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Title:
SYSTEM, METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL OF FIBROUS SUBSTRATUM FORMATION AND YOUR REPRESENTATIVENESS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/058000
Kind Code:
A2
Inventors:
De Camargo, Gerais Rangel Paulo (Rua Natale CApelato, 100 Vila Pagano, Valinho, CEP-13.277-230 São Paulo SP, BR)
Application Number:
PCT/BR2004/000249
Publication Date:
June 30, 2005
Filing Date:
December 20, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
De Camargo, Gerais Rangel Paulo (Rua Natale CApelato, 100 Vila Pagano, Valinho, CEP-13.277-230 São Paulo SP, BR)
International Classes:
D21F1/02; D21F1/06; D21F1/08; D21F1/34; D21F9/00; D21G9/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Azenha Goncalves, José Ricardo (Rua Camargo Paes, 239 Guanabara Campinas, CEP-13.073-350, BR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. la) SYSTEM, METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL OF FIBROUS SUBSTRATUM FORMATION AND YOUR REPRESENTATIVENESS, more particularly refers of a system and respective equipment provided of devices subject of to keep the automatic control during the fibrous substratum formation; related system and remaining components is characterized for the fact of to be developed to provoke a interferometer phenomenon controlled hydraulic flow of the mass of substratum to be formed (MG) in the plain table (MP) of formed machines (F) of much form that be created effective shear forces, same that little effecting a filtering of the diameters of the flakes in the related mass, great flakes in smaller flakes, already the moment in the that the consistence arrive to the critic value where no more will occur random shocks between the fibers and your movements are practically limited, no more being possible to modify space distribution of the fibers. 2a) SYSTEM, METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL OF FIBROUS SUBSTRATUM FORMATION AND YOUR REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the claim 1, characterized for the modular architecture of system to be constituted for the following principals components: a) Group"active modulator"treats equipments installed, preferentially of transversal mode on the plain table (PL), determined positions, being built to attend a certain type of fibrous substratum to be produced; the building of the modulators actives (2) are related to the type of fiber and the basic composition of the mass to be used; b) Panels of command (8) of the modulators (2) and field interface (7)programmable logic controller equipment (7a)CLPloaded with program especially developed, responsible for the supervision of the positioners active of the eject bills or emptier (3) to long of the active modulator (2) and of the process, connected with the central system of supervision by digital communication, and disposing of a interface machine man IHMlocal, for the execution of local commands and maintenance routine; c) Panel of command (8) of modulatorwhere stay the accessory elements of active modulator (2), power system, hydraulic, pneumatic, etc; d) Formation Measure (9)Formation Three dimensional Reference Analyzer sensor or sensor 3DARTF acts as measurer of the distribution characteristics of the fibers in the substratum already formed using the technique by reading of type"Radar Function" ; e) Supervisory systemGroup of program routines installed in the computer (7a) designated to communicate with the others elements of the system, to process the information obtained of form to permit to store the collected data, to present the collected data of historic graphic form and to decide about as to execute the control actions for that the means of FR be reached. 3a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with any of the previous claims, characterized for the fact of each modulator (2) to comprise a linear structure subject of to support a group of ejector or emptier bills (3) drew of form to apply a fluid jet (water, air or other adjusted) with movement quantify of the controlled fluid (speed and mass volume), in a controlled direction (D) in relation the plain of the table (PL) of substratum formation, producing the effect of the introduction of a perturbation (PB) in the mass flow (MG) of the table ; the energy accumulated of the fluid ejected is the responsible for the activation of phenomenon "Hydraulic Pendulum", and that will be being syntonized to provoke the desired modulations. 4a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with any of the previous claims, and in a preferential building, characterized for the fact of each modulator (2) to comprise a tubular cabinet (10), conformed by two metallic panels (11) and (11 a), folded of form to configure a inferior conic opened (12), developed in the apex of the angular walls (13) and (13a), opened this vertical lined up with the inferior extremities of the emptier bills. 5a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with any of the previous claims, and in a preferential building, characterized for the fact of each modulator (2) to contain at least three longitudinal axles (6) supported in small canals (14) practiced in the plates of position (15), in turn, disposed to long of the interior of the cabinet (10), related axle (6) serve for anchorage plan of the semicircular claws (16) pertinent of the ejects bills (3), being distributed to long of the modulator of form to permit to installation of a tubular longitudinal central axle (17), to long of which are distributed the eject bills (3), duly spaced between itself by means of spacer rings (18) or similar device. 6a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the claims 3 and 4, characterized for the central axle (17) have a of your extremities of the modulator supported in a support (19) foreseen in the extremity of the modulator, while that the other extremity of axle related is connected to a support (19a), presenting, near to this extremity a accessory equipment of electric system (20) subject of to effect the movement of rotation and feeding of the related axle (17), equipment that includes a reducing motion (21) and a feeding bomb of the fluid (22), of which circulates for the interior of the related axle (17), feeding the emptier bills (3). 7a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the modulator (2) to foresee a hydraulic device or pneumatic (23) subject of to promoter the angular articulation between the electric system of the cabinet (19) and the cabinet (10) of modulator (2), of form to leave the plain table (PL) free to maintenance. 8a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the eject bill (3) be configured by a ring (23), being the extern face doted of ring medium portion (a) with at least three claws (16) in form of"U", presenting teeth (16a) practiced to the your intern extremities, subject of to fix to the extern faces of the axles (6); the other ring medium portion (b) is smooth; the intern face of the ring (23) is provided of the other concentric ring (24) doted of half of adjustment (25) activated for of device of flow control (26), positioned in the superior portion and extern of the ring portion (a), flow control (26) that comprise a balancim (27), fixed in lodging (28) of the portion (a), centralized between two tubular orifices (29) and (29a), subject to contain, respectively a spring (30) and a activator pin (31), which, in turn have your superior extremity fixed to the balancim (27), the superior face of the related balancim (27) keep in contact with a longitudinal ruler (32), fixed in adjusted local in the interior of the cabinet; each eject bill, more necessarily in the opposing portion to the device of flow control (26), foresees a orthogonal support (33), endowed of threading orifice (34) or other way adjusted for the fixing of the extremity (35) of the tubular asperser duct (5), of which is responsible for to produce the introduction of a disturb in the mass flow. 9a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the asperser ducts (5) be positioned of form lined up with the conic opened (12) of modulator (2), generally placed in the direction approximately normal to the plan of the table (PL) of paper formation. 10a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the kinetic energy produced for the eject bills (3) to active the phenomenon"Hydraulic Pendulum"syntonized to provoke the desired modulations in mass (MG). 11a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the eject bills (3), be subject of have your positioning adjusted in relation to long of the longitudinal axles (6), pertinent to the modulator (2). 12a) EQUIPMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the eject bills (3), with control of movement quantify (speed of discharge and mass outflow) and regulation of spacement among the same permit that the introducing of perturbation in the mass flow that advance about the plain table be controlled. 13a) SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the system and respective control method and gauging of the equipment (1) of paper formation comprise control panels (7) and action panel (8) of the modulators (2), being that the control panel (7) is configured by for the a micro computer (7a) with serial communication for the sensor measurer Formation Threedimensional Reference Analyzer sensor 3DARTF (9), both programmed for programs especially developed to supervise and control the paper formation in the plain table, while that the performance panel (8) is configured for a structure where stay allocated the CLP of command the modulator (s) (2). 14a) METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF PAPER FORMATION, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the concept"hydraulic pendulum" comprise frequency modulations applied in the mass (MG) that dislocate in longitudinal sense of the plain table (PL), modulations that correspond to the perturbations (PB) in the flow where the oscillation are observed for the vales formation (VL) and crystals (CR) in the mass flow that will occur in successive intervals and will have a stationary occurrence localization in relation to the perturbation point. 15a) METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE PAPER FORMATION, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the measurer or sensor 3DARTF (9) comprise be used to measure the flocculation level after the paper formation. 16a) METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE PAPER FORMATION, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the sensor (9) comprise a apparatus that used luminous font of great dimensions (radioactive font) (FLU) the light as half of capitation, being interfaced to the computer (7a) and monitored for the computer program, showed the reference value obtained for the way of the light transmittance through of transmition window (B) of a sample (A). 17a) REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the sensor (9) to permit that to the be promoted a dislocating in radar function relative between the sample (A) and the detectors group, in predetermined increments and perpendicularly to the direction of the alignment of the sensors, obtain, the each position of rest relative, a new luminous intensity reading; related distinctive are compared with a reference and treated for transference function mentioned, and converted in a prompt gramature value localized in the relative position (x, y) of the collect point in the sample ; the plurality of sensors determine the resolution of determination of the points in the axle x, while the number of increments determine the measurement resolution in the axle y. 18a) REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the fact of the reading denominated of"Radar Function"then this function make a sweepings of angular form of the sample that, being synchronized with the machine direction, permits to measure phenomenon and quantify them in relation to a reference direction. 19a) REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the formation index FR is constituted of a algorithm whose data are three dimensional extracted of the reading by"radar function", where is a group of indexes that represents the three dimensions involved in the formation. 20a) REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the previous claims and having the sample examined, dimensions at least two times bigger than the bigger flake that want to observe, and being the diameter of the fiber the less perturbation size that will can to observe, characterized for the index FR calculated into of a useful band of wave length, to present the notation following FR (a, b) whereaminimum wave length measured and bmaximum wave length measured. 21a) REPRESENTATIVENESS, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the index FR (a, b) be conceived to be used for the control system, object of this requested, and have the function of to indicate a tendency of improvement of the formation and propitious the numeric ways to feed the control algorithm to permit the automatic positioning of the modulator active already described. 22a) SYSTEM, in agreement with the previous claims, characterized for the sensor 3DARTF (9), when to read the sample (A), to send references of reading that are compared with the referential formation index or formation referential index"FR", foreseen in the computer program, permitting the automatic control of the paper formation. 23a) SYSTEM, in agreement with all the previous claims, characterized for the formation control system to be adjustable during the manufacture.
Description:
SYSTEM, METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL OF FIBROUS SUBSTRATUM FORMATION AND YOUR REPRESENTATIVENESS FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates an equipment for control the fibrous substratum formation as, for example of the paper, system and method for measurements of the fibrous substratum formation and your representative ness, more particularly is treated of a system and respective equipments provided of device subjective to keep the automatic control during the fibrous substratum formation, principally relatives the interest index decurrently of the formation, as for example, capacity to print, resistance to traction, and other in assays; the equipment pertinent the innovation from on now denominated"active modulator", and consist of a structure lingering that it supports a group of injector bills or emptier especially drawn in order to apply a fluid jet, water, air, or other with movement quantify controlled (mass outflow and speed) in remote way, with approximately normal aiming to the plain of the table of fibrous substratum formation; related modulating introduces the concept"hydraulic pendulum", through which is solved the problem of mass agitation of substratum without extreme expense of energy, for this, the"hydraulic pendulum"is characterized for the formation the controlled waves in the plain table in way to introduce the shear forces necessary for the destruction of the

