Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
SYRUP AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/046616
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a method for preparing syrup. The invention further relates to the syrup obtained from the method and the uses thereof in the preparation of a food product or a beverage.

Inventors:
IMHOF MARCO (DK)
Application Number:
EP2017/072504
Publication Date:
March 15, 2018
Filing Date:
September 07, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
IMHOF MARCO (DK)
International Classes:
A23C1/12; A23C21/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO1990002494A11990-03-22
WO2013068653A22013-05-16
Foreign References:
US20100239709A12010-09-23
RU2353657C12009-04-27
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZACCO DENMARK A/S (DK)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing sweet whey,

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

2. The method for preparing a syrup according to claim 1 , said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk product and subjecting said milk to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate in the form of sweet whey and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, (v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated sweet whey by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

3. The method according to any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate or NF mixture is stirred and homogenized during the moisture reduction step (v). 4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, said method comprising the steps of

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, said method comprising the steps of

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, (v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said lactose nanofiltration retentate is heat treated to inactivate the lactase, and subsequently mixed with nanofiltration retentate to obtain an NF mixture comprises 80 to 85% heat treated lactose nanofiltration retentate and up to 100% nanofiltration retentate, and

(v) reducing the moisture content of said NF mixture by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 45 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

7. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the dry matter comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D-galactose and D-glucose. 8. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said milk is bovine milk or buffalo milk.

9. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the dry matter content of the NF retentate obtained in step (ii) is in the range of 6 to 30 wt%, such as in the range of 18 to 30%, for example 10 and 25 wt% such as in the range of 13 and 20 wt%, preferably around 20 wt%.

10. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lactose in NF retentate is hydrolysed using a purified lactase such as a beta- galactosidase obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis, such as Ha-Lactase 5200 (Chr. Hansen) or Ha-Lactase PS2000 (Chr. Hansen)..

1 1 . The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lactase treated NF retentate obtained in step (iii) comprises less than 1 % wt%, such as less than 0.4 wt%, such as less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than 0.1 % wt of lactose, such as less 0.01 % wt of lactose.

12. A syrup obtainable from the method according to any one of the preceding claims. 13. The syrup of claim 12, wherein said syrup comprises or the sugars of said syrup essentially consist of D-galactose and D-glucose.

14. The syrup according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the dry matter of said syrup comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D-galactose and D-glucose.

15. Use of a syrup as defined in any of the preceding claims for the preparation of a food product or a beverage, such as a fermented beverage, such as beer, mead or wine.

16. The use according to claim 15, wherein said food product is selected from the group consisting of Confiture de lait (also known as dulche de leche or milkjam), jam, marmalade, bread, cake, cookies and candy.

Description:
Syrup and uses thereof

Field of the invention The present invention relates to a method for preparing a syrup. The invention further relates to the syrup obtained from the method and the uses thereof in the preparation of a food product or a beverage.

Background of the invention

Lactose intolerance is the inability of adults and children to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and to a lesser extent dairy products, causing side effects. Lactose intolerance is due to a lactase deficiency (or hypolactasia). Lactose intolerant individuals have insufficient levels of lactase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose, in their digestive system.

Although lactose intolerance is not considered a condition that requires treatment in societies where the diet contains relatively little dairy, the dairy industry often aims to reduce the lactose content in their dairy product.

The lactose tolerance varies among individual and therefore, in order to label products as lactose free, the content should be less 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose.

Whey is produced in large amount as a side product of cheese making. Whey is typically further processed to provide whey powder, which is in various products such as feed. Whey is comprises large amounts of lactose (about 5% of the whey is lactose). It follows that lactose obtained as a side product of dairy processes is often considered as a waste product. Typically, the side product is in the form of milk ultrafiltration permeate, or even a nanofiltration retentate from such milk ultrafiltration permeate. It follows that there is a need for improving the sustainability of industrial dairy processes. In particular, there is a need for converting lactose side product into a useful product.

Summary of the invention The present invention was made in view of the prior art described above, and the object of the present invention is to converting lactose obtained as a side product in the dairy industry into a useful product, such as a product for the preparation of a food product or a beverage. To solve the problem, the present invention provides a method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk or a milk derived product and subjecting said milk or a milk derived product to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting the UF permeate of step (i) to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

That is, the inventors of the present invention in a first aspect of the invention found that syrup obtainable by the method of the present invention is useful for the preparation of a food product or a beverage. In particular, the syrup is useful as an alternative to sweeteners or as substrate in the preparation of fermented beverage. A second aspect of the present invention provides a syrup obtainable from the method of the present invention.

A third aspect of the present invention concerns the use of syrup obtainable by the method of the present invention for the preparation of a food product or a beverage.

