface or port. Antenna 91 1 , interface 914, and/or processing circuitry 920 may be configured to perform any receiving or transmitting operations described herein as being performed by a WD. Any information, data and/or signals may be received from a network node and/or another WD. In some embodiments, radio front end circuitry and/or antenna 911 may be considered an interface.

As illustrated, interface 914 comprises radio front end circuitry 912 and antenna 911. Radio front end circuitry 912 comprise one or more filters 918 and amplifiers 916. Radio front end circuitry 914 is connected to antenna 91 1 and processing circuitry 920, and is configured to condition signals communicated between antenna 911 and processing circuitry 920. Radio front end circuitry 912 may be coupled to or a part of antenna 91 1. In some embodiments, WD 910 may not include separate radio front end circuitry 912; rather, processing circuitry 920 may comprise radio front end circuitry and may be connected to antenna 911. Similarly, in some embodiments, some or all of RF transceiver circuitry 922 may be considered a part of interface 914. Radio front end circuitry 912 may receive digital data that is to be sent out to other network nodes or WDs via a wireless connection. Radio front end circuitry 912 may convert the digital data into a radio signal having the appropriate channel and bandwidth parameters using a combination of filters 918 and/or amplifiers 916. The radio signal may then be transmitted via antenna 91 1. Similarly, when receiving data, antenna 91 1 may collect radio signals which are then converted into digital data by radio front end circuitry 912. The digital data may be passed to processing circuitry 920. In other embodiments, the interface may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components. Processing circuitry 920 may comprise a combination of one or more of a microprocessor, controller, microcontroller, central processing unit, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, or any other suitable computing device, resource, or combination of hardware, software, and/or encoded logic operable to provide, either alone or in conjunction with other WD 910 components, such as device readable medium 930, WD 910 functionality. Such functionality may include providing any of the various wireless features or benefits discussed herein. For example, processing circuitry 920 may execute instructions stored in device readable medium 930 or in memory within processing circuitry 920 to provide the functionality disclosed herein.

As illustrated, processing circuitry 920 includes one or more of RF transceiver circuitry 922, baseband processing circuitry 924, and application processing circuitry 926. In other embodiments, the processing circuitry may comprise different components and/or different combinations of components. In certain embodiments processing circuitry 920 of WD 910 may comprise a SOC. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 922, baseband processing circuitry 924, and application processing circuitry 926 may be on separate chips or sets of chips. In alternative embodiments, part or all of baseband processing circuitry 924 and application processing circuitry 926 may be combined into one chip or set of chips, and RF transceiver circuitry 922 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In still alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 922 and baseband processing circuitry 924 may be on the same chip or set of chips, and application processing circuitry 926 may be on a separate chip or set of chips. In yet other alternative embodiments, part or all of RF transceiver circuitry 922, baseband processing circuitry 924, and application processing circuitry 926 may be combined in the same chip or set of chips. In some embodiments, RF transceiver circuitry 922 may be a part of interface 914. RF transceiver circuitry 922 may condition RF signals for processing circuitry 920.

In certain embodiments, some or all of the functionality described herein as being performed by a WD may be provided by processing circuitry 920 executing instructions stored on device readable medium 930, which in certain embodiments may be a computer-readable storage medium. In alternative embodiments, some or all of the functionality may be provided by processing circuitry 920 without executing instructions stored on a separate or discrete device readable storage medium, such as in a hard-wired manner. In any of those particular embodiments, whether executing instructions stored on a device readable storage medium or not, processing circuitry 920 can be configured to perform the described functionality. The benefits provided by such functionality are not limited to processing circuitry 920 alone or to other components of WD 910, but are enjoyed by WD 910 as a whole, and/or by end users and the wireless network generally. Processing circuitry 920 may be configured to perform any determining, calculating, or similar operations (e.g., certain obtaining operations) described herein as being performed by a WD. These operations, as performed by processing circuitry 920, may include processing information obtained by processing circuitry 920 by, for example, converting the obtained information into other information, comparing the obtained information or converted information to information stored by WD 910, and/or performing one or more operations based on the obtained information or converted information, and as a result of said processing making a determination.

Device readable medium 930 may be operable to store a computer program, software, an application including one or more of logic, rules, code, tables, etc. and/or other instructions capable of being executed by processing circuitry 920. Device readable medium 930 may include computer memory (e.g., Random Access Memory (RAM) or Read Only Memory (ROM)), mass storage media (e.g., a hard disk), removable storage media (e.g., a Compact Disk (CD) or a Digital Video Disk (DVD)), and/or any other volatile or non-volatile, non-transitory device readable and/or computer executable memory devices that store information, data, and/or instructions that may be used by processing circuitry 920. In some embodiments, processing circuitry 920 and device readable medium 930 may be considered to be integrated.