elements in flakes, this effect with a half life of duration many times bigger than the usual process of micro turbulence used in the usual processes of fibrous substratum formation especially of manufacture of paper. A group of actives modulator supervised for a series of computational processors and fed, object of this invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION As it of knowledge of the qualified in the area, the techniques used for in the improvement of the paper formation based particularly in the technology of formation in plain table of type Fourdrinier of continuous work (to see figure 1) have been based traditionally in the introduction of hydraulic energy in the process to cause turbulence in the mass flow with the cellulose fibers in suspension (aqueous), in way that this turbulence (agitation) be responsible for inhibition to the flocculation immediately before of the draining of the aqueous fraction and consequently the formation sheet of paper, and before of the drying process, in order to get a space distribution uniform (formation) of the fibers related.

The technology until today available, they offer solutions based in the techniques of micro turbulence and or of the interference in the draining being the mechanics solutions passive (static) and the high consumption of energy, and that, for being introduced in the form of hydraulic micro turbulence is easily dissipated and transformed in thermal energy for the hydraulic flow.

The turbulence, as it of knowledge, is essentially created for vortex with same sense of rotation, the that it promotes the appearance the shear forces in the hydraulic flow among the diverse vortex created. The more rotational energy will have in the vortex, in such a way bigger will be the shear forces, and more fast will be the energy contained in the rotational.

