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Title:
SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ENHANCED SWEAT CONTROL AND THE LIKE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/095122
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
This writing discloses providing aluminum or aluminum alloy spheres/particles or a mixture of aluminum and aluminum alloy and/or aluminum zirconium powder to form an electrode together with an aluminum metal screen wire mesh or the like within a membrane pouch and in contact with an electrical power source. The heavy metal particles are combined with a salt water or gel solution. The membrane enclosure includes a wire mesh which is surrounded by a quantity of the aluminum micro-sized particles. Magnesium and/or copper particles may also be utilized. The porous membrane enclosure has an opening through which a wire is placed in contact with the electrical power source. The contact between the power source terminal and membrane enclosure either physically touches each other or the power source directly touches the internal wire mesh through a small opening in the membrane enclosure. The power source can be a DC supply. The system provides long term sweat control. The system may be wetted with tap water, distilled water and a saline gel solution mixed with the aluminum particles as the electrically conductive medium between the power source and the skin. A deodorant or fragrance is added to the long term sweat control system and exhibits characteristics lasting much longer than topical application.

Inventors:
TAPPER ROBERT (US)
Application Number:
US2007/003577
Publication Date:
December 21, 2007
Filing Date:
February 09, 2007
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TAPPER ROBERT (US)
International Classes:
A61N1/30; A61M31/00
Foreign References:
US6223076B12001-04-24
US20050192528A12005-09-01
US4021536A1977-05-03
US20050010192A12005-01-13
US4915685A1990-04-10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STEINFL, Alessandro et al. (5670 Wilshire Boulevard Ste. 210, Los Angeles CA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A device comprising: a plurality of aluminum and/or aluminum alloy particles; a source of electrical current; and means for electrically applying said source to said particles.

2. The device of claim 1, wherein said device is a positive active therapeutic electrode.

3. The device of claim 1 or 2, wherein said device is for sweat control in a biological subject, whereby sweat inhibition is achieved in the subject.

4. The device of any one of the previous claims, wherein said particles are microspheres.

5. The device of any one of the previous claims, wherein said source of electrical current is DC.

6. The device of any one of the previous claims, said device being an electrode, said particles being aluminum micro-spheres.

7. The device of claim 6,wherein said micro-spheres range in size from micron to nanos.

8. A system comprising a device in accordance with any one of the previous claims, said system further comprising a second electrode comprised of stainless steel particles and a stainless steel wire screen contained within a porous membrane.

9. The device of any one of the previous claims, wherein said particles further include an aluminum-based compound.

10. The device of claim 9, wherein the compound consists of aluminum or aluminum alloy.

11. A negative therapeutic electrode comprising: stainless steel particles mixed with a saline or gel solution.

12. A sweat control system, comprising: a source of electric current; a controller; electrode means connected to said controller; a plurality of aluminum and/or aluminum alloy particles as said electrode means; and means for sending an electrical signal to a treatment site.

13. A device and/or system as recited in any of the previous claims and further including: a membrane pouch enclosing said aluminum/aluminum alloy particles acting as an electrode within said pouch.

14. The device and/or system as recited in claim 13 wherein a wetted felt pad or water vessel equivalent surrounds said pouch.

15. An electrotherapeutic system comprising: aluminum and/or aluminum alloy particles in powder form in contact with an electrical power source.

16. A system as set forth in claim 15, wherein said electrical power source is DC.

17. A sweat control system comprising: aluminum zirconium spheres and aluminum wire mesh contained in a small porous membrane enclosure.

18. A sweat control system comprising: a membrane enclosure including a wire mesh upon which is placed a quantity of aluminum micro-sized particles.

19. The system of claim 18, further comprising: an electrical power source; said membrane enclosure being in contact with said power source; and a power source terminal made of aluminum; wherein the contact between said power source terminal and said membrane enclosure either physically touches each other or the power source directly touches an internal wire mesh through a small opening in the membrane enclosure.

20. The system as recited in claim 19 wherein said electrical power source is DC.

21. A method for use in a device or system as recited in any of the foregoing claims, comprising: wetting the device or system with tap water or distilled water and a saline gel solution mixed with the aluminum particle electrode as an electrically conductive medium between the electrical power source and the skin of a subject being treated.

22. A system or device as recited in any of the foregoing claims, further including: a conductive gel mixed with aluminum spheres having a saline concentration of approximately six percent to increase electrical power efficiency.

23. A system or device as recited in claim 22, wherein DC electrical current is utilized.

24. A system or device as recited in any of the foregoing claims wherein magnesium is utilized alone or in combination with aluminum particles.

25. A system or device as set forth in any of the foregoing claims, further including a negative electrode, said negative electrode comprising: stainless steel particles and a stainless steel wire mesh contained within a porous membrane; and a stainless steel wire emerging from the pouch for connection to a DC electrical source.

26. A method of sweat control wherein magnesium particles are utilized alone or in combination with aluminum particles for sweat inhibition.

27. A sweat control method, device and/or system as recited in any of the foregoing claims including means for electrically delivering a deodorant/fragrance/perfume, skin conditioning agents or chemical or drug in addition to accomplishing sweat control.

28. A device or system as recited in any of the foregoing claims including means for electrically delivering a deodorant/fragrance/perfume, skin conditioning agents or chemical or drug.

29. A system for applying long lasting deodorant/fragrance/perfume, skin conditioning agents and/or any other chemical or drug to a biological subject, comprising: a system source of deodorant/fragrance/perfume, skin conditioning agents, chemicals, drugs or the like; an electrode composed of a plurality of aluminum and/or aluminum alloy particles; a source of electrical current; means for electrically applying said source of current to said system source and to the subject whereby infusion of said deodorant/fragrance/perfume, skin conditioning agents or any beneficial chemical or drug is achieved in the subject being treated.

30. The system as recited in claim 29 wherein said source of electrical current is DC.

31. A system for delivery of long term fragrance, skin conditioning agents or any other beneficial chemical or drug to a subject, comprising: aluminum chlorohydrate or equivalent antiperspirant as the deodorant solution; an active fragrance or chemical or drug; and an additional means of mitigating injury causing ions selected from the group comprising stainless steel particles, charged membranes, and silver, silver/chloride electrodes.

32. A positive active electrode for a therapeutic system, the electrode comprising particles from the group comprising: individually and/or combination aluminum, aluminum alloy, zirconium, zinc, copper, magnesium, whereby the effects of hydrochloric acid injury are mitigated.

33. A negative or return electrode for a therapeutic system, the electrode comprising: stainless steel particles whereby the effects of sodium hydroxide and the like are mitigated.

34. A long lasting fragrance comprising: aluminum electrode particles; and a fragrance combined with said aluminum particles.

35. A combination for use in the application of long lasting fragrance, comprising: metal particles from the group comprising aluminum, aluminum alloy, . zirconium and zinc; a fragrance mixed with said particles; and electrical means for applying the mixture to a surface being treated.

36. A stand-alone drug delivery patch for delivering fragrance, skin conditioning agents, fillers or any other beneficial chemical or drug to a subject, comprising:

a powdered aluminum electrode; and an active fragrance or chemical or drug adapted to be driven by said electrode for application anywhere on the human body.

37. Each and every novel feature and/or novel combination of features herein disclosed.

Description:

SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ENHANCED SWEAT CONTROL AND THE LIKE

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to sweat control and improvements in related electrotherapeutic systems and, more particularly, to improved long term sweat control systems utilizing small aluminum particles spheres and the like which increase electrical current flow, enhance long term sweat control and also prevent skin injury in a sweat control device.

Cross-References to Related Applications

[0002] This application is claiming the benefit of co-pending provisional application No. 60/772,763 filed on February 13, 2006; provisional application No. 60/833,528 filed on July 25, 2006; provisional application No. 60/850,487 filed on October 10, 2006 and U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 1 1/651,930 filed on January 10, 2007. The following documents are incorporated herein by reference: United States Publication No. US 2005/0192528 Al 3 Publication Date September 1, 2005 entitled METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED CHEMICALS FOR CONTROL OF IONS, MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS; United States Publication No. US 2006/0025714 Al, Publication Date February 2, 2006 entitled METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED CHEMICALS FOR CONTROL OF IONS, MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS. These two documents are enclosed with the present application as appendices.

Background

[0003] A problem with present electrotherapeutic devices intended for long term sweat control is that the solid metal sheet electrode from which the signal emanates, invariably causes the signal to be emitted nonuniformly from the positive electrode. This results in "hot spots" (of hydrochloric acid) at the delivery site often resulting in skin injury. A new electrode included in the present disclosure evenly disperses the signal and neutralizes the hydrochloric acid to prevent injury or irritation . This new electrode equally applies to all therapeutic modalities including iontophoresis and stimulation devices.

Summary

[0004] Briefly, and in general terms, the present disclosure provides aluminum or aluminum alloy spheres/particles/powder or a mixture of aluminum and aluminum alloy and/or aluminum zirconium powder to form an electrode together with an aluminum metal screen wire mesh or the like within a membrane pouch and in contact with an electrical power source. The heavy metal particles are combined with a salt water or gel solution. The membrane enclosure includes a wire mesh which is surrounded by a quantity of the aluminum micro-sized particles. Magnesium or zinc particles may also be utilized. This provides a positive polarity electrode for the system.

[0005] The porous membrane enclosure has an opening through which a wire is placed in contact with the electrical power source. The contact between the power source terminal and membrane enclosure either physically touches each other or the power source directly touches the internal aluminum wire mesh through a small opening in the membrane enclosure. The power source may be a DC supply. The resulting system provides long term sweat control.

[0006] The above system may be wetted with tap water, distilled water and a saline gel solution mixed with the aluminum particles as the electrically conductive medium between the electrical power source and the skin.

[0007] An additional major objective of this disclosure is the prevention of skin irritation by the hydrochloric acid generated at the positive pole electrode. The aluminum particles reformulate the irritation causing hydrochloric acid to nullify the potential for injury.

[0008] With the negative return electrode, stainless steel particles are used surrounding a stainless steel wire mesh sealed within a porous membrane pouch. The stainless steel mesh attaches to the negative battery (DC) polarity through a small opening in the pouch. The stainless steel particles which are positively charged, offset the injury-causing sodium hydroxide emanating from this electrode. Alternative means of stopping the injury-causing sodium hydroxide aire the use of charged membranes, ion exchange resins or other buffers.

[0009] It is the expectation of consumers that the OTC ( over the counter) antiperspirant include a deodorant or fragrance. When a deodorant or fragrance is added to the long term sweat control system described above, it too will exhibit long term characteristics giving it a major advantage over present OTC products. Applied in this manner, the deodorant or fragrance would last longer than mere topical application.

[0010] Another object is to provide a stand-alone drug delivery patch that includes a fragrance (and other beneficial drugs or skin conditioning agents or fillers) and a powdered aluminum electrode or the like for a long lasting fragrance or other beneficial product to be applied anywhere on the human body.

[0011] These and other objects and advantages of the present disclosure will become apparent from the following more detailed description, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of illustrative embodiments.

Brief Description of the Drawings

[0012] Figure 1 is an exploded perspective view of a presently preferred embodiment of a sweat control device constructed in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0013] Section Ia of Figure 1 is a perspective view of an underarm treatment device constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and shows a pouch covered with a wetted pad;

[0014] Section Ib of Figure 1 is an exploded view of the pouch containing an aluminum screen and powdered aluminum ;

[0015] Section Ic of Figure 1 is an exploded view of the open pouch displaying an aluminum screen and aluminum powder;

[0016] Section Id of Figure 1 is an enlarged exploded view of the aluminum screen and powdered aluminum;

[0017] Section Ie of Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating a hand return unit with electronic signal, battery and thumb wheel control;

[0018] Figure 2 is an electrical schematic of circuitry suitable for the device shown in Fig. 1; and

[0019] Figure 3 is an isometric view of one form of a shoulder unit which may be provided in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present disclosure.

Detailed Description

[0020] The use of aluminum particles/powder contained in a pouch constitutes a novel positive polarity electrode. The positive electrode's advantages are that it changes injury causing hydrochloric acids to aluminum chloride and other forms, all of which are identified as antiperspirants. It also vastly increases current, which acts to speed up the sweat control process. The powder is formulated with a saline gel.

[0021] The negative return electrode uses stainless steel powder, disperses injury causing sodium hydroxide, and also allows for a very large increase in current. This steel powder is also formulated with a saline gel. Other means of rendering sodium hydroxide harmless may include charged membranes, ion exchange resins and other buffers.

[0022] A solid aluminum plate used in an iontophoretic device for long term sweat control using tap water, has been found to generate hydrochloric acid and cause an uneven delivery of current. This can result in skin injury. Recognizing this, the use of aluminum mesh has been suggested for more even distribution of signal over the treatment area. This disclosure concerns a still further improvement over the mesh by a vast increase of surface area through the use of micro-sized aluminum particles, spheres or the like. Such aluminum particles may be obtained, for example, from Valimet, Inc., 431 Sperry Road, Stockton, California 95206. The aluminum could be an alloy of zirconium, or zirconium particles may represent a small percentage of the particles with aluminum particles occupying the balance. These particles may range from micron to nano in size. The aluminum particles, therefore, replace the metal sheet or plate that was previously used to transmit a signal into the skin. It has been

discovered that the aluminum particles that surround the wire mesh to which the positive polarity is connected, cause the beneficial effect of neutralizing the hydrochloric acid generated at the wire mesh. This occurs by chemically converting the hydrochloric acid to aluminum chloride hydroxide. Injury producing sodium hydroxide ions emanating from the negative electrode are prevented from reaching the skin by using positively charged stainless steel particles contained in a porous membrane as the electrode. Other methods of stopping sodium hydroxide may be done by using charged membranes, ion exchange resins or other buffers.

[0023] The phenomena associated with long term sweat control can have another and important use with a long lasting deodorant/fragrance/perfume. Literature describes this phenomena as parakeratotic plugs developed in the eccrine sweat duct caused by the electric current traversing the sweat duct. Previously, a fragrance could last maximally up to 18 hours. With the present disclosure the fragrance can last many days duplicating the longevity of sweat control for many weeks. The same technology can be applied to skin conditioning agents or other chemicals or drugs for 'storage' in the eccrine sweat duct for slow release. For instance, moisturizer creams can give continuous beneficial effects to the skin over time. Drugs for certain problems could also medicate continuously over time in a stand-alone delivery system.

[0024] Again, the present disclosure can also be provided as a stand-alone drug delivery patch that includes a fragrance (and other beneficial drugs or skin conditioning agents or fillers) and a powdered aluminum electrode or the like for a long lasting fragrance or other beneficial product to be applied anywhere on the human body.

[0025] The device is typically powered by two 12 volt alkaline batteries in series for a total of 24 volts and capable of delivering up to 7 ma or more. The above application requires as a power source a DC supply and other suitable battery configurations may be used without departing from the present disclosure. Shock and pain prevention may be further enhanced by slow ramp up and/or down of the applied electrical current (e.g., see U.S. Patent No.4,340,047).

[0026] As best observed in Fig. 1 and sections Ia- Id, a bag 10 of aluminum or aluminum compound or alloy particles 13 is contained within a pouch 11 made of at least one layer of a porous membrane l la. As shown in section Ia, the pouch 11 is covered with a wetted pad. As seen in sections Ic and Id, the particles rest on a metal or other electrically conductive mesh 12 or the like (such as an aluminum screen) within the pouch, the mesh and therefore the particles being in electrical contact with a conductive lead 14, typically aluminum, preferably in a DC situation connected to a source (a battery or the like) of positive potential. The aluminum screen is surrounded by fine powdered aluminum and the pouch enclosure is a porous membrane. The pouch is then surrounded by a wetted felt intervenor or water vessel equivalent in the housing 20 (section Ia) to provide electrical conductivity between the skin and the battery terminal.

[0027] A hand return unit 30 is shown in section Ie and shows a device for electronic signal, battery and control and is electrically connected to the device 20 in section Ia. The hand return unit 30 has a tap water saturated pad 31. Underneath the pad 31 is a stainless steel powdered electrode or charged membranes or a buffer to prevent skin injury.

[0028] It has also been discovered that magnesium particles may be utilized either alone or in combination with aluminum particles for sweat inhibition. Copper particles may also be utilized and provide further antifungal benefits. Zinc particles may also be used.

[0029] Referring to Fig. 2, there is shown an electrical schematic design of a presently preferred embodiment of an electrical circuit suitable for practice of the present disclosure.

[0030] As shown in Fig. 2, Sl mechanically controls R3. When turned on, the battery will supply the +24 bus. Rl is chosen to delivery a minimum of 12OuA into the reference node Vrcf. VRI which will provide a stable Vref of 1.24V. A fraction of the current will be deviated by the circuitry around R3 and the value of Rl must guarantee a cathode current share of at least lOOuA for VRl as the TLV431 would

otherwise fall out of regulation. This minimum current must be maintained down to the lowest allowed battery voltage.

[0031] R3 is a linear potentiometer or membrane switches. Parallel resistor R2 causes R3 to deviate in a non-linear pattern so that larger voltage values and thus larger load currents occupy a broader wiper range. This increases resolution for larger current values at the expense of resolution for small currents. Changing R2 will alter the non-linear pattern, the smaller R2 the more non-linear. However, it is important to recalculate the reference current margin and if necessary adjust the value of Rl . The ratio R2/R5 determines the ratio between minimum and maximum settings, and thus load currents. Leaving R2 off and re-calculating R5 would create a linear relationship between potentiometer and load current if desired.

[0032] Log-taper potentiometers or versions with lower resistance can be used as well. However, the lower the resistance the more current needs to be provided across Rl and that will reduce battery lifetime.

[0033] More elaborate non-linearities can be introduced via a resistor diode ladder. This will require more circuit board space and is commonly called piece-wise linear approximation.

[0034] UlA and Ql form a voltage controlled current source. R6 equals 1.24V/Imax. Dl provides ESD protection. UlB monitors the battery voltage against Vrcf. R9 and provides a weak Schmitt hysteresis so that the LED D2 remains on during minor load fluctuations after a low voltage has been signaled. R8 should be chosen so that the LED sees its specified current at the selected low battery warning voltage. With the current values listed in Fig. 2 for R7, R9 and RlO, low voltage is signaled below 12V.

[0035] The circuitry consumes about ImA while the under-voltage LED is not lit. Most of that current is due to the quiescent draw of the two opamps UlA, UlB and can be reduced by using other devices. However, in general lower power devices will cost more.

[0036] The LM358 is functionally equivalent to the LM324 but smaller. An LM324 can be used for experiments. In that case the two unused opamp sections shall have their IN+ grounded and IN- tied to OUT. For the utmost in power savings an opamp from the LP Series could be chosen at higher cost. Another option to save space is the use of two separate opamps in SOT23-5 packages.

[0037] Additional circuitry could include a current level indicator using LEDs. This circuit monitors the voltage across a resistor in series with the load. Three LEDs are illuminated, one at a time, to signal three current ranges. Diodes shut off the lower level indicators as soon as the next higher range has been reached. To reduce current drain on the battery, a strobe oscillator flashes the LEDs by toggling the LED return node.

[0038] Figure 3 shows another alternative embodiment of a system which may be constructed in accordance with the present disclosure and having a negative return on the shoulder model. The figure is essentially self-explanatory. An electric housing 100 includes an operator panel 101. A negative return electrode 102 is placed on top of the shoulder underneath this wetted felt pad and surrounding negative electrode (not shown) are charged membranes 102. A wetted pad 110 and positive active electrode are also provided for treating the underarm, and underneath the wetted felt pad is an aluminum particle pouch in direct contact with the positive electrode (not shown).

[0039] It is the expectation of consumers that the OTC (over the counter) antiperspirant include a deodorant or fragrance. When a deodorant or fragrance is added to the long term sweat control system described above, it too will exhibit long term characteristics giving it a major advantage over present OTC products. Applied in this manner the deodorant or fragrance would last longer than topical application.

[0040] The application also allows for the infusion of a fragrance in keeping with the market expectation of a deodorant with antiperspirant. The present disclosure provides a long lasting fragrance since the aluminum particles described above act to create a long lasting antiperspirant. The use of a fragrance combined with the aluminum will also last exceptionally long.

[0041] Obviously, other skin improvement products such as moisturizing cream may be substituted for the perfume and new skin-improvement benefits will result because of the long lasting effect of the driving powdered aluminum electrode, independently of any antiperspirant application.

[0042] Briefly, this writing discloses providing aluminum or aluminum alloy spheres/particles or a mixture of aluminum and aluminum alloy and/or aluminum zirconium powder to form an electrode together with an aluminum metal screen wire mesh or the like within a membrane pouch and in contact with an electrical power source. The heavy metal particles are combined with a salt water or gel solution. The membrane enclosure includes a wire mesh which is surrounded by a quantity of the aluminum micro-sized particles. Magnesium and/or copper particles may also be utilized. The porous membrane enclosure has an opening through which a wire is placed in contact with the electrical power source. The contact between the power source terminal and membrane enclosure either physically touches each other or the power source directly touches the internal wire mesh through a small opening in the membrane enclosure. The power source can be a DC supply. The system provides long term sweat control. The system may be wetted with tap water, distilled water and a saline gel solution mixed with the aluminum particles as the electrically conductive medium between the power source and the skin. A deodorant or fragrance is added to the long term sweat control system and exhibits characteristics lasting much longer than topical application.