User interface equipment 932 may provide components that allow for a human user to interact with WD 910. Such interaction may be of many forms, such as visual, audial, tactile, etc. User interface equipment 932 may be operable to produce output to the user and to allow the user to provide input to WD 910. The type of interaction may vary depending on the type of user interface equipment 932 installed in WD 910. For example, if WD 910 is a smart phone, the interaction may be via a touch screen; if WD 910 is a smart meter, the interaction may be through a screen that provides usage (e.g., the number of gallons used) or a speaker that provides an audible alert (e.g., if smoke is detected). User interface equipment 932 may include input interfaces, devices and circuits, and output interfaces, devices and circuits. User interface equipment 932 is configured to allow input of information into WD 910, and is connected to processing circuitry 920 to allow processing circuitry 920 to process the input information. User interface equipment 932 may include, for example, a microphone, a proximity or other sensor, keys/buttons, a touch display, one or more cameras, a USB port, or other input circuitry. User interface equipment 932 is also configured to allow output of information from WD 910, and to allow processing circuitry 920 to output information from WD 910. User interface equipment 932 may include, for example, a speaker, a display, vibrating circuitry, a USB port, a headphone interface, or other output circuitry. Using one or more input and output interfaces, devices, and circuits, of user interface equipment 932, WD 910 may communicate with end users and/or the wireless network, and allow them to benefit from the functionality described herein. Auxiliary equipment 934 is operable to provide more specific functionality which may not be generally performed by WDs. This may comprise specialized sensors for doing

measurements for various purposes, interfaces for additional types of communication such as wired communications etc. The inclusion and type of components of auxiliary equipment 934 may vary depending on the embodiment and/or scenario.

Power source 936 may, in some embodiments, be in the form of a battery or battery pack. Other types of power sources, such as an external power source (e.g., an electricity outlet), photovoltaic devices or power cells, may also be used. WD 910 may further comprise power circuitry 937 for delivering power from power source 936 to the various parts of WD 910 which need power from power source 936 to carry out any functionality described or indicated herein. Power circuitry 937 may in certain embodiments comprise power management circuitry. Power circuitry 937 may additionally or alternatively be operable to receive power from an external power source; in which case WD 910 may be connectable to the external power source (such as an electricity outlet) via input circuitry or an interface such as an electrical power cable. Power circuitry 937 may also in certain embodiments be operable to deliver power from an external power source to power source 936. This may be, for example, for the charging of power source 936. Power circuitry 937 may perform any formatting, converting, or other modification to the power from power source 936 to make the power suitable for the respective components of WD 910 to which power is supplied.

Figure 10 illustrates one embodiment of a UE in accordance with various aspects described herein. As used herein, a user equipment or UE may not necessarily have a user in the sense of a human user who owns and/or operates the relevant device. Instead, a UE may represent a device that is intended for sale to, or operation by, a human user but which may not, or which may not initially, be associated with a specific human user (e.g., a smart sprinkler controller). Alternatively, a UE may represent a device that is not intended for sale to, or operation by, an end user but which may be associated with or operated for the benefit of a user (e.g., a smart power meter). UE 1000 may be any UE identified by the 3 rd Generation

Partnership Project (3GPP), including a NB-loT UE, a machine type communication (MTC) UE, and/or an enhanced MTC (eMTC) UE. UE 1000, as illustrated in Figure 10, is one example of a WD configured for communication in accordance with one or more communication standards promulgated by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), such as 3GPP’s GSM, UMTS, LTE, and/or 5G standards. As mentioned previously, the term WD and UE may be used interchangeable. Accordingly, although Figure 10 is a UE, the components discussed herein are equally applicable to a WD, and vice-versa.

In Figure 10, UE 1000 includes processing circuitry 1001 that is operatively coupled to input/output interface 1005, radio frequency (RF) interface 1009, network connection interface 101 1 , memory 1015 including random access memory (RAM) 1017, read-only memory (ROM) 1019, and storage medium 1021 or the like, communication subsystem 1031 , power source 1033, and/or any other component, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 1021 includes operating system 1023, application program 1025, and data 1027. In other embodiments, storage medium 1021 may include other similar types of information. Certain UEs may utilize all of the components shown in Figure 10, or only a subset of the components. The level of integration between the components may vary from one UE to another UE. Further, certain UEs may contain multiple instances of a component, such as multiple processors, memories, transceivers, transmitters, receivers, etc.

In Figure 10, processing circuitry 1001 may be configured to process computer instructions and data. Processing circuitry 1001 may be configured to implement any sequential state machine operative to execute machine instructions stored as machine-readable computer programs in the memory, such as one or more hardware-implemented state machines (e.g., in discrete logic, FPGA, ASIC, etc.); programmable logic together with appropriate firmware; one or more stored program, general-purpose processors, such as a microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), together with appropriate software; or any combination of the above. For example, the processing circuitry 1001 may include two central processing units (CPUs). Data may be information in a form suitable for use by a computer.

In the depicted embodiment, input/output interface 1005 may be configured to provide a communication interface to an input device, output device, or input and output device. UE 1000 may be configured to use an output device via input/output interface 1005. An output device may use the same type of interface port as an input device. For example, a USB port may be used to provide input to and output from UE 1000. The output device may be a speaker, a sound card, a video card, a display, a monitor, a printer, an actuator, an emitter, a smartcard, another output device, or any combination thereof. UE 1000 may be configured to use an input device via input/output interface 1005 to allow a user to capture information into UE 1000. The input device may include a touch-sensitive or presence-sensitive display, a camera (e.g., a digital camera, a digital video camera, a web camera, etc.), a microphone, a sensor, a mouse, a trackball, a directional pad, a trackpad, a scroll wheel, a smartcard, and the like. The presence- sensitive display may include a capacitive or resistive touch sensor to sense input from a user.

A sensor may be, for instance, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a tilt sensor, a force sensor, a magnetometer, an optical sensor, a proximity sensor, another like sensor, or any combination thereof. For example, the input device may be an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a digital camera, a microphone, and an optical sensor.

In Figure 10, RF interface 1009 may be configured to provide a communication interface to RF components such as a transmitter, a receiver, and an antenna. Network connection interface 1011 may be configured to provide a communication interface to network 1043a.