The machines of paper formation particularly of type Fourdrinier (figure 1) are know to produce, in the box of entrance, continuous turbulence in the mass that is formed for cellulose fibers in aqueous suspension through of the passage of the for a beam of pipes (FT) of small diameter, the sufficient to cause a draining in turbulent regimen (high Reynolds number). This agitated flow is emptied for a screen of transport (T) of mass (MG) that is transferred until the stages of pressure and draining until getting the final product being able these machines to be presented with sizing variation and conformed to work in high speed or low speed.

The state of the technique shows (figure 1) that a machine of type Fourdrinier depends of the bombardment on concentrated mass (4 the 6% solids) (MG) that enters in the process through of the suction of the mixture bomb (BM) forming a aqueous suspension of cellulose fibers or similar with 0,5% the 1,5% of solids, for recirculation of water of the process, that dilutes the mass (MG) and send for the box of entrance (CE) for a beam of pipes (FT) that, as united, has the function of to distribute the hydraulic

flow evenly above of the forming screen (T), and also a of to cause the micro turbulence necessary in the mass, in way the to minimize the flocculation of the fibers before of the final of the first portion of the screen (a) of mass transport, region where the level of the concentration of solids of the suspension still allows a certain mobility of the fibers. Not having energy of agitation (turbulence) sufficient in this region the flocculation phenomenon will happen that results un one bad space distribution of final product. In the second portion (b), where suction for vacuum acts, the tenor of solids already is such that more isn't possible has mobilization of the fibers and, therefore, the space distribution of the fibers imposed for the previous period of training more one does not get excited, for then, in the third portion (c) the mass is totally immobilized and with a sufficient consistency to be detached of the screen (T) and to pass for the period of the presses (P), being deliver already with a quantify of the solids of 50% for a after draining, stage this that little intervenes in the standard of distribution required for the process of formation described above, denominated generally as'forming table".

The machines that use these technology described demand a high consumption of energy for the bombardment (BM) of great volume of suspension mass of fibers in water, as well as high consumption of energy for moving the forming screen subject efforts during the draining (V), where the spent energy happen essentially

for increase of the internal energy of the suspension principally for the phenomenon of the micro turbulence (desired), phenomenon this that happen during a period of time very short, being that if the relative positioned the fibers in this stage isn't fixed, immobilizing the fibers rapidly the energy of the micro turbulence (figure 2) is dissipated transforming this potential energy (vortex) in thermique energy, increasing the temperature of the flow in question. Soon that the hydraulic phenomenon is intimately connected to quantity of energy introduced for the micro turbulence continuous in the rotational, the viscous proprieties of mass fibers/water is that will go to show the intensity of the attenuation. Therefore, the traditional systems using a great amount cause a propitious situation to a good space distribution of the fibers in suspension, but these ideal conditions exist for a period of time very short causing problems of operacionality of the machine.

Many techniques of the adjust of the conditions of draining (zone"a"of the machine already described) are also utilized for attempt to prolong to the greatest the time of during of agitation that inhibits the flocculation, techiniques this that are adjusted only for determined specific conditions of forming table as; speed of the operation, consistency of the suspension, etc.

Can to observe, intuitively, that the way of the introducing of more energy of turbulent movement for to cause the diminution of the diameter of the vortex, or be, a intense micro turbulence promoted for flows with high

Reynolds number, isn't one linear function, then the contact points among the vortex to increase in a reason practically cubic (figure 2). Can to be considered, for didactic effect, that the contact points among the vortex is that produce the dissipating of the energy of hydraulic agitation, deducing therefore, that to the to reduce for the middle the average diameter of the vortex, it will have to increase the amount of energy of the system in a order of the third power for that it is gotten the same permanence time.

If it will be characterized as half life of the vortex the time that the same delay in to lost half of your intern energy of rotational, can it, of this form, to imagine, that will have a multiple number of this half life of rotational, that will determine in that moment cease the significance of the rotational forces, occurring again to flocculation.

It is known also that always will have a value of mass consistency that, depending on the length of the fiber and volumetric population of this, will cause or will induce to flocculation, for phenomenon simple of random movements of the fibers provoke shocks among them provoking the agglutinations.

In the practical knows that the behavior of this phenomenon can be characterized as graphical below (picture 1), where the time for reflocculation of the fibers in suspension observed for diverse consistency values behaves as decreasing function.

Other important observation, is that the induced turbulence to provoke vortex with similar diameters to the of the probable possible flakes of form in the consistency data of the box, will have to have a promotion of the flocculation on the contrary of the break of the flakes for the formation improvement.

Can be observed that the introducing of shear forces for micro turbulence is made with a high cost of energy that is dissipated for the mass flow, or be, on the to lost rotation speed the vortex dissipate the energy increasing thus the mass temperature. ------------------- _. _ : l i t 2 3 L 5 { t i ) !'ex L T & i

As can be observed, the characteristic of half life of the vortex is very short, being then necessary to introducing of more energy to system, the that is realized for innovated elements empty described more ahead and that are installed in the inferior part of the screen, which make the function of the to prevent or to extend the agitation phenomenon already that the sheet be formed.

The method of the increase of micro turbulence oblige, therefore, the introducing of more a vast amount of energy to hydraulic flow, because the advantage of the micro turbulence brings with it a disadvantage with the increase of the shear forces and as does not have to be pursued does not have to be pursued.

The great question is develop a course that produce micro turbulence with a existence window large the sufficient for that be permitted a flexibilzation in the operation of the machine being able, this to have a great variation in the operation speed and, also in volume of schedule production, with a quality of space distribution of the homogeneous fibers in very the situations without to increase the level of energy consumption already utilized.

Already the measurement that represents the quality of the paper formation, of the type characterization of the local variations or prompt of the space distribution of the fibers, is discussed widely in the scientific publications and your diverse authors have presented systematically indications in the evolution of the form of to quantify this index. O content of this discussions have been always to encounter a index that will have a practical signification for the valuation of the performing of the formation process, as a comparation among types of process.

Almost doesn't speak of the correlation among these index and of essays of interest decurrents of formation, as for example, capacity to print, resistance to traction and other.

