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Title:
SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC ENERGY, ESPECIALLY GREEN ENERGY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/158598
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The object of the invention relates to a system (200) for distributing electric energy, especially green energy, comprising a plurality of input points (2) serving for inputting electric energy into the system (200), and a plurality of output points (3) electrically connected to these input points (2) with the help of an electric cable network (300) containing electric cables (22), which output points (3) serving for outputting the electric energy from the system (200), each of which input and output point (2, 3) is provided with a metering station (4, 4') connecting the input and output point (2, 3) to the electric cable network (300) and serving for measuring the amount of electric energy passing through them, the essence of which is that it contains at least one network control module (5) serving to cut off and to reconnect the input and output points (2, 3) from the cable network (300) of the system (200), and a plurality of surfacing elements (10) each of which contains a base element (12) and a cover element (14) fixed to the base element (12) with a releasable connection and encloses a cavity for encasing an electric cable (22) between the base element (12) and the cover element (14) in the fixed state of the base element (12) and the cover element (14), which surfacing elements (10) when laid next to one another form paving (400) and at least a part of the electric network (300) is arranged inside the paving (400) in the cavities between the base elements (12) and the cover elements (14) of the surfacing elements (10).

Inventors:
SZISZÁK, Imre (Virág u. 17, 4087 Hajdúdorog, 4087, HU)
CSEH, József (Dobó István u. 15, 4080 Hajdúnánás, 4080, HU)
ILYÉS, Miklós (Bartók Béla krt. 1, 4080 Hajdúnánás, 4080, HU)
Application Number:
HU2018/050012
Publication Date:
September 07, 2018
Filing Date:
February 28, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SZISZÁK, Imre (Virág u. 17, 4087 Hajdúdorog, 4087, HU)
CSEH, József (Dobó István u. 15, 4080 Hajdúnánás, 4080, HU)
ILYÉS, Miklós (Bartók Béla krt. 1, 4080 Hajdúnánás, 4080, HU)
International Classes:
H02G9/00; E01C5/00; E04F15/00
Foreign References:
US8907202B12014-12-09
US20150039145A12015-02-05
Other References:
"Green Trough: The innovative, versatile Cable Trough System", FURUKAWA ELECTRIC CO, LTD., 8 July 2017 (2017-07-08), XP055538587, Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KACSUKPATENT KFT. (Üteg u. 11/A, 1139 Budapest, 1139, HU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . System (200) for distributing electric energy, especially green energy, comprising a plurality of input points (2) serving for inputting electric energy into the system (200), and a plurality of output points (3) electrically connected to these input points (2) with the help of an electric cable network (300) containing electric cables (22), the output points (3) serving for outputting the electric energy from the system (200), each of which input and output point (2, 3) is provided with a metering station (4, 4') connecting the input and output point (2, 3) to the electric cable network (300) and serving for measuring the amount of electric energy passing through them, characterised by that it contains

- at least one network control module (5) serving to cut off and to reconnect the input and output points (2, 3) from and to the cable network (300) of the system (200), and

- a plurality of surfacing elements (10) each of which contains a base element (12) and a cover element (14) affixable to the base element (12) with a releasable connection and enclosing a cavity for encasing an electric cable (22) between the base element (12) and the cover element (14) in the affixed state of the base element (12) and the cover element (14), which surfacing elements (10) when laid next to one another form paving (400) and at least a part of the electric network (300) is arranged inside the paving (400) in the cavities between the base elements (12) and the cover elements (14) of the surfacing elements (10).

2. System (200) according to claim 1 , characterised by that at least some of the surfacing elements (10) contain an electric cable section (22') arranged between the base element (12) and the cover element (14), which electric cable section (22') is adapted to be electrically connected to the electric cable section (22') of the neighbouring surfacing element (10). 3. System (200) according to claim 1 or 2, characterised by that each of the metering stations (4, 4') comprises a remote controlled switch (6) suitable for controlling the electric connection between the given input and output point (2, 3) and the cable network (300), and the at least one network control module (5) is adapted to be able to control the switches (6) of the metering stations (4, 4').

4. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 3, characterised by that at least some of the output points (3) are provided with an uninterruptible power supply (7) serving to temporarily provide the power supply to the output point (3).

5. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 4, characterised by that it comprises at least one generator unit (8) connected to the cable network (300) serving to produce electric energy, preferably a generator powered by an internal combustion engine.

6. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterised by that it contains one or more storage units (9) connected to the electric cable network (300) for storing electric energy, preferably a battery, even more preferably a lithium battery.

7. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 6, characterised by that it comprises a plurality of hollow edge elements (1 1 ) serving to form the edges of the paving (400) created with the surfacing elements (10), and a part of the cable network (300) is arranged inside the edge elements (1 1 ).

8. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 7, characterised by that the surfacing element (10) contains at least 30%, preferably at least 60% recycled material, preferably recycled plastic and/or glass.

9. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 8, characterised by that the cover element (14) comprises a wearing layer (15) preferably with a non-slip surface (15'). 10. System (200) according to claim 9, characterised by that the wearing layer ( 5) is formed as a tempered glass sheet containing depressions filled with a light-transmitting polymer, preferably a UV stabilised polymer, or as a sheet made from a plastic composite with ground glass matrix.

1 1 . System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 10, characterised by that the surfacing element (10) contains one or more electric devices (18) selected from the group consisting of an electronic controller (19), a transceiver (21 ), a sensor (23), a light source (25), an energy storage device (27), an energy transformation device (20), a signalling device (26) and a current regulating device (28).

12. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 1 1 , characterised by that the surfacing element (10) comprises at least one intermediate element (16) between the base element (12) and the cover element (14), and at least some of the one or more electric devices ( 8) are arranged in the intermediate element (18). 13. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 12, characterised by that the energy transformation device (20) connected to the electric cable network (300), preferably a solar cell (20a) is arranged in the cover element (14).

14. System (200) according to claim 13, characterised by that the controller (19) is configured to disconnect the solar cell (20a) from the cable network (300) in the case the solar cell (20a) becomes faulty or has reduced output.

15. System (200) according to claim 13 or 14, characterised by that the cover element (14) contains a supporting layer (17) arranged under the wearing layer (15), and the solar cell (20a) is enclosed between the wearing layer (15) and the supporting layer (17).

16. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 15, characterised by that the base element (12) has four side surfaces, and at least one protruding first fixing element ( 2a) is arranged on each of two of the side surfaces, at least one second fixing element (12b) suitable for accommodating the at least one first fixing (12a) element is arranged on each of the other two side surfaces.

17. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 16, characterised by that the releasable connection between the base element (12) and the cover element (14) is provided by a fixing device (13) formed as a snaplock connection.

18. System (200) according to any of claims 1 to 17, characterised by that a plate (30) made of a magnetisable material is arranged between the base element (12) and the cover element (14), preferably between the intermediate element (16) and the cover element (14).

Description:
System for distributing electric energy, especially green energy

The object of the invention relates to a system for distributing electric energy, especially green energy, which contains several input points serving for inputting the electric energy into the system, and several output points electrically connected to these with the help of an electric cable network serving for outputting the electric energy from the system, each of which input point and output point is provided with a metering station connecting the input point and output point to the electric cable network serving for measuring the amount of electric energy passing through them.

Market research proves that in addition to many people making sacrifices in order to protect the environment, the demand for energy independence is becoming increasingly prominent. The interest in green energy can be especially seen in private consumers in Western Europe. Among the countries in the region, it is worthwhile highlighting the Netherlands, where 64% of the population are willing to voluntarily pay extra in order to obtain green energy. However, in reality only about 10% of the energy received in return of this originates exclusively from renewable sources. With renewable energy sources (such as solar cell and wind turbine systems) achieving grid parity on numerous developed markets, they now count as competitive sources of energy from the point of view of the consumer. The penetration of passive and active houses may be viewed as an international trend, as a result of which, in recent years, the number of households that are selling the energy they produce is increasing. As a consequence, in markets with energy selling and purchasing habits similar to those in Hungary, the business sector built on the margin between the buying and selling prices has also become increasingly profitable in recent years.

After examining the increasing energy demand trends and the location of the power plants supplying renewable energy from densely populated areas, the conclusion can be reached that the urban electric public utility network will shortly become grossly overloaded. As a result of this an alternative energy network is needed that is arranged in parallel to the present one which provides a solution for reducing the load on the already existing infrastructure. At present, only limited solutions are available to the above problem. The Braamwisch project in Hamburg experimented with the construction of an energy network that is independent of the public utilities. This started as a community initiative, then later on obtained the support of the local authority and the local energy service provider. The purpose of the project was to promote environmental protection and the use of renewable energy. Solar cells were installed on properties that had the appropriate location, biogas was produced from wastewater and solar collectors were also used. The energy generated by this was distributed among the users, resulting in the community being able to be almost completely energy-independent. In spite of the success of the project it remained a local initiative, the reason for which was the lack of uniform and scalable technology.

The radiation originating from the sun, one of the most prolific forms of renewable energy, may represent a solution for at least partially covering the increasing demand for energy. The utilisation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells (solar cells) is a technology that has been known of and used in practice for a long time. Solar cells are most frequently installed on the roofs of houses. These systems are relatively expensive and do not have a very aesthetic appearance. Due to the latter, their installation is prohibited in some places. The other disadvantage of installing solar cells on house roofs is that their installation and repair is difficult, and the amount of the surface with the appropriate orientation is limited.

The disadvantage of household solar power plants (e.g. installed on the roof) is that the greatest amount of energy is produced at that time of day when the typical consumption is at a minimum. Although a part of the energy produced can be stored in batteries, the cost of these is high at present. Another possibility is that the unused electric energy is fed back into the public utility electricity network through a bidirectional metering station (meter). Usually the public utility buys the green energy produced at a depressed price depending on the legislative environment, in this way the consumer depends on the regulations implemented by the public utility provider. Also, in given cases the return of household-scale investments producing renewable energy is doubtful.

It was recognised that by using an electric energy distribution system containing a surfacing element that has a base element and a cover element that may be fixed to the base element with a releasable connection, which surfacing element - in the mounted state of the base element and cover element - delimits a cavity suitable for laying electric cables between the base element and the cover element, and at least a part of the electric cable network of the system is arranged in the cavities of the surfacing elements between the base elements and cover elements, an energy network utilising green energy that is independent of the public utilities may be effectively constructed.

It was also recognised that a system serving for the distribution of electric energy, especially green energy, which has surfacing elements provided with solar cells, represents a novel and effective solution for both the distribution and production of green energy.

The objective of the invention is to provide a system serving for the distribution of electric energy, especially green energy that is free of the disadvantages of the solutions according to the state of the art and, especially, that implements decentralised energy distribution independent of service providers and, in the interest of effectively increasing the proportion of green energy use, rationalises the energy supply by more economically distributing the locally produced renewable energy.

The task according to the invention was solved with the system according to claim 1 .

Preferred embodiments of the invention are determined in the dependent claims.