Network 1043a may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a

telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 1043a may comprise a Wi-Fi network. Network connection interface 101 1 may be configured to include a receiver and a transmitter interface used to communicate with one or more other devices over a communication network according to one or more communication protocols, such as Ethernet, TCP/IP, SONET, ATM, or the like. Network connection interface 101 1 may implement receiver and transmitter functionality appropriate to the communication network links (e.g., optical, electrical, and the like). The transmitter and receiver functions may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

RAM 1017 may be configured to interface via bus 1002 to processing circuitry 1001 to provide storage or caching of data or computer instructions during the execution of software programs such as the operating system, application programs, and device drivers. ROM 1019 may be configured to provide computer instructions or data to processing circuitry 1001. For example, ROM 1019 may be configured to store invariant low-level system code or data for basic system functions such as basic input and output (I/O), startup, or reception of keystrokes from a keyboard that are stored in a non-volatile memory. Storage medium 1021 may be configured to include memory such as RAM, ROM, programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read- only memory (EEPROM), magnetic disks, optical disks, floppy disks, hard disks, removable cartridges, or flash drives. In one example, storage medium 1021 may be configured to include operating system 1023, application program 1025 such as a web browser application, a widget or gadget engine or another application, and data file 1027. Storage medium 1021 may store, for use by UE 1000, any of a variety of various operating systems or combinations of operating systems.

Storage medium 1021 may be configured to include a number of physical drive units, such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID), floppy disk drive, flash memory, USB flash drive, external hard disk drive, thumb drive, pen drive, key drive, high-density digital versatile disc (HD-DVD) optical disc drive, internal hard disk drive, Blu-Ray optical disc drive, holographic digital data storage (HDDS) optical disc drive, external mini-dual in-line memory module (DIMM), synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), external micro-DIMM SDRAM, smartcard memory such as a subscriber identity module or a removable user identity (SIM/RUIM) module, other memory, or any combination thereof. Storage medium 1021 may allow UE 1000 to access computer-executable instructions, application programs or the like, stored on transitory or non-transitory memory media, to off-load data, or to upload data. An article of manufacture, such as one utilizing a communication system may be tangibly embodied in storage medium 1021 , which may comprise a device readable medium.

In Figure 10, processing circuitry 1001 may be configured to communicate with network 1043b using communication subsystem 1031. Network 1043a and network 1043b may be the same network or networks or different network or networks. Communication subsystem 1031 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with network 1043b. For example, communication subsystem 1031 may be configured to include one or more transceivers used to communicate with one or more remote transceivers of another device capable of wireless communication such as another WD, UE, or base station of a radio access network (RAN) according to one or more communication protocols, such as IEEE 802.11 ,

CDMA, WCDMA, GSM, LTE, Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), WiMax, or the like. Each transceiver may include transmitter 1033 and/or receiver 1035 to implement transmitter or receiver functionality, respectively, appropriate to the RAN links (e.g., frequency allocations and the like). Further, transmitter 1033 and receiver 1035 of each transceiver may share circuit components, software or firmware, or alternatively may be implemented separately.

In the illustrated embodiment, the communication functions of communication subsystem 1031 may include data communication, voice communication, multimedia communication, short- range communications such as Bluetooth, near-field communication, location-based

communication such as the use of the global positioning system (GPS) to determine a location, another like communication function, or any combination thereof. For example, communication subsystem 1031 may include cellular communication, Wi-Fi communication, Bluetooth communication, and GPS communication. Network 1043b may encompass wired and/or wireless networks such as a local-area network (LAN), a wide-area network (WAN), a computer network, a wireless network, a telecommunications network, another like network or any combination thereof. For example, network 1043b may be a cellular network, a Wi-Fi network, and/or a near-field network. Power source 1013 may be configured to provide alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power to components of UE 1000.

The features, benefits and/or functions described herein may be implemented in one of the components of UE 1000 or partitioned across multiple components of UE 1000. Further, the features, benefits, and/or functions described herein may be implemented in any combination of hardware, software or firmware. In one example, communication subsystem 1031 may be configured to include any of the components described herein. Further, processing circuitry 1001 may be configured to communicate with any of such components over bus 1002. In another example, any of such components may be represented by program instructions stored in memory that when executed by processing circuitry 1001 perform the corresponding functions described herein. In another example, the functionality of any of such components may be partitioned between processing circuitry 1001 and communication subsystem 1031. In another example, the non-computationally intensive functions of any of such components may be implemented in software or firmware and the computationally intensive functions may be implemented in hardware.

Figure 11 is a schematic block diagram illustrating a virtualization environment 1100 in which functions implemented by some embodiments may be virtualized. In the present context, virtualizing means creating virtual versions of apparatuses or devices which may include virtualizing hardware platforms, storage devices and networking resources. As used herein, virtualization can be applied to a node (e.g., a virtualized base station or a virtualized radio access node) or to a device (e.g., a UE, a wireless device or any other type of communication device) or components thereof and relates to an implementation in which at least a portion of the functionality is implemented as one or more virtual components (e.g., via one or more applications, components, functions, virtual machines or containers executing on one or more physical processing nodes in one or more networks).

In some embodiments, some or all of the functions described herein may be

implemented as virtual components executed by one or more virtual machines implemented in one or more virtual environments 1 100 hosted by one or more of hardware nodes 1130.

Further, in embodiments in which the virtual node is not a radio access node or does not require radio connectivity (e.g., a core network node), then the network node may be entirely virtualized.