Therefore, one of the proposals anticipated in this solicitation consist in to establish a referential formation index for the principal objective, or be, the automatic control of the formation paper (space distribution of the fibers).

Until the present moment, verify that so much the better the formation, better are as paper propriety, being that none correlation among propriety decurrents of the formation and the formation properly related is being used for to specify a definitive index a to be practiced for to reach a certain propriety.

Referring the methodology for measurement of the paper formation, the characterization of the paper formation for a statistic index has presented as an inadequate form of to indicate a multidimensional characteristic. The resultant function doesn't produce relations univocal ; being possible obtains the same value calculated of index for papers of characteristics different.

This impossible of correlation leads the use of the formation index as a value of mere comparison of process and that doesn't obtains to identify, mainly for small variations, univocally the propriety, especially when these tend the zero.

SUMARY OF THE INVENTION It is objective of this invention to present a system, method and equipment for measurement and control of fibrous substratum formation and your representativeness, substratum of type paper, where the equipment is

particularly developed of manner to acting the agitation of the mass flow during the forming and to measure the distribution in the agitation of the mass flow during the forming and the measure to distribution thus gotten, agitation this that destroy or inhibits the flocculation during the substratum formation, being related equipment conformed for at least a modulator actuator apparatus, which is installed in the entrance of aqueous flow with the fibrous suspension in the plain table, producing the effect "hydraulic pendulum"in the mass flow using for in such a way. A plurality of ejector bills endowed means of the regulation of the quantify of movement of the fluid ejected (water, air or adequated) on the mass of the substratum; permits also, to adjust the relative positioning of the same to the long one of the axle to the modulator equipment of form to modificate the distance between a and other ejector bill, and of identical form among they, permiting to produce the oscillatory agitation and soft to flow without great expense of energy.

The thought"hydraulic pendulum"introduced in the present request is characterized for formation of controlled waves in the plain table of form to introduce shear forces in oscillatory regimen, with low activation energy necessary and sufficient for the destruction of the flakes with the half-life of during many times bigger than the micro turbulence process.

For to illustrate the principle of"hydraulic pendulum" can to imagine one tube in form of"U"full of fluid, and in

static equilibrium for the principle of the communicant vessels (to see figure 3 A). When introducing a momentary perturbation in regimen of static equilibrium if the fluid into of the tube in"U"as to pressurize, or to introduce more water of one of the sides of the column (to see figure 3B), immediately after the perturbation the system will tend again to enter in static equilibrium will be reached. These oscillations are comparable the of a mechanic pendulum where your turn point possess significant attrition, being this similar attrition the attrition forces of the fluid in the walls of the column, as the shear forces that will occur internally to the flow for the fact to appear a speed gradient of the flow in the transversal of the direction of flowing. One plurality of columns type"U"linked and linked and pertubated of synchronous form (figure 3C) will be able to produce oscillatory phenomena's similar with the sum of the potential energy of the hydraulic pendulum adjacent. In the practical have that a plate of water dislocating in the transversal sense (to see figure 3D), present a perturbation are observed for the formation of valleys and cristas in the mass flow that will occur in successive intervals and will have a localization of stationary occurrence in relation to the perturbation point.

The perturbation level desired or potential energy introduced to the hydraulic pendulum, as the frequency main of interference desired, will be produced for the alluded bills ejectors foreseen in the modulator however intended.

The innovation of to have effectors with control of movement quantify (speed of discharge and mass outflow) and regulation of spacement among the same permits that the introducing of perturbation in the mass flow that advance about the plain table be controlled, and provoke the forming of a series of waves in the mass, waves these that possess in the your top a quantify of potential energy, result of the energy introduced for the disturb, and in the valleys the referring of potential energy zero, of form that creates then the conditions to occur transversal speed vectors controlled to the perturbed flow in oscillatory regimen.

The transversal speed vectors to the flow compose with speed vector of the machine thus promoting a displacement laminar (low speed) sine of the fibers in suspension. These resultant vectors have intensivity, direction and sense variable, therefore promoting laminar shear forces, forces these responsible for the intended agitation and also for the dissipation of energy. The oscillatory phenomenon occurs already that everything the potential energy introduced be dissipated. The oscillatory phenomenon have a time of duration many times superior to the time of flocculation represented before, therefore adjusted to the inhibition of flocculation same in conditions of high concentrations of fibers in the suspension.

Other analogy of the oscillatory phenomenon can be make for two mechanics pendulum that are transported in opposite directions until reaches a level of potential energy

equal, and that, when free, shocks for many times until that the potential energy that was introduce be dissipated for the plastic deformations that occur during the successive impact occurred.

The great difference of this phenomenon in relation to the micro turbulence, is that the energy dissipated in the shear forces in this case is many times smaller, then differential speed between the layers that shear is very smaller than the velocities present in the shear between the vortex of the micro turbulence.

The quantify and the capacity of modulation that each ejector bill will depend of the project in question, and certainly will be attuned of agreement with a strategic plan.

The ejectors bills will work following a strategy mounted for each of machine, and each condition will be memorized for that is repeated in different occasions.

In others words, the limit of the system innovated is to provoke a phenomenon of interferometer controlled in hydraulic flow of form that be creates shear forces actuating, same that small, being that this group of phenomenon creates, thus, similar effects to of the a active electronic filter of type"band pass"and effecting a filtering of the diameter of flakes, transforming great flakes in flakes minors, until the moment in that the consistence arrive to the critic value where don't occur more random shocks between the fibers and your movement are limited practically, not being more possible to modify the space distribution of the fibers.

It is other objective of present privilege to establish a measurement method of a referential formation index with the principal objective of to capacity the system for the automatic control of the paper formation.

