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Title:
SYSTEM OF CONVERSION OF WIND ENERGY TOWARD ELECTRIC ENERGY, BY A HIGH ALTITUDE GENERATOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/158789
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is lays in the sector of renewable energies, specifically the High Altitude Wind Energy sector, the so-called Airborne Wind Energy (A.W.E.). It consists of a system of conversion of wind energy into electrical energy that exploits the alternate motion, along a given path, of a unit placed on the ground and driven by a power wing profile, proposing to optimize the energy conversion method wind power in electricity - based on the flight of wings or kites bound with cables to the ground, for high altitude wind generators, by solving or significantly mitigating the problems of current generators, where at each "active" phase of energy production follows a "passive" phase which brings the energy production to "0" for several minutes, stopping or reversing the movement of the moto-generators - which move away considerably from the maximum yield curves.

Inventors:
GHIVARELLO, Marco (Via Orbetello 36, Turin, 10148, IT)
Application Number:
IT2018/050031
Publication Date:
September 07, 2018
Filing Date:
February 28, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GHIVARELLO, Marco (Via Orbetello 36, Turin, 10148, IT)
International Classes:
F03D5/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016150561A12016-09-29
WO2014040716A12014-03-20
Foreign References:
US20070228738A12007-10-04
US20020040948A12002-04-11
EP2672109A12013-12-11
CN105386931A2016-03-09
Other References:
ANTONELLO CHERUBINI ET AL: "Airborne Wind Energy Systems: A review of the technologies", RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS., vol. 51, 1 November 2015 (2015-11-01), US, pages 1461 - 1476, XP055486588, ISSN: 1364-0321, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.053
CANALE M ET AL: "Power Kites for wind energy generation: Fast predictive control of tethered airfoils", IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, IEEE SEWRVICE CENTER, PISCATAWAY, NJ, US, 1 December 2007 (2007-12-01), pages 25 - 38, XP008146545, ISSN: 0272-1708
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1 - GENERATOR of High Altitude Wind Energy type - hereafter referred to as the "generating machine" - comprising three elements that are essentially intertwined with each other and subordinated to it:

(a) The generator, placed on the ground and connected by a connecting element - made by at least one rope - to at least (b) a wing or kite, which, flying with (c) a flight method - described by a cyclic trajectory, said " closed Yo-Yo ", specifically designed for the aforementioned generating machine - unroll, and then wraps, by means of its movement at a specific height, said cable with respect to at least one device forming part of said generator, thus producing electrical energy by conversion of the wind energy.

2 - GENERATOR according to the previous claim, characterized in that the aforementioned (a) generator will be equipped with one or more Kinetic Accumulators, or "Flywheels" - as an alternative to the moto-alternator - which will be kept constantly in motion, increasing its efficiency and duration, therefore the production (kW/h).

Characterized by the simultaneous optimization of the flight characteristics of at least one aforementioned (b) wing, having a design configuration called "wing a box", synchronized on the other components of the generating machine.

Said wing is advantageously developed to describe, through flight control means and by at least one said cable, a {c) flight method characterized bv a closed "8" shaoe trajectory, called "closed Yo-Yo", including two active phases, and respectively two passive phases, during which the at least one rope, is cyclically unrolled and rewound, obtaining the so-called "working run" which mechanically feeds said at least one Kinetic Accumulator. Said working run of said cable is determined by varying the inclination of said trajectory to a « closed 8» with respect to a vertical plane, in which said inclination is proportional to the trim angles from wing and cable.

The energy produced by said generator will be preferably stored in an accumulation system, said generator will preferably be equipped with a damper for the peak loads and will be mounted on a support platform.

The rewinding of said at least one cable - referred to as the passive phase - will preferably be performed by means of a retraction motor. 3 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator comprises an additional storage system to which being transferred the excess energy, preferably a super-capacitor, or a hydraulic storage system, or by batteries, or any system which is definable with this wording.

4 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator has a further retraction motor optimized on the rewinding force of the cable - and separated from the Kinetic Accumulators, which will be used only during the production phase and optimized on the wing size that will be used.