The functions may be implemented by one or more applications 1 120 (which may alternatively be called software instances, virtual appliances, network functions, virtual nodes, virtual network functions, etc.) operative to implement some of the features, functions, and/or benefits of some of the embodiments disclosed herein. Applications 1120 are run in

virtualization environment 1100 which provides hardware 1 130 comprising processing circuitry 1 160 and memory 1190. Memory 1190 contains instructions 1195 executable by processing circuitry 1 160 whereby application 1120 is operative to provide one or more of the features, benefits, and/or functions disclosed herein.

Virtualization environment 1 100, comprises general-purpose or special-purpose network hardware devices 1 130 comprising a set of one or more processors or processing circuitry 1 160, which may be commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) processors, dedicated Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), or any other type of processing circuitry including digital or analog hardware components or special purpose processors. Each hardware device may comprise memory 1 190-1 which may be non-persistent memory for temporarily storing instructions 1195 or software executed by processing circuitry 1160. Each hardware device may comprise one or more network interface controllers (NICs) 1 170, also known as network interface cards, which include physical network interface 1180. Each hardware device may also include non-transitory, persistent, machine-readable storage media 1 190-2 having stored therein software 1 195 and/or instructions executable by processing circuitry 1 160. Software 1 195 may include any type of software including software for instantiating one or more virtualization layers 1150 (also referred to as hypervisors), software to execute virtual machines 1 140 as well as software allowing it to execute functions, features and/or benefits described in relation with some embodiments described herein.

Virtual machines 1140, comprise virtual processing, virtual memory, virtual networking or interface and virtual storage, and may be run by a corresponding virtualization layer 1 150 or hypervisor. Different embodiments of the instance of virtual appliance 1 120 may be

implemented on one or more of virtual machines 1140, and the implementations may be made in different ways.

During operation, processing circuitry 1160 executes software 1195 to instantiate the hypervisor or virtualization layer 1150, which may sometimes be referred to as a virtual machine monitor (VMM). Virtualization layer 1150 may present a virtual operating platform that appears like networking hardware to virtual machine 1140.

As shown in Figure 11 , hardware 1 130 may be a standalone network node with generic or specific components. Hardware 1130 may comprise antenna 11225 and may implement some functions via virtualization. Alternatively, hardware 1 130 may be part of a larger cluster of hardware (e.g. such as in a data center or customer premise equipment (CPE)) where many hardware nodes work together and are managed via management and orchestration (MANO) 1 1100, which, among others, oversees lifecycle management of applications 1 120.

Virtualization of the hardware is in some contexts referred to as network function virtualization (NFV). NFV may be used to consolidate many network equipment types onto industry standard high volume server hardware, physical switches, and physical storage, which can be located in data centers, and customer premise equipment.

In the context of NFV, virtual machine 1 140 may be a software implementation of a physical machine that runs programs as if they were executing on a physical, non-virtualized machine. Each of virtual machines 1140, and that part of hardware 1130 that executes that virtual machine, be it hardware dedicated to that virtual machine and/or hardware shared by that virtual machine with others of the virtual machines 1 140, forms a separate virtual network elements (VNE).

Still in the context of NFV, Virtual Network Function (VNF) is responsible for handling specific network functions that run in one or more virtual machines 1 140 on top of hardware networking infrastructure 1130 and corresponds to application 1 120 in Figure 11. In some embodiments, one or more radio units 11200 that each include one or more transmitters 11220 and one or more receivers 1 1210 may be coupled to one or more antennas 1 1225. Radio units 1 1200 may communicate directly with hardware nodes 1130 via one or more appropriate network interfaces and may be used in combination with the virtual components to provide a virtual node with radio capabilities, such as a radio access node or a base station.

In some embodiments, some signalling can be effected with the use of control system 1 1230 which may alternatively be used for communication between the hardware nodes 1130 and radio units 11200.

Figure 12 illustrates a telecommunication network connected via an intermediate network to a host computer in accordance with some embodiments. In particular, with reference to FIGURE 12, in accordance with an embodiment, a communication system includes

telecommunication network 1210, such as a 3GPP-type cellular network, which comprises access network 121 1 , such as a radio access network, and core network 1214. Access network 121 1 comprises a plurality of base stations 1212a, 1212b, 1212c, such as NBs, eNBs, gNBs or other types of wireless access points, each defining a corresponding coverage area 1213a, 1213b, 1213c. Each base station 1212a, 1212b, 1212c is connectable to core network 1214 over a wired or wireless connection 1215. A first UE 1291 located in coverage area 1213c is configured to wirelessly connect to, or be paged by, the corresponding base station 1212c. A second UE 1292 in coverage area 1213a is wirelessly connectable to the corresponding base station 1212a. While a plurality of UEs 1291 , 1292 are illustrated in this example, the disclosed embodiments are equally applicable to a situation where a sole UE is in the coverage area or where a sole UE is connecting to the corresponding base station 1212.

Telecommunication network 1210 is itself connected to host computer 1230, which may be embodied in the hardware and/or software of a standalone server, a cloud-implemented server, a distributed server or as processing resources in a server farm. Host computer 1230 may be under the ownership or control of a service provider, or may be operated by the service provider or on behalf of the service provider. Connections 1221 and 1222 between

telecommunication network 1210 and host computer 1230 may extend directly from core network 1214 to host computer 1230 or may go via an optional intermediate network 1220. Intermediate network 1220 may be one of, or a combination of more than one of, a public, private or hosted network; intermediate network 1220, if any, may be a backbone network or the Internet; in particular, intermediate network 1220 may comprise two or more sub-networks (not shown).