[0043] It will be apparent from the foregoing that, while particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and described, various alternatives, modifications and variations can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations and it is not intended that the invention be limited, except as by the appended claims.

111 US 20050192528A1 dp) United States

(i2) Patent Application Publication m Pub. No.: US 2005/0192528 Al

Tapper (43) Pub. Date: Sep. I 5 2005

(54) METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED on Feb 9, 2004 Provisional application No (50/593, CHEMICALS FOU CONTROL OF IONS, 030, hied on JuI 29, 2004 MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS

Publication Classification

(76) Inventor Robert Tapper, Los Angeles, CA (US)

(51) Int Cl 7 A61N 1/30

Correspondence Address (52) U S. Cl. 604/20, 131/352, 424/447,

FULWEDER PATTON LEE & UTECHT, LLP 424/65

HOWARD HUGHES CENTER

6060 CENTER DRIVE

TENTH FLOOR (57) ABSTRACT

LOS ANGELES, CA 90045 (US)

(21) Appl No U/029,904 A system including methods, apparatus, components and charged chemicals for control of ions, molecules or electrons

(22) Tiled Jan 4, 2005 whereby charged membranes, testing devices, electrode

Related U S. Application D:ιt:ι patch structures and the like utilize features of the msεntioπ for control of flow in a wide vaπety of new and improved

(60) Provisional application No 60/535,470, filed on Jan medical, testing, cosmetic, personal care, flow delivery 8, 2004 Provisional application No 60/543,446, filed applications and the like

Patent Application Publication Sep. 1, 2005 Sheet 1 of 5 US 2005/0192528 Al

Patent Application Publication Sep. 1, 2005 Sheet 2 of 5 US 2005/0192528 Al

Patent Application Publication Sep. 1, 2005 Sheet 3 of 5 US 2005/0192528 Al

Patent Application Publication Sep. 1, 2005 Sheet 4 of 5 US 2005/0192528 Al

Patent Application Publication Sep. 1, 2005 Sheet 5 of 5 US 2005/0192528 Al

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED molecules, ions or electrons and even polar neutral com¬

CHEMICALS FOR CONTROL OF IONS, pounds as in an electroosraolic withdrawal system and a

MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS drug delivery system.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED [0005] The invention is contemplated, in its various forms APPLICATION and applications as including the following and other features:

[0001] This application is claiming the benefit of a co- pending provisional application Sen No. 60/535,470 filed on [0006] I) The use of charged chemicals of cither negative Jan. 8, 2004, co-pending Scr. No. 60/543,446 filed on Feb. or positive polarity on support members that could include 9, 2004 and co-pending Ser. No, 60/593,030 filed on JuI.29, a) membranes, b) felt pads made of natural or synthetic 2004. The material of the related provisional applications arc fibers, c) impregnated filter paper, d) liquid form, e) any incorporated by reference herein. material that allows charged chemicals to control ions, molecules or electrons;

HELD OF THE INVENTION [0007] 2) The use of charged chemicals of either negative

[0002] This invention relates generally to methods and or positive polarity formulated with an increased concenapparatus pertaining to charged particles flow and, more tration of the charged chemicals causing either negative or particularly, to improvements in methods, apparatus, syspositive polarity to increase their effectiveness; tems and materials for control of flow and level of ions, [0008] 3) For use in a DC iontophoretic drug delivery molecules, or electrons using charged chemicals and aay/all system, the presence of charged chemicals in solution as an applications thereof. integral part of a felt pad(s) or a mcmbrane(s) to prevent: a) injurious chemicals emanating from the electrode from

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION reaching the skin, b) sodium hydroxide developed at the negative terminal is prevented from reaching the skin with

[0003] Topical drug delivery systems range from small particulate carriers through passive patches to sophisticated either a negatively charged or positively charged intervenor iontophoretic propulsion delivery systems. Ideally, they between the skin and the electrode in an electrically conductive circuit, c) hydrochloric acid generated at the positive attempt, to deliver beneath the skin beneficial chemicals or drugs in the largest controlled amounts, in the shortest time, electrode can be prevented from reaching the skin with up to the largest molecular size and without chemically either positively charged or negatively charged chemicals on caused skin injury or microneedle puncture. No commeran appropriate support intervenor spaced between the eleccially available product can do all of this today. Accordingly, trode and the skin in an electrically conductive system; those of ordinary skill in the art have long recognized the [0009] 4) The chemically charged intervenor(s) acting as need for improvements in these areas, and the present a reservoir or storage area for the drug to be delivered; invention fulfills all of these needs.

[0010] 5) In iontophoresis or reverse iontophoresis or drug

INVENTION SUMMARY delivery or similar chemical or drug transport system, the use of currents above the traditional 0.5 ma per era". The

[0004] Basically, the present invention satisfies the aforeaforementioned charged chemicals either on support strucmentioned needs with improvements in methods, apparatus, ture or without support structure, enable these high currents components and chemistry including the use of charged to be achieved. Large molecular delivery also benefits from chemicals of either polarity or both as chemically integral high electrical current along with Tapper U.S. Pat. NOs. surfaces on support membranes or equivalent support mate6,238,381 and 6,425,891; rials such as felt or like materials made of natural or synthetic fibers or impregnated filter paper or other materials [0011] 6) In a powered patch, electrical currents can be in a drug delivery or diagnostic withdrawal system. The further increased by a new physical configuration of the charged chemicals may also be used without a support active, drug delivery applicator. High density current can be structure. They allow multiple hybridizations that could tolerated when multiple small circles of current emitting include a neutral charge among other effects. Examples of membranes are clustered instead of one large fiat delivery these membranes manufactured by Pall Corporation of 25 surface; Harbor Park Drive, Port Washington, N.Y. 1λ050 are Mus[0012] 7) The use of the aforementioned charged chemitang S, Mustang Q, Mustang C and Biodync A, Biodyne B cals of both negative and positive polarity together or and Biodyne C. The Mustang series are of special interest separately to meet all objectives of those inventions; with Mustang S giving a strong negative polarity with its surface modified by sulfonic acid. Mustang Q gives a strong [0013] 8) The use of charged chemicals on an intervenor positive polarity with its surface modified by quaternary or in combination with both polarities in an AC iontoamine. It should be understood that the chemicals cited are phoretic device; for example only and are not the only chemicals that can [0014] 9) The use of histamines in the positive applicator polarize support structures or control ion or molecule How to lessen the pain from this applicator and allow an increase without a support structure. For instance. Mustang C is in current; polarized with carboxylic acid. Other examples of functional groups that can bear a charge would be the hydroxyl, [0015] 10) The use of charged membrane(s) in an otherphosphate moieties. A unique feature of the invention is the wise unpowered patch (passive patch) to propel the drug(s) use of charged or polarized chemicals on support members into the skin at greatly increased levels compared to other or not, to control a flux, current, or signal of polarized unpowered patches;

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

[0016] 11) The use of charged membrane(s) in an unpow- [0033] 2S) The use of a chemically charged bandage or the cred patch as a storage area or reservoir for drugs. like that comes precoaled with an antiseptic or the antiseptic

[0017] 12) The use of charged membrane(s) of either is added later. The charged chemicals will drive the antipolarity or in combination to increase infusion in an otherseptic into the wound continuously when wetted or in gel wise unpowercd patch; form for communication between all elements;

[0018] 13) The use of charged membranes between skin [0034] 29) The use of a chemically charged bandage or the and output electrode as the conductive element when wetted like to enhance and speed wound healing when wetted; with distilled water without the need of a saline solution; [0035] 30) The use of a charged chemical of negative

[0019] 14) The use in iontophoresis or reverse iontophorepolarity in a toothpaste containing fluoride to infuse the sis of charged membranes between the skin and output fluoride below the tooth's surface and gum to prevent electrode as the conductive element when wetted with cavities and disease; distilled water as a means of avoiding clutter from conduc[0036] 31) The use of a charged chemical of negative tive chemicals that may be added to enhance transport; polarity as an integral part or coating of toothbrush bristles

[0020] 15) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powered Io cause the fluoride of a toothpaste Io be driven or infused patch of either polarity or in combination as an iuterveπor to into the teeth or gums; prevent skin injury; [0037] 32) The use of charged chemicals of eilher polarity

[0021] 16) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powered as an additive to a germ-killing mouthwash to infuse the patch of either polarity or in combination to act as a drug antiseptic into the teeth and gums; storage area or reservoir; [0038] 33) The use of a charged chemical of negative

[0022] 17) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powered polarity to be used as an inlerveπor between a battery- patch of either polarity or in combination as α reservoir and powered ioπtophoretic toothbrush and the bristles to prevent intervenor to increase currents above 0.5 ma PeTCm 5 WiIhOUt injurious sodium hydroxide from the negative terminal of skin injury; the battery from reaching the leeth, gums or mucous mem¬

[0023] 18) In drug delivery, a small amount of glucose (0.2 brane; mol/1) in solution with insulin can be amplified 9 times in an [0039] 34) A stent coated with either positive or negative uπpowered environment using charged membranes; chemicals or both to cause elution and prevent restenosis.

[0024] 19) Feature 18 wherein the above solution is in a [0040] 35) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals of powered environment will increase the signal many-fold; either charge or both thai will βlute like-charged chemicals

[0025] 20) Feature 19 in a powered environment with the coated on top of the charged coating to prevent restenosis; use of polarized membranes to act both to prevent skin [0041] 36) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals injury and further enhance amplification; cither positively or negatively charged or both integrated

[0026] 21) In drug delivery, any chemical or drug in a with like-charged chemicals that will be propelled or eluted powered environment and stored in oppositely charged from the surface to prevent restenosis; cπembranι;(s) will cause amplification; [0042] 37) A stent coated wilh quaternary amine, sulfonic

[0027] 22) Another example of drug or chemical amplifiacid or carboxyl acid or the equivalent to cause elution either cation is using the phenomena of oppositely charged drugs with another chemical that will be driven beyond the surface to create recycling and thus amplification would be with or the charged coating alone to elute when surrounding glucosamine and chondroitin. Glucosamine is positive and tissue and body fluids come in contact; chondroitin is negaLive and the two in solution with the appropriately charged membranes and in an appropriately [0043] 38) For cosmetic application, the use of charged polarized field, would benefit from amplification; chemicals in liquid form as a spray to be applied over a moisturizer base or any other skin conditioner. This will

[0028] 23) The use of charged chemicals on filters in drive a like-charged cosmetic ingredient or skin improvecigarettes positioned between the tobacco and the end held ment product deeper into" the skin than topical application; in the mouth to prevent the migration of deleterious tobacco chemicals from entering the moulb upon inhaling; [0044] 39) The use of salicylic acid and/or its derivative in combination with a charged chemical to limit its travel

[0029] 24) The use of charged chemicals of either polarity beneath the skin and thus prevent irritation; or in combination on impregnated filter paper or membranes as an iαtervenor between tobacco and mouth to prevent [0045] 40) The use of positively charged salicylic acid in polarized harmful chemicals from reaching the mouth. combination with negatively charged sulfonic acid or car¬

[0030] 25) The use of a tobacco extract or flavor in boxyl acid or the like to bind to each other and thus limit combination with Items 23 and 24; migration of the salicylic acid beneath the epidermis;

[0031] 26) A charged membrane of the same polarity of [0046] 41) The use of salicylic acid as a skin spray as part the tobacco extracl or flavor to propel the extract or flavor of a two component system wherein a negatively charged into the mouth; spray follows;

[0032] 27) The use of charged chemicals as an inherent [0047] 42) Salicylic acid's pH buffered from three to four part of a bandage or the like, to have an antibacterial effect to a nonirritating pH of approximately five and infused into when placed over a wound; the skin by a like-charged chemical;

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

[0048] 43) The use of negatively charged sodium salicy[0062] 57) This charged membrane intervenor of Items 50, late with negatively charged chemicals to infuse the sodium 54, 55 and 56 allows the use of high currents above the salicylate into the skin for beneficial effects. The sodium traditional 0.5 ma/cm 2 ; salicylate and the negatively charged chemicals may be in formulation or they may be in the form of a two component [0063] 58) Increasing the level of charge of the aforemensystem whereby the sodium salicylate is applied first as tioned membraπe(s) by higher concentrations of the polarperhaps a spray and followed by a spray of negatively ized material improves the benefits cited above; charged chemicals; [0064] 59) A positively charged wetted (gel) membrane

[0049] 44) For cosmetic and personal care application, the prevents skin injury by stopping the sodium hydroxide ions use of charged chemicals in formulation with like-chavged emitted from the negative electrode in an electrically conskin improvement material. The repelled skin improvement ductive circuit; materials will be infused deeper into the skin; [0065] 60) The charged membrane interposed between

[0050] 45) The use of the negative and positive charges in skin and negative terminal also stores the solution (or gel) formulation to result in a neutral charge and then mixed with necessary to effect communication or current flow between the salicylic acid to limit its penetration to the epidermis; skin and electrode;

[0051] 46) The neutral formulation of Item 45 to be used [0066] 61) The target withdrawn glucose analyte passes as a spray following th« application of salicylic acid to limit through the membrane to the end that touches the negative its penetration; electrode and becomes the critical pick-up point for the

[0052] 47) The use of positively charged chemicals such glucose monitor to read. This pick-up point for the withas quaternary amine in solution with salicylic acid to limit drawn glucose analyte is unique in that it is against the the depth of its penetration to the epidermis; electrode and not at membrane entry point in contact with the skin;

[0053] 48) The use of charged or neutral control chemicals in the form of a spray to be applied over the initial appli[0067] 62) The charged membrane is constructed in a cation of salicylic acid to limit its depth of penetration to the rolled form so that one side of the membrane touches the epidermis; skin and the other side touches the electrode. In other words,

[0054] 49) In a permanent hair remover (Tapper U.S. Pat. when viewed from the skin, the withdrawn analyte sees only Nos. 6,094,594 and 6,206,869) wherein a depilatory is straight line, unbroken surfaces while migrating to the driven into the Collide by an iontophoretic device, the use of electrode; a charged intervenor between battery and skin for the [0068] 63) The membrane form of Item 62 that causes the purposes of: a) to use high currents to expedite treatment, b) withdrawn glucose analyte to flow in a straight line while to use chemically charged intervenor to prevent skin injury, migrating to the electrode; c) to use the chemically charged intervenor as the storage or reservoir vehicle for tbe depilatory; [0069] 64) The structure of Items 62 and 63 that causes the

[0055] 50) A non-invasive diagnostic withdrawal device withdrawn glucose signal deposition on the end of the using a charged or polarized membrane(s), one end of which membrane in direct contact with the electrode; is positioned to touch the skin and the other end touching the [0070] 65) The use of a high pH from the electrode that electrode; attracts the glucose to this point of signal deposition;

[0056] 51) An alternate construction of Item 50 is the use of two membranes, nπc charged or conductive and the other [0071] 66) The structure of Features 62, 63, 64 and 65 nonconductive in direct contact with each other and spaced wherein the membrane eud in contact with tbe electrode is between the skin and the electrode; the pick-up point for the withdrawn glucose which is then placed in contact with the monitor's strip for analysis or

[0057] 52) The use of a charged membrane and an direct reading; uncharged membrane in a withdrawal system whereby the uncharged membrane is placed in contact with the skin and [0072] 67) The positive return electrodg may also use the charged membrane in contact with the electrode to charged membranes to prevent skin- damage and aEows complete the circuit. toleration of higher currents;

[0058] 53) The use of a wool felt nib such as from a [0073] 68) The positive return electrode of the system marker pen as the intevenor between the skin and electrode described above may also be used to monitor drug pharmato prevent the passage of sodium hydroxide from the negacokinetics; tive electrode from passing to the skin. The wool nib may or may not be coated with charged chemicals; [0074] 69) A solution formulated with glucose in a solvent of distilled deionized water;

[0059] 54) The charged or polarized intervenor of Item 50 that is approximately a half-inch in length and placed [0075] 70) The solution of Item 69 wherein lhe glucose between skin and electrode; must totally saturate the distilled deionized water to prevent

[0060] 55) The membrane of Hems 50-54 between the skin absorption of the withdrawn glucose; and the electrode to protect against skin injury; [0076] 71) The solution of Items 69 and 70 must have a

[0061] 56) Increasing the height of this membrane of surplus of glucose (distilled deionized water solvent totally Items 50, 41 and 55 allows the use of currents above 0.5 αia saturated) with a monitor reading between 1 and 400 mg/dl per cm'; or more;

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

4

[0077] 72) Adding a small quantity of insulin to the processed at the strip and results in a meter reading based on glucose solutions of Items 69, 70 and 71, perhaps 0.3% or lhe glucose concentration or density in the withdrawn interless, greatly increases the aπalyte signal or causes amplifistitial iluid; and cation; [0095] 90) An LED to indicate the precise end to the

[0078] 73) The solution of Items 69, 70, 71 and 72 lhat withdrawal process. may include stabilizers or preservatives; [0096] These and other objects and advantages of the

[0079] 74) Chemical amplification of the minute subpico- invention will become apparent from the following more mole withdrawn analyte lakes place in the environment detailed description, when taken in conjunction with the disclosed. When at least two differently charged substances accompanying drawings of illustrative embodiments. occupy the same area, they become reagents to a signal passing through. The reagents cause recycling of the signal BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS resulting in amplification. The charged positive membrane [0097] FIG.1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of in the negative field acts as a reagent to the withdrawn a passive patch construction in accordance with the present glucose analyle and amplifies it; invention;

[0080] 75) Another form of this would be the use of a [0098] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of another passive positive and negative membrane adjacent to each other to patch constructed in accordance with the invention; cause recycling and therefore amplification of analyle;

[0099] FIG.3 is a perspective view of still another passive

[0081] 76) Amplification would take place if all the polaripatch constructed in accordance with the present invention; ties cited above were reversed;

[0100] FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a powered patch

[0082] 77) Charged membranes made with higher concenconstruction in accordance with the present invention; tration of charged chemicals will show increased amplification; [0101] FIG. S is a perspective view of another powered patch in accordance with the present invention, shown in

[0083] 78) More presence of charged membrane will place upon the skin; increase the reaction and therefore increase amplification;

[0102] FIG. Sa is a perspective view

[0084] 79) This invention lends itself for the new technology of 'labs-on-a-chip"; [0103] FIG. 56 is a sectional view of a drug delivery device utilizing the present invention and illustrating mul¬

[0085] 80) The electrode is a screen made of stainless steel tiple clustered electrical current emitting membranes; to evenly disperse sodium hydroxide and pH;

[0104] FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c are fragmentary perspective

[0086] 81) The power supply consists of a 6 volt battery views of filter devices embodying features of the invention; with circuitry to increase the DC output voltage to 70 volts. Note: voltage may be higher or lower. A safety circuit or [0105] FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of a fail-safe circuit is included; diagnostic probe constructed in accordance with the present invention;

[0087] 82) The circuit includes a dosimetry circuit (Tapper [0106] KIG. Ib is a perspective view of a rolled charged patents) that precisely controls the analyte withdrawal quantity based on time and current; membrane embodying the present invention;

[0107] FIG. Ic is an enlarged longitudinal view of a probe

[0088] 83) This non-invasive diagnostic device includes a including a switch and LED; and calibration switch;

[0108] FIG. Id is an enlarged view of the electrical switch

[0089] 84) A multi-position switch that selects the withfor the probe shown in FIG. 7c. drawal time/current to match the highs, lows, and in-between time glucose levels of the patient caused by meals, DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE physical exercise, or insulin dose; PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0090] 85) A multiple position switch that selectively [0109] Referring now to the drawings, wherein like refadjusts lime and current to conform with well established erence numerals refer to like or corresponding elements periods of glucose change related to meal intake (also throughout the various figures of the drawings, there is physical exercise and insulin dose); shown in FIG. 1 an improved passive patch 10 embodying

[0091] 86) The switch of Items 84 and 85 for following features of the present invention. The use of this technology selections: Position 1 (1-2 hours after meals), Position 2 (2-3 in its simplest form without the use of battery power would hours after meals), and Position 3 (3-4 hours after meals); be with the commercially available passive patch 10 that is unpowercd. The use of one or more polarized membranes U

[0092] 87) Different time/current rales are assigned to beneath a backing 12 acts to propel a drug into the skin if the each of the three switch positions; polarity of the drug (or other chemical) and the membranes

[005)3] 88) A submuHiple nr multiple of the meter reading 11 were the same. In this instance, a liner L3 would be to extend range; removed and the charged membranes 11 in communication with a drug-in-adhesive system 14 would propel lhe drug

[0094] 89) After gross selection is made with switch into the skin (not shown). Another configuration would be according to Items 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88, a precise for lhe charged chemicals to be an inherent part of the reading is obtained when the withdrawn glucose specimen is drug-iπ-adhesioπ.