5 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator support platform containing the moving parts (Pulley - Kinetic Accumulators - etc.) is mounted on a pin and will be connected, purely as an example, to a linear actuator capable of managing the movement (or "tracking") - on the "pitch" axis - of the trajectory of said wing

6- GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is semi-rigid, that is, with a structure capable of deforming under the action of aerodynamic loads, to be realized with appropriate technologies. 7- GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is rigid, ie with a rigid structure, similar to any aircraft. 8- GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is made by joining different technologies, as a non-binding example :

- of the paraglider; in order to reduce the weight of the structure, the wing covering, as an example, will be constructed applying the concept of the flexible wing (type "flexifoil"), where the covering is kept in shape by the dynamic pressure created by the relative wind, using "air intakes" obtained using the fabric of the wing covering, where the air-intakes, so-called "cells", are present, made of fabric and kept under dynamic pressure by means of valves which will be similar to those used in "airbag" harnesses, commonly used by paraglider pilots.

- of the Kites (the «bladder») or tensile structures for the main wing spare member, where it is provided as a non-binding example to use the so-called «Tensairity» technology, composed of at least one "compression element ", one inflated, and another made by a cord.

- of the traditional aviation, through an additional wing, the purpose of which will be to brace the main wing, in the example posed in the rear position and functioning as a "leaf spring", having a stiffness to be calculated to obtain a correct compromise of elasticity with the main wing.

9- GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is specifically usable both for high altitude wind generators having ground generators ("ground-gen" type) or as an integral part of the wing itself, thus having generators in flight (like «fly-gen).

AMENDED CLAIMS

received by the International Bureau on 14 August 2018 (14.08.2018)

1 - GENERATOR of High Altitude Wind Energy type - hereafter referred to as the "generating machine" - comprising three elements that are essentially intertwined with each other and subordinated to it:

(a) The generator, placed on the ground and connected by a connecting element - made by at least one rope - to at least (b) a wing or kite, which, flying with (c) a flight method - described by a cyclic trajectory, said " closed Yo-Yo ", specifically designed for the aforementioned generating machine - unroll, and then wraps, by means of its movement at a specific height, said cable with respect to at least one device forming part of said generator, thus producing electrical energy by conversion of the wind energy.

As generator (a) will be equipped with one or more Kinetic Accumulators, or "Flywheels" - as an alternative to the moto-alternator - which will be kept constantly in motion, increasing its efficiency and duration, therefore the production (kW/h). Said wing (b), will have a design configuration called "wing a box", made through the joint use of different construction technologies and synchronized on the other components of the generating machine.

Said wing is advantageously developed to describe, through flight control means and by at least one said cable, a (c) flight method characterized by a closed "8" shape trajectory, called "closed Yo-Yo", including two active phases, and respectively two passive phases, during which the at least one rope, is cyclically unrolled and rewound, obtaining the so-called "working run" which mechanically feeds said at least one Kinetic Accumulator.

Said working run of said cable is determined by varyig the inclination of said trajectory to a ϊ closed 85 with respect to a vertical plane, in which said inclination is proportional to the trim angles from wing and cable.

The energy produced by said generator will be preferably stored in an accumulation system, said generator will preferably be equipped with a damper for the peak loads and will be mounted on a support platform. The rewinding of said at least one cable - referred to as the passive phase - will preferably be performed by means of a retraction motor.

2 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator comprises an additional storage system to which being transferred the excess energy, preferably a super-capacitor, or a hydraulic storage system, or by batteries, or any system which is definable with this wording. 3 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator has a further retraction motor optimized on the rewinding force of the cable - and separated from the Kinetic Accumulators, which will be used only during the production phase and optimized on the wing size that will be used.