Further details of the invention will be described by way of exemplary embodiments with reference to the figures, wherein:

Figure 1 a is a schematic perspective view of the main elements of a system serving for the distribution of electric energy, especially green energy according to the invention,

Figure 1 b shows a schematic block diagram of the main elements of a system serving for the distribution of electric energy, especially green energy according to the invention, Figure 2a shows a schematic side cross-section exploded view of a first embodiment of a surfacing element according to the invention,

Figure 2b shows a schematic side cross-section exploded view of a second embodiment of a surfacing element according to the invention,

Figure 3a shows a schematic top perspective view of a preferable exemplary embodiment of the base element according to the invention,

Figure 3b shows a schematic bottom perspective view of the base element shown in figure 3a,

Figure 4a shows a schematic side view of an exemplary embodiment of the cover element according to the invention,

Figure 4b shows a schematic side view of another exemplary embodiment of the cover element according to the invention,

Figure 4c shows a schematic side view of another exemplary embodiment of the cover element according to the invention,

Figure 5a shows a top view depicting a preferable embodiment of the base elements according to the invention in a first exemplary installed state,

Figure 5b shows a top view depicting a preferable embodiment of the base elements according to the invention in a second exemplary installed state,

Figure 6 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of a possible embodiment of the edge element according to the invention.

Figure 1 a depicts a schematic perspective view of a system 200 according to the invention serving for the distribution of electric energy, especially green energy. The system 200 contains several input points 2 serving for inputting electric energy into the system 200, and several output points 3 connected to them with an electric cable network 300 containing electric cables 22 serving for outputting the electric energy from the system 200. Electric cable 22 is understood to mean any appropriately dimensioned cable suitable for transmitting electric energy (e.g. copper wire), as is obvious for a person skilled in the art. It should be noted that hereinafter the words electric energy and electric potential are used as synonyms, and also any electric energy originating from a renewable source of energy is called green energy.

In the context of the present invention input points 2 are understood to mean terminals of the cable network 300, which is obvious to a person skilled in the art, through which electric energy can be conducted into the cable network 300. Similarly, output points 3 are terminals of the cable network 300, through which electrical energy can be received from the cable network 300.

In the case of the system 200 according to the invention consumption points 3' (e.g. private consumers, such as households and businesses, schools, factory buildings, and outdoor electric devices, such as car chargers, etc.) are connected to the output points 3 that wish to use electric energy from the cable network 300, similarly to how it is usual to connect to the traditional electric public utility network 500. Production points 2' are connected to the input points 2 that have their own small power plants 600 (e.g. solar cells, wind turbine, etc.) suitable for producing electric energy, preferably green energy, and they desire to input at least a part of the produced green energy into the cable network 300. The production points 2' connected to the input points 2 may also be private consumers, such as households or businesses, schools, factory buildings, etc. It is important to highlight that the input and output points 2, 3 may also coincide, in other words a given terminal of the cable network 300 may perform the functions of both input and output points 2, 3. In this case the input and output points 2, 3 are not physically separated from each other. For example, a household that has solar cells inputs the energy produced by the solar cells into the cable network 300 when there is a surplus of energy, and this same household uses energy from the cable network 300 in the case of insufficient energy (in the evening, for example).

Each of the input and output points 2, 3 is connected to a metering station 4 that electrically connects the input and output points 2, 3 to the electric cable network 300 and serving to measure the electrical energy passing through them. The metering station 4 is understood to mean a consumption meter serving to measure electric energy as is known by a person skilled in the art, such as an induction or electronic consumption meter. The metering station 4 is arranged between the cable network 300 and the production point 2', or between the cable network 300 and the consumption point 3', as can be seen in figure 1 b. The metering station 4 located at the input point 2 is connected in such a way that it measures the amount of electric energy flowing from the production point 2' towards the cable network 300. The metering station 4 located at the output point 3 is connected in such a way that it measures the amount of electric energy flowing from the cable network 300 towards the consumption point 3'. In the case that the input and output points 2, 3 coincide, the metering station 4 is established as a bidirectional metering station 4', which is capable of measuring the flow of electric energy in both directions, as is known by a person skilled in the art.

The system 200 according to the invention contains at least one network control module 5 connected to the cable network 300 to cut off the input and output points 2, 3 from the cable network 300 and to reconnect them to it. The network control module 5 is understood to mean a device known of to a person skilled in the art that controls the electric capacity that can be taken from the system 200 at any given moment in accordance with the energy demand of the consumption points 3' and energy inputted by the production points 2' in the cable network 300 in such a way that it switches the consumption points 3' and the production points 2' onto and off the cable network 300.

In the case of a preferred embodiment a remote controlled switch 6 suitable for controlling (in other words connecting and disconnecting) the electric connection between the given input and output point 2, 3 and the cable network 300 is connected to each of the metering stations 4, 4', and the at least one network control module 5 is adapted to control the switches 6 of the metering stations 4, 4'. The switch 6 is provided as a two-position switch interrupting or implementing the electric connection between the cable network 300 and the input and output points 2, 3.

Preferably the network control module 5 is connected to the switches 6 via the cables 22 of the cable network 300, in other words the control of the switches 6 takes place through the cables 22. Optionally embodiments are naturally conceivable in the case of which there is a separate cable connection between the network control module 5 and the switches 6 constructed for this purpose, or control may take place in a wireless manner (e.g. via radio waves).

It should be noted that optionally an embodiment may be conceived in the case of which the production points 2' and/or the consumption points 3' are also connected to the electric public utility network 500 (ELMLI, E-ON, EMASZ, etc. in Hungary) (see figure 1 b). In this case the electric public utility network 500 is preferably connected to the production points 2' and/or the consumption points 3' via the switches 6 and the switches 6 are configured so that they can ensure the switching between the cable network 300 and the electric public utility network 500. In the case of a possible embodiment at least some of the output points 3 are provided with an uninterruptible power supply 7 serving to temporarily provide the power supply to the output point 3, which prevents the otherwise short power cuts, typically a few ms, occurring during the switching duration, where this is otherwise necessary.