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[OU 0] As shown in FIG. 2, the charged membranes 11 prevent restenosis. Another medical use of this technology also acl as a reservoir for the drug 14 with adhesion of the could include microscopic drug delivery for both external patch 10 made by separate tape 15 or any of a variety of and internal application. taping means. For the first time, an infusion system without battery, would force much greater quantities of drug (or [0115] The charged membranes can also infuse an antiother chemicals) into the skin. They allow multiple hybridseptic for enhanced control. It may also be applied with a izations that could include a neutral charge among other spray of the charged chemicals, sulfonic acid or quaternary effects. Examples of these membranes manufactured by Pall amine or both or the equivalent. An example of such an Corpo ration of 2 5 Harbor Park Drive, Port Washington, N. Y. application would be to apply a treatment cream or medi11050 arc Mustang S, Mustang Q, Mustang C and Biodyne cament over an area and then spray the polarized chemical A, Biodyne B and Biodyne C. The Mustang scries are of over it. If the beneficial formulation applied to the skin is of special interest with Mustang S giving a strong negative the same polarity as the charged material on lop, the polarity with its surface modified by sulfonic acid. Mustang treatment formulas (skin conditioners, etc.) or medicament Q gives a strong positive polarity with its surface modified will be driven into the skin. A variation of this would be to by quaternary amine. It should be understood that the mix the treatment formula of known polarity with a charged chemicals cited are for example only and are not the only chemical of the same polarity and then apply topically to the chemicals that can polarize support structures or control ion or molecule flow without a support structure. For instance, skin. The like-charged treatment formula will be driven, into Mustang C is polarized with carboxylic acid. Other the skin. examples of functional groups that can bear a charge would [0116] Another example of the practice of this invention is be the hydroxy!, phosphate moieties. A unique feature of the to mix a positively charged chemical with a common "over invention is the use of charged or polarized chemicals on the counter" antiperspirant. The charged chemical will drive support members or not, to control a flux, current, or signal tbe aluminum chloride or the like deep down the eccrine of polarized molecules, ions or electrons and even polar sweat duct for far more effectiveness than topical applicaneutral compounds as in an electroosmotic withdrawal systion. Another form of this would be a two-component system tem and a drug delivery system. whereby aluminum chlorhydraie antiperspirant is topically

[0111] Referring to FIG.3 of the drawings, a variation of sprayed under the arm and is followed with a spray of a the patch 10 would be for the inside of the backing 12 to be positively charged chemical to infuse the aluminum chlo- divided in half by an electrical insulator 15, such as a plastic rhydrate deep within the eccrine sweat duct. divider, so that two different medicaments could be placed [0117] Conversely with the above applications wherein in each half — one of negative polarity and one of positive there is an effort to drive or infuse the active drug or polarity with like-polarized membranes in each half to drive cosmetic deeper into the skin, there are certain applications the drugs into the skin. where it is desirable to limit the travel of the active com¬

[0112] Another variation would be for the patch 10 to have ponents to the epidermis (outer skin). Salicylic acid is an a polarized membranes 11 under the backing 12 with a example of this. Salicylic acid and/or its derivative is the like-polarized drug saturating it and an opposite charged treatment of choice for acne, psoriasis, or pbotoaging. membrane H configured in a circle in close proximity Because of its low pH(3-4), positively charged salicylic acid around the inner drug bearing membrane but electrically is capable of penetrating deeply through the epidermis, insulated from it. Over 620 millivolts exist between polardermis and receptor fluid causing irritation. To overcome ized membranes 1.1 of one polarity and the skin. This value this problem, the use of the negatively charged chemicals of can be increased by adding more membranes 11 to the slack. sulfonic acid or carboxyl acid or the like as a control for the It can also be increased by using charged chemicals in permeation of the salicylic acid is suggested. When formugreater concentration. Still greater efficiency can be obtained lated with the salicylic acid, the negatively charged ions will by using charged membranes (or felts, filters, etc.) of both combine with the positively charged salicylic acid and, when polarities with a membrane battery separator (not shown) in properly balanced, will limit the depth of penetration of the between. salicylic acid to the epidermis, thus eliminating irritation. Two other combinations using charged chemicals to limit the

[0113] Another very important application of these polarflow of the active salicylic acid to the epidermis would be ized membranes would be for wound dressing to promote the use of the negative and positive charges in formulation wound healing or infection control. Published papers show to result in a neutral charge. Still another impediment to the that tissue growth is promoted when minor currents traverse salicylic acid flow below the epidermis, would be the use of the wound. Another paper attributes this growth to the positively charged chemicals such as quaternary amine in anti-bacterial effect of low currents across a wound. In solution with salicylic acid. These charged or neutral control accordance with the invention, bacterial and fungal infection chemicals can be in the form of spray to be applied over the can be controlled with the electro-chemical effect of charged initial application of salicylic acid. membranes, bandages or dressing over infected body areas.

[0118] Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 6a, 6b

[0114] A major problem with catheters is their propensity and 6c of the drawings, another major beneficial application to cause infection at the body insertion opening. Coating or of the present invention would be for the use of the positive bonding charged chemicals of both polarities separated from membrane Mustang Q or a filter paper impregnated with each other onto the catheter tubing will give wide spectrum Mustang Q or the like, to repel the positively charged protection against bacterial infection. Medical use of this nicotine chemical that is inhaled during smoking to prevent technology would be for stent coating. The charged coating addiction. These membranes or filter paper or the like would (either charge ur both) would have an elulimj effect to take the form of layered filters ITa, 176, 17c at anv location

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

between the lips and the tobacco and will effectively repel device but it failed at the marketplace. Among the problems nicotine and other harmful chemicals from leaving the is the short-term treatment of a brushing that would have cigarette. questionable value. If the electrical current were raised, there could be a danger of injury to the very sensitive

[0119] Carbon monoxide is another danger to the smoker. surrounding mucous membranes and the gum. Carbon monoxide is formed by the combustion of carbon with a limited supply of air. As best shown in FIG. 6c, a [0123] With the use of charged chemicals as a stand alone positive membrane or impregnated filler paper 17a in direct component away from membranes or felt pads, a new contact with a negative membrane or filter paper 17b conapplication of the present invention presents itself. The stitutes a battery and as a result liberates oxygen at the negatively charged chemicals (typically sulphoπic acid or positive membrane and hydrogen at the negative membrane. carboxyl acid and the like) when placed in a mouthwash or These added gases would act to neutralize the carbon dentifrice with the presence of fluoride will acl to infuse monoxide. The membranes could be 'wetted' with a pre- fluoride beneath the surface of the tooth. In addition, Ibis coated hydrogel or 'self-wetting' since the direct contact process could continue over time for the ultimate cavity between the negative and positive membranes create a protection because residual activity may linger for hours. 'moist' condition. This would be an obvious boon to smokSome high potency fluoride toothpastes are recommended to ers worldwide since the medical community relates cancer, be used without rinsing. Under these conditions, it is apparheart problems, pulmonary problems, etc. to the inhalation ent that negatively charged chemicals will repel the negaof tobacco smoke. tively charged fluoride over time for the ultimate protection against tooth decay and the prevention of gum disease.

[0120] Also contemplated within the purview of the invention is a cigarette filter, as shown in FIG.6, having a charged [0124] A major advance in noninvasive drug delivery is to cuemical(s) which attracts or repels unwanted polarized ions introduce a battery 20 (see FIGS.4 and S) or any electrical or molecules from a tobacco smoke stream so that they do power source to greatly increase [luxes of both ionic and not enter the mouth. The charged or polarized chemicals polar neutral compounds. This process known as ionto(FIGS. 6a, 6b, 6c) are covalently bonded to a non-volatile phoresis, works through one or a combination of the folinorganic substrate which is incorporated in the filter. The lowing mechanisms: electrophoresis, electroosmosis, and filter can remove nicotine, carbon monoxide, cadmium, lead, electroporation. While this process was known for over 100 mercury, nickel, cyanide among other dangerous elements years, its use was extremely limited because of lho bums and from tobacco smoke. These charged or polarized chemicals irritation it could cause, slow treatment since an increase in can be covalently bonded to silica gel (APS silica gel) or the electrical current would cause unacceptable pain, aud an like. The charged chemical(s) can be contained in a space in inability to deliver large molecular drugs at therapeutic the filter or incorporated in one or more filter elements such levels because of low current requirements as well as other as tipping paper, shaped paper insert, mouthpiece plug, solid needs. All of these handicaps that limit acceptability of a filler element, or free-flow filler element. The charged powered superior drug or chemical delivery system arc now chemicals can be part of or coated on paper such as tipping overcome by means of the present invention directed to the or filter paper or incorporated in non-paper filter elements use of charged or polarized membranes. formed from fibrous materials such as cellulose acetate or polypropylene fibers. The use of the charged chemicals on [0125] The following examples of systems using charged any of the aforementioned exemplary support structures membranes with electrically powered systems or battery, addresses the safety aspect of the invention. presumes the reader is aware that the drug or chemical to be delivered is in solution that could take the form of a liquid,

[0121] Other aspects of cigarette acceptability involve the gel or paste or equivalent that links the active elements tobacco flavor that a smoker seeks for gratification. With the together. In this instance, the membranes serve the purpose source for this tobacco taste diminished or stopped by the of a reservoir for this solution. The second purpose of the charged membrane(s), it can be restored with the use of membranes 11 is to protect the skin from injury. Stacked or tobacco extracts or flavors in the space between the end of coiled charged membranes 11 or the equivalent will stop the the cigarette that goes into the mouth and the membrane or migration of harmful ions from the battery 20 or electrical filter in contact with the tobacco. Another variation of this is power source connected electrodes 22. For instance, multo coat a charged membrane with the same polarity tobacco tiple Mustang S membranes placed between the negative extract to propel the extract or flavor into the mouth. The electrode and the skin will prevent sodium hydroxide from smoker will now experience a cigarette that is safe, imparts reaching the skin, yet it will allow the flow of electrical flavor, and exudes smoke that is psychologically satisfying. current between these two points. Multiple Mustang Q membranes placed between the positive electrode and the

[0122] Another application of the invention having major skin will prevent hydrochloric acid from reaching the skin. universal value would be in the field of dentistry. Il has long Very importantly, this allows enormous electrical current been knosvn that fluoride has beneficial effects for the care levels to be used with no skin injury and lessened pain. This and well being of teeth. In this regard, the government has means that noninvasive iontophoretic devices can deliver allowed fluoride to be added to the water system. An therapeutic levels of drug in the fastest possible time. extension of this is a means of infusing fluoride below the surface of the teeth instead of topical application with a [0126] Combinations of these membranes 11 may be used common dentifrice. This has been recognized by the FDA as under the same electrode 22. For instance, one use of the the ultimate means of preventing cavities and they approved polarized membrane 11 would be to use the negative mema methodology that uses an iontophoretic toothbrush to brane against the negative electrode to repel the injury infuse a fluoride toothpaste beneath the surface of the tooth. causing sodium hydroxide from reaching the skin. The Attempts were made Io commercially introduce such a positive charged membranes could also be used with the

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

negative electrode because the unlike negative ions would if the vasodilators of acetylcholine (ACh) or methacholine bind to the positive membrane and therefore stop the injury (MCh) arc added to the solution on the positive applicator, causing ions from reaching the skin. Conversely, we may use it will be infused along with any other elements within the the negatively charged membrane against the positive elecsolution thereby lessening the pain sensation and allowing trode to stop the injury causing hydrochloric acid from for an increase of current. reaching the skin. The communicating link between electri[0131] In addition to the large electrical current capability cal power source, through solution wetted membrane to of this invention, amplification also contributes to an enorskin, includes the drug or chemical of choice. The solution mous signal to significantly increase drug delivery. Subsemay even be non-conductive. Conductivity between the quently described in this application is a competitive envipower source and the skin is made because the wetted ronment of two different charge levels in solution that acts membrane is conductive by virtue of its charged chemicals to recycle and thus amplify. Drug delivery of insulin can also that electrically link lhe electrode to the skin. The charged be greatly enhanced with the use of a small quantity of membranes may be renewed and life-extended by simply glucose (perhaps 0.2 mol/1) in solution with insulin. The reversing the polarity of the battery 20 or power source. insulin infusion could be increased about 9 times with this

[0127] The device may be used wilh an AC signal (as in glucose additive. Conversely, a small quantity of insulin U.S. Pat. No.5,224,927). Mixed polarity membranes may be added to the glucose withdrawal solution will increase the used under each electrode in this instance. Mixed polarity withdrawn analyte sample in a reverse iontophoresis modalmembranes may also be used in a DC system under the same ity. Still another method of increasing flux or signal amplielectrode. This has a stabilizing effect and enhances regufication in drug delivery is with the use of charged chemicals lation. as an integral part of a support structure or in a solution that communicates between skin and electrode. When two dif¬

[0128] A major challenge of this non-invasive technology ferently charged substances are in solution, they become is the infusion of large molecular drugs such as insulin. Also, reagents, thereby causing recycling resulting in amplificathe diabetic may need a 'bolus' shot (an exceptionally high tion of the delivered drug. The use of negatively or posiinfusion). Infusion of large molecular drugs requires high tively charged insulin (charge depends on pH) in an envielectrical currents to drive them into the skin. Another ronment of a positively charged membrane and using a example of. the need for high currents to drive extremely negative power source to drive this solution into the skin, high molecular drugs into the skin is the transport of also increases amplification. glucosamine and chondroiliπ. These two chemicals can [0132] The aforedescribed systems describe various applilessen pain and affect cartilage repair for knee osteoarthritis. cations of charged molecules in either chemical form or as Presently, these two chemicals require very large oral an integral part of a membrane, felt or equivalent support administration dosage to be effective. Losses created by first material. These applications include use of lhe polarized pass metabolism before they reach the area of effectiveness, characteristic as a stand-alone infusion or delivery system, make it necessary for large oral dosages. Direct application use of the polarized property to control bacterial or fungal of these drugs to the knee area is superior. The problem infection and to promote healing, use of the charged proparises because negatively charged choαdroitin has a molecuerty as a filter to stop movement of injury causing chemicals lar weight of 60,000 daltons — over 10 times more than coming from tobacco and the like, use of the polarized insulin! The aforementioned means of large electrical curcharacteristic to stop injurious chemicals coming from a rents to give high current density are very effective to deliver battery or power supply in addition to various other applithese large molecules. Skin preps to aid permeability should cations. The use of charged chemicals or membranes or the be used with these drugs for non-invasive delivery. These like modified with these chemicals or the equivalent carrier preps include sodium salicylate and/or depilatories. of these chemicals is so unique and widely diverse that the

[0129] In still another effort to increase electrical current, present invention is directed to and includes the universality in accordance with the invention, by reconfiguring the of use other than those limited prior uses by the aforementraditional fiat surface of lhe active drug-carrying applicator tioned Pall Corporation for use in lab assays and industrial we were able to increase current. Referring to FIG. 5b, a or clean air filters, but not for medical devices or personal drug-carrying applicator 25 is shown to be multiple small, care products and uses lo enhance delivery of a beneficial membrane containing openings 27. As before, the membrane Flux, signal, ' όPcύrrent. ; = acts as a drug reservoir and as an injury-preventing inter- Non-Invasive Diagnostic Device venor between the skin and the source of power. By breaking [0133] A major aspect this invention is the ultimate appliup a large flat delivery surface, in accordance with the cation of the use of chemically charged membranes or invention, the electrical current could be increased apprecharged chemicals in liquid form making possible the first ciably. non-invasive rapid diagnostic test for glucose or other

[0130] Ii has been found that another contributor to pain analytes. The finished device has a number of other innoduring lhe iontophoretic process comes from the positive vations for its successful operability. applicator of the device. The cause for the pain and therefore [0134] To better understand the details of these features a limiting current factor at the positive output, is believed to and their contribution to the complete working unit, an be the fact that this polarity causes vasoconstriction. Vasooverview of the elements and workings of the device is constriction effects the nerve endings which we perceive as presented. While the device can be worn as a watch on the pain. By adding a very small percentage of a histamine to the wrist or placed in other areas, it is perhaps easier to follow positive applicator, the pain can be offset because the in the form of a probe because the active elemenis are histamine is a vasodilator. In accordance with the invention, stacked sequentially in the probe and can be more readily this facilitates increasing the electrical current. For example, understood in that form.

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1. 2005

[0135] As shown in FIG. 7 the working probe is held as the inside end of the membrane removable from the rest of a pen 100 and placed on top of a vein on the wrist and makes the probe. After making the withdrawal from the skin, the ai) adequate glucose withdrawal within 95 seconds. The patient separates this piece from the probe and affixes it to elemeπl touching the skin is a rolled, chemically charged the strip on a glucose monitor (not shown). The deposition membrane 111 that is welted with a unique solution, gel or of the withdrawn glucose as stated above is uniquely on the equivalent. The other end 1116 of the membrane is in direct inside end 1116 of the membrane UUL. This point is approxielectrical contact with the negative terminal 120 of a power mately a half-inch away from the pickup end lllα of the supply (battery) 125. There is now continuous electrical membrane 111 that touches the skin. It is this inside part of communication between the membrane end lllα that the membrane thai is placed on the strip of a commercially touches the skin and the negative termiπaj 120 because of available monitor that will respond with a glucose reading. the conductive, charged membrane 111. The circuit is comThis part 111 is then discarded and replaced with a new unit. plete when lhe patient is connected to the positive terminal 126 of the power source. The return electrode may also be [0139] Other key elements in this application of charged placed on the forearm above of the wrist where a sample is membranes is how they are presented to the withdrawn taken. Another arrangement may be the grounding of the analyte. It is important that the membranes offer a continumelal tube that is held by the hand applying the device to the ous, unbroken path for the glucose to travel to the electrode. wrist vein. The return electrode may also benefit from the Any impediment to this flow results in inaccurate readings. use of charged membranes to prevent the hydrochloric acid For instance, early investigation made use of membranes generated at the positive electrode from reaching the skin. positioned flat on the skin pickup area. Since it was essential There are additional benefits with the use of the charged to increase thickness of the charged membrane between the membranes. The charged membranes 111 are wetted with skin and the high voltage electrode to prevent skin injury and distilled deionized water and are conductive to the skin pain, experiments were conducted with layered membranes. because the charged or ionic membranes are in direct contact tip to 75 and more layers may be necessary to prevent injury with the skin. This eliminates the traditional saline wetted and allow enormous current density to speed treatment. return electrode. It has been determined that the saline Unfortunately, the layered membranes gave false readings actually interfered with the withdrawn glucose sample givbecause each layer presented an interface to the signal that ing distorted information. While the system described is distorted lhe readings. A roll of the charged membrane is intended to withdraw neutral or zwitterionic species by now used that when positioned on its side, allows the signal convective flow with the negative polarity to measure such to traverse a single surface on its way to the electrode. clinically important substances as glucose, cholesterol, lacIncreasing the height of the charged membrane increases tate etc., it has other uses without departing from the spirit protection and allows greater current. A half-inch membrane and scope of the invention. spacing between the skin and electrode may be used, but a greater spacing using a membrane of greater height may

[0136] The invention may also be used to monitor drug provide enhanced results. For instance, literature sets ion- pharmacokinetics by non-invasive electromigration withtophoretic currents at 0.5 ma per cm 2 for safety and comfort. drawal with the use of an opposite polarity electrode. With the arrangement just described, as much as 31 times

[0137] Each element of the diagnostic probe will now be more current density could be drawn. The membranes used explained to further disclose the unique features of the for this research and development are, again, a product of invention and how each element contributes to a working Pall Corporation with a fixed and limited concentration of device. charged chemicals as an integral part of the membranes. They were intended for purposes other than those described

[0138] CHEMICALLY CHARGED MEMBRANE(S) or here in connection with the present invention. Membranes FELT PADS — This is the building block of the device 100. may be improved and its effects more pronounced by using Its multi-functions include: the need io stop the sodium membranes made with charged chemicals of a much higher hydroxide (lye) coming from the negative battery terminal. concentration. If not stopped, the sodium hydroxide would cause skin injury resulting in permanent' scarring. This is prevented [0140] An alternate configuration to the above design is when a positively charged membrane is the intervenor based on the following performance needs: It has been between the negative terminal and the skin. The negative determined that reducing the conductance of the solution is sodium hydroxide ions are attracted to the positively paramount to performance. One design feature toward this charged membrane and sεopped from migrating to the skin. end is the use of neutral glucose as a solution. Another would Meanwhile, the membrane(s) 111 allow the transport in the be for the conductive charged membrane that connects the opposite direction of the withdrawn interstitial fluid conskin to the wire screen electrode to be made less conductive. taining glucose to travel to the negative electrode 120. This To accomplish this a second, πoncoπductive membrane is is aided by the fact that the surface of the negative electrode introduced that is connected with the conductive charged has a very high pH (because of the sodium hydroxide membrane whose other end touches the electrode. The emitted there) that attracts glucose. It is essential that the nonconductive membrane is a thin (typically, about 0.005 inherent, extreme pH perform its function of glucose attracinch) membrane that is placed on the end of the charged tion. The charged membrane inlervenor allows this to bap- membrane and comes in direct contact with the skin. In this pen but prevents the skin-damaging sodium hydroxide from manner the electrical conductivity of the path between the reaching the skin. The opposite cod IUU? of this membrane skin and the electrode is reduced compared to the previous that touches the skin is maintained at a near neutral pH for disclosure of a conductive membrane only. With this safety. The glucose analyle to be measured accumulates at arrangement, the glucose formulation is also reduced to the the end 111« of the membrane 111 touching the negative vicinity of 250 mg/dl thus further reducing clutter. These electrode 120. Accordingly, the probe 100 is designed with steps improve accuracy.