The technique present of measurements of the distribution of the space formation of the fibers in a substratum is represented for a formation index"F", that have been until then, in am indication of the coefficient of statistical variation of the gramature prompt (g/m2). The coefficient of statistical variation, as is demonstrated in technique literature published, is a decrescent function not linear that depends of the size of the sample measured (measurement window), therefore for a same sample it will be able to obtain different results of the index, for different sizes of sampling for different sizes of sampling of a same fibers substratum. For to compensate this discrepancy of the best state of the technique today adapted as methodology for the formation index, use the criterion of the to filter values of prompt variation based in your frequency of space repetition. Sweepings of the sample for a sensor that capture the gramature variations is transformed in an electric signal not periodic that represents a hypothetical composition of physical waves that are being observed for the imaginary lines that the sensor describe in the sample in question. The application of the mathematical operation denominated"Fourier Transformed"can easily to decompose not periodic signal of the measurement in your periodic harmonic components

and to establish the physical lengths in the given sample and determine your distribution of wave length.

The actual methodology recommended proposes that be used, for the calculation of the covariance, values measured expurgating determined wave lengths the composes these not desired in the calculation of the index in an experiment of to standardize the sampling criterion, being then calculated the cited index with the notatiom: as the variation coefficient of the sample in the interval of wave lengths of in the minimum"a"and in the maximum"b"mm. Being F (a, b) therefore equal to the of shunting line standard of the read signal M divide for the calculated average value <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> raz<BR> <BR> F@ab)=<BR> <BR> s Therefore the actual state of the technique recommends that formation index"F"comes associated of a reading into of a length bands considered F, and index only can be compared into of a same band. The values minimum and maximum depend of measument instrument, more particularly of the diameter of the sample (measurement window) and the maximum physical size observed in single point t of measurement.

A technique recommendation currently in use is to extract a X-ray of the fibers distribution in question, use for this, for the example, of a radioactive source of beta

radiation the base of 14 and a sensible photographic film, where for absorption of radiation for the quantify of substance existent between the source and the film, is possible to guard the film with different tonalities that represents, of a not linear form, the density of fibers distribution in the substratum. This film is, then, used for to be measured for a optic reader that line up the measurement and after use the same calculation methodology of variation coefficient already described for calculate the formation index. The idealization in the creation of a innovated formation index, denominated then as formation referential index"FR"was to build an algorithm that was independent of the average gramature of the sample in opposition to the index today in current practice.

The creation of the formation index, being this three- dimensional phenomenon, is a problem that, in principle, only will can be solved using a group of indexes that represent the tridimension involved, contrary case to the information will be lost.

For turn this feasible problem, the present required propos a creation of the practice group of indexes derived of the formation chacteristics of form that be possible to diagnostic the variations of the formation for to permit your control and permits a comparation between situation different of manufacture of the fibrous substratum.

For to permit the calculation of this group of indexes, the present requested propose that a capacitated sensor to measure the prompt superficial density variations in a fibrous substratum, and more a group of computational instruments that facilitate the calculation and obtation of numeric results claimed and a graphic presentation of the same, sensor this that could be built of others forms, therefore, not being limited to this constructionly as it follows.

The measurement system, objective of this invention, uses the absorption of light as way of to determine the superficial density of fibers distribution. The value of the light transmittance through of the sample depends of the substratum density and, of this form, is possible to correlate and to project a transference function that indicate the prompt variation of the density distribution, or superficial density or still, more usually, denominated of gramature.

The sensor innovated make prompt reader of formed in line gramature in a plurality of direction, in relation to the referential direction of the process (machine direction), of form the results of the analysis made for the sensor innovated will contain, of this form, a correlation with the direction and the sense of the process (machine sense).

The innovation in the development of the algorithm that could to correlate the propriety of the gramature distribution, to the direction of the machine, was the development of the denominated of"Radar Function"then

this function make a sweepings of angular form of the sample that, being synchronized with the machine direction, permits to measure phenomenon and quantify them in relation to a reference direction, unknown capacity pertinent developed sensor for this finality for requiring of the present requested. The determination of revolution point of the"radar function"in the sample and the a comprehend of the sweepings as much in angle, as in distance to the revolution point, will be a function of the type of substratum measured, and the objective of flake diameter that pretend to reach with the control system.

The decomposition of signal measured in your harmonic components using the tools type"Fourier Transformed", the example than already have made, behavior this changed for that lined up points that form the not periodic signal, are lined up points now in angular increments in relation to direction of the process, permits that can to see the oscillatory components more significatives involved in the fibrous substratum formation in your directions of occurence prefered.

The measurer developed can, for example, perceive the makes of screen or felt leaved for the manufacture stages and already same risks of the plate. In case of substratum, with application of revestment, evidently when the greatness of this interference order have significative value in the formation standard. This interference of neither felts and screens nor always is desirable in final product, and this information of the sensor permits a

qualitative avaliation and already same quantitative of comportment of this interference in formation of the sheet.

The methodology proposes in the present invention open a many options of analysis of the data that permits to search and to value others"geometric problems"related to the formation as, for example, probable direction of fibers or systematic defect, among other.

Use a luminous font of great dimensions that opposes to a plurality of luminous intensity detectors store for the sample, detectors these that are focused in the superficie of the sample through of a posterior optic group to the illumination and lined up in a certain direction. Great dimensions of the luminous font when compared with the size of the area of the sampling, this for to security an illumination for parallel rays Detectors these that supply an electric signal (SNL) proportional to the light intensity that insides about them.

To the promoted a relative displacement between the sample and the group of the detectors, in predetermined increments and perpendicularly to the alignment direction of the sensors, obtain, the each position of rest relative, a new read of luminous intensity. The referred reading then are compared with a reference and treated for the transference function mentioned, and converted in a value of prompt gramature localized in the relative position (x, y) of collect point of the reading in the sample. A plurality of sensors determine the resolution of determination of points

in axle X, while the number of increments determine the resolution of measurement in axle Y.

A variation constructionly would be of to execute the sweepings in angular increments, if this form being obtained reading that would be being mapped with polar coordinates, being then the plurality of the sensors to define the distance to the reference point and the increments of angle to determine the relative angle, to the contrary of the system of Cartesians coordinates (x, y).

The conversion between a system and other of mapment of the data will be always propriety of the sensor, and then both the representativenesss can information useful and importants to the user.

The representativenesss of the harmonics for the technique of Fourier Transformed can be express for the bidimensional graphic being this symmetric in relation to the axle of power.

The representativeness of the relative power of distribution of the harmonic components detected for the innovated sensor is make three-dimensionally, to example of the a revolution solid. Revolution solid this that, whose revolution plain modify the each angle increment correspondently to the bidimensional graphic representativeness of the power of the harmonic calculated for the Fourier Technique, for each increment of angle mentioned.