Detailed description of the invention

In describing the embodiments of the invention specific terminology will be resorted to for the sake of clarity. However, the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific terms so selected, and it is understood that each specific term includes all technical equivalents which operate in a similar manner to accomplish a similar purpose.

Definitions

Milk

In the context of the present invention, the term milk refers to any milk from which lactose may be obtained. Milk derived product

In the context of the present invention a milk derived product is a product derivable from milk with the proviso that said product comprises lactose. In a preferred embodiment, said milk derived product is whey. Sweet whey

The sweet whey may be prepared from non-fermented milk, prefably bovine or and buffalo milk or coagulated bovine or and buffalo milk (such as byproduct of rennet-coagulated cheese) by ultrafiltration. Sweet whey has a pH greater than or equal to 5.6. The sweet whey used by the invention is preferably obtained by ultrafiltration of raw milk, such as bovine or and buffalo milk.

Sour whey does not fall within the definition of sweet whey. Sour whey (or acid whey) is a fermented product, for example a byproduct of acid- coagulated cheese. Acid whey has a a pH less than or equal to 5.1 .

Atmospheric pressure

In the context of the present invention, the term atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth. In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. Low-pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high-pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. Likewise, as elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1 .01325 bar), equivalent to 760 mmHg (torr), 29.92 inHg and 14.696 psi. Microfiltration (MF)

Microfiltration is a low pressure-driven membrane filtration process, which is based on a membrane with an open structure allowing dissolved components to pass while most non-dissolved components are rejected by the membrane. In the dairy industry, microfiltration is widely used for bacteria reduction and fat removal in milk and whey as well as for protein and casein standardisation.

Ultrafiltration (UF)

Ultrafiltration is a medium pressure-driven membrane filtration process. Ultrafiltration is based on a membrane with a medium-open structure allowing most dissolved components and some non-dissolved components to pass, while larger components are rejected by the membrane. In the dairy industry, ultrafiltration is used for a wide range of applications such as protein standardisation of cheese milk, powders, fresh cheese production, protein concentration and decalcification of permeates as well as lactose reduction of milk.

Nanofiltration (NF)

Nanofiltration is a medium to high pressure-driven membrane filtration process. Generally speaking, nanofiltration is another type of reverse osmosis where the membrane has a slightly more open structure allowing predominantly monovalent ions to pass through the membrane. Divalent ions are - to a large extent - rejected by the membrane. In the dairy industry, nanofiltration is mainly used for special applications such as partial demineralisation of whey, lactose-free milk or volume reduction of whey. Lactase

Lactase is an enzyme that hydrolysis the β-glycosidic bond in D-lactose to form D-galactose and D-glucose, which can be absorbed through the intestinal walls and into the bloodstream. Lactose is also referred to as beta- D-Galactoside galactohydrolase and beta-Galactosidase.

Dry matter content (or mass fraction of dry matter)

Percent dry matter (dry matter content) is measured as the remaining weight of sample after drying and is expressed as percentage of the wet sample: % Dry Matter = (weight dry sample/the weight wet sample) X 100%

Accordingly, percent moisture content is measured as the weight lost during drying and is expressed as a percentage of the wet sample:

% Moisture = (weight wet sample - weight dry sample)/weight wet sample) X 100%. The dry matter content may also be referred to as percentage by mass (abbreviated wt%).

Method of the invention A first aspect of the present invention provides a method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk or a milk derived product and subjecting said milk or a milk derived product to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting the UF permeate of step (i) to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

Rather than starting out using milk, a side product of a diary process provided in the form of a nanofiltration (NF) retentate of a milk a ultrafiltration (UF) permeate may be applied. It follows that the step (i) and (ii) of the above method are not required since these process step were a part of the (dairy) process from which the nanofiltration (NF) retentate of the ultrafiltration (UF) permeate is a product. The same applies if milk ultrafiltration (UF) permeate is used instead of milk as the starting material.

Accordingly, a related aspect provides a method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk ultrafiltration (UF) permeate,

(ii) subjecting the UF permeate of step (i) to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

Accordingly, a further related aspect provides a method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i)-(ii) providing a nanofiltration (NF) retentate of a milk or a milk derived product ultrafiltration (UF) permeate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, (v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%. The milk may be any milk from which lactose may be obtained. In one embodiment, the milk is selected from the group consisting of raw milk, skimmed milk, semi-skimmed milk and whole milk. In a preferred embodiment, the milk is skimmed milk. In another embodiment, the milk is semi-skimmed milk. In a particular embodiment, whey (a milk derived product) is used instead of milk. Whey is a source of lactose. In a preferred embodiment, the milk derived product is sweet whey, such as sweet whey obtained from ultrafiltration of bovine or buffalo milk..