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. 1, 2005

[1)141] SOLUTION — The all-imporlaiH linkage between [0143] THREE POSITION CALIBRATION SWITCH— lho active elements to make them function, is the solution. To cover the wide range of glucose readings necessary for Conductivity between the electrode and the skin, even with health assessment, it is desirable to have a calibration switch a πonconductive solution, is made by virtue of the wetted 140 on the probe 100, as best shown in FIG. 7c). The switch charged or ionic merabrane(s) that is in contact with the is in conformity with the expected glucose changes as a electrode and the skin. The formulation for glucose withresult of food intake. Referring to FIG. Id, this switch 140 drawal should not add clutter that would compete with and allows an adjustment of the withdrawal time/current for the impede this extremely small signal. To meet these requirefollowing criteria: Position 1, (1-2 hours after meals). Posiments, glucose (solute) is provided in a distilled deionized tion 2 (2-3 hours after meals and Position 3 (3-4 hours after water solvent to fulfill these needs and add other essential meals). This process of switch position selection at the lime characteristics. For a formulation to work optimally, it is of use is so that the end result readings of the detection meter critical that the solution be saturated with glucose. If not compare with the blood standard within allowable tolertotally saturated, then the water solvent would absorb the ances. By assigning different withdrawal time/current to glucose signal and none would bo available for analysis. expected different glucose levels, we are able to cover the Formulations used in the practice of the present invention widest possible range of readings. In experiments with the provide for a glucose reading of 1 mg/dl or higher. This Precision QID strips, position 1 represented 1-2 hours after assures a saturated solution. Present formulations use a meals and was set at a dosimetry of time and current (hat solute of glucose of 360 or higher mg/dl glucose in a solvent related to the high glucose levels of the day. Position 2 of. distilled deionized water. Since analysis is made using the related to approximately the midpoint between meals and Mediseπse Precision QID instrument, this high level glucose was set at a dosimetry of time and current to represent this solution docs not affect the reading because the QID strip is mid level. Position 3 represented the longest period away unresponsive to this solution. Yet the withdrawn interstitial from the last meal and was set with a low dosimetry of time glucose fluid is processed as a blood sample and would be and current. Extended ranges may be reached when sub- as reflected with a meter reading. Still another formulation multiple or multiples of lhe reading are employed to extend for the solution would include a small quantity of insulin, range. This factory adjustment can be used to extend the perhaps 0.3% or less, in solution with lhe glucose. This range beyond the present pursuit. Newer generation strips combination has been found to greatly increase the signal may require different electrical currents and time in each of passing through the membrane 111 on the way to the these three switch positions to function properly. After the electrode 120, thus increasing amplification as subsequently gross se lections are made with the calibration switch, precise described. readings are obtained when the withdrawn glucose specimen is processed at the strip and results iα a meter reading.

[0142] GLUCOSE AMPLIFICATION— In the subject invention, extremely low levels of glucose are electroos- [0144] ACTIVE ELECTRODE — The electrode 120 is motically withdrawn from the unbroken skin. It is very made of stainless steel, which is resistive to sodium hydroximportant that this small analyte (subpicomole level) be ide. Importantly, the electrode is typically a stainless steel amplified to effect a reading in the shortest possible time. A screen. This was selected because the sodium hydroxide that novel means of doing this is still another use of the aforeis generated at this electrode would normally travel to the mentioned chemically charged membranes 111 as a new perimeter of a solid surface stainless steel electrode. This form of reagent that results in chemical amplification of the would create 'hot spots' and possibly cause distorted readglucose analyte with increased sensitivity and responsiveings of the glucose containing membrane 111 in contact with ness. The reagent(s) is the charged chemical that is an the electrode 120. The use of the screen electrode causes integral part of a membrane. With the withdrawn glucose in many 'perimeters' and therefore contributes to uniform solution passing through this membrane 111 drawn by the distribution of sodium hydroxide across its surface for more high pH negative terminal 120, the glucose reacts with consistent readings. The power supply within the probe self-replication. Factors that contribute to this amplification consists of a 6 volt battery with circuitry to increase the are the charged positive polarity of the membrane 111 in the voltage to 70 volts. This powers the dosimetry circuitry with negatively charged field. Another form of this amplification switch controls for the time and current of the output feeding would be two or more adjacent membranes, one charged the active electrode. The dosimetry circuit iutegrates time positively and another charged negatively. Glucose (or any and current and terminates this supply at precisely the same other analyte) passing through these oppositely charged value for ever}' patient. Since every patient's resistance is a membranes would react by recycling and result in an amplivariable, this circuit will adjust itself time-wise to compenfied signal. Another form of this would be a membrane of sate for different individuals resistance while holding curone charge in an electric field of opposite charge. Another rent constant, so that everyone is treated equally. Tapper form would be two drugs or chemicals of different charges U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,485,437 and 6,059,736 describe this in as previously mentioned. The competitive environment of electrical circuitry detail. the two different levels of charge in solution acts to recycle [014S] While the above diabetes diagnostic device is the glucose analyte. This ping-pong effect causing amplifidescribed in detail as a probe 100, the technology could all cation allows analysis and quantification in the shortest be included in other forms. For instance, the commercial possible time so that the reading is in real-time with the strip used in various monitors could have an additional piece rapidly changing glucose in the body system. Increased attached to it that could include the membranes and be amplification can be obtained using membranes made with connected internally to the commercial monitor for power, a higher concentration of charged chemicals that will show dosimetry timer, etc, This extended strip piece could be increased reaction. This invention for chemical analysis applied to the skin for withdrawal 3nd the withdrawal tip lends itself to chip technology and in effect becomes 'labs- folded back over the enzyme sensitive target for reading. on-a-chip'. Another structure would be in the form of a watch with a

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rotary dial to select seven positions for up to seven readings [0157] 11) The use of charged membrane(s) in an unpowa day. Each position would have its own membrane (which ered patch as a storage area or reservoir for drugs. should be changed after each reading). The key membrane in play would be connected between the skin and the [0158] 12) The use of charged membrane(s) of either electrode as described for the probe 100 configuration. polarity or in combination to increase infusion in an otherwise unpowered patch;

[0146] It will bo apparent from the foregoing description, that the new and improved system, method, apparatus and [0159] 13) The use of charged membranes between skin chemistry of the present invention satisfies the following and output electrode as the conductive element when wetted features and other needs and objectives of the invention: with distilled water without the need of a saline solution;

[0147] 1) The use of charged chemicals of either negative [0160] 14) The use in iontophoresis or reverse iontophoreor positive polarity on support members that could include sis of charged membranes between the skin and output a) membranes, b) felt pads made of natural or synthetic electrode as the conductive element when wetted with fibers, c) impregnated filter paper, d) liquid form, e) any distilled water as a means of avoiding clutter from conducmaterial that allows charged chemicals to control ions, tive chemicals that may be added to enhance transport; molecules or electrons; [0161] 15) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powered

[0148] 2) The use of charged chemicals of either negative patch of either polarity or in combination as an intervenor to or positive polarity formulated with an increased concenprevent skin injury; tration o£ the charged chemicals causing cither negative or [0162] 16) The use of charged mcmbranc(s) in a powered positive polarity to increase their effectiveness; patch of either polarity or in combination to act as a drug

[0149] 3) For use in a DC iontophoretic drug delivery storage area or reservoir; system, the presence of charged chemicals in solution as an integral part of a felt pad(s) or a membrane(s) to prevent: a) [0163] 17) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powered injurious chemicals emanating from the electrode from patch of either polarity or in combination as a reservoir and reaching the skin, b) sodium hydroxide developed at the intervenor to increase currents above 0.5 ma per cm 2 without negative terminal is prevented from reaching the skin with skin injury; cither a negatively charged or positively charged intervenor [0164] 18) In drug delivery, a small amount of glucose (0.2 between the skin and the electrode in an electrically conmol/1) in solution with insulin can be amplified 9 times in an ductive circuit, c) hydrochloric acid generated at the positive unpowered environment using charged membranes; electrode can be prevented from reaching the skin with either positively charged or negatively charged chemicals on [0165] 19) Feature 18 wherein the above solution is in a an appropriate support intervenor spaced between the elecpowered environment will increase the signal many-fold; trode and the skin in an electrically conductive system; [0166] 20) Feature 19 in a powered environment with the

[0150] 4) The chemically charged iπtervenor(s) acting as use of polarized membranes to act both to prevent skin a reservoir or storage area for the drug to be delivered; injury and further enhance amplification;

[0151] 5) In iontophoresis or reverse iontophoresis or drug [0167] 21) In drug delivery, any chemical or drug in a delivery or similar chemical or drug transport system, the powered environment and stored in oppositely charged use of currents above the traditional 0.5 ma per cm 2 . The membraπe(s) will cause amplification; aforementioned charged chemicals either on support struc[0168] 22) Another example of drug or chemical amplifiture or without support structure, enable these high currents cation is using the phenomena of oppositely charged drugs to be achieved. Large molecular delivery also benefits from to create recycling and thus amplification would be with high electrical current along with Tapper VS. Pat. Nos. glucosamine and chondroitin. Glucosamine is positive and 6,238,381 and 6,425,891; chondroitin is negative and the two in solution with the

[0152] G) In a powered patch, electrical currents can be appropriately charged membranes and in an appropriately further increased by a new physical configuration of the polarized field, would benefit from amplification; active, drug delivery applicator. High density current can be [0169] 23) The use of charged chemicals on filters in tolerated when multiple small circles of current emitting cigarettes positioned between the tobacco and the end held membranes are clustered instead of one large flat delivery in the mouth to prevent the migration of deleterious tobacco surface; chemicals from entering the mouth upon inhaling;

[0153] 7) The use of the aforementioned charged chemicals of both negative and positive polarity together or [0170] 24) The use of charged chemicals of either polarity separately to meet all objectives of these inventions; or in combination on impregnated filter paper or membranes as an inte'rvenor between tobacco and mouth to prevent

[0154] 8) The use of charged chemicals on an intervenor polarized harmful chemicals from reaching the mouth. or in combination with both polarities in an AC iontophoretic device; [0171] 25) The use of a tobacco extract or flavor in combination with Items 23 and 24;

[0155] 9) The use of histamines in the positive applicator to lessen the pain from this applicator and allow an increase [0172] 26) A charged membrane of the same polarity of in current; the tobacco extract or flavor to propel the extract or flavor

[0156] 10) The use of charged membrane(s) in an otherinto the mouth; wise unpowered patch (passive patch) to propel the drug(s) [0173] 27) The use of charged chemicals as an inherent into the skin at greatly increased levels compared to other part of a bandage or the like, to have an antibacterial effect unpowered patches; when placed nver a wound;

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[0174] 2 8) The use of a chemically charged bandage or the [0189] 43) The use of negatively charged sodium salicylike that comes precoatcd with an antiseptic or the antiseptic late with negatively charged chemicals to infuse the sodium is added later. The charged chemicals will drive the antisalicylate into the skin for beneficial effects. The sodium septic into the wound continuously when wetted or in gel salicylate and the negatively charged chemicals may be in form for communication between all elements; formulation or they may be in the form of a two component system whereby the sodium salicylate is applied first as

(017S] 29) The use of a chemically charged bandage or the perhaps a spray and followed by a spray of negatively like to enhance and speed wound healing when wetted; charged chemicals;

[0176] 30) The use of a charged chemical of negative [0190] 44) For cosmetic and personal care application, the polarity in a toothpaste containing fluoride to infuse the use of charged chemicals in formulation with like-charged fluoride below the tooth's surface and gum Io prevent skin improvement material. The repelled skin improvement cavities and disease; materials will be infused deeper into the skin;

[0177] 31) The use of a charged chemical of negative [0191] 45) The use of the negative and positive charges in polarity as an integral part or coating of toothbrush bristles formulation to result in a neutral charge and then mixed with to cause the fluoride of a toothpaste to be driven or infused the salicylic acid to limit its penetration to the epidermis; into the teeth or gums;

[0192] 46) The neutral formulation of Item 45 to be used

[0178] 32) The use of charged chemicals of either polarity as a spray following the application of salicylic acid to limit as an additive to a germ-killing mouthwash Io infuse the its penetration; antiseptic into the teeth and gums; [0193] 47) The use of positively charged chemicals such

[0179] 33) The use of a charged chemical of negative as quaternary amine in solution with salicylic acid to limit polarity to be used as an. intetvonor between a battery- the depth of its penetration to the epidermis; powered iontophoretic toothbrush and the bristles to prevent [0194] 48) The use of charged or neutral control chemicals injurious sodium hydroxide from the negative terminal of in the form of a spray to be applied over the initial applithe battery from reaching the lceth, gums or mucous memcation of salicylic acid to limit its depth of penetration to the brane; epidermis;

[0180] 34) A stent coated with either positive or negative [0195] 49) In a permanent hair remover (Tapper U.S. Pat. chemicals or both to cause elution and prevent restenosis. Nos. 6,094,594 and 6,206,869) wherein a depilatory is

[0181] 35) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals of driven into the follicle by an iontophoretic device, the use of either charge or both that will elute like-charged chemicals a charged iπtervenor between battery and skin for the coated on top of the charged coating to prevent restenosis; purposes of: a) lo use high currents to expedite treatment, b) to use chemically charged intervenor to prevent skin injury,

[01S2] 3G) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals c) to use the chemically charged intervenor as the storage or either positively or negatively charged or both integrated reservoir vehicle for the depilatory; with like-charged chemicals that will be propelled or eluted [0196] 50) A non-invasive diagnostic withdrawal device from the surface to prevent restenosis; using a charged or polarized membrane(s), one end of which

[0183] 37) A stent coated with quaternary amine, sulfonic is positioned to touch the skin and the other end touching the acid or carboxyl acid or the equivalent to cause elution cither electrode; with another chemical that will be driven beyond the surface [0197] 51) An alternate construction of Item 50 is the use or the charged coating alone to elute when surrounding of two membranes, one charged or conductive and the other tissue and body fluids come in contact; nonconductive in direct contact with each other and spaced

[0184] 38) For cosmetic application, the use of charged between the skin and the electrode; chemicals in liquid form as a spray to be applied over a [0198] 52) The use of a charged membrane and an moisturizer base or any other skin conditioner. This will uncharged membrane in a withdrawal system whereby the drive a like-charged cosmetic ingredient or skin improveuncharged membrane is placed in contact with the skin and ment product deeper into the skin than topical application; the charged membrane in contact with the electrode to complete the circuit.

[0185] 39) The use of salicylic acid and/or its derivative in combination with a charged chemical lo limit its travel [0199] 53) The use of a wool fell nib such as from a beneath the skin and thus prevent irritation; marker pen as the intevenor between the skin and electrode to prevent the passage of sodium hydroxide from the nega¬

[0186] 40) The use of positively charged salicylic acid in tive electrode from passing to the skin. The wool nib may or combination with negatively charged sulfonic acid or carmay not be coated with charged chemicals; boxyl acid or the like to bind to each other and thus limit migration of the salicylic acid beneath the epidermis; [0200] 54) The charged or polarized intervenor of Item 50 that is approximately a half-inch in length and placed

[0187] 41) The use of salicylic acid as a skin spray as part between skin and electrode; of a two component system wherein a negatively charged [0201] 55) The membrane of Items 50-54 between the skin spray follows; and the electrode lo protect against skin injury;

[0188] 42) Salicylic acid's pH buffered from three to four [0202] 56) Increasing the height of this membrane of to a nonirritating pH of approximately five and infused into Items 50, 11 and 55 allows the use of currents above 0.5 ma the skin by a like-charged chemical; per cm 2 ;

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[0203] S -7 ) 1 his charged membrane iniervenor of Items 50, [0218] 72) Adding a small quantity of insulin to the 54 55 and 56 allows lhe use of high currents above lhe glucose solutions of Items 69, 70 and 71, perhaps 0 3 σ δ or traditional 0 S ma/cur, less, greatly increases the analyte signal or causes amplification,

[0204] 5S) Increasing the level of charge of lhe aforementioned membrane(s) bv higher concentrations of the polar[0219] 73) The solution of Items 69, 70, 71 and 72 that ized material improves the benefits cited above, may include stabilizers or

[0205] 59) A positively charged wetted (gel) membrane [0220] 74) Chemical amplification of the minute subpico- prevents skin injury bv stopping the sodium hydroMde ions mole withdrawn analyte takes place in the environment emitted trotn the negative electrode in an electrically condisclosed When at least two differently charged substances ductive circuit, occupy the same area, they become reagents to a signal passiug through The reagents cause recycling of the signal

[0206] 60) The charged membrane interposed between resulting in amplification The charged positive membrane skin and negative terminal also stores the solution (or gel) tα the negative field acts as a reagent to the withdrawn necessary to effect communication or current flow between glucose analytc and amplifies it, skin and electrode;

[0221] 75) Another form of this would be the use of a

[0207] 61) The target withdrawn glucose analytc passes positive and negative membrane adjacent to each other to through the membrane io the end that touches the negative cause recycling and therefore amplification ol analyte, electrode and becomes the critical pick-up point for the glucose monilnr io read This pick-up point for the with[0222] 76) Amplification would take place if all the polaridrawn glucose analytc is unique in that it is against the ties, cited above were reversed, electrode and not at membrane entry point in contact with [0223] 77) Charged membranes made with higher concenthe skin, tration of charged chemicals will show increased amplification,

[0208] 62) The charged membrane is constructed in a rolled form so that one side of the membrane (ouches the [0224] 78) More presence of charged membrane will skin and the other side touches the electrode In other words, increase the reaction and therefore increase amplification, when viewed from the skin, the withdrawn analvte sees only straight line, unbroken surfaces while migrating to the [0225] 79) This invention lends Usell for the new techelectrode, nology of 'labs-oπ-a-thip',

[0226] 80) The electrode u> a screen made of stainless sieel

[0209] 63) The membrane form of Item 62 that causes the to evenly disperse sodium hydroxide and pH, withdrawn glucose analyte Io flow in a straight line while migrating to the electrode, [0227] 81) Fhe power supply consists of a 6 volt battery with circuitry to increase the DC output voltage to 70 volts

[0210] 64) The structure ot Items 62 and 63 that causes the Note voltage may be higher or lower A safely circuit or withdrawn glucose signal deposition on the end of the tail-safe circuit is included, membrane in direct contact with the electrode,

[0228] 82) The circuit includes a dosimet ry circuit (Tapper

[0211] 65 The use of a high pH from the electrode that patents) that precisely controls the analyte withdrawal quanattracts the glucose to this poult of signal deposition, tity based on lime and current,

[0212] 66) The structure of Features 62, 63, 64 and 65 [0229] 83) This πon-invasι\e diagnostic device includes a wherein the membrane end in contact with the electrode is calibration switch, the pick-up point for the withdrawn glucose which is then [0230] 84) A multi-position switch that selects the withplaced in coniact with the monitor's strip tor analysis or drawal time/current to match the highs, lows, and iπ-be- direct reading, iween time glucose levels of the patient caused by meals,

[0213] 67) fhc positive return electrode may also use physical exercise, or insulin dose, charged membranes to prevent skm damage and allows [0231] 85) A multiple position switch that selectively toleration of higher currents, adjusts time and current to contorm with well established

[0214] 68) The positive return electrode ot the system periods of glucose change related to meal intake (also described above may also be used to monitor drug pharmaphysical exercise and insulin dose), cokinetics, [0232] 86) l he switch or Items 84 and 85 for following

[0215] 69) A solution formulated with glucose in a solvent selections Position 1 (1-2 hours after meals), Position 2 (2-3 of distilled deionized water, hours after meals), and Position 3 (3-4 hours after meals),

[0233] 87) Dillcrent time/current rates are assigned Io

[0216] 70) The solution of Item 69 wherein the glucose each of the three switch positions, must totallv snuraie the distilled deionized water to prevent absorption oF the withdrawn glucose, [0234] SS) A submultiple or multiple of the meter reading to euend range

[0217] 71) The solution ol Items 69 .ind 70 must have a surplus of glucose (distilled deionized water solvent totally [0235] S9) After gross selection is made with switch saturated) u uh a monitor ieiding between 1 and 400 mg'dl aecording to Items S3, S4. 85, 86, 87 and 88a precise reading or more is obumed when the withdrawn glucose specimen is pro

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ce<κed at the slrip and results in a meter reading based on the 10 A fluid delivery paich as recited in anv of claims 1 -9 glucose concentration or density in the withdrawn interstitial and further including fluid, and additional electrical supply means to further enhance said

[0236] 90) An LCD Io indicate the precise end to the charged membrane withdrawal process

11 Asvstem as recited in claim S wherein said chemically

[0237] Il will be apparent from the toregoing lint, while charged inιeπ-enlor(s) jc-t as a reservoir or storage area for particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and the drug to be delivered described, various alternatives, modifications and Variations 12 In a system as rccilcd in anv of claims 1-11 , the use can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of of electrical currents greater than the traditional 0 5 ma per the invention λccordinglj, the invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations cm and it is not intended that the invention be limited, except as 13 Apparatus adapted for placement within a biological by the following claims subject, comprising