The communication system of Figure 12 as a whole enables connectivity between the connected UEs 1291 , 1292 and host computer 1230. The connectivity may be described as an over-the-top (OTT) connection 1250. Host computer 1230 and the connected UEs 1291 , 1292 are configured to communicate data and/or signaling via OTT connection 1250, using access network 121 1 , core network 1214, any intermediate network 1220 and possible further infrastructure (not shown) as intermediaries. OTT connection 1250 may be transparent in the sense that the participating communication devices through which OTT connection 1250 passes are unaware of routing of uplink and downlink communications. For example, base station 1212 may not or need not be informed about the past routing of an incoming downlink communication with data originating from host computer 1230 to be forwarded (e.g., handed over) to a connected UE 1291. Similarly, base station 1212 need not be aware of the future routing of an outgoing uplink communication originating from the UE 1291 towards the host computer 1230.

Example implementations, in accordance with an embodiment, of the UE, base station and host computer discussed in the preceding paragraphs will now be described with reference to Figure 13. Figure 13 illustrates host computer communicating via a base station with a user equipment over a partially wireless connection in accordance with some embodiments In communication system 1300, host computer 1310 comprises hardware 1315 including communication interface 1316 configured to set up and maintain a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 1300. Host computer 1310 further comprises processing circuitry 1318, which may have storage and/or processing capabilities. In particular, processing circuitry 1318 may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Host computer 1310 further comprises software 1311 , which is stored in or accessible by host computer 1310 and executable by processing circuitry 1318. Software 131 1 includes host application 1312. Host application 1312 may be operable to provide a service to a remote user, such as UE 1330 connecting via OTT connection 1350 terminating at UE 1330 and host computer 1310. In providing the service to the remote user, host application 1312 may provide user data which is transmitted using OTT connection 1350.

Communication system 1300 further includes base station 1320 provided in a telecommunication system and comprising hardware 1325 enabling it to communicate with host computer 1310 and with UE 1330. Hardware 1325 may include communication interface 1326 for setting up and maintaining a wired or wireless connection with an interface of a different communication device of communication system 1300, as well as radio interface 1327 for setting up and maintaining at least wireless connection 1370 with UE 1330 located in a coverage area (not shown in Figure 13) served by base station 1320. Communication interface 1326 may be configured to facilitate connection 1360 to host computer 1310. Connection 1360 may be direct or it may pass through a core network (not shown in Figure 13) of the telecommunication system and/or through one or more intermediate networks outside the telecommunication system. In the embodiment shown, hardware 1325 of base station 1320 further includes processing circuitry 1328, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. Base station 1320 further has software 1321 stored internally or accessible via an external connection.

Communication system 1300 further includes UE 1330 already referred to. Its hardware 1335 may include radio interface 1337 configured to set up and maintain wireless connection 1370 with a base station serving a coverage area in which UE 1330 is currently located.

Hardware 1335 of UE 1330 further includes processing circuitry 1338, which may comprise one or more programmable processors, application-specific integrated circuits, field programmable gate arrays or combinations of these (not shown) adapted to execute instructions. UE 1330 further comprises software 1331 , which is stored in or accessible by UE 1330 and executable by processing circuitry 1338. Software 1331 includes client application 1332. Client application 1332 may be operable to provide a service to a human or non-human user via UE 1330, with the support of host computer 1310. In host computer 1310, an executing host application 1312 may communicate with the executing client application 1332 via OTT connection 1350 terminating at UE 1330 and host computer 1310. In providing the service to the user, client application 1332 may receive request data from host application 1312 and provide user data in response to the request data. OTT connection 1350 may transfer both the request data and the user data. Client application 1332 may interact with the user to generate the user data that it provides.

It is noted that host computer 1310, base station 1320 and UE 1330 illustrated in Figure 13 may be similar or identical to host computer 1230, one of base stations 1212a, 1212b, 1212c and one of UEs 1291 , 1292 of Figure 12, respectively. This is to say, the inner workings of these entities may be as shown in Figure 13 and independently, the surrounding network topology may be that of Figure 12.

In Figure 13, OTT connection 1350 has been drawn abstractly to illustrate the communication between host computer 1310 and UE 1330 via base station 1320, without explicit reference to any intermediary devices and the precise routing of messages via these devices. Network infrastructure may determine the routing, which it may be configured to hide from UE 1330 or from the service provider operating host computer 1310, or both. While OTT connection 1350 is active, the network infrastructure may further take decisions by which it dynamically changes the routing (e.g., on the basis of load balancing consideration or reconfiguration of the network). Wireless connection 1370 between UE 1330 and base station 1320 is in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. One or more of the various embodiments improve the performance of OTT services provided to UE 1330 using OTT connection 1350, in which wireless connection 1370 forms the last segment. More precisely, the teachings of these embodiments may improve the efficiency of the

synchronization of the wireless device with the network, and thus may reduce power consumption/extend the battery life of the wireless device. Further, the teachings of the embodiments presented herein may enable the wireless device to detect a different cell (other than the serving cell).

A measurement procedure may be provided for the purpose of monitoring data rate, latency and other factors on which the one or more embodiments improve. There may further be an optional network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 1350 between host computer 1310 and UE 1330, in response to variations in the measurement results. The measurement procedure and/or the network functionality for reconfiguring OTT connection 1350 may be implemented in software 1311 and hardware 1315 of host computer 1310 or in software 1331 and hardware 1335 of UE 1330, or both. In embodiments, sensors (not shown) may be deployed in or in association with communication devices through which OTT connection 1350 passes; the sensors may participate in the measurement procedure by supplying values of the monitored quantities exemplified above, or supplying values of other physical quantities from which software 131 1 , 1331 may compute or estimate the monitored quantities. The

reconfiguring of OTT connection 1350 may include message format, retransmission settings, preferred routing etc.; the reconfiguring need not affect base station 1320, and it may be unknown or imperceptible to base station 1320. Such procedures and functionalities may be known and practiced in the art. In certain embodiments, measurements may involve proprietary UE signaling facilitating host computer 1310’s measurements of throughput, propagation times, latency and the like. The measurements may be implemented in that software 1311 and 1331 causes messages to be transmitted, in particular empty or‘dummy’ messages, using OTT connection 1350 while it monitors propagation times, errors etc.