A preferred embodiment, the method for preparing a syrup comprises the the steps of

(i) providing sweet whey, (ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, (v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

Where the starting material is milk (bovine milk or buffalo milk), a ultrafiltration step is included. Accordingly, in another embodiment, the method for preparing a syrup comprises the steps of

(i) providing a milk product and subjecting said milk to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate in the form of sweet whey and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated sweet whey by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

In one embodiment, the method comprises the steps of

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

The syrup obtained have a honey like taste and texture.

In another embodiment, the method comprises the steps of,

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

The syrup obtained is dark and have a caramelized taste. In another embodiment, the method comprises the steps of, the lactose nanofiltration retentate is heat treated to inactivate the lactase, and subsequently mixed with nanofiltration retentate to obtain an NF mixture comprises 80 to 85 %w/w heat treated lactose nanofiltration retentate and up to 100% nanofiltration retentate, and

(v) reducing the moisture content of said NF mixture by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 45 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

The syrup obtained has a Dolce de leche taste and texture.

In order to avoid crystallization, the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate or NF mixture is preferably stirred and homogenized during the moisture reduction step (v).

In a preffered embodiment, the dry matter of the syrup obtained by the method of the invention comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D- galactose and D-glucose.The milk may also be provided in the form of reconstituted milk.

As mentioned any milk from which lactose may be obtained may be used, which includes milk is selected from the group consisting of cow milk, buffalo milk, goat milk, sheep milk and camel milk. In a preferred embodiment, the milk is cow milk, such as skimmed or semi-skimmed cow milk. Preferably, the milk is cow milk or buffalo milk.

It is preferred that the product obtained in step (iii), the lactase treated NF retentate is subjected to pasteurization prior to the step of reducing to moisture content (method step v).

One embodiment concerns the method for preparing a syrup, wherein method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk or a milk derived product and subjecting said milk or a milk derived product to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting the UF permeate of step (i) to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, such as subjecting said product to 90 to 1 10 degrees Celsius for less than 1 min such as about 15 seconds,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

In one embodiment of the present invention, said nanofiltration is conducted using a continuous pressure in the range of 10 to 35 bar, such as in the range of 15 to 25 bar, such as around 20 bar. In a further embodiment, the dry matter content of the NF retentate obtained in step (ii) is in the range of 6 to 30 wt%, for example 10 to 25 wt% such as in the range of 13 to 20 wt%, preferably around 20 wt%. The nanofiltration (NF) retentate comprising lactose is subjected to a step of hydrolyzing the lactose to form D-galactose and D-glucose. Although the hydrolysis of lactose may be chemical hydrolysis, it is highly preferred that lactose is lactose is hydrolysed by enzymatic hydrolysis using lactase. In a preferred embodiment, the lactose in the NF retentate is hydrolysed using a purified lactase

In one embodiment, the lactase is obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis. In another embodiment, the lactase is Ha-Lactase 5200 (Chr. Hansen) or Ha- Lactase PS2000 (Chr. Hansen)The lactase stock is typically 0.5 g/l and is applied according to the recommendation of the manufacturer.

The optimal temperature for the lactase mediated hydrolysis of the lactose is around 42 degrees Celsius. In one embodiment, the lactase is contacted with the NF retentate at 42 degrees Celsius for at least 2 hours, such as 2 to 5 hours. The enzymatic hydrolysis may be conducted at lower temperatures in which case the incubation time is extended.

In one embodiment, the lactose content of the syrup is 1 wt% or lower. It is preferred that the lactose content of the final syrup is low, such as 0.2 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose. Accordingly in one embodiment, the lactase treated NF retentate obtained in step (iii) comprises less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose. One advantage of reducing the amount of lactose to be 0.2 wt% or lower, such as less 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt%, is that the syrup may be used in the preparation of products intended to be consumed by individuals experience the symptoms of lactose intolerance

Following the hydrolysis of the lactose in the NF retentate, the hydrolysed NF retentate is subjected to a step of reducing the moisture content of the retentate to obtain syrup comprises D-galactose and D-glucose. In a preferred embodiment, the sugars of the syrup essentially consist of D- galactose and D-glucose. Further, in order to extend the shelf life of the syrup it is preferred that the dry matter of the syrup comprises at least 42 wt% sugars.

In a preferred embodiment, the moisture content is reduced under vacuum at a temperature in the range of 40 to 70 degrees Celsius, preferably in the range of 40 to 50 degrees Celsius until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

In one embodiment, the moisture content is reduced by subjecting the lactase treated NF retentate to 90 to 120 degrees Celsius, such as about 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure.