I claim a stent, and

1 A flow control system, comprising a coating of electrically charged chemicals deposited on a support member, and said stent charged chemicals of either negative and/or posilive 14 Apparatus as recited in claim 13, wherein said chemipolarity on said support member, whereby said charged cals may be either positive or negative or both to cause chemicals control lhe flow of ions, molecules or elecelution and prevent restenosis trons 15 In an AC ionlophoretic device, the use of charged

2 A Row conirol system as recited in claim 1 wherein chemicals on an intervenor or in combination with both said support member includes membranes positive and negative polarities

3 A flow control system as recited in claim 1, wherein said support member includes Cell pads made of natural or 16 In an iontophoresis or reverse iontophoresis system, synthetic fibers the combination comprising

4 A flow control system as recited in claim 1, wherein electrically charged membranes between the skm, and an said support member includes impregnated filter paper output electrode as the conductive clement when wet¬

5 A flow control system tis recited in claim 1, wherein ted with distilled water, whereby clutter from conduc said support member includes a liquid or gel torm live chemicals that may be added to enhance transport

6 A flow control system as recited in chim I 1 wherein said support member includes any materials that control the is avoided (low of ions, molecules or electrons 17 In a drug delivery svstcm, the use of a small amount

7 A svstcm as set forth in claim 1, wherein said charged of glucose in solution w ith insulin for substantial amplifichemicals of either negative and/or positive polaπtv are cation in a powered environment using charged membranes formulated with an increased concentration of the charged 18 In an unproved cigarette filter the use of charged chemicals causing either negative or positive polarity to chomicals on the filters positioned between the tobacco and increase their effectiv eness the end held in the mouth of a smoker, to prevent the

S In an iontophorelic drug dehverv system, the combi migration of deleterious tobacco chemicals from enteπng nation comprising an electrode, charged chemicals in soluthe mouth upon inhaling tion as an integral part ot a support member sucb as felt 19 An improved cigarette filler as recited in claim 18 pad(s) or a membrane(s) for prevention of a) injurious including the use of charged chemicals of cither polarity or chemicals emanating from said electrode from reaching the skin, b) sodium hydroxide developed Tt the negative termiin combination on impregnated filter paper or membranes, is an mlervcnor between tobacco and mouth to prevent nal from reaching the skm with either a negauvelv charged or positively charged intervenor between the skin and said polarized harmful chemicals from reaching the mouth electrode in an electricallv conductive circuit, c) hydrochlo20 In a medical application, the use of a chemically ric acid generated at the positive electrode terminal Lrom charged bandage or the like to enhance and speed vvouud reaching the skin, with either positively charged or negahealing tively charged chemicals on an appropriate support mterve- 21 For dental applications, the use of a charged chemical uor spaced between lhe electrode and the skin in an elecof negative polarity to infuse lhe fluoride in a toothpaste trically conductive svstem below the tooth's surface and gum to prevent cav ities and

9 A fluid delivery patch for application to a biological disease subject, comprising 22 For use in cosmetic and personal care applications, the method comprising a chemical to be delivered to tht- subject al least one charged membrane incorporating or adjiccnl use of charged chemicals in liquid form as a sprav to be said chemical for eleciπcalh driving said chemical into J-pphcd over ά moisturizer bate or anv other skin the subject, conditioner

23 A new and improved method, comprising and support means for supporting said membrane ind said chemical in a proumilv to the subject suitable lor using positiv elv charged salicvhc acid in combination proper ehcmicdl dehverv to the subject with negatively charged sulfonic acid or carboxvl acid

US 2005/0192528 Al Sep. L, 2005

14

or the like to bind to each other and thus html migration 36 A multi-posuion switch as recited in claim 15, having of llie salicylic acid beneath the epidermis, the following selections Position 1 (1-2 hours after meals),

24 A new and improved method, comprising Position 2 (2-3 hours after meals) and Position 3 ("3-4 hours after meals) use of salicvhc acid as a skin sprav as part of a two

37 In an apparatus as recited in either of claims 35 or 36, component svstem wherein a negatively charged spray the improvement comprising tallows

25 A method Cor cosmeiic and personal care applications, readout means for obtaining a precise reading when the comprising withdrawn glucose specimen is processed at a strip and provides a readout based on the glucose concentration the use of charged chemicals in formulation with likc- or density in the withdrawn interstitial fluid chargcd skin improvement material, whereby the 38 A new and unproved method, comprising repelled skin improvement materials will be infused deeper into the skin mixing a positively charged chemical with an antiperspi-

26 A noπ-iπvastve diagnostic withdrawal device using a raπt and charged or polaπ/ed membrane(s), one end of which is applying the mixture Io a biological subject, positioned to touch the skin and the other end touching an electrode, whereby withdrawal is enhanced and skin injury whereby said charged chemical will drive said aπliper- is mitigated spiraπl deep down the eccrine sweat duct for greater

27 A withdrawal device as recited in claim 26, wherein effectiveness than topical application (he height of said membrane is increased to facilitate the use 39 A method as recited in claim 38, wherein said aπti- of currents above 05 ma per cm 2 perspirant is aluminum chloride and the likt,

28 A withdrawal device as recited in claim 26, and further 40 A new and improved method, comprising including applying to a subject a first spray containing a suitable a positively charged wetted membrane to prevent skin antiperspirant, injury by stopping the sodium hvdrcrade ions emitted following said first sprav with a second spray of a from the negative electrode in an electrically conducpositively charged chemical to infuse said antiperspitive circuit rant deeply into said subject

29 A device as set forth in claim 26, wherein target 41 λ method as recited in claim 40, wherein said anti- withdrawn glucose analvte passes through said membrane to perspiranl is aluminum chloride and lhe like the end that touches a negative electrode which becomes the 42 A new and improved method, comprising critical pick-up point for a glucose monitor to read

30 A device as set forth in claim 26, wherein said charged applying to a subject a first spray containing a suitable membrane is constructed ID a rolled form so that one end of substance for infusion into the subject, the rolled membrane touches the skin and the other end following said first spray with a second sprav ot a charged touches said electrode, whereby the withdrawn aπalyte sees chemical Io infuse said substance deeply into the subonly straight line, unbroken surfaces while migrating to said ject electrode 43 Adevice as recited in claim 26 and turther including

31 A device as recited in anv of claims 26-30, including provision of a high pll from the electrode that attracts the the use of two membranes, one charged or conductive and glucose to the point of signal deposition lhe other noncoπductive in direci contact with each

32 Adevicc as recited in claim 31, wherein the membrane other and spaced between the skiD and the electrode end in contact with said electrode is the pick-up point for the Adevice as recited in claim 43, wherein said noncon- withdrawn glucose which is then placed in contact with a membrane is placed in contact with the skin and said monitor's strip for analysis or direct reading charged membrane in contact with the electrode to complete

33 Adevice as recited in claim 26, wherein said electrode the circuit includes a screen mads ot stainless steel Io evenly disperse 45 Adevice as recited in chim 26, and turther including sodium hydroxide and pH* a wool felt nib as an iBtervenor between the skin and said

34 Adevice as recited in claim 26, wherein a dosimetry electrode to prevent the passage ot sodium hydroxide circuit is provided that precisely controls the analyte withfrom the negative electrode to the skin drawal quantity based on time and current 46 A device as recited in claim 45 wherein said nib may

35 A device as recited \u claim 26, and further including be coated with charged chemicals a calibration switch in the form of a mulu-position switch 47 Each and every novel feature and/υr combination of (hat selects the withdrawal time/current to match the hsghs, features herun disclosed lows, and m-betwecu nine glucose levels of a patient caused by m-als, physical t-xetcise, or insulin dote

(i9) United States

(i2) Patent Application Publication d o) Pub. No.: US 2006/0025714 Al

Tapper (43) Pub. Date: Feb.2, 2006

(54) METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED (60) Provisional application No.60/535,470, filed on Jan. CHEMICALS FOR CONTROL OF IONS, 8, 2004. Provisional application No. 60/543,446, filed MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS on Feb. 9, 2004. Provisional application No. 60/593, 030, filed on JuI. 29, 2004.

(76) Inventor; Robert Tapper, Los Angeles, CA (US)

Publication Classification

Correspondence Address:

FULWDDER PATTON (51) Int. Cl.

6060 CENTER DRIVE A61N 1/30 (2006.01)

IOTH FLOOR (52) U.S. C1 . 604/20

LOS ANGELES, CA 90045 (US) (57) ABSTRACT

(21) Appl. No.: 11/194,142 A system including methods, apparatus, components and charged chemicals for control of ions, molecules or electrons

(22) Filed: JuI. 29, 2005 whereby charged membranes, testing devices, electrode patch structures and the like utilize features of the invention

Related U.S. Application Data for control of flow in a wide variety of new and improved medical, testing, cosmetic, personal care, flow delivery

(63) Contimiation-in-part of application No. 11/029,904, applications and the like, and further including shock prefiled on Jan. 4, 2005. vention and dosimetry control.

Patent Application Publication Feb.2, 2006 Sheet 1 of 5 US 2006/0025714 Al

Patent Application Publication Feb.2, 2006 Sheet 2 of 5 US 2006/0025714 Al

Patent Application Publication Feb.2, 2006 Sheet 3 of 5 US 2006/0025714 Al

Patent Application Publication Feb.2, 2006 Sheet 4 of 5 US 2006/0025714 Al

Patent Application Publication Feb. 2, 2006 Sheet 5 of 5 US 2006/0025714 Al

US 2006/0025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

METHODS, APPARATUS AND CHARGED molecules, ions or electrons and even polar neutral com¬

CHEMICALS FOR CONTROL OF IONS, pounds as in an electroosmotic withdrawal system and a

MOLECULES OR ELECTRONS drug delivery system.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED [0005] The invention is contemplated, in its various forms APPLICATION and applications as including the following and other features;

[0001] This application is a contimiation-in-part of co- pending application U.S. Ser. No. 11/029,904 filed Jan. 4, [0006] 1) The use of charged chemicals of either nega2005 which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent tive or positive polarity on support members that could application Ser. No. 60/535,470 filed on Jan. 8, 2004, Ser. include a) membranes, b) felt pads made of natural or No. 60/543,446 filed on Feb. 9, 2004 and Ser. No. 60/593, synthetic fibers, c) impregnated filter paper, d) liquid 030 filed on JuI. 29, 2004, the disclosures of which are form, e) any material that allows charged chemicals to incorporated by reference. control ions, molecules or electrons;

[0007] 2) The use of charged chemicals of either nega¬

FIELD OF THE INVENTION tive or positive polarity formulated with an increased

[0002] This invention relates generally to methods and concentration of the charged chemicals causing either apparatus pertaining to charged particles flow and, more negative or positive polarity to increase their effectiveparticularly, to improvements in methods, apparatus, sysness; tems and materials for control of flow and level of ions, [0008] 3) For use in a DC iontophoretic drug delivery molecules, or electrons using charged chemicals and any/all system, the presence of charged chemicals in solution applications thereof. as an integral part of a felt pad(s) or a membrane(s) to

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION prevent: a) injurious chemicals emanating from the electrode from reaching the skin, b) sodium hydroxide

[0003] Topical drug delivery systems range from small developed at the negative terminal is prevented from particulate carriers through passive patches to sophisticated reaching the skin with either a negatively charged or iontophoretic propulsion delivery systems. Ideally, they positively charged intervenor between the skin and the attempt to deliver beneath the skin beneficial chemicals or electrode in an electrically conductive circuit, c) hydrodrugs in the largest controlled amounts, in the shortest time, chloric acid generated at the positive electrode can be up to the largest molecular size and without chemically prevented from reaching the skin with either positively caused skin injury or microneedle puncture. No commercharged or negatively charged chemicals on an approcially available product can do all of this today. Accordingly, priate support intervenor spaced between the electrode those of ordinary skill in the art have long recognized the and the skin in an electrically conductive system; need for improvements in these areas, and the present invention fulfills all of these needs. [0009] 4) The chemically charged intervenor(s) acting as a reservoir or storage area for the drug to be

INVENTION SUMMARY delivered;

[0004] Basically, the present invention satisfies the afore[0010] S) In iontophoresis or reverse iontophoresis or mentioned needs with improvements in methods, apparatus, drug delivery or similar chemical or drug transport components and chemistry including the use of charged system, the use of currents above the traditional 0.5 ma chemicals of either polarity or both as chemically integral per cm 2 . The aforementioned charged chemicals either surfaces on support membranes or equivalent support mateon support structure or without support structure, rials such as felt or like materials made of natural or enable these high currents to be achieved. Large synthetic fibers or impregnated filter paper or other materials molecular delivery also benefits from high electrical in a drug delivery or diagnostic withdrawal system. The current along with Tapper U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,238,381 and charged chemicals may also be used without a support 6,425,891; structure. They allow multiple hybridizations lhal could [0O11] 6) In a powered patch, electrical currents can be include a neutral charge among other effects. Examples of further increased by a new physical configuration of the these membranes manufactured by Pall Corporation of 25 active, drug delivery applicator. High density current Harbor Park Drive, Port Washington, N. Y. 11050 arc Muscan be tolerated when multiple small circles of current tang S, Mustang Q, Mustang C and Biodyne A, Biodyne B emitting membranes are clustered instead of one large and Biodyne C. The Mustang series are of special interest flat delivery surface; with Mustang S giving a strong negative polarity with its surface modified by sulfonic acid. Mustang Q gives a strong [0012] 7) The use of the aforementioned charged positive polarity with its surface modified by quaternary chemicals of both negative and positive polarity amine. It should be understood that the chemicals cited are together or separately to meet all objectives of these for example only and are not the only chemicals that can inventions; polarize support structures or control ion or molecule flow [0013] 8) The use of charged chemicals on an intervenor without a support structure. For instance, Mustang C is polarized with carboxylic acid. Other examples of functional or in combination with both polarities in an AC iontophoretic device; groups that can bear a charge would be the hydroxyl, phosphate moieties. A unique feature of the invention is the [0014] 9) The use of histamines in the positive appliuse of charged or polarized chemicals on support members cator to lessen the pain from this applicator and allow or not, to control a flux, current, or signal of polarized an increase in current;

S 2006/0025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

[0015] 10) The use of charged mcmbranc(s) in an [0029] 24) The use of charged chemicals of either otherwise unpowered patch (passive patch) to propel polarity or in combination on impregnated filter paper the drug(s) into the skin at greatly increased levels or membranes as an intervenor between tobacco and compared to other unpowered patches; mouth to prevent polarized harmful chemicals from reaching the mouth.

[0016] 11) The use of charged membrane(s) in an unpowered patch as a storage area or reservoir for [0030] 25) The use of a tobacco extract or flavor in drugs. combination with Items 23 and 24;

[0017] 12) The use of charged rnembraπe(s) of either [0031] 26) A charged membrane of the same polarity of polarity or in combination to increase infusion in an the tobacco extract or flavor to propel the extract or otherwise unpowered patch; flavor into the mouth;

[0018] 13) The use of charged membranes between skin [0032] 27) The use of charged chemicals as an inherent and output electrode as the conductive element when part of a bandage or the like, to have an antibacterial wetted with distilled water without the need of a saline effect when placed over a wound; solution;

[0033] 28) The use of a chemically charged bandage or

[0019] 14) The use in iontophoresis or reverse iontothe like that comes precoated with an antiseptic or the phoresis of charged membranes between the skin and antiseptic is added later. The charged chemicals will output electrode as the conductive element when wetdrive the antiseptic into the wound continuously when ted with distilled water as a means of avoiding clutter wetted or in gel form for communication between all from conductive chemicals that may be added to elements; enhance transport;

[0034] 29) The use of a chemically charged bandage or

[0020] 15) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powthe like to enhance and speed wound healing when ered patch of either polarity or in combination as an wetted; intervcnor to prevent skin injury;

[0035] 30) The use of a charged chemical of negative

[0021] 16) The use of charged membrane(s) in a powpolarity in a toothpaste containing fluoride to infuse the ered patch of either polarity or in combination to act as fluoride below the tooth's surface and gum to prevent a drug storage area or reservoir; cavities and disease;

[0022] 17) The use of charged membraπe(s) in a pow[0036] 31) The use of a charged chemical of negative ered patch of either polarity or in combination as a polarity as an integral part or coating of toothbrush reservoir and intervenor to increase currents above 0.5 bristles to cause the fluoride of a toothpaste to be driven ma per cm 2 without skin injury; or infused into the teeth or gums;

[0023] 18) In drug delivery, a small amount of glucose [0037] 32) The use of charged chemicals of either (0.2 mol/1) in solution with insulin can be amplified 9 polarity as an additive to a germ-killing mouthwash to times in an unpowered environment using charged infuse the antiseptic into the teeth and gums; membranes;

[0038] 33) The use of a charged chemical of negative

[0024] 19) Feature 18 wherein the above solution is in polarity to be used as an intervenor between a battery- a powered environment and will increase the signal powered iontophoretic toothbrush and the bristles to many-fold; prevent injurious sodium hydroxide from the negative terminal of the battery from reaching the teeth, gums or

[0025] 20) Feature 19 in a powered environment with mucous membrane; the use of polarized membranes to act both to prevent skin injury and further enhance amplification; [0039] 34) A stent coaled with either positive or negative chemicals or both to cause elution and prevent

[0026] 21) In drug delivery, any chemical or drug in a restenosis. powered environment and stored in oppositely charged mcmbrane(s) will cause amplification; [0040] 35) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals of cither charge or both that will elutc like-charged

[0027] 22) Another example of drug or chemical amplichemicals coated on top of the charged coating to fication is using the phenomena of oppositely charged prevent restenosis; drugs to create recycling and thus amplification would be with glucosamine and chondroitin. Glucosamine is [0041] 36) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals positive and chondroitin is negative and the two in either positively or negatively charged or both intesolution with the appropriately charged membranes and grated with like-charged chemicals that will be proin an appropriately polarized field, would benefit from pelled or eluted from the surface to prevent restenosis; amplification;

[0042] 37) A stent coated with quaternary amine, sul¬

[0028] 23) The use of charged chemicals on filters in fonic acid or carboxyl acid or the equivalent to cause cigarettes positioned between the tobacco and the end elution either with another chemical that will be driven held in the mouth to prevent the migration of deletebeyond the surface or the charged coating alone to elule rious tobacco chemicals from entering the mouth upon when surrounding tissue and body fluids come in inhaling; contact;

S 2006/0025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

[0043] 38) For cosmetic application, the use of charged [0056]' 51) An alternate construction of Item 50 is the chemicals in liquid form as a spray to be applied over use of two membranes, one charged or conductive and a moisturizer base or any other skin conditioner. This the other nonconduciive in direct contact with each will drive a like-charged cosmetic ingredient or skin other and spaced between the skin and the electrode; improvement product deeper into the skin than topical application; [0057] 52) The use of a charged membrane and an uncharged membrane in a withdrawal system whereby

[0044] 39) The use of salicylic acid and/or its derivative the uncharged membrane is placed in contact with the in combination with a charged chemical to limit its skin and the charged membrane in contact with the travel beneath the skin and lhus prevent irritation; electrode to complete the circuit.