Figure 14 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 12 and 13. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 14 will be included in this section. In step 1410, the host computer provides user data. In substep 1411 (which may be optional) of step 1410, the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application. In step 1420, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. In step 1430 (which may be optional), the base station transmits to the UE the user data which was carried in the transmission that the host computer initiated, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 1440 (which may also be optional), the UE executes a client application associated with the host application executed by the host computer.

Figure 15 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 12 and 13. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 15 will be included in this section. In step 1510 of the method, the host computer provides user data. In an optional substep (not shown) the host computer provides the user data by executing a host application.

In step 1520, the host computer initiates a transmission carrying the user data to the UE. The transmission may pass via the base station, in accordance with the teachings of the

embodiments described throughout this disclosure. In step 1530 (which may be optional), the UE receives the user data carried in the transmission.

Figure 16 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 12 and 13. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 16 will be included in this section. In step 1610 (which may be optional), the UE receives input data provided by the host computer. Additionally or alternatively, in step 1620, the UE provides user data. In substep 1621 (which may be optional) of step 1620, the UE provides the user data by executing a client application. In substep 1611 (which may be optional) of step 1610, the UE executes a client application which provides the user data in reaction to the received input data provided by the host computer. In providing the user data, the executed client application may further consider user input received from the user. Regardless of the specific manner in which the user data was provided, the UE initiates, in substep 1630 (which may be optional), transmission of the user data to the host computer. In step 1640 of the method, the host computer receives the user data transmitted from the UE, in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure.

Figure 17 is a flowchart illustrating a method implemented in a communication system, in accordance with one embodiment. The communication system includes a host computer, a base station and a UE which may be those described with reference to Figures 12 and 13. For simplicity of the present disclosure, only drawing references to Figure 17 will be included in this section. In step 1710 (which may be optional), in accordance with the teachings of the embodiments described throughout this disclosure, the base station receives user data from the UE. In step 1720 (which may be optional), the base station initiates transmission of the received user data to the host computer. In step 1730 (which may be optional), the host computer receives the user data carried in the transmission initiated by the base station.

Any appropriate steps, methods, features, functions, or benefits disclosed herein may be performed through one or more functional units or modules of one or more virtual apparatuses. Each virtual apparatus may comprise a number of these functional units. These functional units may be implemented via processing circuitry, which may include one or more microprocessor or microcontrollers, as well as other digital hardware, which may include digital signal processors (DSPs), special-purpose digital logic, and the like. The processing circuitry may be configured to execute program code stored in memory, which may include one or several types of memory such as read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM), cache memory, flash memory devices, optical storage devices, etc. Program code stored in memory includes program instructions for executing one or more telecommunications and/or data

communications protocols as well as instructions for carrying out one or more of the techniques described herein. In some implementations, the processing circuitry may be used to cause the respective functional unit to perform corresponding functions according one or more

embodiments of the present disclosure.

Generally, all terms used herein are to be interpreted according to their ordinary meaning in the relevant technical field, unless a different meaning is clearly given and/or is implied from the context in which it is used. All references to a/an/the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc. are to be interpreted openly as referring to at least one instance of the element, apparatus, component, means, step, etc., unless explicitly stated otherwise. The steps of any methods disclosed herein do not have to be performed in the exact order disclosed, unless a step is explicitly described as following or preceding another step and/or where it is implicit that a step must follow or precede another step. Any feature of any of the embodiments disclosed herein may be applied to any other embodiment, wherever appropriate. Likewise, any advantage of any of the embodiments may apply to any other embodiments, and vice versa. Other objectives, features and advantages of the enclosed embodiments will be apparent from the description.

The term unit may have conventional meaning in the field of electronics, electrical devices and/or electronic devices and may include, for example, electrical and/or electronic circuitry, devices, modules, processors, memories, logic solid state and/or discrete devices, computer programs or instructions for carrying out respective tasks, procedures, computations, outputs, and/or displaying functions, and so on, as such as those that are described herein.

Some of the embodiments contemplated herein are described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings. Other embodiments, however, are contained within the scope of the subject matter disclosed herein. The disclosed subject matter should not be construed as limited to only the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided by way of example to convey the scope of the subject matter to those skilled in the art. Additional information may also be found further heein.

The following provides multiple embodiments in accordance with the solution presented herein.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method in an eNB for transmitting cell information in repetitions of a sync sequence in a sync signal comprising multiple, adjacent symbols in a subframe, and possible also over multiple subframes. The method comprises determining one cover code to project on the real axis, determining another cover code to project on the imaginary axis, coding repetitions of the sync sequence with both the first (fixed) cover code and the second (cell information) cover code, and transmitting the sequence repetitions.

In some exemplary embodiments, one of the cover codes may at least in part include cell information.

In some exemplary embodiments, cell information may be cell ID, access barring information, MIB/SIB update, etc.

In some exemplary embodiments, another part is related to a preamble and or postamble.

In some exemplary embodiments, the other cover code includes a fix code.