The system 200 according to the invention contains a plurality of surfacing elements 10 each of that have a base element 12 and a cover element 14 that may be fixed to the base element 12 with a releasable connection, and in the case that the base element 12 and the cover element 14 are fixed to one another the surfacing elements 10 contain a cavity between the base element 12 and the cover element 4 suitable for laying electric cables 22, and when these surfacing elements 10 are laid next to one another they form paving 400. At least a portion of the electric cable network 300 of the system 200 is arranged in the cavities of the interior of the paving 400, between the base elements 12 and cover elements of the surfacing elements 10. It should be noted that optionally the paving 400 may contain surfacing elements 10 which do not have cables 22 arranged inside them, as can be see, for example, in figure 1 a.

Optionally the system 200 according to the invention contains several hollow edge elements 1 1 serving to form the edges of the paving 400 created with the surfacing elements 10, and a part of the cable network 300 is arranged inside the edge elements 1 1 , as can be seen in figure 6, for example. The edge elements 1 1 are preferably made from plastic or a plastic composite, even more preferably from recycled plastic or plastic composite, using injection moulding, for example. In addition to the cable network 300 other public utility infrastructure (e.g. telecommunications networks) may be laid in the inside of the edge elements 1 1 .

In a preferred embodiment the system 200 according to the invention contains one generator unit 8 connected to the cable network 300 serving to produce electric energy, preferably a generator powered by an internal combustion engine, or, for example, a wind turbine. The use of this is preferable mainly in the case of those embodiments where there is no electric public utility service provider present (e.g. on islands, isolated locations), so in the case of reduced energy production by the input points 2 the generator 8 is able to help provide power to the consumption points 3'.

In the case of another especially preferred embodiment the system 200 contains one or more storage units 9 connected to the electric cable network 300 for storing electric energy, preferably batteries, even more preferably lithium batteries. The purpose of this is to store the surplus energy produced by the production points 2' for the time when a lack of energy occurs in the cable network 300 (such as in the evening and in cloudy weather, etc.). Optionally the generator 8 and the charged storage unit 9 may be combined, in other words they may be used in parallel in the case of increased energy demands.

Figure 2a shows a schematic side cross-section exploded view of an exemplary embodiment of a surfacing element 10 according to the invention in which the cable 22 is not shown. Paving 400 may be created by placing several surfacing elements 10 next to each other, for example, on a smooth sand bed, in other words after being installed the surfacing elements 10 form paving 400. In the context of the present invention a surface 100 is understood to mean any natural or artificial surface, such as soil surface or the surface of a substructure, etc., which is usually covered with traditional paving. The paving 400 is preferably installed at the location of pedestrian traffic between production points 2' and consumption points 3' (the pavement or road surface of a housing estate).

When the base element 12 and the cover element 14 are fixed to each other the surfacing element 10 contains a cavity suitable for the laying of an electric cable 22. It should be noted that electric cable 22 is understood to mean one or, optionally, more electric cables 22. The cavity may be created, for example, by grooves 24 being established in the base element 12 and/or in an intermediate element 16. In the case of another possible embodiment at least some of the surfacing elements 10 contain electric cable sections 22' arranged between the base element 12 and the cover element 14, which electric cable sections 22' are established so that they may be electrically connected to the electric cable section 22' of the neighbouring surfacing element 10, as it may be seen in figures 5a and 5b. Optionally embodiments are conceivable in the case of which the electric cable sections 22' do not run in the grooves 24, instead they are embedded in the base element 12 and/or in the intermediate element 16, in other words the cables 22 are built into the elements 12, 16 when the elements 12, 16 are manufactured. In the case of an embodiment containing electric cable sections 22' the electric connection between the electric cable sections 22' in neighbouring surfacing elements 10 may be implemented, for example, using connectors established in the surfaces of the neighbouring elements 12, 16 that come into contact with each other. In the case of the embodiments shown in figures 5a and 5b from each of the total of eight entry points (two on each side) the cable 22 may run in seven directions, which ensures great flexibility when constructing the cable network 300.

When the surfacing element 10 is in installed state the cover element 14 is fixed to the base element 12 with a releasable connection. A releasable connection is understood to mean a form of fixing that may be undone without damaging the elements 12, 14, in other words the elements 12, 14 may be separated from each other and then reconnected once again. The releasable connection between the elements 12, 14 is implemented with one or more fixing devices 13. Such fixing devices 13 may be, for example, screw-threaded components, screws, screw spindles and screw nuts, as well as the securing elements belonging to them, as is known by a person skilled in the art.

In the case of a preferred embodiment the fixing device 13 is established as a snaplock connection that has a tongue 13a and opening 13b that receives it. A snaplock connection is understood to mean a positive engagement coupling in the case of which one or all of the components creating the fixing, preferably the tongue 13a, becomes flexibly deformed during the assembly of the connection, then when the connection operation is completed it clicks back into non-deformed state. The connection may be dismantled by using external force. The snaplock connection may be a known flat tongue or pin type snaplock connection, as is obvious for a person skilled in the art. The advantage of the snaplock connection is that the tongue 13a and the opening 13b may even be established directly from the materials of the elements 12, 14, thereby making it possible to connection the elements 12, 14 to each other without supplementary components. Naturally, optionally, the snaplock connection may also be implemented using metal or plastic pins established as separate fixing components.