4 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the generator support platform containing the moving parts (Pulley - Kinetic Accumulators - etc.) is mounted on a pin and will be connected, purely as an example, to a linear actuator capable of managing the movement (or "tracking") - on the "pitch" axis - of the trajectory of said wing

5 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is made by joining different technologies, as a non-binding example:

- of the paraglider; in order to reduce the weight of the structure, the wing covering, as an example, will be constructed applying the concept of the flexible wing (type "flexifoil"), where the covering is kept in shape by the dynamic pressure created by the relative wind, using "air intakes" obtained using the fabric of the wing covering, where the air-intakes, so-called "cells", are present, made of fabric and kept under dynamic pressure by means of valves which will be similar to those used in "airbag" harnesses, commonly used by paraglider pilots. - of the Kites (the ϊ bladdero) or tensile structures for the main wing spare member, where it is provided as a non-binding example to use the so-called TTensairityo technology, composed of at least one "compression element ", one inflated, and another made by a cord.

- of the traditional aviation, through an additional wing, the purpose of which will be to brace the main wing, in the example posed in the rear position and functioning as a "leaf spring", having a stiffness to be calculated to obtain a correct compromise of elasticity with the main wing.

6 - GENERATOR according to the preceding claims, characterized by the fact that the customized wing is specifically usable both for high altitude wind generators having ground generators ("ground-gen" type) or as an integral part of the wing itself, thus having generators in flight (like ϊ fly- gen).

Description:
DESCRIPTION of the industrial invention entitled:

"SYSTEM OF CONVERSION OF WIND ENERGY TOWARD ELECTRIC ENERGY,

BY A HIGH ALTITUDE GENERATOR"

SCOPE

The present invention relates to the world of renewable energies, in particular to the high altitude wind sector, the so-called Airborne Wind Energy (A.W. E.), and refers to a conversion system of wind energy into electrical energy that exploits the alternate motion, along a given path, of a unit placed on the ground and driven by a power wing profile.

In the field of renewable energies, the conversion of wind energy into electricity is becoming increasingly important. This conversion takes place through

electromechanical machines dedicated to the purpose and called wind generators.

BRIEF OF TECHNIQUES ALREADY KNOWN

The main characteristic that differentiates a high altitude wind turbine from a conventional wind turbine, comes from the elimination of about 90% of the mass of the support tower of the wind turbines, and the replacement of the blades themselves - an "active" element fundamental for the conversion of wind energy into electricity - with a rigid or flexible wing (a kite or a flexifoil). Please see : https://en.wikipedia.ora/wiki/Airborne wind turbine.

It is known that it is the surface of the blade furthest from the hub - about 30% - that alone produces more than 50% of the power, and it is therefore intuitive that a high altitude wind plant will weigh much less -maybe even a tenth - of a wind turbine of equal power.

A little 'less intuitive but relevant, is the advantage in terms of energy, which will be achieved by flying an altitude well above those achievable with a wind turbine; at such altitudes the wind speed is greater and it is possible to obtain much more energy, which is proportional to the square and power which is proportional to the cube of that speed. The high altitude wind generators, using appropriate wings or kites flying in the sky with fixed trajectories, cyclically perform and rewind in their movement the moto-alternators, connected to them by cables, thus producing electricity from the motion of the wings themselves.

During the cycles, after each "active" phase of energy production, a "passive" phase follows that all the designers try to shorten, because it brings the energy production to zero for several minutes, stopping or reversing the movement of the moto-alternators - which move away noticeably from the maximum yield curves - and absorb part of the energy produced.

Then follows a new "active" cycle; it should also be noted that, in high-altitude wind generators, the cable-motor-alternator connection is direct, and usually is archieved by means of geared motors.

Concerning the wings' trajectory, that it described in the method of movement called "Yo-Yo type" (Fio.14), in which, at each production cycle, a series of movements are made by the wing, progressively releasing at least one rope, which will rotate at least one moto-alternator, thereby producing electrical energy through a "8" shaped trajectory having a horizontal or angled axis with a turning diameter (44), and a working run (45).