[0045] 40) The use of positively charged salicylic acid in combination with negatively charged sulfonic acid or [0058] 53) The use of a wool felt nib such as from a carboxyl acid or the like to bind to each other and thus marker pen as the intevenor between the skin and electrode limit migration of the salicylic acid beneath the epito prevent the passage of sodium hydroxide from the negadermis; tive electrode from passing to the skin. The wool nib may or may not be coated with charged chemicals;

[0046] 41) The use of salicylic acid as a skin spray as part of a two component system wherein a negatively [0059] 54) The charged or polarized intervenor of Hem charged spray follows; 50 that is approximately a half-inch in length and placed between skin and electrode;

[0047] 42) Salicylic acid's pH buffered from three to four to a noπirritating pH of approximately five and [0060] 55) The membrane of Hems 50-54 between the infused into the skin by a like-charged chemical; skin and the electrode to protect against skin injury;

[0048] 43) The use of negatively charged sodium sali[0061] 56) Increasing the height of this membrane of cylate with negatively charged chemicals to infuse the Items 50, 41 and 55 allows the use of currents above OS sodium salicylate into the skin for beneficial effects. ma per cm 2 ; The sodium salicylate and the negatively charged chemicals may be in formulation or they may be in the [0062] 57) This charged membrane intervenor of Items form of a two component system whereby the sodium 50, 54, 55 and 56 allows the use of high currents above salicylate is applied first as perhaps a spray and folthe traditional 0.5 ma/cm 1 ; lowed by a spray of negatively charged chemicals; [0063] 58) Increasing the level of charge of the afore¬

[0049] 44) For cosmetic and personal care application, mentioned membrane(s) by higher concentrations of the use of charged chemicals in formulation with like- the polarized material improves the benefits cited charged skin improvement material. The repelled sldn above; improvement materials will be infused deeper into the skin; [0064] 59) A positively charged wetted (gel) membrane prevents skin injury by stopping the sodium hydroxide

[0050] 4S) The use of the negative and positive charges ions emitted from the negative electrode in an electriin formulation to result in a neutral charge and then cally conductive circuit; mixed with the salicylic acid to limit its penetration to the epidermis; [0065] 60) The charged membrane interposed between

[0051] 46) The neutral formulation of Item 45 to be skin and negative terminal also stores the solution (or used as a spray following the application of salicylic gel) necessary to effect communication or current flow acid to limit its penetration; between skin and electrode;

[0052] 47) The use of positively charged chemicals [0066] 61) The target withdrawn glucose analyte passes such as quaternary amine in solution with salicylic acid through the membrane to the end that touches the to limit the depth of its penetration to the epidermis; negative electrode and becomes the critical pick-up

[0053] 48) The use of charged or neutral control chemipoint for the glucose monitor to read. This pick-up cals in the form of a spray Io be applied over the initial point for the withdrawn glucose analyte is unique in application of salicylic acid to limit its depth of penthat it is against the electrode and not at membrane etration to the epidermis; entry point in contact with the skin;

[0054] 49) In a permanent hair remover (Tapper U.S. [0067] 62) The charged membrane is constructed in a Pat. Nos. 6,094,594 and 6,206,869) wherein a depilarolled form so that one side of the membrane touches tory is driven into the follicle by an iontophoretic the skin and the other side touches the electrode. In device, the use of a charged intervenor between battery other words, when viewed from the skin, the withdrawn and skin for the purposes of: a) to use high currents to analyte sees only straight line, unbroken surfaces while expedite treatment, b) to use chemically charged intermigrating to the electrode; venor to prevent skin injury, c) to use the chemically charged intervenor as the storage or reservoir vehicle [0068] 63) The membrane form of Item 62 that causes for the depilatory; the withdrawn glucose analyte to flow in a straight line while migrating to the electrode;

[0055] 50) A non-invasive diagnostic withdrawal device using a charged or polarized membrane(s), one end of [0069] 64) The structure of Items 62 and 63 that causes which is positioned to touch the skin and the other end the withdrawn glucose signal deposition on the end of touching the electrode; the membrane in direct contact with the electrode;

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[0070] 65) The use of a high pH from the electrode that volts. Note: voltage may be higher or lower. A safety attracts the glucose lo this point of signal deposition; circuit or fail-safe circuit is included;

[0071] 66) The structure of Features 62, 63, 64 and 65 [0087] 82) The circuit includes a dosimetry circuit wherein the membrane end in contact with the elecflapper patents) that precisely controls the analyte trode is the pick-up point for the withdrawn glucose withdrawal quantity based on lime and current; which is then placed in contact with the monitor's strip [0088] 83) This non-invasive diagnostic device includes for analysis or direct reading; a calibration switch;

[0072] 67) The positive return electrode may also use [0089] 84) A multi-position switch that selects the withcharged membranes to prevent skin damage and allows drawal lime/current to match the highs, lows, and toleration of higher currents; in-between time glucose levels of the patient caused by

[0073] 68) The positive return electrode of the system meals, physical exercise, or insulin dose; described above may also be used to monitor drug [0090] 85) A multiple position switch that selectively pharmacokinetics; adjusts time and current to conform with well estab¬

[0074] 69) A solution formulated with glucose in a lished periods of glucose change related to meal intake solvent of distilled deionized water; (also physical exercise and insulin dose);

[0075] 70) The solution of Item 69 wherein the glucose [0091] 86) The switch of Items 84 and 85 for following must totally saturate the distilled deionized water to selections: Position 1 (1-2 hours after meals), Position prevent absorption of the withdrawn glucose; 2 (2-3 hours after meals), and Position 3 (3-4 hours after meals);

[0076] 71) The solution of Items 69 and 70 must have [0092] 87) Different time/current rates are assigned to a surplus of glucose (distilled deionized water solvent each of the three switch positions; totally saturated) with a monitor reading between 1 and 400 mg/dl or more; [0093] 88) A submultiple or multiple of the meter reading to extend range;

[0077] 72) Adding a small quantity of insulin to the glucose solutions of Items 69, 70 and 71, perhaps 0.3% [0094] 89) After gross selection is made with switch or less, greatly increases the analyte signal or causes according to Items 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88, a precise amplification; reading is obtained when the withdrawn glucose specimen is processed at the strip and results in a meter

[0078] 73) The solution of Items 69, 70, 71 and 72 that reading based on the glucose concentration or density may include stabilizers or preservatives; in the withdrawn interstitial fluid; and

[0079] 74) Chemical amplification of the minute sub- [0095] 90) An LED to indicate the precise end to the picomole withdrawn analyte takes place in the enviwithdrawal process. ronment disclosed. When at least two differently charged substances occupy the same area, they become [0096] This invention also makes use of anionic and reagents to a signal passing through. The reagents cause cationic penetration enhancers/inhibitors. The polarized recycling of the signal resulting in amplification. The penetration enhancers (examples set forth herein as typical charged positive membrane in the negative field acts as but not exclusive penetration enhancers/inhibitors) improve a reagent to the withdrawn glucose analyte and amplidrug delivery and analyte withdrawal. Conversely, it may be fies it; desirable to limit the penetration of a drug if uncontrolled depth would lead to unwanted side effects. Depth control

[0080] 75) Another form of this would be the use of a may be achieved with the use of charged chemicals to repel positive and negative membrane adjacent to each other or absorb the active drug and thus prevent it from further to cause recycling and therefore amplification of anapenetration. These charged chemicals may be iontophorcti- lyte; cally infused either as a prelreatmenl or the charged chemi¬

[0081] 76) Amplification would take place if all the cals may be formulated in solution with the active drug to polarities cited above were reversed; limit the active drug's penetration. With drugs having possible toxic side effects (such as bolulinum and the like), it is

[0082] 77) Charged membranes made with higher con. also very important that dosimetry control be used, e.g., see centration of charged chemicals will show increased U.S. Pat. No. 4,822334, as well as electrical current ramp amplification; up, such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,340,047. Both of the patents have as inventor, Robert Tapper, the same

[0083] 78) More presence of charged membrane will inventor as in the present application and may be readily increase the reaction and therefore increase amplificacombined with the delivery systems disclosed in the current tion; application.

[0084] 79) This invention lends itself for the new technology of 'labs-on-a-chip'; EXAMPLE 1

[0085] 80) The electrode is a screen made of stainless [0097] It is well established that the mechanism for ion- steel to evenly disperse sodium hydroxide and pH; topπorelic sweat control using tap water is that a parakero- totic plug develops within the eccrine sweat duct by virtue

[0086] 81) The power supply consists of a 6 volt battery of a scries of treatments. The limiting factor to the six week with circuitry to increase the DC output voltage lo 70 sweat control are skin barriers that impede the plug and limit

US 2006/0025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

its travel within the duct. If a penetration enhancer were [0108] 98) The use of a cationic penetration enhancer added to the solution, the plug will travel deeper down the saturating charged membranes which are intended to limit sweat duct approaching the secretory coils. This results in skin damage from high currents. much longer sweat inhibition since the plug now has a longer path to disgorge, thus ending a period of sweat [0109] 99) The use of an anionic penetration enhancer control. Penetration enhancers capable of this activity are saturating charged membranes which are intended to limit positively charged and therefore cationic. Cationic ions are skin damage from high currents. driven by the positive polarity electrode. Anionic penetrants [0110] 100) The use of a penetration enhancer such as can also be used in an AC device. celyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as an additive to an antiperspirant. CTAB is also the choice penetrant in an

EXAMPLE 2 electroosmotic device to be driven by the positive pole.

[0098] In an electroosmosis device the positive polarity [0111] 101) The use of a cationic or anionic penetration functions to drive interstitial water toward the negative enhancer or Iimiler saturating a wool nib felt such as those polarity. The movement of water invariably includes essenused in pen markers. The wool felt nib intervenor also acts tial elements that could be picked up al the negative pole and as a reservoir for an active drug to be driven into the skin used for analysis (such as glucose analysis). The water from an iontophorctϊc device. movement is enhanced with a cationic penetration enhancer [0112] 102) The simultaneous infusion of botulinum and that will deliver larger quantities of the analytc. collagen or other fillers with penetration enhancers, each drug in a separate positive output using a common negative

EXAMPLE 3 return.

[0099] The use of penetration enhancers with botulinum [0113] 103) The infusion of botulinum with charged and/or collagen to improve delivery of these and other very chemicals in solution or as a pre-treatment and simultalarge molecular drugs. Conversely, it may be desirable to neously, but with another applicator, the infusion of collagen limit the depth of infusion of botulinum and the like to avoid with a penetration enhancer but with the collagen in a side effects, and this is accomplished with the use of negatively charged liposome and driven by the negative polarized chemicals to better control the depth of infusion. polarity. The botulinum would be driven into the skin by the Large molecular drugs may also be diluted to a lesser positive polarity. concentration for easier passage through the skin. [0114] 104) Cationic or anionic penetration enhancers or

[0100] The following refers to various features and uses of limiters may also be used in passive or unpowered drug iontophoretic devices and the chemicals or drugs they will delivery patches. Drug propulsion into the skin would come deliver and the therapy they will perform. from the charged membranes which also may be used to store the drug.

[0101] 91) The use of penetration enhancers to increase the deplh of penetration or conversely, penetration inhibitors [0115] Typical but not Exclusive Penetration Enhancers/ to limit the depth of penetration of an active drug. Inhibitors

[0102] 92) The use of charged chemicals such as negative sulfonic acid or positive quantinary amine either in solution with boluliπum or as a pre-treatmeπt to botulinum infusion CATIONICS ANIONICS to limit the depth of penetration of potent botulimira when Cctylpyridinium chloride Sodium cetyl sterate indicated. CelyUήinethylammoniuin bromide Sodium dlcthybυlfosucciπale Bcnzalkonium chloride Sodium dtoctytsulfosuccinate

[0103] 93) The use of cationic penetration enhancers with Benzethom'υni chloride Sodium Iauiyl sulfate collagen or other fillers saturating a charged membrane Lauryl dimclhylamϊπo acid bctaώc intervenor between electrode and skin. When the filler is Stcaryl trimcthylaπunomum chloride negatively charged, it may need an anionic penetration enhancer to enhance depth of penetration.

[0116] These and other objects and advantages of the

[0104] 94) The use of penetration enhancers with collagen invention will become apparent from the following more or other drugs saturating a charged membrane intervenor detailed description, when taken in conjunction with the between a non-metallic electrode such as conductive siliaccompanying drawings of illustrative embodiments. cone and the skin.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0105] 95) The claim of No. 1 to be used to enhance or limit penetration of a drug saturating a reservoir composed [0117] FIG.1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of of charged membranes. a passive patch construction in accordance with the present invention;

[0106] 96) The use of reverse iontophoresis or electro- osmosis with a penetration enhancer at the positive pole to [0118] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of another passive increase water flow to the negative for analyte pickup. patch constructed in accordance with the invention;

[0107] 97) The use of a cationic penetration enhancer with [0119] FIG.3 is a perspective view of still another passive other active elements such as aluminum chlorhydrate or patch constructed in accordance with the present invention; other aluminum derivatives, atropine, or the equivalent drug [0120] FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a powered patch or chemical for sweat inhibition. construction in accordance with the present invention;

US 2006/0025714 Al Feb.2, 2006

[0121] FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another powered neutral compounds as in an electroosmotic withdrawal syspatch in accordance wilh the present invention, shown in tem and a drug delivery system. place upon the skin;

[0130] Referring to FIG.3 of the drawings, a variation of

[0122] FIG. Sa is a sectional view of a drug delivery the patch 10 would be for the inside of the backing 12 to be device utilizing the present invention and illustrating muldivided in half by an electrical insulator 15, such as a plastic tiple clustered electrical current emitting membranes; divider, so that two different medicaments could be placed

[0123] FIGS. 6a, 6b and 6c arc fragmentary perspective in each half — one of negative polarity and one of positive views of filter devices embodying features of the invention; polarity with like-polarized membranes in each half to drive the drugs into the skin.

[0124] FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of a diagnostic probe constructed in accordance with the present [0131] Another variation would be for the patch 10 to have invention; a polarized membranes 11 under the backing 12 with a like-polarized drug saturating it and an opposite charged

[0125] FIG. 76 is a perspective view of a rolled charged membrane 11 configured in a circle in close proximity membrane embodying the present invention; around the inner drug bearing membrane but electrically

[0126] FIG.7c is an enlarged longitudinal view of a probe insulated from it. Over 620 millivolts exist between polarincluding a switch and LED; and ized membranes 11 of one polarity and the skin. This value can be increased by adding more membranes 11 to the stack.

[0127] FIG. Td is an enlarged view of the electrical switch Il can also be increased by using charged chemicals in for the probe shown in FIG. Ic. greater concentration. Still greater efficiency can be obtained by using charged membranes (or felts, filters, etc.) of both

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE polarities with a membrane battery separator (not shown) in PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS between.

[0128] Referring now to the drawings, wherein like ref[0132] Another very important application of these polarerence numerals refer to like or corresponding elements ized membranes would be for wound dressing to promote throughout the various figures of the drawings, there is wound healing or infection control. Published papers show shown in FIG.1 an improved passive patch 10 embodying that tissue growth is promoted when minor currents traverse features of the present invention. The use of this technology the wound. Another paper attributes this growth to the in its simplest form without the use of battery-power would anti-bacterial effect of low currents across a wound. In be with the commercially available passive patch 10 that is accordance with the invention, bacterial and fungal infection unpowered. The use of one or more polarized membranes 11 can be controlled with the electro-chemical effect of charged beneath a backing 12 acts to propel a drug into the skin if the membranes, bandages or dressing over infected body areas. polarity of the drug (or other chemical) and the membranes [0133] A major problem with catheters is their propensity U were the same. In this instance, a liner 13 would be to cause infection at the body insertion opening. Coating or removed and the charged membranes 11 in communication bonding charged chemicals of both polarities separated from with a drug-iπ-adhesive system 14 would propel the drug each other onto the catheter tubing will give wide spectrum into the skin (not shown). Another configuration would be protection against bacterial infection. Medical use of this for the charged chemicals to be an inherent part of the technology would be for stent coating. The charged coating dπig-in-adhesion. (cither charge or both) would have an elutiπg effect to

[0129] As shown in FIG. 2, the charged membranes 11 prevent restenosis. Another medical use of this technology also act as a reservoir for the drug 14 with adhesion of the could include microscopic drug delivery for both external patch 10 made by separate tape IS or any of a variety of and internal application. taping means. For the first time, an infusion system without [0134] The charged membranes can also infuse an antibattery, would force much greater quantities of drug (or septic for enhanced control. It may also be applied with a other chemicals) into the skin. They allow multiple hybridspray of the charged chemicals, sulfonic acid or quaternary izations that could include a neutral charge among other amine or both or the equivalent. An example of such an effects. Examples of these membranes manufactured by Pall application would be to apply a treatment cream or mediCorporation of 25 Harbor Park Drive, Port Washington, N. Y. cament over an area and then spray the polarized chemical 11050 are Mustang S, Mustang Q, Mustang C and Biodyne over it. If the beneficial formulation applied to the skin is of A, Biodyne B and Biodyne C. The Mustang series are of the same polarity as the charged material on top, the special interest with Mustang S giving a strong negative treatment formulas (skin conditioners, etc.) or medicament polarity with its surface modified by sulfonic acid. Mustang will be driven into the skin. A variation of this would be to Q gives a strong positive polarity with its surface modified mix the treatment formula of known polarity with a charged by quaternary amine. It should be understood that the chemical of the same polarity and then apply topically to the chemicals cited are for example only and are not the only skin. The like-charged treatment formula will be driven into chemicals that can polarize support structures or control ion the skin. or molecule flow without a support structure. For instance, Mustang C is polarized with carboxylic acid. Other [0135] Another example of the practice of this invention is examples of functional groups that can bear a charge would to mix a positively charged chemical with a common "over be the hydroxyl, phosphate moieties. A unique feature of the the counter" antiperspirant. The charged chemical will drive invention is the use of charged or polarized chemicals on the aluminum chloride or the like deep down the eccriπe support members or not, to control a flux, current, or signal sweat duct for far more effectiveness than topical applicaof polarized molecules, ions or electrons and even polar tion. Another form of this would be a two-component system

US 2006/0025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

whereby aluminum chlorhydrate antiperspirant is topically inorganic substrate which is incorporated in the filter. The sprayed under the arm and is followed with a spray of a filter can remove nicotine, carbon monoxide, cadmium, lead, positively charged chemical to infuse the aluminum chlomercury, nickel, cyanide among other dangerous elements rhydrate deep within the eccrine sweat duct. from tobacco smoke. These charged or polarized chemicals can be covalently bonded to silica gel (APS silica gel) or the

[0136] Conversely with the above applications wherein like. The charged chemical(s) can be contained in a space in there is an effort to drive or infuse the active drug or the filter or incorporated in one or more filter elements such cosmetic deeper into the skin, there are certain applications as tipping paper, shaped paper insert, mouthpiece plug, solid where it is desirable to limit the travel of the active comfilter element, or free-flow filter element. The charged ponents to the epidermis (outer skin). Salicylic acid is an chemicals can be part of or coated on paper such as tipping example of this. Salicylic acid and/or its derivative is the or filter paper or incorporated in non-paper filter elements treatment of choice for acne, psoriasis, or photoaging. formed from fibrous materials such as cellulose acetate or Because of its low pH (3-4), positively charged salicylic acid polypropylene fibers. The use of the charged chemicals on is capable of penetrating deeply through the epidermis, any of the aforementioned exemplary support structures dermis and receptor fluid causing irritation. To overcome addresses the safety aspect of the invention. this problem, the use of the negatively charged chemicals of sulfonic acid or carboxyl acid or the like as a control for the [0140] Other aspects of cigarette acceptability involve the permeation of the salicylic acid is suggested. When formutobacco flavor that a smoker seeks for gratification. With the lated with the salicylic acid, the negatively charged ions will source for this tobacco taste diminished or stopped by the combine with the positively charged salicylic acid and, when charged mcmbrane(s), it can be restored with the use of properly balanced, will limit the depth of penetration of the tobacco extracts or flavors in the space between the end of salicylic acid to the epidermis, thus eliminating irritation. lhe cigarette that goes into the mouth and the membrane or Two other combinations using charged chemicals to limit the filter in contact with the tobacco. Another variation of this is flow of the active salicylic acid to the epidermis would be to coat a charged membrane with the same polarity tobacco the use of the negative and positive charges in formulation extract to propel the extract or flavor into the mouth. The to result in a neutral charge. Still another impediment to the smoker will now experience a cigarette that is safe, imparts salicylic acid flow below the epidermis, would be the use of flavor, and exudes smoke that is psychologically satisfying. positively charged chemicals such as quaternary amine in solution with salicylic acid. These charged or neutral control [0141] Another application of the invention having major chemicals can be in the form of spray to be applied over the universal value would be in the field of dentistry. Il has long initial application of salicylic acid. been known that fluoride has beneficial effects for the care and well being of teeth. In this regard, the government has

[0137] Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 6a, 6b allowed fluoride to be added to the water system. An and 6c of the drawings, another major beneficial application extension of this is a means of infusing fluoride below the of the present invention would he for the use of the positive surface of the teeth instead of topical application with a membrane Mustang Q or a filter paper impregnated with common dentifrice. This has been recognized by the FDA as Mustang Q or the like, to repel the positively charged the ultimate means of preventing cavities and they approved nicotine chemical that is inhaled during smoking to prevent a methodology that uses an iontophoretic toothbrush to addiction. These membranes or filter paper or the like would infuse a fluoride toothpaste beneath the surface of the tooth. take the form o£ layered filters 17a, 17έ>, 17c at any location Attempts were made to commercially introduce such a between the lips and the tobacco and will effectively repel device but it failed at the marketplace. Among the problems nicotine and other harmful chemicals from leaving the is the short-term treatment of a brushing that would have cigarette. questionable value. If the electrical current were raised, there could be a danger of injury to the very sensitive

[0138] Carbon monoxide is another danger to the smoker. surrounding mucous membranes and the gum. Carbon monoxide is formed by the combustion of carbon with a limited supply of air. As best shown in FIG. 6c, a [0142] With the use of charged chemicals as a stand alone positive membrane or impregnated filter paper 17α in direct component away from membranes or felt pads, a new contact with a negative membrane or filter paper 17b conapplication of the present invention presents itself. The stitutes a battery and as a result liberates oxygen at the negatively charged chemicals (typically sulphonic acid or positive membrane and hydrogen at the negative membrane. carboxyl acid and the like) when placed in a mouthwash or These added gases would act to neutralize the carbon dentifrice with the presence of fluoride will act to infuse monoxide. The membranes could be 'wetted' with a pre- fluoride beneath the surface of the tooth. In addition, this coated hydrogel or "self-wetting" since the direct contact process could continue over time for the ultimate .cavity between the negative and positive membranes create a protection because residual activity may linger for hours. 'moist' condition. This would be an obvious boon to smokSome high potency fluoride toothpastes are recommended to ers worldwide since the medical community relates cancer, be used without rinsing. Under these conditions, it is apparheart problems, pulmonary problems, etc. to the inhalation ent that negatively charged chemicals will repel the πega- of tobacco smoke. tivuly charged fluoride over time for the ultimate protection against tooth decay and the prevention of gum disease.