Figure 2b shows a schematic side cross-section exploded view of another preferred embodiment of the surfacing element 10 according to the invention, in the case of which there is at least one intermediate element 16 arranged between the elements 12, 14 fixed together with a releasable connection. In other words, in the case the surfacing element 10 is in installed state the intermediate element 16 is bordered by the base element 12 below and by the cover element 14 above. The fixing device 13 providing the releasable connection between the elements 12, 14, such as a snaplock connection, passes through the intermediate element 16, thereby preventing the lateral displacement of the intermediate element 16. In other words, the releasable connection between the cover element 14 and the base element is at least partially established through the intermediate element 16. Naturally embodiments may be conceived in the case of which the fixing device 13 does not come into contact with the intermediate element 16.

The elements 2, 14, 16 are preferably rectangular plates with high structural strength, which can withstand the load caused by pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Naturally an embodiment is conceivable in the case of which the elements 12, 14, 16 are not rectangular, but instead they are triangular, hexagonal or other flat shape covering a plane.

In the case of an especially preferred embodiment there is a plate 30 made from a magnetisable material, such as steel, between the base element 12 and the cover element 14, preferably between the intermediate element 16 and the cover element 14, the function of which will be explained in detail subsequently.

In the case of the embodiment shown in figures 3a and 3b the base element 12 has a grid structure. By using the grid structure the same structural stability and rigidity can be achieved with less material as compared to a solid structure. The element 12 is made from plastic, preferably recycled plastic, such as ABS, HDPE or PET. In the case of this embodiment first of all granules are formed from the recycled plastic, from which the element 12 is produced using injection moulding.

In the case of another preferred embodiment the element 12 is established from a composite containing SiO2 and recycled plastic using a compression moulding procedure known of by a person skilled in the art.

In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the base element 12 has four side surfaces, and at least one protruding first fixing element 12a is established on each of two of its sides and at least one second fixing element 12b is established on each of two of its other sides that are suitable for accommodating the at least one first fixing element 12a. In the case of a preferred embodiment at least one fixing element 12a, 12b is established on each of the neighbouring sides of the element 12, as shown in figures 3a and 3b. Naturally an embodiment is conceivable in the case of which at least one fixing element 12a, 12b is established on each of the opposite sides of the element 12.

The fixing elements 12a, 12b are preferably established from the material of the element 12. The fixing elements 12a, 12b create a releasable connection in the case the surfacing element 10 is in its installed state, furthermore, they ensure appropriate spacing between the elements 12. As a result of the spacing it is not necessary to place spacers between the elements 12 while they are being installed, as due to the fixing elements 12a, 12b fitting into each other the elements 12 get into the ideal position on their own, which makes the installation of the surfacing elements 10 easier and faster. The elements 12 connected to each other with the fixing elements 12a, 12b have greater stability, due to which they are even resistant to underlying soil washout. A further advantage is that the fixing elements 12a, 12b make it possible for various terrain conditions to be followed and prevent unauthorised persons from removing the elements 12 from an installed area of paving. This structure makes it possible for the elements 12 to be installed in various ways, such as with the network bonding shown in figure 5a or with the offset bonding shown in figure 5b.

The cover element 14 contains a wearing layer 15, the surface 15' of which is preferably a non-slip surface. From the point of view of its material the wearing layer 15 may be made from artificial stone, natural stone, tempered glass or from a composite consisting of a matrix of plastic and ground glass, but naturally the use of other material with the appropriate degree of wear resistance is conceivable, as is obvious for a person skilled in the art. In the context of the present invention a non-slip surface means that by appropriately establishing the surface 15' of the wearing layer 15, the coefficient of friction between the surface 5' and the surfaces coming into contact with it, such as shoe soles, vehicle tyre, etc. is increased. Making the wearing layer 15 non-slip may be implemented by chemical (etching) or mechanical (sand blasting, bead blasting) processes known of in themselves, possibly by establishing macroscopic or microscopic protrusions on the surface 15' of the wearing layer 15.

In the case of the embodiment shown in figure 4a the cover element 14 according to the invention the wearing layer 15 is made from a thin, solid stone slab, such as a concrete slab, artificial stone slab, natural stone slab, etc., to which one or more fixing devices 13 are connected which provide the releasable connection with the base element 12. The fixing device 13 is preferably fixed to the stone slab in a permanent way, such as with an adhesive. After the surfacing element 10 has been installed essentially only the wearing layer 15 of the cover element 14 is visible, thereby creating the effect that it is solid, traditional stone paving that is homogenous throughout its entire thickness. Due to this the surfacing element 0 provides an appearance similar to traditional stone paving established with thick, solid stone slabs, and its creation requires much less stone as the static load is borne by the elements 12, 14 together.

In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the surfacing element

10 contains one or more electric devices 18 established as, among others, an electronic controller 19, a transceiver 21 , a sensor 23, a light source 25, energy storage device 27, an energy transformation device 20 or current regulating device 28.

In the context of the present invention:

- The transceiver 21 is understood to mean an electronic device suitable for sending and receiving data. Data transmission preferably takes place in a wireless fashion, e.g. using Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.

- The sensor 23 is understood to mean a sensor serving to detect and/or measure preferably physical values, such as temperature, pressure, proximity, light, magnetic field, humidity, etc.

- The energy transformation device 20 is understood to mean a device that is able to transform electromagnetic radiation or motion energy directly into electric energy. The energy transformation device 20 may be, for example, a solar cell 20a or a piezoelectric generator 20b, which transforms kinetic energy into electric energy.

- The energy storage device 27 is understood to mean a device that is able to store electric energy. The energy storage device 27 may be, for example, a capacitor or battery, preferably a lithium battery.