In one embodiment the moisture content is reduced such that the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (v) of the method of the invention is in the range of 40 to 70 wt%. In one preferred embodiment, the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (v) is in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, such as 45 to 50 wt%.The inventor has discovered that syrup obtained by the present invention having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, preferably in the range of 45 to 50 wt%, has a smooth texture and a taste of honey. In another preferred embodiment, the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (vi) is in the range of 50 to 70 wt%, more preferably in the range of 65 to 70 wt%. The inventor has discovered that a syrup obtained by the present invention having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 50 to 70%, preferably in the range of 65 to 70%, is particular useful due to notes of malt.

The syrup having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 50 to 70% is preferably obtained by first reducing the under vacuum at a temperature in the range of 40 to 70 degrees Celsius, preferably in the range of 40 to 50 degrees Celsius until the dry matter content in about 50 wt% and subsequently further reducing the moisture content by subjecting the lactase treated NF retentate to 90 to 120 degrees Celsius, such as about 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 50 to 70%, preferably in the range of 65 to 70%.

The inventor has discovered that syrup having the desired malt notes may be obtained in this way due to the Mallard reaction taking place in the step of subjecting the retentate to the temperature in the 90 to 120 degrees Celsius range.

Syrup of the invention

A second aspect of the present invention concerns syrup obtainable from the method according to the present invention.

As mentioned herein the object is to convert the lactose to D-galactose and D-glucose to provide syrup comprising D-galactose and D-glucose. In a preferred embodiment, the sugars of the syrup essentially consist of D- galactose and D-glucose. Further, in order to extend the shelf life of the syrup it is preferred that the dry matter of the syrup comprises at least 42 wt% sugars. In another embodiment, the sugar content is in the range of 400 to 750 grams per kilo syrup. In one embodiment, the dry matter of said syrup comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D-galactose and D-glucose.

In one embodiment, the lactose content of the syrup is 1 wt% or lower. As mentioned herein, it is preferred that the lactose content of the syrup is low, such as less than 1 wt%, for example less than 0.4 wt%, such as less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than less 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose. Accordingly in one embodiment, the syrup comprises less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose.

In one preferred embodiment, the dry matter content of the syrup is in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, such as 45 to 50 wt%.The inventor has discovered that syrup obtained by the present invention having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, preferably in the range of 45 to 50 wt%, in particular in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt% has a smooth texture and a taste of honey.

In one embodiment, the syrup comprises less than 0.60 wt% salt, less than 1 wt% lactose such as less than 0.4 wt% lactose, for example 0.1 wt% lactose, glucose in the range of 25-30 wt% and galactose in the range of 20-25 wt%. In another embodiment, the syrup comprises less than 0.60 % salt, lactose in the range of 1 1 -18 wt%, around 20 wt% glucose and around 15 wt% galactose. In another preferred embodiment, the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (vi) is in the range of 50 to 70 wt%, more preferably in the range of 65 to 70 wt%.

Uses of syrup

A further aspect of the present invention concerns the use of syrup obtainable by the method of the present invention for the preparation of a food product or a beverage. In one embodiment, the syrup is used for the preparation of a fermented beverage. In a further embodiment, the said fermented beverage is selected from the group consisting of beer, mead and wine. For the preparation of a fermented beverage such as beer, the inventor has discovered that a syrup obtained by the method of the present invention including process step (vi) and having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 50 to 70%, preferably in the range of 65 to 70%, is particular useful due to notes of malt. In fact, the inventor has discovered that this syrup may be used as an alternative to malt in the brewing process. One embodiment of the present invention therefore concerns the use of syrup obtained by the method of the present invention having a dry matter in the range of 50 to 70 wt%, preferably in the 65 to 70 wt%, for the preparation of a fermented beverage selected from the group consisting of beer, mead and wine, preferably beer

The inventor has discovered that syrup obtained by the present invention having a dry matter content of the syrup in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, preferably in the range of 45 to 50 wt%, has a smooth texture and a taste of honey. This syrup may be used a sweetener in the preparation of a non- alcoholic beverage or a food product. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the syrup of the invention used for the preparation of a non-alcoholic beverage or a food product has a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50%, such as 45 to 50%. In another embodiment of the present invention, the syrup is used for the preparation of a non-alcoholic beverage. In one embodiment, the syrup of the invention used for the preparation has a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50%, such as 45 to 50%. In one embodiment of the present invention, the syrup is used for the preparation of a food product selected from the group consisting of Confiture de lait (also known as dulche de leche or milkjam), jam, marmalade, bread, cake, cookies and candy. In one embodiment, the syrup of the invention used for the preparation has a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50%, such as 45 to 50%.

When describing the embodiments of the present invention, the combinations and permutations of all possible embodiments have not been explicitly described. Nevertheless, the mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims or described in different embodiments does not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be used to advantage. The present invention envisages all possible combinations and permutations of the described embodiments. The terms "comprising", "comprise" and "comprises" herein are intended to be optionally substitutable with the terms "consisting of, "consist of and "consist of, respectively, in every instance. The invention will be more fully understood by reference to the following examples. They should not, however, be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. All literature citations are incorporated by reference. The invention will hereafter be described by way of the following non-limiting items.