[0139] Also contemplated within the purview of the invention is a cigarette filter, as shown in FIG.6, having a charged [0143] A major advance in noninvasive drug delivery is to chemical(s) which attracts or repels unwanted polarized ions introduce a battery 20 (see FIGS.4 and 5) or any electrical or molecules from a tobacco smoke stream so that they do power source to greatly increase fluxes of both ionic and not enter the mouth. The charged or polarized chemicals polar neutral compounds. This process known as ionto(FIGS. 6a, 6b, 6c) are covalently bonded to a non-volatile phoresis, works through one or a combination of the fol-

US 2006/0025714 Al Feb.2, 2006

lowing mechanisms: electrophoresis, electroosmosis, and electrical currents to drive them into the skin. Another eleciroporation. While this process was known for over 100 example of the need for high currents to drive extremely years, its use was extremely limited because of the burns and high molecular drugs into the skin is the transport of irritation it could cause, slow treatment since an increase in glucosamine and chondroitin. These two chemicals can electrical current, would cause unacceptable pain, and an lessen pain and affect cartilage repair for knee osteoarthritis. inability to deliver large molecular drugs at therapeutic Presently, these two chemicals require very large oral levels because of low current requirements as well as other administration dosage to be effective. Losses created by first needs. AJl of these handicaps that limit acceptability of a pass metabolism before they reach the area of effectiveness, powered superior drug or chemical deEvery system are now make it necessary for large oral dosages. Direct application overcome by means of the present invention directed to the of these drugs to the knee area is superior. The problem use of charged or polarized membranes. arises because negatively charged chondroitin has a molecular weight of 60,000 daltons— over 10 times more than

[0144] The following examples of systems using charged insulin! The aforementioned means of large electrical curmembranes- with electrically powered systems or battery, rents to give high current density are very effective to deliver presumes the reader is aware that the drug or chemical to be these large molecules. Skin preps to aid permeability should delivered is in solution that could take the form of a liquid, be used with these drugs for non-invasive delivery. These gel or paste or equivalent that links the active elements preps include sodium salicylate and/or depilatories. together. In this instance, the membranes serve the purpose of a reservoir for this solution. The second purpose of the [0148] In still another effort to increase electrical current, membranes 11 is to protect the skin from injury. Stacked or in accordance with the invention, by reconfiguring the coiled charged membranes U or the equivalent will stop the traditional flat surface of the active drug-carrying applicator migration of harmful ions from the battery 20 or electrical we were able to increase current. Referring to FIG. Sb, a power source connected electrodes 22. For instance, muldrug-carrying applicator 25 is shown to be multiple small, tiple Mustang S membranes placed between the negative membrane containing openings 27. As before, the membrane electrode and the skin will prevent sodium hydroxide from acts as a drug reservoir and as an injury-preventing iπter- reaching the skin, yet it will allow the flow of electrical venor between the skin and the source of power. By breaking current between these two points. Multiple Mustang Q up a large flat delivery surface, in accordance with the membranes placed between the positive electrode and the invention, the electrical current could be increased appreskin will prevent hydrochloric acid from reaching the skin. ciably. Very importantly, this allows enormous electrical current [0149] It has been found that another contributor to pain levels to be used with no skin injury and lessened pain. This during the iontophoretic process comes from the positive means that noninvasive iontophorctic devices can deliver applicator of the device. The cause for the pain and therefore therapeutic levels of drug in the fastest possible time. a limiting current factor at the positive output, is believed to

[0145] Combinations of these membranes 11 may be used be the fact that this polarity causes vasoconstriction. Vasounder the same electrode 22. For instance, one use of the constriction effects the nerve endings which we perceive as polarized membrane 11 would be to use the negative mempain. By adding a very small percentage of a histamine to the brane against the negative electrode to repel the injury positive applicator, the pain can be offset because the causing sodium hydroxide from reaching the skin. The histamine is a vasodilator. In accordance with the invention, positive charged membranes could also be used with the this facilitates increasing the electrical current. For example, negative electrode because the unlike negative ions would if the vasodilators of acetylcholine (ACh) or methacholine bind to the positive membrane and therefore stop the injury (MCh) are added to the solution on the positive applicator, causing ions from reaching the skin. Conversely, we may use it will be infused along with any other elements within the the negatively charged membrane against the positive elecsolution thereby lessening the pain sensation and allowing trode to stop the injury causing hydrochloric acid from for an increase of current. reaching the skin. The communicating link between electri[0150] In addition to the large electrical current capability cal power source, through solution wetted membrane to of this invention, amplification also contributes to an enorskin, includes the drug or chemical of choice. The solution mous signal to significantly increase drug delivery. Subsemay even be non-conductive. Conductivity between the quently described in this application is a competitive envipower source and the skin is made because the wetted ronment of two different charge levels in solution that acts membrane is conductive by virtue of its charged chemicals to recycle and thus amplify. Drug delivery of insulin can also that electrically link the electrode to the skin. The charged be greatly enhanced with the use of a small quantity of membranes may be renewed and life-extended by simply glucose (perhaps 0.2 mol/1) in solution with insulin. The reversing the polarity of the battery 20 or power source. insulin infusion could be increased about 9 times with this

[0146] The device may be used with an AC signal (as in glucose additive. Conversely, a small quantity of insulin U.S. Pat. No.5,224,927). Mixed polarity membranes may be added to the glucose withdrawal solution will increase the used under each electrode in this instance. Mixed polarity withdrawn analytc sample in a reverse iontophoresis modalmembranes may also be used in a DC system under the same ity. Still another method of increasing flux or signal amplielectrode. This has a stabilizing effect and enhances regufication in drug delivery is with the use of charged chemicals lation. as aα integral part of a support structure or in a solution that communicates between skin and electrode. When two dif¬

[0147] A major challenge of this non-invasive technology ferently charged substances are in solution, they become is the infusion of large molecular drugs such as insulin. Also, reagents, thereby causing recycling resulting in amplificathe diabetic may need a 'bolus' shot (an exceptionally high tion of the delivered drug. The use of negatively or posiinfusion). Infusion of large molecular drugs requires high tively charged insulin (charge depends on pH) in an envi-

US 2006/U025714 Al Feb. 2, 2006

roπment of a positively charged membrane and using a with the skin. This eliminates the traditional saline wetted negative power source to drive this solution into the skin, return electrode. It has been determined that the saline also increases amplification. actually interfered with the withdrawn glucose sample giving distorted information. While the system described is

[0151] The aforedescribed systems describe various appliintended to withdraw neutral or zwiiterionic species by cations of charged molecules in either chemical form or as convective flow with the negative polarity to measure such an integral part of a membrane, felt or equivalent support clinically important substances as glucose, cholesterol, lacmaterial. These applications include use of the polarized tate etc., it has other uses without departing from the spirit characteristic as a stand-alone infusion or delivery system, and scope of the invention. use of the polarized property to control bacterial or fungal infection and to promote healing, use of the charged prop[0155] The invention may also be used to monitor drug erty as a filter to stop movement of injury causing chemicals pharmacokinetics by non-invasive electromigration withcoming from tobacco and the like, use of the polarized drawal with the use of an opposite polarity electrode. characteristic to stop injurious chemicals coming from a battery or power supply in addition to various other appli[0156] Each element of the diagnostic probe will now be cations. The use of charged chemicals or membranes or the explained to further disclose the unique features of the like modified with these chemicals or the equivalent carrier invention and how each clement contributes to a working of these chemicals is so unique and widely diverse that the device. present invention is directed to and includes the universality [0157] CHEMICALLY CHARGED MEMBRANE(S) or of use other than those limited prior uses by the aforemenFELT PADS — This is the building block of the device 100. tioned Pall Corporation for use in lab assays and industrial Its multi-functions include: the need to stop the sodium or clean air filters, but not for medical devices or personal hydroxide (lye) coming from the negative battery terminal. care products and uses to enhance delivery of a beneficial If not stopped, the sodium hydroxide would cause skin flux, signal, or current. injury resulting in permanent scarring. This is prevented when a positively charged membrane is the intervenor

Non-Invasive Diagnostic Device between the negative terminal and the skin. The negative

[0152] A major aspect this invention is the ultimate applisodium hydroxide ions are attracted to the positively cation of the use of chemically charged membranes or charged membrane and stopped from migrating to the skin. charged chemicals in liquid form making possible the first Meanwhile, the membrane(s) 111 allow the transport in the non-invasive rapid diagnostic test for glucose or other opposite direction of the withdrawn interstitial fluid conanalytes. The finished device has a number of other innotaining glucose to travel to the negative electrode 120. This vations for its successful operability. is aided by the fact that the surface of the negative electrode has a very high pH (because of the sodium hydroxide

[0153] To better understand the details of these features emitted there) that attracts glucose. It is essential that the and their contribution to the complete working unit, an inherent, extreme pH perform its function of glucose attracoverview of the elements and workings of the device is tion. The charged membrane intervenor allows this to happresented. While the device can be worn as a watch on the pen but prevents the skin-damaging sodium hydroxide from wrist or placed in other areas, it is perhaps easier to follow reaching the skin. The opposite end lllα of this membrane in the form of a probe because the active elements are that touches the skin is maintained at a near neutral pH for stacked sequentially in the probe and can be more readily safety. The glucose aπalyte to be measured accumulates at understood in that form. the end lllα of the membrane 111 touching the negative electrode 120. Accordingly, the probe 100 is designed with

[0154] As shown in FIG. 7 the working probe is held as the inside end of the membrane removable from the rest of a pen 100 and placed on top of a vein on the wrist and makes the probe. After making the withdrawal from the skin, the an adequate glucose withdrawal within 95 seconds. The patient separates this piece from the probe and affixes it to element touching the skin is a rolled, chemically charged the strip on a glucose monitor (not shown). The deposition membrane 111 that is wetted with a unique solution, gel or of the withdrawn glucose as stated above is uniquely on the equivalent. The other end HU? of the membrane is in direct inside end lllfc of the membrane IU. This point is approxielectrical contact with the negative terminal 120 of a power mately a half-inch away from the pickup end lllα of the supply (battery) 125. There is now continuous electrical membrane 111 that touches the skin. It is this inside part of communication between the membrane end Ills that the membrane that is placed on the strip of a commercially touches the skin and the negative terminal 120 because of available monitor that will respond with a glucose reading. the conductive, charged membrane 111. The circuit is comThis part 111 is then discarded and replaced with a new unit. plete when the patient is connected to the positive terminal 126 of the power source. The return electrode may also be [0158] Other key elements in this application of charged placed on the forearm above of the wrist where a sample is membranes is how they are presented to the withdrawn taken. Another arrangement may be the grounding of the analyte. It is important that the membranes offer a continumetal tube that is held by the hand applying the device to the ous, unbroken path for the glucose to travel to the electrode. wrist vein. The return electrode may also benefit from the Any impediment to this flow results in inaccurate readings. use of charged membranes to prevent the hydrochloric acid For instance, early investigation made use of membranes generated at the positive electrode from reaching the skin. positioned flat on the skin pickup area. Since it was essential There are additional benefits with the use of the charged to increase thickness of the charged membrane between the membranes. The charged membranes 111 are wetted with skin and the high voltage electrode to prevent skin injury and distilled deionized water and are conductive to the skin pain, experiments -were conducted with layered membranes. because the charged or ionic membranes arc in direct contact Up to 75 and more layers may be necessary to prevent injury

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10

and allow enormous current density to speed treatment. as reflected with a meter reading. Still another formulation Unfortunately, the layered membranes gave false readings for the solution would include a small quantity of insulin, because each layer presented an interface to the signal that perhaps 0.3% or less, in solution with the glucose. This distorted the readings. A roll of the charged membrane is combination has been found to greatly increase the signal now used that when positioned on its side, allows the signal passing through the membrane 111 on the way to the to traverse a single surface on its way to the electrode. electrode 120, thus increasing amplification as subsequently Increasing the height of the charged membrane increases described. protection and allows greater current. A half-inch membrane [0161] GLUCOSE AMPLIFICATION— In the subject spacing between the skin and electrode may be used, but a invention, extremely low levels of glucose are electroos- greater spacing using a membrane of greater height may motically withdrawn from the unbroken skin. It is very provide enhanced results. For instance, literature sets ion- important that this small analylc (subpicomole level) be tophorelic currents at 0.5 ma per cm 2 for safely and comfort. amplified to effect a reading in the shortest possible time. A With the arrangement just described, as much as 31 times novel means of doing this is still another use of the aforemore current density could be drawn. The membranes used mentioned chemically charged membranes 111 as a new for this research and development are, again, a product of form of reagent that results in chemical amplification of the Pall Corporation with a fixed and limited concentration of glucose analyte with increased sensitivity and responsivecharged chemicals as an integral part of the membranes. ness. The reageπt(s) is the charged chemical that is an They were intended for purposes other than those described integral part of a membrane. With the withdrawn glucose in here in connection with the present invention. Membranes solution passing through this membrane 131 drawn by the may be improved and its effects more pronounced by using high pH negative terminal 120, the glucose reacts with membranes made with charged chemicals of a much higher self-replication. Factors that contribute to this amplification concentration. are the charged positive polarity of the membrane 111 in the

[0159] An alternate configuration to the above design is negatively charged fleld. Another form of this amplification based on the following performance needs: It has been would be two or more adjacent membranes, one charged determined that reducing the conductance of the solution is positively and another charged negatively. Glucose (or any paramount to performance. One design feature toward this other analyte) passing through these oppositely charged end is the use of neutral glucose as a solution. Another would membranes would react by recycling and result in an amplibe for the conductive charged membrane that connects the fied signal. Another form of this would be a membrane of skin to the wire screen electrode to be made less conductive. one charge in an electric field of opposite charge. Another To accomplish this a second, nonconductive membrane is form would be two drugs or chemicals of different charges introduced that is connected with the conductive charged as previously mentioned. The competitive environment of membrane whose other end touches the electrode. The the two different levels of charge in solution acts to recycle nonconductive membrane is a thin (typically, about 0.005 the glucose analyte. This ping-pong effect causing amplifiinch) membrane that is placed on the end of the charged cation allows analysis and quantification in the shortest membrane and comes in direct contact with the skin. In this possible time so that the reading is in real-time with the manner the electrical conductivity of the path between the rapidly changing glucose in the body system. Increased skin and the electrode is reduced compared to the previous amplification can be obtained using membranes made with disclosure of a conductive membrane only. With this a higher concentration of charged chemicals that will show arrangement, the glucose formulation is also reduced to the increased reaction. This invention for chemical analysis vicinity of 250 mg/dl thus further reducing clutter. These lends itself to chip technology and in effect becomes 'labs- steps improve accuracy. on-a-chip'.

[0160] SOLUTION — The all-important linkage between [0162] THREE POSITION CALIBRATION SWITCH— the active elements to make them function, is the solution. To cover the wide range of glucose readings necessary for Conductivity between the electrode and the skin, even with health assessment, it is desirable to have a calibration switch a nonconductive solution, is made by virtue of the wetted 140 on the probe 100, as best shown in FIG.7c). The switch charged or ionic membrane(s) that is in contact with the is in conformity with the expected glucose changes as a electrode and the skin. The formulation for glucose withresult of food intake. Referring to FIG. Id, this switch 140 drawal should not add clutter that would compete with and allows an adjustment of the withdrawal time/current for the impede this extremely small signal. To meet these requirefollowing criteria: Position 1, (1-2 hours after meals), Posiments, glucose (solute) is provided in a distilled dcionized tion 2 (2-3 hours after meals and Position 3 (3-4 hours after water solvent to fulfill these needs and add other essential meals). This process of switch position selection at the time characteristics. For a formulation to work optimally, it is of use is so that the end result readings of the detection meter critical that the solution be saturated with glucose. If not compare with the blood standard within allowable- tolertotally saturated, then the water solvent would absorb the ances. By assigning different withdrawal time/current to glucose signal and none would be available for analysis. expected different glucose levels, we are able to cover the Formulations used in the practice of the present invention widest possible range of readings. In experiments with the provide for a glucose reading of 1 mg/dl or higher. This Precision QID strips, position 1 represented 1-2 hours after assures a saturated solution. Present formulations use a meals and was set at a dosimetry of time and current that solute of glucose o£360 or higher mg/dl glucose in a solvent related to the high glucose levels of the day. Position 2 of distilled de ionized water. Since analysis is made using the related to approximately the midpoint between meals and Medisease Precision QIP instrument, this high level glucose was set at a dosimetry of time and current to represent this solution does not affect the reading because the QID strip is mid level. Position 3 represented the longest period away unresponsive to this solution. Yet the withdrawn interstitial from the last meal and was set with a low dosimetry of time glucose fluid is processed as a blood sample and would be and current. Extended ranges may be reached when sub-

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multiple or multiples of the reading are employed to extend as an integral part of a felt pad(s) or a membrane(s) to range. This factory adjustment can be used to extend the prevent: a) injurious chemicals emanating from the range beyond the present pursuit. Newer generation strips electrode from reaching the skin, b) sodium hydroxide may require different electrical currents and time in each of developed at the negative terminal is prevented from these three switch positions to function properly. After the reaching the skin with either a negatively charged or gross selections are made with the calibration switch, precise positively charged intervenor between the skin and the readings are obtained when the withdrawn glucose specimen electrode in an electrically conductive circuit, c) hydrois processed at the strip and results in a meter reading. chloric acid generated at the positive electrode can be [0163] ACTIVE ELECTRODE— The electrode 120 is prevented from reaching the skin with either positively made of stainless steel, which is resistive to sodium hydroxcharged or negatively charged chemicals on an approide. Importantly, the electrode is typically a stainless steel priate support intervenor spaced between the electrode screen. This was selected because the sodium hydroxide that and the skin in an electrically conductive system; is generated at this electrode would normally travel to the [0169] 4) The chemically charged intervenoφ) acting perimeter of a solid surface stainless steel electrode. This as a reservoir or storage area for the drug to be would create 'hot spots' and possibly cause distorted readdelivered; ings of the glucose containing membrane 111 in contact with the electrode 120. The use of the screen electrode causes [0170] 5) In iontophoresis or reverse iontophoresis or many 'perimeters' and therefore contributes to uniform drug delivery or similar chemical or drug transport distribution of sodium hydroxide across its surface for more system, the use of currents above the traditional 0.5 ma consistent readings. The power supply within the probe per cm 2 . The aforementioned charged chemicals either consists of a 6 volt battery with circuitry to increase the on support structure or without support structure, voltage to 70 volts. This powers the dosimetry circuitry with enable these high currents to be achieved. Large switch controls for the time and current of the output feeding molecular delivery also benefits from high electrical the active electrode. The dosimetry circuit integrates time current along with Tapper U.S. Pat. Nos.6,238,381 and and current and terminates this supply at precisely the same 6,425,891; value for every patient. Since every patient's resistance is a variable, this circuit will adjust itself time-wise to compen[0171] 6) In a powered patch, electrical currents can be sate for different individual's resistance while holding curfurther increased by a new physical configuration of the rent constant, so that everyone is treated equally. Tapper active, drug delivery applicator. High density current U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,485,437 and (5,059,736 describe this in can be tolerated when multiple small circles of current electrical circuitry detail. emitting membranes are clustered instead of one large flat delivery surface;

[0164] While the above diabetes diagnostic device is described in detail as a probe 100, the technology could all [0172] 7) The use of the aforementioned charged be included in other forms, for instance, the commercial chemicals of both negative and positive polarity strip used in various monitors could have an additional piece together or separately to meet all objectives of these attached to it that could include the membranes and be inventions; connected internally to the commercial monitor for power, dosimetry timer, etc. This extended strip piece could be [0173] 8) The use of charged chemicals on an intervenor applied to the skin for withdrawal and the withdrawal tip or in combination with both polarities in an AC iontofolded back over the enzyme sensitive target for reading. phoretic device; Another structure would be in the form of a watch with a rotary dial to select seven positions for up to seven readings [0174] 9) The use of histamines in the positive applia day. Each position would have its own membrane (which cator to lessen the pain from this applicator and allow should be changed after each reading). The key membrane an increase in current; in play would be connected between the skin and the [0175] 10) The use of charged membrane(s) in an electrode as described for the probe 100 conβgυration. otherwise unpowered patch (passive patch) to propel [0165] It will be apparent from the foregoing description, the drug(s) into the skin at greatly increased levels that the new and improved system, method, apparatus and compared to other unpowered patches; chemistry of the present invention satisfies the following features and other needs and objectives of the invention: [0176] 11) The use of charged membrane(s) in an unpowered patch as a storage area or reservoir for [0166] 1) The use of charged chemicals of either negadrugs. tive or positive polarity on support members that could include a) membranes, b) felt pads made of natural or [0177] 12) The use of charged membrane(s) of either synthetic fibers, c) impregnated filter paper, d) liquid polarity or in combination to increase infusion, in an form, e) any material that allows charged chemicals to otherwise unpowered patch; control ions, molecules or electrons; [0167] 2) The use of charged chemicals of either nega[0178] 13) The use of charged membranes between skin tive or positive polarity formulated with an increased and output electrode as the conductive clement when concentration of the charged chemicals causing either wetted with distilled water without the need of a saline negative or positive polarity to increase their effectivesolution; ness; [0179] 14) The use in iontophoresis or reverse ionto¬

[0168] 3) For use in a DC iontophoretic drug delivery phoresis of charged membranes between the skin and system, the presence of charged chemicals in solution output electrode as the conductive element when wet-

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ted with distilled water as a means of avoiding clutter drive the antiseptic into the wound continuously when from conductive chemicals that may be added to wetted or in gel form for communication between all enhance transport; elements;

