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Title:
SYSTEM GENERATING ENERGY FROM WASTE MATERIALS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/127034
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An energy generation system (A) comprising pyrolysis reactors (3) converting hydrocarbons and domestic wastes into energy, a second reactor (5), and a gas washing unit (11) and characterized in that; it comprises wear plates (28) made of ceramic material in order to prevent the pyrolysis reactor (3) body from being damaged as a result of abrasion impact that occurs due to rubbing of the feed material onto the pyrolysis reactor (3) surfaces.

Inventors:
OGUL, Hamdi Nezihi (Organize Deri San. Böl. Orhanli Kumpas Cad. 6.Yol Ö1/6 Parsel Tuzla, Istanbul, TR)
Application Number:
TR2016/050018
Publication Date:
July 27, 2017
Filing Date:
January 22, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OGUL, Hamdi Nezihi (Organize Deri San. Böl. Orhanli Kumpas Cad. 6.Yol Ö1/6 Parsel Tuzla, Istanbul, TR)
International Classes:
F23G5/027; F23M5/00
Foreign References:
US20080053347A12008-03-06
US5142998A1992-09-01
US4738206A1988-04-19
DE19522457A11996-09-26
US8961626B12015-02-24
US7807048B22010-10-05
US7993048B12011-08-09
US7758235B12010-07-20
US4917028A1990-04-17
US6538166B12003-03-25
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DESTEK PATENT, INC. (Lefkose Caddesi NM Ofis Park B Blok No:36/5 Besevler/Nilüfer, Bursa, 16110, TR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1 . An invention is an energy generation system (A) comprising pyrolysis reactors (3) converting hydrocarbons and domestic wastes into energy, a second reactor (5), and a gas washing unit (1 1 ), characterized in that; it comprises,

- wear plates (28) made of ceramic material in order to prevent the pyrolysis reactor (3) body from being damaged as a result of abrasion impact that occurs due to rubbing of the feed material onto the pyrolysis reactor (3) surfaces.

2. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises a thermal transfer liquid inlet (22), through which the thermal transfer liquid with high-accuracy temperature control characteristic can be transferred during heating of the pyrolysis reactor (3) and the feed material.

3. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises serially connected sequential pyrolysis reactor (3) and second reactor (5) with progressively increasing temperatures.

4. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises mixing plates (21 ), which ensure complete mixing of the material and transfer of heat from the reactor body jacket (25) to the material.

5. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises vane shafts (24) which ensure homogeneous mixing of the material and which perform rotating motion in opposite directions with regard to each other.

6. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises ceramic filters (10) ensuring direct use of the produced gas in gas engine electric generators (20).

7. An energy generation system (A) according to Claim 1 , characterized in that; it comprises a vacuum pump (15) gas compressor (17) minimizing the risk of elevation of system pressure up to dangerous levels.

Description:
System Generating Energy from Waste Materials

DESCRIPTION

The Related Art The invention relates to an energy generation system comprising pyrolysis reactors and gas cleaning systems, which convert hydrocarbons and domestic wastes into energy.

The Prior Art

US Patent number 07807048 , discloses a tar sand volatilizer .The Tar Sand Volatilizer ("TSV") system of the present invention is a new and unique approach to dry thermal processing, thereby eliminating the need for water, steam, and solvent use for extraction. Processed material is deemed to be pure and safe for use in back fill and reclamation on site. The TSV system meets and exceeds all environmental requirements for air, water and soil, removing all possibility of contamination by leaching. By thermally removing all crude oil, the resulting sand is a pure and clean material. The pure and clean material may then be used for purposes that were not possible for residual material prior to thermal processing. The otherwise unusable residual material may then be used for the following purposes: agriculture, backfilling material, lake bed material, providing leveling and topping material for industrial development areas, commercial development areas and recreational development areas, and many other uses.

The present invention provides a thermal process that utilizes a series of graduated heated containers and heated augers or thermal screws to elevate material temperature in gradual stages using conductive heat transfer from hot surface contact. The thermal auger screw blades are hollow, as is the auger case or jacket, and these cavities receive a heated fluid from directly heated recycling shell and tube heat exchangers. The heated fluid is then pumped through the hollow jackets and auger blades. The heated medium can be different fluids, such as heat exchange oil, heat exchange chemical or liquid salt as well as superheated air and gas, depending upon the temperatures required in specific thermal screw contact heaters.