The "Yo-Yo" method defines the flight path of the wing in a manner similar to Kite-Surf for sports use, with the difference that the wing, instead of pulling the kite surfer, carries out the ropes, putting in motion the moto-alternators, and moves up hundreds of meters during the "active" phase (which occurs during the unfolding of the rope, producing energy), and returns down in the "passive" one. But, here too, cyclically interrupting the energy production for periods proportional to the distance gained by the generator during the turns (passive phases) of the rope, as well as interrupting the movement of the above-described motor-alternators.

On the topic of "technological maturity" of the wings for high-altitude wind generators, it is noted an emerging confidence in the technology of rigid wings rather than in flexible ones, but in any case the fact that as of today it is foreseen a mixed use, by competitors, of both rigid and flexible wings, it denotes a general lack of knowledge of the optimal design logics and construction technologies.

Moreover, in the current state of the art, there are no wings for high-altitude wind generators in series production.

Also the characteristics of reliability, resistance to atmospheric agents, flexibility in use in "real conditions of use", costs and maintenance intervals, technical specifications, insurance classes, are not known, indicating gaps in the level of competitiveness towards the current wind turbines.

With regard to rigid wings, insurance issues arise, caused by the «perceived risk», above all for those equipped with on-board engines, which are able to manage the "vertical" take-off and landing phases, ie as they do for a helicopter.

The existence is known - from publications appearing in scientific and popular journals and from various previous patents - of methods of converting wind energy through devices able to convert the mechanical energy generated by the wind source into another form of energy, typically electrical, which exploit the wind using power wing profiles (generally indicated by the English term "kite") connected to them by cables.

For example, US patents no. US 3,987,987, US 4,076,190, n. US 7,656,053, US 4,251,040, n . US 6,254,034 Bl, n. US 6,914.345 B2, n. US 36.523.781 B2, and the international patent n. WO / 2009/035492 describe systems for converting the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy through the in-flight management of "power wings or kites" connected by one or more cables to the ground.

DESCRIPTION

The present invention proposes to optimize the method of converting wind energy into electrical energy - based on the flight of wings or kites bound with ground cables for High Altitude Wind Generators, solving or mitigating the problems described in the previous paragraph, by a high altitude wind generator - hereinafter referred to as the "generating machine" - comprising three elements that are essentially intertwined with each other and subordinated to it.

(a) the generator, placed on the ground and connected by a connecting element - made by at least one rope - to at least (b) a wing or kite, which, flying with (c) a flight method - described by a cyclic trajectory, said "closed Yo-Yo", specifically designed for the aforesaid generating machine - unrolls and then wraps, by means of its movement at a specific height, said cable with respect to at least one device forming part of said generator, thus producing electrical energy by direct conversion of the wind energy. characterized by the fact that the aforementioned (a) generator shown in the drawings in Fig. 1-2-4-5, will be equipped with one or more Kinetic Accumulators, or «FlyWheels» (5) - as an alternative to the moto-alternators - which will always be kept in motion and also in the same direction of rotation, characterized by the fact that it can be developed with modularity logics on growing sizes, so as to increase the use spectrum; advantageously it is envisaged to maximize the active phase - that is to say the productive one - increasing its duration and therefore production

(kW/h), then quickly resetting the wing to start a new cycle.

The sequence of images in Fig. 2 explains the movement from the aforementioned Kinetic Accumulators, where passing from image 1 to 3, the drum - following the movements of the wing - will cyclically reverse the movement, while the gear of the Kinetic Accumulator will rotate always in the same sense. In the figure represented "clockwise" as an example (with the aid of a free wheel), continuously transferring the kinetic energy, and creating electricity. In this way it is advantageously expected to keep the efficiency of the system high, by transferring more energy from the wing to the generator.

It may become necessary to insert a "damper" on the peak loads given by the wind bursts, by means of a clutch, preferably electromagnetic (4) or of another type.

The aforesaid Kinetic Accumulators work by means of an operation similar to the mechanism of a clock (see Fig. 3), where the bidirectional rope movements (12) (the lever mechanism, set as an example), and sling bar (13) are followed by a rotary movement in one direction of the toothed wheel (14). The aforesaid Kinetic Accumulators will also be connected to the kinematic chain described above by means of other different free wheels (7), are mechanically powered by at least one cable which is connected to at least one wing, which flies to the sky according to the flight method - described by the aforementioned cyclic trajectory.