For consequence, the revolution solid mentioned, will result in a similar geometry to a cylinder with your concave

superior face, more particularly appeared with the occurrence form of a natural'volcano".

The revolution solid obtained can, therefore, a constructionly that gave a representatively of the comportment of the process in relation the principle harmonics present and your occurrence in relation to the propagation direction of the process.

The study of this solid, using mathematics computational techniques internals to the control system proposed, permits to identify standards and propriety of this imaginary solid and the virtual graphic visualization of this permits also to the operator of the process to identify and correlate oscillatory phenomenon present in the process, of the fibrous substratum formation with the geometry of the deformations represented in the virtual solid created.

The virtual solid created for the criterion mentioned above can be studies in your propriety using the techniques knows for the mechanic.

It is propriety of the virtual solid creates, that your geometry leaves of being similar to a volcano as mentioned passing to plateaus as some type of erosion destroyed your walls, willing your crater. This because in the measure in the that destroy the flakes that tend to form in the fibrous substratum, improving your formation, are produced smaller flakes, that is indicated in the three- dimensional graphic presented with the appearance the points more near of the central axle and the appearance

and the disappearance or attenuating of the points in the periphery.

Being this comportment previsible adopt the criterion of to calculate the FR as a propriety of the solid created, and therefore, as your"inertia moment", to the virtual solid the geometry of a cylinder similar to the of the wrapper of the virtual revolution solid created, impute to the values volumetric density the values of the spectral power measured and the distance already the rotation axle as the wave length measured.

Being: p =density h = height of the drum R = beam of drum Being: Pmax-maximum power measure in the calculated specter Pi-Power measure in the harmonic Ci-Value of the wave lenght in the harmonic k-scale

The index FR calculated for the system innovated indicate a number in such a way lesser how much better will be the formed paper, being that in the measure in that the value tem to zero, the paper tend to possess a perfect superficie. with nor prompt variation of gramature. In the practice, this never will occur a time that the substance in suspension object of the measurement so compose for fibrous substance, and the proper diameter of fiber already would be a prompt variation to be computed.

For the calculation of index FR, using the technique mentioned innovated, physics limit are imposed for the fact of to examine a sample and, therefore, in this have reduced dimensions, and stay imposed to the methodology naturally limits maximum and minimum of observation of the wave lengths.

Having less two times bigger than the bigger flake that desired to observe, and being the diameter of the fibers the smaller perturbation size that will can to observe, can to say that the index FR will be calculated into of a useful of band wave length, and your notation will stay FR (a, b).

A-minimum wave length measured b-maximum wave length measured The index FR (a, b) in form as is proposed was conceived to be used for the control system, object of this requested, and have the function of to indicate a tendency of improvement of the formation and propitious the numeric

ways to feed the control algorithm to permit the automatic positioning of the modulator active already described.

The control methodology adapted for the system innovated. differently of the control systems of the real time more usually encountered, not will be calculating a formation error in function of the time in principle a control system in relation.

The measurement methodology and of control are implanted yes in a function of space geometric distribution through of the measurement model proposed.

The control system proposed would can to work with a differential equations group that will be identified during the installation of the system equations these that will make the paper to desencase the control variables the active modulator and the results previsible in FR.

The control system will can also to operate with control techniques more innovated, of type neural net, where the differential transference function imposed for the active modulator will be determined or learned for the control system, during your system.

The induced frequencies for modulator innovated to destroy the formed flakes not necessarily is the same used to prevent the flakes formation and also the duration time of the interference can be equal as that be necessary to reactive the hydraulic pendulum with other modulator, giving new energy impulse. The reactivation will can be in the same frequency base or in other changed for better to adjust with the situation of the process, therefore having

the necessarily of to install more of a modulator for plain table. The estimative indicate, in rule, of two to three modulator for table.

The control system proposed will be connected to the formation system actually in use in the industrial installation to supervise other process parameter, so as, for example, the water flow, or speed relation between the spurt of the mass in the screen and the screen that, together with active modulator will permit a control for objective of the value of FR. The system of this form will can to assume the supervision of the process that promote the flocculation as of the modulator that inhibits the flocculation, in this form being possible to find the objective of adjust pretended.

It believes to be possible the correlation between the index FR and other process variable of form that be, then possible to establish means for the FR for, in this form, to obtain results desired in others propriety of the substratum, for example of the resistance to the traction, compression or capacity to print, etc.

For resume, the system innovated, is presented after in the modular architecture of the same, whose principal components are: a) Group"active modulator"-This equipments installed in the plain table, determined positions for the pre- engineering of the project, being built especially to attend a certain type of fibrous substratum to be produced; the building of the modulators actives are related to the type of

fiber and the basic composition of the mass to be used; each process will be studies in a pre-engineering of the process. The modulator comprise a linear structure subject of to support a bills ejects group or emptier; which was especially drew of form to apply a fluid jet (water, air or other adequated), with movement quantify of the fluid controlled (speed and mass volume), in a direction controlled in relation to the plain of the formation table producing the effect of the introduction of a disorder in the mass flow of the table ; the energy accumulated of the fluid ejected is the responsible for the activation of the phenomenon"Hydraulic Pendulum"already described, and that will be being syntonized to provoke the modulations desired. The spacement between the eject bills also is controlled for the system innovated giving, to the modulator equipment, capacity of to create and to modulate the effects of the hydraulic pendulum already described of form that the fibers flakes added existing be destroyed, or that prevent your formation. b) Panels of command of the modulators and field interface-programmable logic controller equipment- CLP-loaded with program especially developed, responsible for the supervision of the positioners active of the active modulator and of the process, connected with the central system of supervision by digital communication, and disposing of a interface machine man-IHM-local, for the execution of local commands and maintenance routine.

c) Panel of the modulator-where stay allocated the accessory elements d) of the active modulator, power system, hydraulic, pneumatic, etc. e) Formation measurer-Measurer of the chacteristics of distribution of the fibers in the substratum already formed using a technique unpublished described in this requested. f) System supervisory-Group of program routines installed in a computer especially designated to communicate with the others elements of the system, to process the information obtained of form to permit to keep the collected data, to show the collected data of form graphic and to decide about as to execute the control actions for that the means of FR be reached. The system supervisory will can to divide physically the same processor that executes the calculation of the sensor already mentioned.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWS To complete the present description so that to obtain a greater comprehension of the characteristics of present invention and of accord with a preferential realization pratice of same, accompany the description, in annex, a group of draws where, of mode exemplified, however not limited, presented the sequent.