Item 1 . A method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk or a milk derived product and subjecting said milk or a milk derived product to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate and a ultrafiltration retentate,

(ii) subjecting the UF permeate of step (i) to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said NF retentate with to lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate using evaporation to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 20 to 75 wt%, for example 20 to 50 wt%, such as in the range of 40 to 50 wt%,

(vi) (optional) the syrup of step (v) further reducing the moisture content of the syrup of step (v) by subjecting said syrup to a temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%.

Item 2. The method according to item 1 , wherein the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (v) is in the range of 40 to 70 wt%. Item 3. The method of items 1 or 2, wherein the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (v) is in the range of 40 to 50 wt%, such as 45 to 50 wt%.

Item 4. The method of items 1 or 2, wherein the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (vi) is in the range of 50 to 70 wt%. Item 5. The method of items 1 or 2, wherein the dry matter content of the syrup obtained in step (vi) is in the range of 65 to 70 wt%.

Item 6. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the moisture content is reduced under vacuum at a temperature in the range of 40 to 70 degrees Celsius, preferably in the range of 40 to 50 degrees Celsius until the dry matter content in above 50 wt%, preferably above 55 wt%, such as in the range of 55 to 75 wt%. Item 7. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the moisture content is reduced by subjecting the lactase treated NF retentate to 90 to 120 degrees Celsius, such as about 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure. Item 8. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter comprises at least 42 wt% sugar.

Item 9. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said milk is selected from the group consisting of raw milk, skimmed milk, semi-skimmed milk and whole milk.

Item 10. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said milk is reconstituted milk. Item 1 1 . The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said milk derived product is whey.

Item 12. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said milk is selected from the group consisting of cow milk, buffalo milk, goat milk, sheep milk and camel milk. Item 13. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter content of the NF retentate obtained in step (ii) is in the range of 6 to 30 wt%, for example 10 and 25 wt% such as in the range of 13 and 20 wt%, preferably around 20 wt%.

Item 14. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the lactose in NF retentate is hydrolysed using a purified lactase.

Item 15. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said lactase is a beta-galactosidase obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis, such as Ha-Lactase 5200 (Chr. Hansen) or Ha-Lactase PS2000 (Chr. Hansen).

Item 16. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said lactase is contacted with the NF retentate at 42 degrees Celsius for at least 2 hours, such as 2 to 5 hours.

Item 17. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the lactase treated NF retentate obtained in step (iii) comprises less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than 0.1 % wt of lactose, such as less 0.01 % wt of lactose.

Item 18. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the product obtained in step (iii) is subjected to pasteurization prior to the step of reducing to moisture content (step v).

Item 19. The method according to item 18, wherein said pasteurization is conducted at 90 to 1 10 degrees Celsius for less than 1 min such as about 15 seconds. Item 20. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the nanofiltration is conducted using a continuous pressure in the range of 10 to 35 bar, such as in the range of 15 to 25 bar, such as around 20 bar. Item 21 . A syrup obtainable from the method according to any one of the preceding items.

Item 22. The syrup of item 21 , wherein said syrup comprises D-galactose and D-glucose.

Item 23. The syrup of item 21 , wherein the sugars of said syrup essentially consist of D-galactose and D-glucose.

Item 24. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter of said syrup comprises at least 42 wt% sugar.

Item 25. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said syrup comprises less 0.1 wt% of lactose, such as less 0.01 wt% of lactose. Item 26. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the sugar content is in the range of 400 to 750 grams per kilo syrup.

Item 27. Use of a syrup as defined in any of the preceding items for the preparation of a food product or a beverage.

Item 28. The use according to item 27, wherein said beverage is a fermented beverage.

Item 29. The use according to item 28, wherein said fermented beverage is selected from the group consisting of beer, mead and wine. Item 30. The use according to item 29, wherein the beverage is a nonalcoholic beverage.

Item 31 . The use according to item 27, wherein said food product is selected from the group consisting of Confiture de lait (also known as dulche de leche or milkjam), jam, marmalade, bread, cake, cookies and candy.

Item 32. A method for preparing a syrup, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing sweet whey,

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

Item 33. The method for preparing a syrup according to item 32, said method comprising the steps of

(i) providing a milk product and subjecting said milk to ultrafiltration (UF) to provide a ultrafiltration permeate in the form of sweet whey and a ultrafiltration retentate, (ii) subjecting sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization, (v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%, or reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated sweet whey by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

Item 34. The method according to any one of items 32 to 33, wherein the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate or NF mixture is stirred and homogenized during the moisture reduction step (v).