To release the cable, freeing the wing towards the sky, the aforementioned Kinetic accumulators, which preferably can operate in two modes, motor and alternator - will work creating a minimal braking action in order to hold the cable (10) in tension, coupled with a mechanical tensioner (9), mounted downstream of the cable-winding pulley (1), which will be designed for this purpose.

The Software and the Hardware must appropriately The Software and the Hardware must appropriately - i.e. in synchrony - manage these functionalities. The cable - when it is locked with respect to the pulley - drags it by rotating it together with its toothed ring (11).

But both the pulley and the fifth wheel are not directly connected to the Kinetic Accumulators, in fact, they will rotate a gear inside the drum connected to at least one reducer (3). and the aforementioned possible friction, which indirectly feed the accumulators themselves with the kinetic energy transmitted by the wing in flight.

The gearbox (preferably of the planetary type) will be installed in order to multiply the number of revolutions, according to the specifications of the kinetic accumulator.

The pulling Cable Connection - Kinetic Accumulator is managed, during the passive phases in which the pulley reverses the movement, by means of another free wheel (2) keyed on the pulley itself, therefore it is indirect. Possibly coaxial to this freewheel, the retraction motor (8) will be keyed, it will be responsible for the rewinding of the cable, which will rotate with a rotation opposite to that of the motion in the active phases, (see Fig. 4- Fig. 5)

In accordance with the present invention : - The generator works advantageously as if it were a blocked cable, therefore from the wing takeoff the cable will be released until reaching the desired altitude and then the aforementioned cable will be blocked with respect to the pulley and the above work cycle will start. - The frame or platform (6) containing the moving parts (Pulley - Kinetic Accumulator - etc.) will preferably be mounted on a pin and preferably connected to at least one linear actuator, which will have to manage the "tracking" on the "pitch" axis ", chasing the wing in its flight path. When arriving in the operating area of flight that generates the greatest amount of energy, the movement of the wing will be triggered, the traction of which will activate the aforementioned kinetic accumulators which will begin to generate energy, which will then be conserved and spent only partially during the passive phases and the release to the network, while the electronics of the generating machine will have to stabilize, as far as possible, the revolutions and production (kW) on the expected working cycle.

The graph in Fig. 6 represents the power produced as a function of time for a conventional generator, while the one in Fig. 7 simulates another one that uses the Kinetic Accumulators for power generation, highlighting its final purpose that is to increase the area under the curve, then the energy production.

On the axis of the abscissas (19) the time is shown (sec.) while on that of the ordinates (18) is the mechanical power (kW).

The wind speed of the diagram is simulated in about ~ 7 m/s.

The dash-dot lines (15) represent the mechanical energy produced, the font-solid lines (16), the mechanical power produced in the active phases and consumed in the passive phases.

The dotted areas (17) in Fig. 6 - Fig.7 represent the average duration of the active-passive phases, (20) is the Energy produced in the active phase, (21) is the one, spent for the passive phase.

The present invention proposes to optimize the final yield of the system being characterized by the simultaneous optimization of the flight characteristics of (b) at least one aforementioned wing, having a design configuration called "box wing", synchronized with the other components of the generating machine.

This design configuration advantageously proposes to increase the characteristics of lightness and structural strength required by the aforementioned wings while, in parallel, the optimization of the energy production method, described therein, simultaneously keeps the speed of the wing in the wind, as high and as constant as possible, obtaining high traction values on at least such one rope, finally optimizing the final yield of the generating machine.

Consider that a low wind speed of the generator start (called "Cut-In" Speed) is obtained with lightness, while the maximum allowed wind Speed (called "Cut-Off") is obtained through the structural resistance, that is, two variables that have been up to now, in total reciprocal antithesis, when it comes to engineering solutions needed to optimize them reciprocally.