The screws preferably are driven by variable speed drive systems in order to vary the throughput speed and dwell time of the heated materials, which in turn controls their temperatures. Screw diameter and length also are specific to the requirements of throughput tonnage and temperature. The thermal screw heating system must be carefully sized in order to provide adequate square footage of conductive heat transfer surface area necessary to elevate material temperature to required levels for each temperature stage of the heating process. Turbulence plays an important role in the co-efficient of overall heat transfer and is accomplished by placing tines or blades on the trailing sides of flights of the thermal screw to lift and stir the material for complete surface contact of all particles.

US Patent number 7,993,048 ,discloses a rotary thermal processor .A Rotary thermal processor for particulate materials has a rotating drum and a rotating hollow auger. A stationary cylindrical oven with stationary coils surrounds the rotating drum. Hot gas heats a first part of the oven, coil and drum. A rotating hollow auger is heated with hot fluid from the coils. Oven exhaust sweeps evaporated and volatized components of the treated materials to separators and a thermal oxidizer. Cleaned gas from the thermal oxidizer heats a second part of the oven coil and drum and exits a stack. The rotating drum and auger lifts and turns the treated material as it is advanced by the auger.

US Patent number 7,758,235 ,discloses thermal processing and restoration of used asphalt paving materials .Thermal processing of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), having up to approximately 8% or more moisture content, dries and preheats the material to enhance efficient recycling in a hot mix asphalt plant. A combustor and heat exchanger reheat circulating hot oil, which with hot gas, moves through a hollow auger and around the RAP counter to the flow of RAP. Moisture is forced outward from within the particles and is flashed away by the hot exhaust gas. A similar secondary heater heats the RAP to just below asphalt coking temperature before the hot dry RAP is added as an aggregate to the hot mix asphalt plant.

This invention relates to the thermal processing and restoration of used asphalt paving materials after they have been removed from road surfaces by milling, grinding or ripping. After the bituminous paving materials have been removed from the roadbed, they are hereafter referred to as recycled asphalt pavement("RAP").

It is generally known that the majority of existing roadways, both concrete and bituminous asphalt, undergo constant repair and surface overlay with new hot mix asphalt to achieve and maintain safe and comfortable high speed riding surfaces.

In recent years, new equipment has been introduced to the road paving industry in the form of pavement milling or grinding machines. The science of preparing an old roadbed base for new resurfacing is now commonly referred to as milling. Both state and Federal Department of Transportation (DOT) agencies throughout the country have readily accepted the science of milling.

The milling of old road surfaces provides a number of advantages in preparing the old roadbed for resurfacing. Milling not only ensures a new, smooth and level base for the new hot mix overlay, but at the same time lowers the road bed height to maintain bridge deck clearances and curb and gutter depths. Grinding or milling is also beneficial in removing potholes, old cracks, joint seams, and ruts along with other surface damage that would quickly reappear in a new surface overlay if not repaired. With many of the state and Federal DOT agencies now requiring the milling of road surfaces before permitting new overlay, there is an increasing inventory of asphalt millings being generated. The piles of discarded asphalt millings are becoming problems for land use, aesthetics and the environment. Attempts at reuse have proven difficult.

Generally speaking, asphalt plants average 400 tons per hour to 600 tons per hour production ranges and 15% to 30% RAP can be injected into these plants. When attempting to inject cold wet RAP into hot mix plants, the existing processes rely almost entirely on super heated virgin aggregates (600.degree. F. to 900.degree. F.) to conductively transfer enough heat to the cold wet RAP for drying and heating all materials to a mixing temperature of 300. degree. F. The sudden and violent steam expansion that is created when the super hot aggregate (600. degree. F. -900. degree. F.) encounters the cold wet RAP instantly overloads exhaust system airflow capacity.

If the RAP injection is being done in a "drum mixer" type asphalt plant where all injection of RAP is done inside of the aggregate dryer, the steam explosion restricts the dryer air flow and overloads the exhaust vacuum system forcing the operator to lower plant production rates to restore exhaust vacuum and air flow on the drum to maintain final mix temperature.