- The current regulating device 28 is understood to mean a group of devices serving to distribute and transform electric energy. Such devices may be, for example, micro-inverters, charging controllers, DC-DC converters, MPPT controllers, etc., as is known by a person skilled in the art.

- The electronic controller 19 is understood to mean a group of hardware and software components that is suitable for receiving, processing and preferably storing the electronic signals generated by the transceiver 21 , the sensor 23, the energy transformation device 20, the energy storage device 27 and the current regulating device 28. The receiving of the electronic signals may take place in a wired or wireless way, as is obvious for a person skilled in the art. An electronic controller 19 may be established by using, for example, a microcomputer or system on chip (SoC), as is known by a person skilled in the art.

In the case of the embodiment shown in figure 4b an energy transformation device 20, preferably a solar cell 20a is arranged in the cover element 14. The element 14 contains a supporting layer 17 arranged under the wearing layer 15 in such a way that the solar cell 20a is enclosed by the wearing layer 15 and the supporting layer 17. In the case of this embodiment the wearing layer 15 is light-transmitting. The wearing layer 15 may be made of a tempered glass plate, for example, which at least partially transmits electromagnetic radiation.

In the case of a preferred embodiment the wearing layer 15 established as a tempered glass sheet contains depressions filled with a light-transmitting polymer. Several depressions are established in the surface of the tempered glass sheet using a chemical or mechanical process, which are filled with a light- transmitting polymer or polymer mixture that is non-wettable. In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the polymer or polymer mixture is UV stabilised, due to which it is resistant to the UV radiation originating from the sun.

Similarly to the wearing layer 15, the supporting layer 17 may also be made from a light-transmitting tempered glass sheet, and one or more light sources 25 are installed on its edge and/or on the side opposite the wearing layer 15. The light source 25 shines through the supporting layer 17, then the light passing through the supporting layer 17 or reflecting back passes through the solar cell 20a and the wearing layer 15 exiting the surfacing element 10. Naturally an embodiment is conceivable in the case of which the supporting layer 17 is not made from glass but from plastic, for example. Preferably one or more openings are established in the supporting layer 17, through which the cabling 20a' of the solar cell 20a may pass. The wearing layer 15 and the supporting layer 17 are preferable fixed to one another in a permanent way, such as with an adhesive or by laminating.

Optionally an embodiment is conceivable in the case of which the wearing layer 15 is not made of a glass sheet, instead it is made from a composite consisting of a light-transmitting plastic and ground glass matrix. In the context of the present invention a composite material consisting of a matrix of ground glass and plastic is understood to mean a material that contains preferably recycled glass ground to a grain size of 500 to 10000 μιη, thermoplastic plastic (e.g. PC, PMMA, PET, PETg, etc.) and a flexible reinforcing material (e.g. polyester, epoxy, acryl, etc.). The composite consisting of a matrix of ground glass and plastic may be produced using a moulding process known of in itself, such as injection moulding or compression moulding. The composite consisting of a matrix of ground glass and plastic combines the favourable characteristics of glass and plastic. The glass provides good optical characteristics and resistance to wear to the composite.

The material of the wearing layer 15 made from the composite consisting of a matrix of ground glass and plastic is non-slip, in other words its surface 15' may be safely walked on even in wet conditions, it is not slippery. A further advantage is that it is transparent and heterogeneous, which enables the integration of the solar cells 20a and the light sources 25 in addition to its surface being sufficiently resistant to the forces exerted by pedestrians and vehicles.

In the case of the embodiment shown in figure 4c the cover element 14 does not contain a supporting layer 17. In this case the solar cell 20a is arranged inside the cover element 14, in such a way, for example, that the solar cell 20a is embedded in the cover element 14 when the cover element 14 is being moulded. One or more openings through which the cabling 20a' of the solar cell 20a can pass are preferably established in the cover element 14.

The cover element 14 may contain further electric devices 18, such as a light source, preferably a LED, or the aforementioned sensors 23 and transceiver 21 , etc. In the context of the present specification the concept of light source 25 also includes a display suitable for displaying information. Optionally the listed electric devices 18 may be arranged between the cover element 14 and the intermediate element 16, in the intermediate element 16 or even in the base element 12.

The electric energy produced by the solar cells 20a may be fed into the cable network 300 via the cable 22, and transmitted through the installed surfacing elements 10, in other words the several surfacing elements 10 may be connected up to each other into a network. Naturally an embodiment is conceivable in the case of which several cables 22 pass through a single surfacing element 10 at the same time.

It was recognised that a faulty or reduced output (e.g. shaded) solar cell 20a functions as a consumer, therefore the faulty or reduced output solar cells 20a of the network-connected surfacing elements 10 may overheat or even catch fire. Due to this, in the case of a preferred embodiment the surfacing element 10 contains a current regulating device 28 with an electric cable 22, a solar cell 20a and an electronic controller 19 electrically connected to them. In the case the solar cell 20a becomes faulty or has reduced output. The controller 19 is configured to disconnect the solar cell 20a from the cable 22 in the case the solar cell 20a becomes faulty or has reduced output. In other words the controller 19 is set up to terminate the connection between the electric cable 22 and the solar cell 20a in the case the solar cell 20a becomes faulty or has reduced output.

Optionally the controller 19 of the surfacing element 10 may communicate with other surfacing elements 10 and/or external electronic devices in a wired or wireless way using the transceiver 21 . It should be noted that communication is also understood to mean unilateral data transmission and even unilateral data receipt. The external electronic device may be a smartphone, tablet, computer, router or other dedicated device that is capable of receiving and processing data. The details and possibilities of this will be discussed subsequently.