In some exemplary embodiments, the fixed cover code is selected such that it minimizes the worst case of false detection peaks for all possible cell information outcomes.

In some exemplary embodiments, the number of cell information elements and preambles are selected such that all allowed symbols in a subframe are utilized, with one code bit per symbol.

In some exemplary embodiments, the fixed cover code is coded on the real part of the sync sequence and the cell information cover code is coded on the imaginary part of the sync sequence, or vice versa.

In some exemplary embodiments, the method is repeated over multiple subframes.

In some exemplary embodiments, yet another cover code is applied for different subframes. One exemplary embodiment comprises a method in a UE for obtaining network synchronization towards eNB transmitting cell information in repetitions of a sync sequence in a sync signal comprising multiple, adjacent symbols in a subframe, and possible also over multiple subframes. The method comprises correlating with an a priori known sync sequence, forming an accumulate from multiple, periodic correlations, andcomparing the accumulate with a detections threshold, where a detection is determined if the accumulate exceeds the threshold.

In some exemplary embodiments, the period is the equivalent of a symbol duration.

In some exemplary embodiments, data is stored in memory following correlation.

In some exemplary embodiments, the accumulate is computed as combinations of r e Z re , j m Z re , Xim^im 3^d X re Zi m .

Group A Embodiments

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method performed by a wireless device for obtaining network synchronization towards eNB transmitting cell information in repetitions of a sync sequence in a sync signal comprising multiple adjacent symbols in one or more

subframes. The method comprises correlating a received signal with an apriori known sync sequence, forming an accumulation from multiple, periodic correlations, taking into account at least two hypothesized cover codes, and comparing the accumulation with a detections threshold, where a detection is determined if the accumulation exceeds the detections threshold.

In exemplary embodiments, the period for the periodic correlations is equivalent to a symbol duration.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises storing data in memory following the correlation.

In exemplary embodiments, forming the accumulation comprises computing

combinations of x z e x z _ anc| x z _ where åre represents a real portion of the aprior known sync sequence, åim represents an imaginary portion of the aprior known sync sequence, Xre represents a real portion of the received signal, and x m represents an imaginary portion of the received signal.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises providing user data, and forwarding the user data to a host computer via the transmission to the base station.

Group B Embodiments One exemplary embodiment comprise a method performed by a base station for providing synchronization information to one or more wireless devices in a wireless network.

The method comprises generating a first cover code, generating a second cover code, different from the first cover code, generating a complex coded sequence by encoding a sync sequence using both the first and second cover codes, and transmitting the complex coded sequence.

In exemplary embodiments, generating the complex coded sequence comprises applying the first cover code to a real part of a sync sequence to generate a real part of a complex coded sequence, and applying the second cover code to an imaginary part of the sync sequence to generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

In exemplary embodiments, applying the first and second cover codes to the respective first and second parts of the sync sequence comprises multiplying each segment of the real part of the sync sequence with a corresponding element of the first cover code to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence, and multiplying each segment of the imaginary part of the sync sequence with a corresponding element of the second cover code to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

In exemplary embodiments, each segment of the real and imaginary parts of the sync sequences comprises an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing symbol.

In exemplary embodiments, one of the first and second cover codes comprises a cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network and paging information directed towards the one or more wireless devices.

In exemplary embodiments, the paging information relates to a paging group comprising one or more of the wireless devices, and the cover code common to the plurality of cells in the wireless network comprises a cover code common to the paging group and the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

In exemplary embodiments, wherein the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group.

In exemplary embodiments, one of the first and second cover codes comprises a fixed cover code common to a plurality of cells in the wireless network.

In exemplary embodiments, generating the first cover code comprises generating the fixed cover code that minimizes a false detection rate for the plurality of cells in the wireless network.

In exemplary embodiments, the base station is associated with one of a plurality of cells in the wireless network, and the other of the first and second cover codes comprises cell information for the cell associated with the base station. In exemplary embodiments, the cell information comprises at least one of a cell identifier, access barring information, and a Master Information Block (MIB)/System Information Block (SIB) update.

In exemplary embodiments, the cell information comprises paging information directed towards the one or more wireless devices.

In exemplary embodiments, the paging information comprises an identifier of a paging group comprising one or more of the wireless devices, where the identifier transmitted by the base station when one or more of the wireless devices in the paging group is to be paged.

In exemplary embodiments, the paging information comprises a scrambling code configured to identify an addressed paging group.

In exemplary embodiments, the cell information comprises the paging information incorporated with a cell identifier.

In exemplary embodiments, the other of the first and second cover codes further comprises at least one of a preamble and a postamble.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises selecting a number of elements comprising at least one of the cell information, the preambles, and the postambles such that all allowed symbols in a subframe are utilized.

In exemplary embodiments, applying the first and second cover codes comprises applying the first cover code to the real part of the sync sequence over multiple subframes to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence for the multiple subframes, and applying the second cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence over the multiple subframes to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence for the multiple subframes.

In exemplary embodiments, applying the first and second cover codes comprises applying the first cover code to the real part of the sync sequence over a first subframe to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence for the first subframe, and applying the second cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence over the first subframe to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence for the first subframe.

In exemplary embodiments, applying the first and second cover codes further comprises applying another first cover code to the real part of the sync sequence over a second subframe to generate the real part of the complex coded sequence for the second subframe, and applying another second cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence over the second subframe to generate the imaginary part of the complex coded sequence for the second subframe. The first and second cover codes used for the second subframe differ from the first and second cover codes used for the first subframe. In exemplary embodiments, generating the first and second cover codes comprises encoding at least one of an initial first cover code and an initial second cover code to generate at least one of the first and second cover codes.