In order to raise the «Cut-off», the invention envisages making a semi-rigid structure for the aforesaid wing, which is advantageously able to - much more than a rigid one - cushion the peak aerodynamic loads, given by the wind gust suffered during the flight. To achieve simultaneously and optimally the above variables, the aforementioned wing can be characterized by a multiple manufacturing technology, which will advantageously combine different sectors and different aeronautical technologies:

- from paraqlidinq; in order to reduce the weight of the structure, the wing covering, as an example, will be constructed applying the concept of the flexible wing (type "flexifoil"), where the covering is kept in shape by the dynamic pressure created by the relative wind, using "air intakes" obtained using the fabric of the wing covering - see Fig. 9 where the air-intakes, so-called "cells", are present (26) - (29). made of fabric and kept under dynamic pressure by means of valves (25) - (30) which will be similar to those used in "airbag" harnesses (27), commonly used by paraglider pilots.

- of the Kites (the «bladder») or tensile structures for the main wing spare member, where it is foreseen as a non-binding example to use the so-called «Tensairity» technology, composed of at least one "compression" element (22 ), one inflated (23), and another made by a cord (24). See Fig. 8 for "Tensairity" and Fig.10 for the "bladder" installed on the wing (31).

- of the traditional aviation - see Fig. 10 (32) through an additional wing, the purpose of which will be to brace the main wing, in the example posed in the rear position and functioning as a "leaf spring", having a stiffness to be calculated to obtain a correct compromise of elasticity with the main wing.

These objectives are therefore obtained in order to advantageously lower the weight of the structure, while enhancing at the same time the structural strength parameters. The wing subject of the present invention is in the non-binding example, composed of three main elements, a lower main wing (38), an additional upper wing of smaller dimensions (32), bracing elements joining the two wings (28). The central vertical element can function as a "drift" and have a possible mobile rudder. See Fig. 12

The geometry, as well as the alignment order of the wings (lower, upper), the dimensions and the proportions may be varied, without departing from the scope of the invention.

In Fig. 11 the two orthographic and other axonometric views are shown illustrating one of the possible box configurations of the wing object of the patent. The main wing will have a rope (36), and a wingspan (37) which can be controlled by the aerodynamic controls shown :

Aileron (33), Flap (34), Equilibrator (35), but also, alternatively, by two or more cables, connected to the generator, similar to Kite kites, thus obtaining a simpler wing control.

Fig. 13 shows, in a graph as a non-binding example, the results sought to be archieved (compared with the data of the American company called "Makani Power", and those related to wind turbine). (39A) - (39B) : Energy production objective (CUT-IN and CUT-OFF)

(40A) - (40B) : Data taken on "Makani Power" example, (source Makani P.)

(41) : conventional wind turbine

(42) : Power (kW)

(43) : Wind speed (m/s)

Said wing will consequently be advantageously characterized by a high efficiency and a low weight, allowing to simplify the on-board electronics and the control algorithms.

The aforementioned characteristics aim to solve the problem of "takeoff" and "landing" advantageously and decisively, with respect to conventional rigid wings, - with heavier and more complex powertrains - while maintaining the advantages of aerodynamic efficiency and speed rigid wings, compared to flexible ones, while facilitating the management of Hardware / Software control systems.

Said wing is advantageously carried out to describe, by flight control means and by at least one said cable, a (c) flight method characterized by a closed "8" shape trajectory, called "closed Yo-Yo", including two active phases (49) (dashed in Fig. 16- Fig. 17), and respectively two passive phases (50), during which the at least one rope (53) is cyclically turned and rewound, obtaining - the so-called "work run" (45) which mechanically feeds at least one Kinetic Accumulator (54).

Said work run, related to a turning diameter (44), is determined by varying the inclination (48), but also preferably the shape of said closed "8" trajectory or however short with respect to a vertical plane, in wherein said inclination and said shape are proportional to the wing - wire trim angles and to the geometry of said trajectory.

By varying said inclination and possibly said shape, the distance of said wing varies with respect to said at least one Kinetic Accumulator installed on board the generator (a) on the ground.