In the case of a possible embodiment of the system 200 according to the invention an essentially continuous paved layer of base elements 12 is created in such a way that the base elements 12 are placed on the surface to be paved next to one another. Before the elements 12 are laid the surface 100 is preferably prepared, for example a substructure to receive the elements 12 is made from crushed stone or sand and gravel, as is known by a person skilled in the art.

In the context of the present invention the layer of base elements 12 is deemed to be essentially continuous in the case that the laid elements are in contact with each other without any gap, and in the case that there is a gap established between the laid elements 12.

In the case of a preferred embodiment several surfacing elements 10 are provided, the base elements 12 of which have four side surfaces and at least one protruding first fixing element 12a is arranged on each of two of the side surfaces, at least one second fixing element 12b suitable for accommodating the at least one first fixing element 2a is arranged on each of the other two side surfaces. In the case of this embodiment the base paving layer is created in such a way that the base elements 12 are placed next to each other onto the surface 100 so that the first fixing elements 12a are arranged on one of the neighbouring side surfaces of the base elements 12 placed next to each other, and the second fixing elements 12b suitable for accommodating the first fixing elements 12a are arranged on the other side surface, then a releasable connection is established between the first fixing elements 12a and the second fixing elements 12b of the neighbouring side surfaces. The fixing elements 12a, 12b fitting into each other prevent the elements 12 laid on the surface 100 from moving horizontally or vertically, and provide sufficient stability for the base paving layer.

After the base paving layer has been laid, or simultaneously with it, the cables 22 of the cable network 300 are also laid, then an essentially continuous covering paving layer is created in such a way that the cover elements 14 are fixed to the base elements 12 with a releasable connection. The releasable connection between the elements 12, 14 is preferably created using the previously presented click connection. In the case of those embodiments in the case of which the covering paving layer contains gaps, water (e.g. precipitation) is prevented from penetrating under the element 14 by filling the gaps with grouting material (e.g. UV resistant silicone).

As the cover elements 14 are fixed to the base elements 12 with a releasable connection, in the case of damage to the covering paving layer or it becomes worn out, repair or replacement can be easily performed, so it is not necessary to re-pave the entire surface 100. As a consequence of the modular structure of the surfacing element 10 the installation, repair and replacement of the electric cables 22 of the cable network 300 is significantly simpler to carry out as compared to the solutions belonging to the state of the art. This is due to the fact that a separate place for the electric cables 22 does not have to be provided under the surfacing elements 1 ; after the base paving layer has been laid the electric cables 22 may be installed between the base paving layer and the covering paving layer and laid in the desired directions towards the production points 2' and the consumption points 3'.

The replacement of the entire covering paving layer or a part of it may be performed simply in the following way:

- terminating the releasable connection between one or more of the cover elements 14 of the covering paving layer, and separating the elements 14 from the element 12,

- removing the cover element 14, and putting a new cover element 14 in its place, then

- creating the releasable connection between the new cover elements 14 and the base elements 12, such as by clicking the elements 14 and the elements 12 together.

The releasable connection between the element 14 and the base element 12 may be terminated, for example with a high-capacity vacuum disc placed on the surface of the wearing layer 15, with which direct lifting force may be exerted onto the wearing layer 15.

In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the releasable connection between the element 14 and the base element 12 is terminated using a magnetisable sheet 30 arranged between the cover element 14 and the intermediate element 16 in the following way. A magnet, preferably a high-capacity electromagnet is placed onto the surface of the wearing layer 15, then an attracting magnetic interaction is established between the sheet 30 and the magnet. Subsequently by lifting the magnet a lifting force is exerted onto the cover element 14 via the sheet 30, as a result of which the releasable connection between the element 14 and the element 12 is terminated. The advantage of magnetic removal over vacuum disc removal is that it may also be used in the case of an uneven wearing layer 15, furthermore by increasing the strength of the magnet the force exerted onto the element 14 may be increased essentially without limit.

In the case of a preferred embodiment intermediate elements 16 arranged between the base elements 12 and the cover elements 14 are provided, and in the course of establishing the releasable connection between the cover elements 14 and the base elements 12, the intermediate elements 16 are placed between the cover elements 14 and the base elements 12. The surfacing element 10 preferably contains one or more electric devices 18 presented previously, some of which may also be arranged in the element 16. Grooves 24 serving for laying the electric cables 22 are established in the elements 2, 6 or in their delimiting surfaces.

In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the cover element 14 contains a light-transmitting wearing surface 15, under which the solar cell 20a is arranged. The solar cell 20a converts a part of the solar energy incident on it into direct current, which may be stored for the purpose of later use by the energy storage device 27, used to operate the electric devices 18, or fed into the cable network 300 through the electric cable 22 in the interest of serving the points 3. In the case of a preferred embodiment the solar cell 20a or, in other words, its cabling 20a' is connected to the cable network 300 via the internal feed point 2" established on the electric cable 22 between the base element 12 and the cover element 14. The internal feed point 2" is preferably established as a releasable connector known in itself.

Before being fed the direct current is preferably converted to alternating current using an inverter, as is obvious for a person skilled in the art. In the case of a preferred embodiment a charging controller is installed between the solar cell 20a and the energy storage device 27, which monitors the voltage in the energy storage device 27 and protects it from overcharging or deep discharge.

The solar cells 20a of the surfacing elements 10 are connected to the cable network 300 via the electric cables 22, which ensures the processing of the electric energy produced by the solar cells 20a and transmits it to the consumptions points 3'. In the case of an especially preferred embodiment the surfacing elements 10 connected into a network contain an electronic controller 19 electrically connected to the solar cells 20a and to the electric cables 22. In the case the solar cell 20a is faulty or has reduced output the controller 19 terminates the electric connection between the solar cell 20a and the electric cable 22, thereby preventing malfunction. After the reduced output (e.g. shading) has ended the controller 19 once again creates the electric connection between the solar cell 20a and the electric cable 22, thereby switching the solar cell 20a back into the network.