When RAP injection is attempted on "batch" type asphalt plants, the cold wet RAP is injected into the weigh hopper section of the batcher above the pug mill mixer and when the RAP instantly mixes with the hot aggregate in the weigh hopper, a violent steam explosion occurs blowing steam and dust into the air creating fugitive emissions and sometimes even damaging the hopper section from pressure surges. Injecting RAP into batch plants can also be very restrictive in tonnage output so as to avoid damaging the plant. Generally, batch plants cannot accept more than 15% to 20% RAP recycling. In either methods of recycling RAP, whether in a drum mixer or in a batch plant, the pre-drying and super heating of the virgin aggregates is the only method of heat transfer to the RAP. The RAP must be dried and then heated to the mix temperature via conduction only from the aggregate. The virgin aggregate must be super heated in order to load enough heat in the material to transfer the energy to the RAP but still retain enough heat to have all material exit at 300. degree. F. By having to elevate aggregates to 700, 800 and 900. degree. F., the rotary dryers that heat the sand and stone must be subjected to extreme temperatures and this is causing many premature failures. Dryers are manufactured to operate with continuous skin temperatures in the 500. degree. F. range and less. When these drum shells are exposed to the higher temperatures required running RAP mixes, they will crack and fail as well as experience extreme and premature wear.

Therefore, the following negative aspects of current methods for processing RAP into hot mix asphalt in plants need to be addressed: Dryers must heat virgin aggregates to excessively high temperatures to dry and heat RAP and can therefore inflict heat damage, premature wear, and failure to the process, Plant productive capacity drops off dramatically when running RAP due to exhaust system and dryer burner overloads from RAP steam blockages within dryers, Batch Plants are limited as to RAP injection capacity due to fugitive emissions problems and potential plant damage due to violent steam explosions, and (4) RAP injection percentages are limited by aggregate temperatures for conductive heating. Heating aggregates above 600. degree. F. can cause aggregate to fracture and allow mix gradations to drift out of specifications U.S. Pat. No. 4,917,028 discloses a pyrolysis reactor that includes an interior drying zone where biomass moves downwardly, a lower combustion zone where heat is added and where biomass particles are conveyed upwardly, and an outer pyrolysis zone where biomass is fluidized and is deflected back towards the interior drying zone to rain down upon the biomass therein. This reactor does not employ lift tubes but rather circulates the entire bed between the combustion chamber and pyrolysis reactor; as a result, there is both fluid and solid communication between the zones, which makes it difficult to precisely control process conditions and achieve the desired product characteristics. US Patent number 6,538,166, discloses a waste rubber treatment process .A waste rubber treatment process and apparatus therefore for vaporizing rubber and separating the vaporized rubber into its usable components. The waste rubber treatment process and apparatus therefor includes heating a quantity of rubber in an atmosphere at a negative pressure and at a temperature between 340 degrees celcius and 510 degrees celcius such that the rubber is vaporized and defines a vaporized rubber. Description of the Invention

The purpose of the invention is to provide a system that has different technical characteristics than the prior art embodiments and brings an initiative to the related technical field. A significant purpose of the invention is to use thermal transfer liquid, which controls temperature in a highly sensitive manner, in heating the reactor and the feed material and to provide a mixing mechanism to be used in the system.

Another purpose of the invention is to first heat the thermal transfer liquid in the new system, instead of the reactor, and thus reach the required temperature in less than 30 minutes, since, in the prior art embodiments, the feed material is started to be fed into the reactor after reaching a certain temperature in order to prevent formation of tar at low temperatures.

Another purpose of the invention is to ensure the mixing motion of the feed material by means of oppositely-rotating vanes with mixing plates welded at their tips. The system aims to ensure complete mixing of the material and transfer heat from the vanes, vane shafts, and the reactor body jacket to the material.

Another purpose of the invention is to keep the reactor and all the sections of the gas cleaning part under vacuum by means of two frequency speed- controlled roots-type gas vacuum pumps. At the same time, the purpose is to discharge gas in a quick manner in case of an emergency by means of using mechanical and electromechanical pressure safety valves in the system. These measures are for minimizing the risk of elevation of system pressure up to dangerous levels. Another significant purpose of the invention is to use ceramic filters durable up to 1000 < C temperature levels in addition to mechan ical filtration, gas washing, and condenser units for cleaning the produced gas from tar formations. In this way, the purpose is to use the produced gas directly in gas engine electric generators. Another purpose of the invention is to coat the surfaces exposed to abrasion/friction with a special ceramic material in order to reduce the abrasion impact. At the same time, the purpose is to use wear plates on the reactor body for being replaced when they are worn. Another purpose of the invention is to eliminate adhesion problem by means of providing coating heat transfer surfaces with adhesion resistant ceramics durable against high temperatures. At the same time, the purpose is to provide stripping plates welded at the tip of the vanes in order to help solution of adhesion by means of continuously stripping the adhesive feed material during rotation.