Item 35. The method according to any one of items 32 to 34, said method comprising the steps of

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%. Item 36. The method according to any one of items 32 to 34, said method comprising the steps of

(ii) subjecting said sweet whey to nanofiltration (NF) to provide a nanofiltration permeate and a nanofiltration retentate,

(iii) contacting said nanofiltration retentate with lactase,

(iv) (optional) subjecting the product of step (iii) to pasteurization,

(v) reducing the moisture content of the lactase treated nanofiltration retentate by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 40 to 50 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%. Item 37. The method according to any one of items 32 to 34, wherein said lactose nanofiltration retentate is heat treated to inactivate the lactase, and subsequently mixed with nanofiltration retentate to obtain an NF mixture comprises 80 to 85% heat treated lactose nanofiltration retentate and up to 100% nanofiltration retentate, and

(v) reducing the moisture content of said NF mixture by vacuum evaporation at a temperature in the range of 65 to 80 degrees Celsius to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 35 to 45 wt% and further reducing the moisture content by evaporation at atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 90 to 120 degrees Celsius under to obtain a syrup having a dry matter content in the range of 65 to 80 wt%, for example 70 to 80 wt%, such as 70 wt%.

Item 38. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D-galactose and D- glucose. Item 39. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said milk is bovine milk or buffalo milk.

Item 40. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter content of the NF retentate obtained in step (ii) is in the range of 6 to 30 wt%, such as in the range of 18 to 30%, for example 10 and 25 wt% such as in the range of 13 and 20 wt%, preferably around 20 wt%.

Item 41 . The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the lactose in NF retentate is hydrolysed using a purified lactase such as a beta-galactosidase obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis, such as Ha-Lactase 5200 (Chr. Hansen) or Ha-Lactase PS2000 (Chr. Hansen)..

Item 42. The method according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the lactase treated NF retentate obtained in step (iii) comprises less than 1 % wt%, such as less than 0.4 wt%, such as less than 0.2 wt%, for example less than 0.1 % wt of lactose, such as less 0.01 % wt of lactose.

Item 43. A syrup obtainable from the method according to any one of the preceding claims.

Item 44. The syrup of item 43, wherein said syrup comprises or the sugars of said syrup essentially consist of D-galactose and D-glucose. Item 45. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items, wherein the dry matter of said syrup comprises at least 42 wt% of a mixture of D- galactose and D-glucose.

Item 46. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items wherein said syrup comprises less than 0.60 wt% salt, less than 1 wt% lactose such as less than 0.4 wt% lactose, for example 0.1 wt% lactose, glucose in the range of 25-30 wt% and galactose in the range of 20-25 wt%.

Item 47. The syrup according to any one of the preceding items, wherein said syrup comprises less than 0.60 % salt, lactose in the range of 1 1 -18 wt% such as 15 to 18 wt%, around 20 wt% glucose and around 15 wt% galactose.

Item 48. Use of a syrup as defined in any of the preceding items for the preparation of a food product or a beverage, such as a fermented beverage, such as beer, mead or wine.

Item 49. The use according to item 48, wherein said food product is selected from the group consisting of Confiture de lait (also known as dulche de leche or milkjam), jam, marmalade, bread, cake, cookies and candy.

Examples

The preparation and comparative study of different syrups The syrups presented in this examples were prepared from UF permeate prepared from skimmed milk.

Example 1

In a first experiment, approximately 10 litre of UF permeate added to a pot and placed on a hotplate until the UF permeate reached a temperature around 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure. The UF permeate was maintained on the hotplate allowing it to condense to reach as dry matter content around 60 wt%. The inventor observed that the product of this process contained large amount of lactose crystals and the product was not useful as syrup. Moreover, the product appeared brown and burned. Attempts to hydrolyse the lactose of the product were not successful.

Example 2

In a second experiment, the same amount of UF permeate was subjected to lactase mediated hydrolysis of the lactose prior to reducing the moisture content as described for the in the first experiment (see Example 1 ).

The product obtained by this procedure had a fine and smooth and slightly viscous texture. The syrup had a sweet taste and slightly roasted notes. The syrup further has a salty taste, which is overruling the sweet taste.

Example 3

In a third experiment, the same amount of UF permeate was subject to a step of nanofiltration (NF) (using a nano-filter having a poresize in the range of 0.002 to 0.1 1 micrometer, under a 1 to 5 bar pressure). The dry matter content of the NF filtration retentate obtained was in the range of about 18 tp 25 wt%.

The NF retentate was subject to lactase treatment (approximately 0.5 gram/litre, Lactase PS2000 (Chr. Hansen)) and incubated at 5 degrees Celsius for approximately 24 hours.

The lactase treated NF retentate was subsequently to the same step of reducing the moisture content as conducted in Examples 1 and 2.