The figure 1 shows, schematically a formed machine of paper of the type Fourdrinier of continuous work indicating the operation method of traditional paper

formation and your percenting of solids in water during the formation process ; The figure 2 shows the schematic illustration of intense micro turbulence, of mode to show that the relation between the contact points of the vortex multiply in a reason practically cubic; The figure 3 A shows a pendulum in form of"U"full of fluid and in static equilibrium; The figure 3B shown the same pendulum in moment after to suffer momentary perturbation of the equilibrium regimen; the figure 3C shows a schematic edge of a water plate provoked through of a succession of pendulum ; The figure 3D shows a perspective of a water plate dislocating in transversal sense; The figure 4 shows a schematic view of the equipment, system and method showed in the present descriptive; The figure 5 shows a perspective of modulator equipment, of accord the present invention; The figure 6 shows the same perspective of the modulate with the carenage of protection, illustrating the emptier bills ; The figure 7 shows an amplified of the anterior figure, illustrating more details the emptier bills ; The figure 8 shows a exploded perspective of the components that configurate a of the emptier bills ; The figure 9 is a perspective schematic illustrating a bill related to the group ting guide and sliding and the

guide of activating superior, everything mounted in carenage especially drew for the funcionament of the equipment; The figure 10 represents a transversal edge of the modulator in question; The figure 11 is a detail amplified of the apparatus of fixation between claws anticipated in the support disk of the emptier bill and guides sliding.

The figure 12 is a detail amplified and in lateral edge of the inferior extremity of the modulator and emptier bill ; The figure 13 shows a details amplified of the device that adjust the exit pressure of the fluid through of the emptier bill, into of the necessities of paper formation to be processed; The figure 14 is a frontal view of the support of emptier bill ; The figure 14 A is a detail amplified of picture anterior; The figure 15 is a superior view of the support; The figure 16 is a view in lateral edge of the support; The figure 16 A is a detail amplified of the figure anterior, illustrating the chamfers practiced in the fixation borders together to the guides sliding; The figure 17 illustrates the sensor 3DFA in your schematic conformation; The figure 17 A and 17B show versions constructive of the sensor idealized in the anterior figure ;

The figure 18 illustrates a sample of a card paper 275 g/m2 produced to 75 m/min, where can be perceived enough flocculation ; The picture illustrates the detail amplified in area more dark in the figure anterior; The figure 20 illustrates a graphic of the type radar obtained of the sample above analyzed for the sensor 3DFA, object in this invention, before of the command of the adjust in the modulators realized for the computer programs and respective equipment that analyze the data of the paper formation indicated in the sample and compare with standard samples for calibration of the system; The figure 20 A illustrates a reading scheme from of a sample or form of the reactor realized for the sensor; The figure 21 illustrates a three-dimensional graphic visualized in the monitor of the micro computer of the control panel, graphic that permit to realize analysis and corrections in the modulators, from of remote commands; The figure 22 illustrates a sample of card paper de 275 g/m2 produced a 80 m/min with recourse of formation adjust realized for the after analysis and command of the sensor and computer program applicated to the CPL; The figure 23 illustrates a detail amplified of the figure 22; The figure 24 illustrates a graphic of the type radar obtained of the sample illustrated. in the figure 21 and analyzed for the sensor 3DFA after the of the adjust

command in the modulators realized for the computer program and analysis equipment pertecent to the system; The figure 25 illustrates a three-dimensional graphic visualized in the monitor of the equipment, graphic this obtained for verification and analysis of the alteration promoted in the modulators.

DESCRIPTION DETAILS OF THE INVENTION Referring to the draws illustrated, the present invention refers to SYSTEM, METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL OF FIBROUS SUBSTRATUM FORMATION AND YOUR REPRESENTATIVENESS, more particularly refers a system and respective equipment provided of devices subject of to keep the automatic control during the related mass, transforming great flakes in smaller flakes, already the moment in the that the consistence arrive to the critic value where no more will occur random shocks between the fibers and your movements are practically limited, no more being possible to modify space distribution of the fibers.

As the present invention, the system innovated is presented with a modular architecture to be installed in plain table (PL) of formed machines (F) as machine of type Fourdrinier (illustrates in figure 1), where the principal components are: a} Group"active modulator" (2)-It is equipments installed in the plain table, determined positions for the pre-engineering of the project, being built especially to

attend a certain type of fibrous substratum to be produced; the building of the modular actives (2) (posterior detailment) is related to the type of fiber and the basic composition of the mass (MG) to be used, each modulator (2) comprise a linear structure subject of to support a bills ejects group or emptier (3) especially drew of form to apply a fluid ject (water, air, or other adequated), with movement quantify of the fluid controlled (speed and mass volume), in a direction controlled (D) in relation to the plain of the formation table (PL) producing the effect of the introduction of a disorder in the mass flow of the table ; the energy accumulated of the fluid ejected is the responsible for the activation of the phenomenon"Hydraulic Pendulum" (already teoric described and illustrated in the figures 3 A, 3B, 3C and 3D), and that will be being syntonized to provoke the modulations desired; the spacement between the eject bills (3) also is controlled for the system innovated giving, to the modulator equipment (2), capacity of to create and to modulate the effects of the hydraulic pendulum already described of form that the fibers flakes added existing be destroyed, or that prevent your formation. b) Panels of command (8) of the modulators (2) and field interface (7)-programmable logic controller equipment (7 a)-CLP-loaded with program especially developed, responsible for the supervision of the positioners active of the active modulator (2) and of the process, connected with the central system of supervision

by digital communication, and disposing of a interface machine man-IHM-local, for the execution of local commands and maintenance routine; c) Panel of command (8) the modulator-where stay allocated the accessory elements of the active modulator (2), power system, hydraulic, pneumatic, etc; d) Formation measurer (9)-sensor analyzer of formation three-dimensional reference, denominated sensor 3DARTF-act as measurer of the chacteristics of distribution of the fibers in the substratum already formed using a technique unpublished described in this requested; e) System supervisory-Group of program routines installed in a computer (7a) especially designated to communicate with the others elements of the system, to process the information obtained of form to permit to keep the collected data, to show the collected data of form graphic and to decide about as to execute the control actions for that the means of FR be reached. The system supervisory will can to divide physically the same processor that executes the calculation of the sensor already mentioned.