Figures for Better Understanding of the Invention

Figure 1 ; is a two-dimensional schematic general view of the system according to the invention.

Figure-2; is a close-up individual perspective view of the feeding system. Figure-3; is a close-up individual perspective view of the mixing plates welded to the vane shaft.

Figure-4; is a close-up individual perspective view of the wear plates with ceramic coating.

Figure 5; is a close-up individual perspective view of the revolver heads that transfer the transfer liquid to the hot liquid boiler for re-heating.

Figure-6; is a close-up individual perspective view of the vane shafts.

Reference Numbers

1 . Hot liquid boiler 17. Gas compressor

2. Feed system 18. Gas storage tank

3. Pyrolysis reactor 19. Gas burner

4. Second liquid boiler 20. Gas engine electric generator 5. Second reactor 21 . Mixing plates

6. Discharge unit 22. Thermal transfer liquid inlet

7. Cooling pipe 23. Second reactor inlet port

8. Particle cyclone 24. Vane shaft

9. Chambered filter 25. Reactor body jacket

10. Ceramic filter 26. Reactor outlet port

1 1 . Gas washing unit 27. Gas outlet

12. Gas condenser unit 28. Wear plates

13. Gas drying unit A. Energy generation system

14. Chipping filter

15. Vacuum pump

16. Vacuum tank

Detailed Description of the Invention

The invention relates to an energy generation system (A) comprising pyrolysis reactors (3) converting hydrocarbons and domestic wastes into energy, a second reactor (5), and a gas washing unit (1 1 ). In general terms; the invention comprises wear plates (28) made of ceramic material in order to prevent the pyrolysis reactor (3) body from being damaged as a result of abrasion impact that occurs due to rubbing of the feed material onto the pyrolysis reactor (3) surfaces. Besides; it comprises a thermal transfer liquid inlet (22), through which the thermal transfer liquid with high-accuracy temperature control characteristic can be transferred during heating of the pyrolysis reactor (3) and the feed material. On the other hand; it comprises serially connected sequential pyrolysis reactor (3) and second reactor (5) with progressively increasing temperatures and mixing plates (21 ), which ensure complete mixing of the material and transfer of heat from the reactor body jacket (25) to the material. Moreover, it comprises vane shafts (24) which ensure homogeneous mixing of the material and which perform rotating motion in opposite directions with regard to each other. Likewise, it comprises ceramic filters (10) ensuring direct use of the produced gas in gas engine electric generators (20) and a vacuum pump (15) gas compressor (17) minimizing the risk of elevation of system pressure up to dangerous levels.

The feed material is fed into the first pyrolysis reactor (3) through the reactor material second reactor inlet port (23) by means of a feeding system (2) that is designed such that it would feed said pyrolysis reactor (3) without permitting inlet of air. The thermal transfer liquid heated in the hot liquid boiler (1 ) up to 350 < C is circulated in a closed circuit within the reactor body jacket (25) and among the vane shafts (24) that rotate in opposite directions with regard to each other. The hot liquid connection from the hot liquid boiler (1 ) to the oppositely- rotating vane shafts (24) is made by means of a thermal transfer liquid inlet (22) with rotating characteristic. The thermal transfer liquid that indirectly transfers its heat to the feed material is then transferred back to the hot liquid boiler (1 ) through the rotating thermal transfer liquid inlet (22) for re-heating.

The mixing plates (21 ) that are welded to the oppositely-rotating vane shafts (24) mix the feed material and by means of moving the feed material towards the discharge part of the pyrolysis reactor (3), performs the required mixing operation for better heat transfer between the hot surfaces of the pyrolysis reactor (3) and the feed material. The wear plates (28) prevent the reactor body from being damaged as a result of abrasion impact that occurs due to the friction between the feed material and the pyrolysis reactor (3) surfaces. The wear plates (28) and the oppositely-rotating vane shafts (24) are coated with a high-temperature-resistant ceramic material that is durable against abrasion and adhesion.