In exemplary embodiments, generating the first and second cover codes comprises scrambling at least one of an initial first cover code and an initial second cover code using a scrambling sequence to generate at least one of the first and second cover codes.

In exemplary embodiments, the first cover code comprises a fixed cover code and the second cover code comprises a cell information cover code, where generating the complex coded sequence comprises applying the fixed cover code to the real part of the sync sequence to generate a real part of the complex coded sequence, and applying the cell information cover code to the imaginary part of the sync sequence to generate an imaginary part of the complex coded sequence.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises obtaining user data, and forwarding the user data to a host computer or a wireless device.

Group C Embodiments

One exemplary embodiment comprises a wireless device configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a wireless device comprising processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments, and power supply circuitry configured to supply power to the wireless device.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a wireless device comprising processing circuitry and memory. The memory containing instructions executable by the processing circuitry whereby the wireless device is configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a user equipment (UE) comprising an antenna, processing circuitry, and radio front-end circuitry connected to the antenna and to the processing circuitry. The antenna is configured to send and receive wireless signals. The radio front-end circuitry is configured to condition signals communicated between the antenna and the processing circuitry. The the processing circuitry is configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments. The UE further comprises an input interface connected to the processing circuitry and configured to allow input of information into the UE to be processed by the processing circuitry, an output interface connected to the processing circuitry and configured to output information from the UE that has been processed by the processing circuitry, and a battery connected to the processing circuitry and configured to supply power to the UE. One exemplary embodiment comprises a computer program comprising instructions which, when executed by at least one processor of a wireless device, causes the wireless device to carry out the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In some embodiments, a carrier contains the computer program, where the carrier is one of an electronic signal, optical signal, radio signal, or computer readable storage medium.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a base station configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a base station comprising processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments, power supply circuitry configured to supply power to the wireless device.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a base station comprising processing circuitry and memory. The memory contains instructions executable by the processing circuitry whereby the base station is configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a computer program comprising instructions which, when executed by at least one processor of a base station, causes the base station to carry out the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, a carrier contains the computer program, where the carrier is one of an electronic signal, optical signal, radio signal, or computer readable storage medium.

Group D Embodiments

One exemplary embodiment comprises a communication system including a host computer comprising processing circuitry and a communication interface. The processing circuitry is configured to provide user data. The communication interface is configured to forward the user data to a cellular network for transmission to a user equipment (UE). The cellular network comprises a base station having a radio interface and processing circuitry, the base station’s processing circuitry configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the UE, wherein the UE is configured to communicate with the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing the user data, and the UE comprises processing circuitry configured to execute a client application associated with the host application.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station, and a user equipment (UE). The method comprises at the host computer, providing user data, and at the host computer, initiating a transmission carrying the user data to the UE via a cellular network comprising the base station, where the base station performs any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the base station, transmitting the user data.

In exemplary embodiments, the user data is provided at the host computer by executing a host application, where the method further comprises, at the UE, executing a client application associated with the host application.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a user equipment (UE) configured to

communicate with a base station. The UE comprising a radio interface and processing circuitry configured to perform any of the communication system method steps.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a communication system including a host computer comprising processing circuitry and a communication interface. The processing circuitry is configured to provide user data. The communication interface is configured to forward user data to a cellular network for transmission to a user equipment (UE). The UE comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry, and the UE’s components are configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the cellular network further includes a base station configured to communicate with the UE.

In exemplary embodiments, the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing the user data, and the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station, and a user equipment (UE). The method comprises at the host computer, providing user data, and at the host computer, initiating a transmission carrying the user data to the UE via a cellular network comprising the base station, wherein the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the UE, receiving the user data from the base station.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a communication system including a host computer comprising a communication interface configured to receive user data originating from a transmission from a user equipment (UE) to a base station. The UE comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry, where the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the UE.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the base station, where the base station comprises a radio interface configured to communicate with the UE and a communication interface configured to forward to the host computer the user data carried by a transmission from the UE to the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, and the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data.

In exemplary embodiments, the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, thereby providing request data, and the UE’s processing circuitry is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data in response to the request data.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station, and a user equipment (UE). The method comprises, at the host computer, receiving user data transmitted to the base station from the UE, wherein the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the UE, providing the user data to the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the UE, executing a client application, thereby providing the user data to be transmitted, and at the host computer, executing a host application associated with the client application.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the UE, executing a client application, and at the UE, receiving input data to the client application, the input data being provided at the host computer by executing a host application associated with the client application. The user data to be transmitted is provided by the client application in response to the input data.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a communication system including a host computer comprising a communication interface configured to receive user data originating from a transmission from a user equipment (UE) to a base station. The base station comprises a radio interface and processing circuitry. The base station’s processing circuitry is configured to perform any of the steps of any of the Group B embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the communication system further includes the UE, where the UE is configured to communicate with the base station.

In exemplary embodiments, the processing circuitry of the host computer is configured to execute a host application, and the UE is configured to execute a client application associated with the host application, thereby providing the user data to be received by the host computer.

One exemplary embodiment comprises a method implemented in a communication system including a host computer, a base station, and a user equipment (UE). The method comprises, at the host computer, receiving, from the base station, user data originating from a transmission which the base station has received from the UE, where the UE performs any of the steps of any of the Group A embodiments.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the base station, receiving the user data from the UE.

In exemplary embodiments, the method further comprises, at the base station, initiating a transmission of the received user data to the host computer.