[0180] 15) The use of charged membraπe(s) in a pow[0194] 29) The use of a chemically charged bandage or ered patch of either polarity or in combination as an the like to enhance and speed wound healing when inlcrvenor to prevent skin injury; wetted;

[0181] 16) The use of charged membrane(s) in a pow[0195] 30) The use of a charged chemical of negative ered patch of cither polarity or in combination to act as polarity in a toothpaste containing fluoride to infuse the a drug storage area or reservoir; fluoride below the tooth's surface and gum to prevent cavities and disease;

[0182] 17) The use of charged mcmbrane(s) in a powered patch of either polarity or in combination as a [0196] 31) The use of a charged chemical of negative reservoir and iπlervenor to increase currents above 0.5 polarity as an integral part or coating of toothbrush ma per cm 2 without skin injury; bristles to cause the fluoride of a toothpaste to be driven or infused into the teeth or gums;

[0183] 18) In drug delivery, a small amount of glucose (0.2 mol/Q in solution with insulin can be amplified 9 [0197] 32) The use of charged chemicals of either times in an. unpowered environment using charged polarity as an additive to a germ-killing mouthwash tσ membranes; infuse the antiseptic into the teeth and gums;

[0184] 19) Feature 18 wherein the above solution is in [0198] 33) The use of a charged chemical of negative a powered environment will increase the signal many- polarity to be used as an intervenor between a battery- fold; powered iontophoretic toothbrush and the bristles to prevent injurious sodium hydroxide from the negative

[0185] 20) Feature 19 in a powered environment with terminal of the battery from reaching the teeth, gums or the use of polarized membranes Io act both to prevent mucous membrane; skin injury and further enhance amplification; [0199] 34) A stent coated with either positive or nega¬

[0186] 21) In drug delivery, any chemical or drug in a tive chemicals or both to cause elution and prevent powered environment and stored in oppositely charged restenosis. membrane(s) will cause amplification; [0200] 35) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals

[0187] 22) Another example of drug or chemical ampliof either charge or both that will elute like-charged fication is using the phenomena of oppositely charged chemicals coated on top of the charged coating to drugs to create recycling and thus amplification would prevent restenosis; be with glucosamine and choπdroitin. Glucosamine is [0201] 36) A stent with a coating of charged chemicals positive and chondroitin is negative and the two in either positively or negatively charged or both intesolution with the appropriately charged membranes and grated with like-charged chemicals that will be proin an appropriately polarized field, would benefit from pelled or eluted from the surface to prevent restenosis; amplification;

[0202] 37) A stent coated with quaternary amine, sul¬

[0188] 23 The use of charged chemicals on filters in fonic acid or carboxyl acid or the equivalent to cause cigarettes positioned between the tobacco and the end elution either with another chemical that will be driven held in the mouth to prevent the migration of deletebeyond the surface or the charged coating alone tα elute rious tobacco chemicals from entering the mouth upon when surrounding tissue and body fluids come in inhaling; contact;

[0189] 24) The use of charged chemicals of either [0203] 38) For cosmetic application, the use of charged polarity or in combination on impregnated filter paper chemicals in liquid form as a spray to be applied over or membranes as an intervenor between tobacco and a moisturizer base or any other skin conditioner. This mouth to prevent polarized harmful chemicals from will drive a like-charged cosmetic ingredient or skin reaching the mouth. improvement product deeper into the skin than topical application;

[0190] 25) The use of a tobacco extract or flavor in combination with Items 23 and 24; [0204] 39) The use of salicylic acid and/or its derivative in combination with a charged chemical to limit its

[0191] 26) A charged membrane of the same polarity of travel beneath the skin and thus prevent irritation; the tobacco extract or flavor to propel the extract or flavor into the mouth; [0205] 40) The use of positively charged salicylic acid in combination with negatively charged sulfonic acid or

[0192] 27) The use of charged chemicals as an inherent carboxyl acid or the like to bind to each other and thus part of a bandage or the like, to have an antibacterial limit migration of the salicylic acid beneath the epieffect when placed over a wound; dermis;

[0193] 28) The use of a chemically charged bandage or [0206] 41) The use of salicylic acid as a skin spray as the like that comes precoated with an antiseptic or the part of a two component system wherein a negatively antiseptic is added later. The charged chemicals will charged spray follows;

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[0207] 42) Salicylic acid's pH buffered from three to [0219] 54) The charged or polarized intervenor of Item four to a nonirritating pH of approximately five and 50 that is approximately a half-inch in length and infused into the skin by a like-charged chemical; placed between skin and electrode;

[0208] 43) The use of negatively charged sodium sali[0220] 55) The membrane of Items 50-54- between the cylate wiih negatively charged chemicals to infuse the skin and the electrode to protect against skin injury; sodium salicylate into the skin for beneficial effects. [0221] 56) Increasing the height of this membrane of The sodium salicylate and the negatively charged Items 50, 41 and 55 allows the use of currents above 0.5 chemicals may be in formulation or they may be in the ma per cm 2 ; form of a two component system whereby the sodium salicylate is applied first as perhaps a spray and fol£0222] 57) This charged membrane intervenor of Items lowed by a spray of negatively charged chemicals; 50, 54, 55 and 56 allows the use of high currents above the traditional 0.5 ma/cm 2 ;

[0209] 44) For cosmetic and personal care application, the use of charged chemicals in formulation with like- [0223] 58) Increasing the level of charge of the aforecharged skin improvement material. The repelled skin mentioned mcmbrane(s) by higher concentrations of improvement materials will be infused deeper into the the polarized material improves the benefits cited skin; above;

[0210] 45) The use of the negative and positive charges [0224] 59) A positively charged wetted (gel) membrane in formulation to result in a neutral charge and then prevents skin injury by stopping the sodium hydroxide mixed with the salicylic acid to limit its penetration to ions emitted from the negative electrode in an electrithe epidermis; cally conductive circuit;

[0211] 46) The neutral formulation of Item 45 to be used £0225] 60) The charged membrane interposed between as a spray following the application of salicylic acid to skin and negative terminal also stores the solution (or limit its penetration; gel) necessary to effect communication or current flow between skin and electrode;

[0212] 47) The use of positively charged chemicals such as quaternary amine in solution with salicylic acid [0226] 61) The target withdrawn glucose analyte passes Io limit the depth of its penetration to the epidermis; through the membrane to the end that touches the negative electrode and becomes the critical pick-up

[0213] 48) The use of charged or neutral control chemipoint for the glucose monitor to read. This pick-up cals in the form of a spray to be applied over the initial point for the withdrawn glucose analyte is unique in application of salicylic acid to limit its depth of penthat it is against the electrode and not at membrane etration to the epidermis; entry point in contact with the skin;

[0214] 49) In a permanent hair remover (Tapper U.S. [0227] 62) The charged membrane is constructed in a Pat. Nos. 6,094,594 and 6,206,869) wherein a depilarolled form so that one side of the membrane touches tory is driven into the follicle by an ionlophoretic the skin and the other side touches the electrode. In device, the use of a charged intcrvcπor between battery other words, when viewed from the skin, the withdrawn and skin for the purposes of: a) to use high currents to analyte sees only straight line, unbroken surfaces while expedite treatment, b) to use chemically charged inter- migrating to the electrode; venor to prevent skin injury, c) to use the chemically [0228] 63) The membrane form of Item 62 that causes charged interveπor as the storage or reservoir vehicle the withdrawn glucose analyte to flow in a straight line for the depilatory; while migrating to the electrode;

[0215] 50) A non-invasive diagnostic wilhdrawal device [0229] 64) The structure of Items 62 and 63 that causes using a charged or polarized membrane(s), one end of the withdrawn glucose signal deposition on the end of which is positioned to touch the skin and the other end the membrane in direct contact with the electrode; touching the electrode;

[0230] 65) The use of a high pH from the electrode that

[0216] 51) An alternate construction of Item 50 is the attracts the glucose to this point of signal deposition; use of two membranes, one charged or conductive and the other nonconductive in direct contact with each [0231] 66) The structure of Features 62, 63, 64 and 65 other and spaced between the skin and the electrode; wherein the membrane end in contact with the electrode is the pick-up point for the withdrawn glucose

[0217] 52) The use of a charged membrane and an which is then placed iα contact with the monitor's strip uncharged membrane iα a withdrawal system whereby for analysis or direct reading; the uncharged membrane is placed in contact with the skin and the charged membrane in contact with the [0232] 67) The positive return electrode may also use electrode to complete the circuit. charged membranes to prevent skin damage and allows toleration of higher currents;

[0218] 53) The use of a wool felt nib such as from a marker pen as the intevenor between the skin and [0233] 68) The positive return electrode of the system electrode to prevent the passage of sodium hydroxide described above may also be used to monitor drug from the negative electrode from passing to the skin. pharmacokinetics; The wool nib may or may not be coated with charged [0234] 69) λ solution formulated with glucose in a chemicals; solvent of distilled dεionized water;

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[0235] 70) The solution of Item 69 wherein the glucose [0251] 86) The switch of Items 84 and 85 for following must totally saturate the distilled deionized water to selections: Position 1 (1-2 hours after meals), Position prevent absorption of the withdrawn glucose; 2 (2-3 hours after meals), and Position 3 (3-4 hours after meals);

[0236] 71) The solution of Items 69 and 70 must have a surplus of glucose (distilled deionized water solvent [0252] 87) Different time/current rates are assigned to totally saturated) with a monitor reading between 1 and each of the three switch positions; 400 mg/dl or more;

[0253] 88) A submultiple or multiple of the meter

[0237] 72) Adding a small quantity of insulin to the reading to extend range; glucose solutions of Items 69, 70 and 71, perhaps 0.3% or less, greatly increases the aπalyte signal or causes [0254] 89) After gross selection is made with switch amplification; according to Items 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 and 88a precise reading is obtained when the withdrawn glucose speci¬

[0238] 73) The solution of Items 69, 70, 71 and 72 that men is processed at the strip and results in a meter may include stabilizers or preservatives; reading based on the glucose concentration or density

[0239] 74) Chemical amplification of the minute sub- in the withdrawn interstitial fluid; and picomolc withdrawn analyte takes place in the envi[0255] 90) An LED to indicate the precise end to the ronment disclosed. When at least two differently withdrawal process. charged substances occupy the same area, they become reagents to a signal passing through. The reagents cause [0256] Penetration Enhancers/Inhibitors in Iontophoresis recycling of the signal resulting in amplification. The [0257] This invention also makes use of anionic and charged positive membrane in the negative field acts as cationic penetration enhancers/inhibitors. The polarized a reagent to the withdrawn glucose analyte and amplipenetration enhancers (examples set forth herein as typical fies it; but not exclusive penetration enhancers/inhibitors) improve

[0240] 75) Another form of this would be the use of a drug delivery and analyte withdrawal. Conversely, it may be positive and negative membrane adjacent to each other desirable to limit the penetration of a drug if uncontrolled to cause recycling and therefore amplification of aπadepth would lead to unwanted side effects. Depth control lyte; may be achieved with the use of charged chemicals to repel or absorb the active drug and thus prevent it from further

[0241] 76) Amplification would take place if all the penetration. These charged chemicals may be iontophoreti- polarities cited above were reversed; cally infused either as a pretrealmeπt or the charged chemicals may be formulated in solution with the active drug to

[0242] 77) Charged membranes made with higher conlimit the active drug's penetration. With drugs having poscentration of charged chemicals will show increased sible toxic side effects (such as botulinum and the like), it is amplification; also very important that dosimetry control be used, e.g., see

[0243] 78) More presence of charged membrane will U.S. Pat. No. 4,822,334, as well as electrical current ramp increase the reaction and therefore increase amplificaup, such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,340,047. Both tion; of these patents have as inventor, Robert Tapper, the same inventor as in the present application and may be readily

[0244] 79) This invention lends itself for the new techcombined with the delivery systems disclosed in the current nology of 'labs-on-a-cbip'; application.

[0245] 80) The electrode is a screen made of stainless [0258] For shock prevention, the electrical circuit must steel to evenly disperse sodium hydroxide and pH; automatically provide for a slow rise or ramp up of current. This could take up to 4 or 5 seconds and be independent of

[0246] 81) The power supply consists of a 6 volt battery the operator's (or patient's) control. with circuitry to increase the DC output voltage to 70 volts. Note: voltage may be higher or lower. A safety [0259] If the patient is under treatment and suddenly loses circuit or fail-safe circuit is included; contact with the circuit, the circuit must in microseconds, shut down so that the patient is not shocked. This happens

[0247] 82) The circuit includes a dosimetry circuit because the patient removes their contact in milliseconds (Tapper patents) that precisely controls the analyte and the circuit reacts (shuts down) in microseconds. withdrawal quantity based on time and current;

[0260] The same automatic delay as a ramp down must

[0248] 83) This non-invasive diagnostic device includes take place at the end of treatment to avoid shock. This delay a calibration switch; takes place no matter how fast the inexperience patient turns the control off.

[0249] 84) A multi-position switch that selects the withdrawal time/current to match the highs, lows, and EXAMPLE 1 in-betweeα time glucose levels of the patient caused by meals, physical exercise, or insulin dose; [0261] It is well established that the mechanism for ion- tophoretic sweat control using tap water is that a parakero-

[0250] 85) A multiple position switch that selectively totic plug develops within the eccrine sweat duct by virtue adjusts time and current to conform with well estabof a series of treatments. The limiting factor to the six week lished periods of glucose change related to meal intake sweat control are skin barriers that impede the plug and limit (also physical exercise and insulin dose); its travel within the duct. If a penetration enhancer were

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added to the solution, the plug will travel deeper down the [0272] 98) The use of a cationic penetration enhancer sweat duct approaching the secretory coils. This results in saturating charged membranes which are intended to limit much longer sweat inhibition since the plug now has a skin damage from high currents. longer path to disgorge, thus ending a period of sweat control. Penetration enhancers capable of this activity are [0273] 99) The use of an anionic penetration enhancer positively charged and therefore cationic. Catioαic ions ace saturating charged membranes which are intended to limit driven by the positive polarity electrode. Anionic penetrants skin damage from high currents. can also be used in an AC device. [0274] 100) The use of a penetration enhancer such as cetyltrimethylaramonium bromide (CTAB) as an additive to

EXAMPLE 2 an antiperspirant. CTAB is also the choice penetrant in an electroosmotic device to be driven by the positive pole.

[0262] In an clεciroosmosis device the positive polarity functions to drive interstitial water toward the negative [0275] 101) The use of a cationic or anionic penetration polarity. The movement of water invariably includes essenenhancer or limiter saturating a woul nib felt such as those tial elements that could be picked up at the negative pole and used in pen markers. The wool felt nib intervenor also acts used for analysis (such as glucose analysis). The water as a reservoir for an active drug to be driven into the skin movement is enhanced with a cationic penetration enhancer from an iontophoretic device. that will deliver larger quantities of the aπalyte. [0276] 102) The simultaneous infusion of botulinum and collagen or other fillers with penetration enhancers, each

EXAMPLE 3 drug in a separate positive output using a common negative return.

[0263] The use of penetration enhancers with botulinum and/or collagen to improve delivery of these and other very [0277] 103) The infusion of boluliπum with charged large molecular drugs. Conversely, it may be desirable to chemicals in solution or as a pre-treatment and simultalimit the depth of infusion of botulinum and the like to avoid neously, but with another applicator, the infusion of collagen side effects, and this is accomplished with the use of with a penetration enhancer but with the collagen in a polarized chemicals to better control the depth of infusion negatively charged liposome and driven by the negative (also see paragraphs [00044] and [000133]). Large molecupolarity. The botulinum would be driven into the skin by the lar drags may also be diluted to a lesser concentration for positive polarity. easier passage through the skin. [0278] 104) Cationic or anionic penetration enhancers or

[0264] The following refers to various features and uses of limiters may also be used in passive or unpowcred drug iontophoretic devices and the chemicals or drugs they will delivery patches. Drug propulsion into the skin would come deliver and the therapy they will perform. from the charged membranes which also may be used to store the drug.

[0265] 91) The use of penetration enhancers to increase the depth of penetration or conversely, penetration inhibitors [0279] Typical but not Exclusive Penetration Enhancers/ to limit the depth of penetration of an active drug. Inhibitors

[0266] 92) The use of charged chemicals such as negative sulfonic acid or positive quantinary amine either in solution with botulinum or as a prc-lreatment to botulinum infusion CATIONICS ANIONICS to limit the depth of penetration of potent botulinum when Celylpyrϊdinium chloride Sodium cetyl steπite indicated. CetylUimethylammonium bromide Sodium dietbylsulfαsuccinate Benzalkonium chloride Sodium dioctylKUlfosuccinate

[0267] 93) The use of cationic penetration enhancers with Denzcthonium chloride Sodium lauryl sulfate collagen or other fillers saturating a charged membrane Lauryl dimetbylamino acid betaine intervenor between electrode and skin. When the filler is Stearyt trimethylammonium chloride negatively charged, it may need an anionic penetration enhancer to enhance depth of penetration.

[0280] It will be apparent from the foregoing that, while

[0268] 94) The use of penetration enhancers with collagen particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and or other drugs saturating a charged membrane intervenor described, various alternatives, modifications and variations between a non-metallic electrode such as conductive silican be made without departing from the spirit and scope of cone and the skin. the invention. Accordingly, the invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations

[0269] 9S) The claim of No. 1 to be used to enhance or and it is not intended that the invention be limited, except as limit penetration of a drug saturating a reservoir composed by the following claims. of charged membranes.

I claim:

[0270] 96) The use of reverse iontophoresis or electro- 1. In an iontophoresis delivery system, penetration osrnosis with a penetration enhancer at the positive pole to enhancers to increase the depth of penetration or conversely, increase water flow to the negative for analyte pickup. penetration inhibitors to limit the depth of penetration of an

[0271] 97) The use of a caliorύc penetration enhancer active drug. with other active elements such as aluminum chlorhy- 2. A method of treatment, comprising: drate or other aluminum derivatives, atropine, or the using charged chemicals such as negative sulfonic acid or equivalent drug or chemical for sweat inhibition. positive quantinary amine either in solution with botu-

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linum or as a prc-trβatment to botulinum infusion to reservoir for an active drug to be driven into the skin limit the depth of penetration of potent botulinum when from an iontophoretic device. indicated. 14. A method of treatment, comprising:

3. A method of treatment, comprising: simultaneous infusion of botulinum and collagen or other using cationic penetration enhancers with collagen or fillers with penetration enhancers, each drug in a sepaother fillers saturating a charged membrane intervenor rate positive output using a common negative return. between electrode and skin. 15. A method of treatment, comprising:

4. A method as recited in claim 3, wherein when the filler is negatively charged, an anionic penetration enhancer is infusion of botulinum with charged chemicals in solution provided to enhance depth of penetration. or as a pre-treatmcnt and simultaneously, but with

5. A method of treatment, comprising: another applicator, infusion of collagen with a penetration enhancer, with the collagen in a negatively charged using penetration enhancers with collagen or other drugs liposome and driven by the negative polarity; and saturating a charged membrane intervenor between a driving the botulinum into the skin by the positive non-metallic electrode such as conductive silicone and polarity. the skin. 16. A method, comprising:

6. A system as recited in claim 7 and further including enhancement or inhibition of penetration of a drug saturating using cationic or anionic penetration enhancers or limners a reservoir composed of charged membranes. in passive or uapowcred drug delivery patches; and drug propulsion into the skin being accomplished by

7. A method comprising: charged membranes which also may be used to store using reverse iontophoresis or electro-osmosis with a the drug. penetration enhancer at the positive pole to increase 17. A system and/or method as recited in any of claims. water Bow to the negative pole for analyte pickup. 1-16 wherein automatic dosimetry control is provided.

8. A method of treatment, comprising: 18. A system and/or method as recited in any of claims the use of a cationic penetration enhancer with other 1-17 wherein iontophoretic electrical current is applied as an active elements such as aluminum chlorhydrate or other initial ramp up to mitigate shock. aluminum derivatives, atropine, or the equivalent drug 19. A system and/or method as recited in any of claims or chemical for sweat inhibition. 1-18, and further comprising:

9. A method comprising: an electronic control system for iontophoretic delivery of use of a cationic penetration enhancer saturating charged electrical current over time to a biological subject membranes for limiting skin damage from high curincluding means for determining the magnitude of said rents. electrical current delivered to the biological subject;

10. A method comprising: means for controlling the time period over which electriuse of an anionic penetration enhancer saturating charged cal current is supplied to the biological subject; membranes for limiting skin damage from high curadjustable means for selecting the dosage to be delivered rents. to the biological subject;

11. A method comprising: means for electrically measuring the actual dosage use of a penetration enhancer such as cetyltrimethylam- applied to the biological subject as a function of said muπium bromide (CTAB) as an additive to an antiper- electrical current and time; and spirant.

12. A method comprising: means for terminating said electrical current delivered Io the biological subject when said function equals said using CTAB as a penetrant in an clectroosmolic device to desired total dosage to be administered as established be driven by the positive pole. by said adjustable means.

13. A device, comprising: 20. Each and every novel feature and/or combination of a cationic or anionic penetration enhancer or limiter features herein disclosed. saturating a wool nib felt such as those used in pen markers, said wool felt nib intervenor providing a