The feed material starts to gasify due to heat and friction, and the gases formed are then transferred to the second reactor (5) together with the semi-pyrolyzed solid substances/carbonated particles from the gas outlet (26) port of the pyrolysis reactor (3) and through the inlet port (23) of the second reactor (5). A roots-type vacuum pump (15) ensures each section of the system to be kept under vacuum and this ensures discharge of gases through the first reactor (3).

The solid substances/carbonated particles enter into the second reactor (5) through the inlet port (23) of the second reactor (5). The thermal transfer liquid heated in the second hot liquid boiler (4) up to 700 < C is circulated in a closed circuit within the reactor body jacket (25) and among the vane shafts (24) that rotate in opposite directions with regard to each other. The hot liquid connection from the hot liquid boiler (1 ) to the oppositely-rotating vane shafts (24) is made by means of a rotating thermal transfer liquid inlet (22). The thermal transfer liquid that indirectly transfers its heat to the feed material is then transferred back to the second hot liquid boiler (4) through the rotating thermal transfer liquid inlet (22) for re-heating.

The mixing plates (21 ) that are welded to the vane shaft (24) mix the feed material and by means of moving the feed material towards the discharge part of the pyrolysis reactor (3), perform the required mixing operation for better heat transfer between the hot surfaces of the pyrolysis reactor (3) and the feed material. The wear plates (28) prevent the reactor body from being damaged as a result of abrasion impact that occurs as a result of the feed material rubbing on the pyrolysis reactor (3) surfaces. The wear plates (28) and the oppositely- rotating vane shafts (24) are coated with a high-temperature-resistant ceramic material that is durable against abrasion and adhesion.

The feed material is moved toward the second reactor (5) outlet port (26) by means of the vane shaft (24) that rotates with the help of the mixing plates (21 ). The feed material completely gasifies due to heat and friction and the gases formed are then transferred to the gas cleaning section through the second reactor (5) gas outlet (27). Semi-pyrolyzed solid substances/carbonated particles are transferred to the discharge unit (6) through the second reactor (5) outlet port such that no air leakage would be permitted. A roots-type vacuum pump (15) ensures each section of the system to be kept under vacuum and this ensures discharge of gases through the second reactor (5). The solid substances/carbonated particles discharged through the discharge unit (6) are taken into storage areas by being cooled in the cooling pipe (7).

By means of heating the pyrolysis reactor (3) and the second reactor (5) in serially connected sequential reactor form with progressively increasing temperatures, reactor manufacturers can use steel with lower qualities in the first pyrolysis reactor (3) production that operates at lower temperatures and use special alloy steel in the second reactor (5) production that operates at higher temperatures. In this way, the pyrolysis system can be manufactured in a more economical manner. The pyrolysis gas discharged from the second reactor (5) proceeds to the particle cyclone (8) for better separation of particles from gas flow and then to the chambered filter (9) for more advanced cleaning. Partially cleaned pyrolysis gas is taken into ceramic filter (10) for performing tar/particle cleaning from the gas. The ceramic filter (10) is cleaned from pollutants by being regenerated via heating up to 750 < C. Most of the tar present in th e pyrolysis gas is held in the ceramic filter (10).

Afterwards, the pyrolysis gas is washed in a gas washing unit (1 1 ) cooled by closed-circuit water received from a cooling tower. Following the previous cleaning operations, the particles and tars left in the pyrolysis gas are separated from the gas during the gas washing and are stored in the gas washing unit (1 1 ) tank. The gas coming out of the gas washing unit (1 1 ) is cooled down to the environment temperature in the gas condenser unit (12) and thus ultra-light volatile hydrocarbons and water vapour are condensed and stored in the gas condenser unit (12). Cleaned pyrolysis gas is dried in the gas drying unit (13) and then transferred to the chipping filter (14) for lustering filtration. The chippings that are contaminated in time are eliminated in the pyrolysis unit and converted into energy.

The pyrolysis gas found in the reactor and in all sections of gas cleaning is sucked by a roots-type vacuum pump (15) and then stored in the vacuum tank (16) after the process. In all sections, the process pressure is kept between - 100 to 100 millibars. The cleaned gas is stored in gas storage tanks (18) by means of a gas compressor (17). The gas is used as fuel for energy generation in the gas engine electric generators (20) or used as fuel in gas burners (19) for heat production or discharged through the stacks after combustion.