The system 200 according to the invention may have several different structures:

In a first exemplary case the system 200 and the electric public utility run in parallel next to one another, the users, in other words the production points 2' and the consumption points 3' connect to both systems at the same time, and the network control module 5 switches the users according to which network they are able to use electric energy from at the given moment. If there is sufficient electric energy available in the system 200 to serve the consumption points 3', then every consumption point 3' is connected to the cable network 300. The surplus green energy produced by the production points 2' is in all cases fed into the cable network 300 via the feed points and the metering stations 4, 4'. The production points 2' preferably obtain compensation for the electric energy fed into the cable network 300, which may be a financial emolument or other credit.

In the case of another possible embodiment the system 200 is supplemented with a generator 8, the operation of which is equivalent to a classical off-grid system or to special energy supply circumstances in which the given area does not have a high-capacity electric public utility capable of continuously meeting the demand (e.g. islands, certain African villages and towns, etc.). In the majority of cases the energy production is performed by a generator 8 using some kind of fossil fuel. In this case it is preferable to use the already mentioned storage unit 9, which is capable of providing a continuous energy supply, even when the production points 2' are unable to provide sufficient energy. The storage unit 9 is characteristically some kind of environmentally friendly battery with a low energy density and long lifetime.

The third example primarily relates to the energy supply of electric car chargers, but may also be capable of supplying energy to other low capacity public area consumers. In this case an energy store is placed in front of the consumers, the capacity of which must be from 0.5 times to a maximum of 2 times the total daily consumption, and which is directly connected to the system 200. In this case it is preferable to only use paving 400 that mainly contains surfacing elements 10 that have solar cells 20a, therefore under ideal circumstances they are able to store the energy produced during daytime in the energy stores, and so the systems connected to it also operate during the day.

In the case of another exemplary embodiment, some of the surfacing elements 10 are installed in pedestrian crossings. In the case of this embodiment the surfacing elements 10 contain a controller 19, light source 25, one or more sensors 23, such as a proximity sensor, pressure sensor, thermometer, etc. and, optionally other signalling devices 26, such a vibration motor 26a or a sound signalling device 26b. Using the sensors 23 the surfacing elements 10 continuously monitor the vehicle traffic, and if a pedestrian is about to cross, they warn the pedestrian of the danger existing with light signals emitted by the light source 25, sound signals emitted by the sound signalling device 26b or with vibration generated by the vibration motor 26a. Using the sensors 23 the surfacing element 10 is able to detect the precipitation falling on it, e.g. snow, freezing rain, therefore it may be set up to automatically signal if there is an increased risk of slipping. Optionally, the surfacing element 10 contains a heating element with which it can melt the snow falling on the surfacing element 10 or the ice frozen on it.

In the case of an especially preferable embodiment the surfacing elements 10 comprising the paving communicate with each other and external electronic devices using the transceivers 21 connected to the controllers 19. The scope of use of the surfacing elements 10 is very broad. For example, they may be used to create WiFi networks, or traffic data and parking information may be shared with external electronic devices.

The purpose of the system 200 according to the invention is to realise decentralised energy distribution independent of the service providers, and, in the interest of effectively increasing the ratio of the use of green energy, rationalise the energy supply via the more economical distribution of locally generated renewable energy. The system 200 is a local peer-to-peer green energy distribution and production network that consists of production points 2' (facilities with small power plants 600), consumption points 3' (facilities that do not have small power plants 600), paving consisting of the surfacing elements 10 and the other elements of the system 200.

The paving 400 installed at the location of pedestrian traffic between the individual facilities performs two hardware functions in the network at the same time: on the one part they provide a physical connection between the users, and, on the other part, as a result of their energy producing function they themselves also contribute to the total energy of the network. These two key characteristics of the system 200 according to the invention, the modular structure and the energy production function, provide the novelty of the network built on it as compared to other similar solutions.

The paving 400 of the system is built on a modular principle, in other words the surfacing elements 10 carry the cable network 300 themselves, therefore when they are installed there is no need to carry out complex cabling, the energy can be transmitted through them reliably, and the expansion and maintenance of the system is simpler. With the use of the system 200 according to the invention, other public utility infrastructure can also be built in, in addition to distributing energy. Services running through optical cables (e.g. telecommunication) or other public utilities can be integrated into the surfacing elements 10 and the edge elements 1 1 . This, from the point of view of the installation, development, monitoring and maintenance of the infrastructures, represents and important innovation as compared to the solutions of today. It represents a serious opportunity to make sales to other service providers for the operator of the system 200.

As a result of its preferable structure the system 200 in actual fact comprises an electric network providing a modern service system for the price of classical paving and solar cell systems. The creation of the system 200 according to the invention promotes the spreading and construction of household scale small power plants 600, as the user finds a market for the energy produced by the small power plant 600 much more easily. A further advantage of the system 200 is that the time required for the construction of the network and getting connected to it may become shorter, as the network can run in the surfacing elements 10, so the energy network can be installed by replacing the pedestrian pavement connecting the properties and other facilities that have to be constructed anyway. A further advantage is that users will have access to green energy who otherwise do not have renewable energy production devices. Also, as a consequence of the fast installation of the system 200, it provides a cheap and fast solution in public areas.

Various modifications to the above disclosed embodiments will be apparent to a person skilled in the art without departing from the scope of protection determined by the attached claims.