In this way, the extreme points of said trajectory cyclically modify the relative distances (51A) - (51 B) of said wing (52), with respect to said motor-alternator, allowing the movements of the rope, which mechanically transfers the motion to said at least one Kinetic Accumulator.

Said working method " closed Yo-Yo ", increases the energy production and therefore advantageously avoids that the rhythms of energy production generated by the motor-alternators are cyclically stopped at each passive phase, as already described in the chapter "notes to the known technique".

The comparison between the two flight paths is visible in Fig. 15, where a part of the " traditional Yo-Yo " trajectory is visible (47), which moves away for hundreds of meters, in overlapping with the " closed Yo-Yo " (46).

The present invention will allow to perform the passive phase with minimal energy losses working advantageously on "transitory" short time {i.e. on minimal times) by triggering a rapid "diving" movement which leads the wing to describe the trajectory.

The concept is easy to understand if one imagines a wing that, flying at high speed, in each passive phase can vary its flight attitude, "pitching" for a few moments towards the generator.

The aforesaid invention proposes to optimize the final yield and therefore the energy production of the system by means of the synchronized, reciprocal and inter-connected operation of each of the aforementioned elements, which will consequently have to be designed as components of the same machine.

The essential connection between the various elements is now understood by looking again at the graph in Fig. 7 which, we recall, simulates a production cycle that uses the Kinetic Accumulators working through the aforementioned "closed Yo-Yo" flight method for generating power, highlighting its final purpose, that is to increase the area under the curve, and therefore the energy production.

The complementary purpose of the present invention is to advantageously reduce the set-up times of the generating machine to archieve the mass production by means of all the above-mentioned advantages.

BEST WAY TO APPLY THE INVENTION

In accordance with the subject of the present invention and with the accompanying drawings, two design methodologies are identified, both of which are suitable for the best industrial applicability:

the creation of a generating machine that is initially small - this in order to limit the costs and possibly the problems related to the flight permits within a given geographical area - which will begin to be OFF-GRID, ie free from the problems of connection to the electricity grid.

This allows the manufacturing and the execution of the necessary test phase, more streamlined and effective.

These tests must be carried out, in accordance with the description and attached drawings, in an extensive and sequential manner geared to the subsequent mass production of the technology, progressively taking into consideration all the technical, technological, climatic, logistic, economic and other variables necessary to deliver a "robust design" from a manufacturing point of view.

Subsequently - only after the start of these phases - it will be possible to take into account the construction of a larger-sized generating machine. The reasons for which the present invention envisages a "modular" type generating machine are thus connected to the greater ease of transition to larger machines, if it is modular.

At the end of the industrial design process, the "final" generator ON_GRID will be defined, together with the subsequent definition of the operating specifications.

LEGEND of the FIGURE DRAWINGS The present invention is described by way of non-limiting example, with reference to the drawings enclosed in the following pages, and divided as.

(a) "generator", (b) wing and (c) " Yo-Yo flight method":

(a) GENERATOR

FIG. 1 - OPERATION SCHEME

(1) Pulley or Drum

(2) Free Wheel on Pulley

(3) Reducer

(4) Clutch

(5) Kinetic Accumulator or Flywheel - (moto-alternator integrated in the kinetic accumulator)

(6) Chassis

(7) Free Wheel on the Flywheel

(8) Pulley Retraction Motor

(9) Tensioner Of The Rope / Ropes

FIG. 2 - MOVEMENTS SEQUENCE

(10) Rope (or Cable) of connection Generator-Wing

(1) Pulley or Drum

(5) Kinetic Accumulator (Or Flywheel)

(11) Toothed Ring

FIG. 3 - LEVERISM (the gear leverism - related to the mechanism of a clock - explains by similarity the operation of the invention)

(12) Rope Mechanism «Leverism»

(13) Sling Bar: has an alternating movement dictated by the movements of the rope

(14) Toothed Wheel : it always turns in the same direction FIG. 4 - Section A-A

The figure represents the mid-section of the invention in question, where the moving parts are visible (Flywheels and relative motor-reducers, the toothed wheel, the coaxial motor of retraction) and the fixed parts (frame, support). (a) GENERATOR