Syrup having a dry matter content around 45 to 55 wt% was obtained after approximate 5 to 7 hours on the hotplate at 100 degrees Celsius. Syrup having a dry matter content around 65 to 75 wt% was obtained after approximate 6 to 8 hours on the hotplate at 100 degrees Celsius. The inventor observed that the product having a dry matter content around 45 to 55 wt% had a fine and smooth and slightly viscous texture. The syrup had a sweet taste and slightly roasted notes. However, in contrary to the syrup of Example, the salty taste was absent. The inventor observed that the product having a dry matter content around 65 to 75 wt% had a fine and smooth and slightly viscous texture. The syrup had a sweet taste and more distinct roasted notes. No salty taste was observed. Example 4

Preparation of marmalade based on blackberries. 80 grams of blackberries were heated until cooking. 27 grams of the syrup of Example 3 having a dry matter content around 65 to 75 wt% was added. The marmalade obtained had a sweet, fruity taste with roasted notes.

Marmalade was prepared as described above using the syrup of Example 3 having a dry matter content around 45 to 55 wt%. The marmalade obtained had a sweet and fruity taste.

Example 5

Product to be used with cheese. 100 grams of the syrup of Example 3 having a dry matter content around 65 to 75 wt% was mixed with 3 grams of vanilla, 35 grams of walnuts and cooled to 5 degrees Celsius. The product obtained had a fine sweet and caramel taste. Example 6

Milk jam (sut receli). 100 grams of the syrup of Example 3 having a dry matter content around 65 to 75 wt% was mixed with 60 grams of cooked cream (38 % fat). The milk jam obtained had a sweet taste with roasted notes. Milk jam obtained using the syrup of Example 3 having a dry matter content around 45 to 55 wt% resulted in a product slightly sweeter than the reference product.

Example 7

Beer production.

Ground malt was prepared adding 700 grams of M0nster malt (ground malt), 150 gram Cara aroma malt (dark roasted malt), and 550 grams of a dark roasted malt type to 3 litre of water. The mixture was heated to 65 degrees Celsius for at least 1 hour. The process was terminated by adding 2 litre of water having a temperature of 77 degrees Celsius. 4 litre extract was hereby obtained.

Ground syrup for beer production: NF retentate comprising 20 wt% dry mattter.

2.6 litre syrup (NF rententat, 20 %was blended with 5,2 litre water comprising sugar (100 grams/litre). The blend was aliquoted into three portions of 2.6 litre. Heather beer

25 grams of heather were added to 2.6 litre of the above referenced blend were heated until boiling and maintained at boiling temperature for 1 hour.

Spruce beer 2.6 litre of the above referenced blend were gently heated for 30 minutes in the presence of 60 grams of spruce shots. Additional 10 grams of spruce shots were added and the blend was allowed to cool down. Elder beer

25 grams of elder flowers were added to 2.6 litre of the above referenced blend and heated until boiling and maintained at boiling temperature for 1 hour. Stout

1 litre syrup (65-70 wt% dry matter) was mixed with 6 litre of water comprising 165 grams of sugar per litre. The mixture were subsequently blended with 4 litre of the above mentioned ground malt comprising 125 grams per litre. A total volume of 9 litre comprising 190 grams per litre was heated until boiling and maintained at boiling temperature for 1 hour. The blend were split in two aliquots of 4.5 litre.

For the preparation of sweet stout, 25 grams of Mittelfruh hops were added 4.5 litre of the blend.

For the preparation of bitter stout, 25 grams of Golding hops were added 4.5 litre of the blend.

Pilsner

2,5 litres of syrup/ground malt mixture is blended with 1 .5 litre water (the blend comprises 100 grams of sugar pre litre). 2 grams of golden hops was added to the blend and was heated until boiling and maintained at boiling temperature for 1 hour.

Mead 1 litre syrup (50 wt% dry matter) was mixed with 2.5 litre water. 2 litre of the blend (comprising 100 grams of sugar per litre) was heated until boiling and maintained at boiling temperature for 1 hour. 2.5 grams of Golding hops and 2.5 grams of Mittelfruh hops were added to the boiling mixture and the mixture was allowed to boil for 45 minutes. The mixture was condensed to a volume of 2 litre.

Ale and cider

2 litre syrup (50 wt% dry matter) is mixed with 1 .5 litre water. The volume is adjusted to 10 litres by adding water. The sugar content of the blend is 100 grams per litre. / litres of the blend was heated until boiling, 25 grams of Mittelfruh hops were added to the blend and boiling temperature was continued for 1 hour. After cooking the blends mentioned above, the blends are passed through a strainer and cooled down. Brewer yeast is added to the blends

(approximately 10 grams yeast per litre blend) and the blends is added to containers for fermentation. The blends are stored for a minimum of 14 days at a temperature not exceeding 20 degrees Celsius allowing the fermentation for take place. The ferment is then drawn to bottles, sealed and stored for a further one to two weeks at room temperature allowing carbon dioxide formation to take place in the bottles.