FIG. 5 - DETAIL SECTION A-A, WHERE THE ASSEMBLY OF MOVING PARTS IS VISIBLE

(I) PULLEY or DRUM

(3) (4) Reducer / Clutch

(5) Kinetic Accumulator (or flywheel)

(6) Chassis

(7) Free wheel

(8) Pulley retraction motor (coaxial in figure)

(I I) Toothed ring

FIG. 6 - ENERGY PRODUCTION GRAPH FOR A TYPICAL HIGH ALTITUDE WIND GENERATOR

(15) Mechanical Energy (MJ)

(16) Mechanical Power (kW)

(17) Average duration of active phases - passive

(18) Y AXIS: Power / Mechanical Energy (kW)

(19) X AXIS: Time (sec.)

Fig. 7 - ENERGY PRODUCTION GRAPH SIMULATED ON A KINETIC

ACCUMULATION GENERATOR

(16) Mechanical Po wer (kW)

(17) Average duration of the active and passive phases

(18) Y axis: Power / Mechanical Energy (kW)

(19) X axis: Time (sec.)

(20) ENERGY PRODUCED during the active phase

(21) ENERGY SPENT during the passive phase ( wing recovery) (b) WING

Fig. 8 - MAIN SPAR (in the technology called "Tensairity", while is also called "Bladder" in the technology used on Kite-Surf wings)

(22) Element that works on compression («Compression Element»)

(23) Inflatable Spar Member ( «Airbeam» )

(24) Rope («Cable»)

Fig. 9 - DETAIL VALVES AND WING CELLS

(25) Detail of the wing cells with valves unidirectional in fabric

(26) Cover made in paraglider or hang-glider fabric

(27) Crash protection airbags for use on paragliders (example)

Fig. 10 - COMPLETE VIEW OF THE WING AND BIMODIAL CROSS MEMBER

(28) Anti-twist struts spars

(26) (29) Paragliding fabric wing covering (hypothesis gr 32-40 / m2)

(30) Wing cells with valves unidirectional in fabric

(31) Assembly of the main spar ( «Tensairity» / «bladder»)

(32) Wing / operating as a differentiated thickness leaf spring

Fig. 11 - WING, MAIN VIEWS

(33) Ailerons

(34) Flap

(35) Elevator

(36) Wing chord

(37) Wingspan (b) WING

Fig. 12 - RENDERING WING ASSONOMETRIC SIMULATION

(38) Lower Wing

(32) Upper Wing

(28) Connection elements

Fig.13 - POWER SIMULATION AS A FUNCTION OF THE SPEED OF THE WIND

(39 A) «CUT-IN» Speed - WING

(39B) «CUT-OFF» Speed - WING

(40A) Example of «CUT-IN» speed - WING (source: Makani Power)

(40B) Example of «CUT-OFF» speed - WING (source: Makani Power)

(41 ) Diagram relating to a «conventional wind turbine»

(42 ) Y axis: Power (MW)

(43) X axis: Wind speed (m/sec.)

(c) "YO-YO" FLIGHT METHOD

FIG. 14 - TRADITIONAL YO-YO

Medium Diameter of the trajectory

WORK RUN projected on a plan, or pulse on the trajectory

FIG.15 - OVERLAPPING OF TRAJECTORIES

(46) CLOSED Yo-Yo, "with internal recovery'

(47) TRADITIONAL Yo-Yo

FIG.16 - YO YO WITH INTERNAL RECOVERY

(45) WORK RUN projected on a plan, or pulse on the trajectory (48) INCLINATION with respect to the horizontal (alfa°) (49) ACTIV PHASE The phases can be reversed because they are a function of the rotation (50) PASSIVE PHASE direction along the flight path

FIG.17 -YO_YO SIMULATION

(51 A) (5 IB) DISTANCES wing-generator

(52) Wing or Kite

(53) Traction Rope - connection wing_generator

(54) Generating Machine