The inventor found that the syrup used is substrate for the yeast and useful in fermentation processes, such as beer brewing. The inventor further discovered that the syrup contribute to the taste with its distinct flavour. The syrups of the present invention are comparable with other commercial product used for the preparation of fermented beverages. Example 8

A non-limiting example of the preparation of a syrup according to the invention. Bovine or buffalo milk having a dry matter content of approx. 5-7 % is subjected to ultra-filtration (UF) to provide a permeate having a dry matter content of approx. 5-7 % (sweet whey) and retentate having a dry matter content a content of dry matter in the range of 18-22 %. The sweet whey may be prepared from non-fermented milk, prefably bovine or and buffalo milk or coagulated bovine or and buffalo milk by ultrafiltration. The pH of the sweet whey is greater than or equal to pH 5.6.

The sweet whey is subjected to nanofiltration (NF) to obtain a NF permeate having a dry matter content a content of dry matter in the range 0.5 to 3% and a NF retentate having a dry matter content a content of dry matter content above 18%.

Nano filtration condition:

(a) Pore size from 1 -10 nm

(b) 1 -106 pores per cm2

(c) Pressure between 5-30 bar

(d) Temperature at maximum 45 degrees. The nanofiltration step reduces the content of sodium and calcium nitrates and other minerals by more than 30%, or the salt content is less than 1 .0 gr sodium and calcium nitrates per 100 gr, which increases the sweetness of the (NF) retentate, and defines the taste of syrup.

The NF retentate is optionally pasteurised at min. 72 degrees in 15 sec. (atm) The NF retentate is treated with purified Lactase (Beta-galactosidase) at the recommended dosage between 2500-20000 NLU/L (NF) retentate (having a dry matter content about 20 wt%) at a temperatures, which does not exeed 42 degrees Celicius (atm) in 2 h or until the content of lactose is less than 0.1 %.

Preparation of a honey like syrup.

The moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate is reduced by vacuum evaporation (between -0,85 and -0,99 bar) at minimum 65 degrees Celsius until the dy matter content is in the range of 50-80 wt%. To avoid crystallisation, the syrup is subjected to stirring at high revolutions at 2000 at high pressure and using a homoganisator capable of breaking hard solid molecules into 1 μιτι size particles. The honey like syrup has a salt content of the syrup is less than 0,60 %, a lactose content less than 1 wt% such as less than 0.4%, for example 0.1 wt% and 25-30 wt% glucose and between 20-25%wt galactose.

Dark (caramelized) syrup

The moisture content of the lactase treated NF retentate is reduced by vacuum evaporation (between -0,85 and -0,99 bar) at minimum 65 degrees until the dry matter content is in the range of 40-50 wt%. The moisture content of the syrup is further reduced by subjecting the syrup to a

temperature above 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content is in the range of 50-80 wt%. To avoid crystallisation, the syrup is subjected to stirring at high revolutions at 2000 at high pressure and using a homoganisator capable of breaking hard solid molecules into 1 μιτι size particles. The dark (caramelized) syrup has a salt content of the syrup is less than 0.60 %, a lactose content less than 1 wt% such as less than 0.4%, for example 0.1 wt% and 25-30 wt% glucose and between 20-25%wt galactose Dolce de leche like syrup

NF retentate is treated with purified Lactase (Beta-galactosidase) at the recommended dosage between 2500-20000 NLU/L (NF) retentate (having a dry matter content about 20 wt%) at a temperatures, which does not exeed 42 degrees Celicius (atm) in 2 h or until the content of lactose is less than 0.1 %. The lactase treated NF retentate is then heat treated to inactivate the enzyme (at vacuum between -0,85 and 0,99 bar until minimum 80 degrees is reached). The lactase treated NF retentate is mixed with untreated NF retentate such that the mixture comprises 85 wt% lactase treated NF retentate and 15 wt% untreated NF retentate.

The moisture content of the lactase treated NF mixture is reduced by vacuum evaporation (between -0,85 and -0,99 bar) at minimum 65 degrees until the dry matter content is in the range of 35-45 wt%. The moisture content of the syrup is further reduced by subjecting the syrup to a temperature above 100 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure until the dry matter content is in the range of 50-80 wt%. To avoid crystallisation, the syrup is subjected to stirring at high revolutions at 2000 at high pressure and using a homoganisator capable of breaking hard solid molecules into 1 μιτι size particles.

The Dolce de leche like syrup has a salt content of the syrup is less than 0.60 %, a lactose content in the range of 1 1 -18wt%, 20 wt% glucose and between 15%wt galactose. The fat content is less than 1 %.