Better detailed and in a schematic constructionly, the equipment (1) (to see figure 4) is conformed by for the modulator apparatus (2), which is installed on in box entrance of the mass (MG) of paper in the plain table (PL), producing the effect of"hydaulic pendulum"in the mass (MG), using for in such a way. A plurality of ejector bills endowed means of the regulation of the automatic

pressure (4) of the fluid jets (5) (water or other adequated) about the paper mass (MG), related eject bills are subject of have your posioning adjusted in relation or the long of the longitudinal axles (6), pertinent to the modulator (2), permitting to produce the agitation adequate to the mass without great expence of energy.

The system and respective control method and gauging of the equipment (1) of paper formation comprise control panels (7) and action panel (8) of the modulators (2), being that the control panel (7) is configured by for the a micro computer (7a) with serial communication for the sensor measurer Formation Three-dimensional Reference Analyzer sensor 3DARTF (9), both programmed for programs especially developed to supervise and control the paper formation in the plain table, while that the performance panel (8) is configured for a structure where stay allocated the CLP of command the modulator (s) (2).

Each modulator (2), in turn, comprise a tubular cabinet (10), conformed for two metallic panels (11) and (11a), folded of form to configure a inferior conic opening (12), developed in the apex of the angular walls (13) and (13a), opening this line up with the inferior extremities of the bill emptier (3), as will be better explicated after.

Each modulator apparatus (2) comprises at least three longitudinal axels (6) supported in small canals (14) practiced in the plates of position (15), in turn, to long of the interior of the cabinet (10), related axle (6) serve for anchorage plan of the semicircular claws (16)

pertinent of the ejects bills (3), being distributed to long of the modulator of form to permit to installation of a tubular longitudinal central axle (17), to long of which are distributed the eject bills (3), duly spaced between itself by means of spacer rings (18) or device to be developed.

Related central axle (17) have a of your extremities of the modulator supported in a support (19) foreseen in the extremity of the modulator, while that the other extremity of axle related is connected to a support (19a), presenting, near to this extremity a accessory equipment of electric system (20) subject of to effect the movement of rotation and feeding of the related axle (17), equipment that includes a reducing motion (21) and a feeding bomb of the fluid (22), of which circulates for the interior of the related axle (17), feeding the emptier bills.

It is foreseen a hydraulic or pneumatic device (23) subject of to promoter the angular articulation between the cabinet of the electric system (19) and the cabinet of the modulator (2), of form to leave the plain table (PL) free for any maintenances.

The eject bills (3) (figure 8 to 16) are configured for a ring (23), having a extern face endowed of ring medium portion (a) with at least three claws (16) near to the your intern extremities, subject of fixing to the extern faces of the axle, to other ring medium portion is smooth.

The intern face of the ring (23) is provided of other concentric ring (24) of endowed half of adjust (25) activated for the device of control flow (26), positioned in

the superior portion and extern of the ring portion (a), control flow (26) that comprise a balancim (27), fixed in allocating (28) of the portion (a), centralized between two tubular orifice (29) and (29a), subject of to contain, respectively a spring (30) and a activator pin (31), of which, in turn, have your superior extremity fixed to the balancim (27); the superior face of related balancim (27) to keep in contact with a longitudinal ruler (32), fixed in adjusted local in the interior of the cabinet.

Each eject bill, more necessarily in the opposing portion to the device of flow control (26), foresees a orthogonal support (33), endowed of threading orifice (34) or other way adjusted for the fixing of the extremity (35) of the tubular asperser duct (5), of which is responsible for to produce the introduction of a disturb in the mass flow.

The aspersors ducts (5) are positioned of form lined up with a conic opening (12) of the modulator (2) generally willing in the direction approximately normal to the plan of the table (PL) of paper formation; the kinetic energy produced for the eject bills (3) is responsible for the activation of phenomenon"Hydraulic Pendulum"described in details later and that will be being syntonized to provoke the desired modulations.

As after related, every the modulator equipments (2) are controlled for at least a module of control panel, conformed for a computer (7a) with serial communication for the sensor measurer 3DARTF (9).

The movement of rotation of the axle permits to adjust the distance between the eject bills (3), of accord with the necessity of paper formation, thus as related axle, in adjusted rotation, permits to change the angle of the modulator (2) in relation to the plan of the table (PL), diminishing or increasing the intensity of fluid jet proceeding of asperser duct (5), giving to the modulator equipment (2) the capacity to create frequency modulations such that the flakes existents be destroyed, or that prevents to the formation of same.

The conceit"Hydraulic Pendulum", better visualized in the figures 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D comprised applied in the mass (MG) that dislocates in longitudinal sense of plain table (PL) (to see figure 3D) ;"hydraulic pendulum" represents a perturbation (PB) in the flow where the oscillation period are observed for the vales formation (VL) and crystals (CR) in the mass flow that will occur in successive intervals and will have a stationary occurrence localization in relation to the perturbation point.

The level of perturbation desired or potential energy introduced to the hydraulic pendulum inherent of system present, as the frequencies principals of interference desired, will be produced for the alluded eject bills (3) prevists foreseen in the modulator (2), intended.

The innovation of have ejectors (3) with control of movement quantify (speed of discharge and mass outflow) and regulation of spacement among the same permit that the introducing of perturbation (PB) in the mass flow (MG)

that advance about the plain table (PL) be controlled, and provoke the forming of a series of waves in the mass, waves these that possess in the your crystal (CR) a quantify of potential energy introduced for the disturb, and in the vales (VL) the reference of potential energy zero, of form that creates then the conditions to occur speed vectors controlled transversals to the perturbed flow in oscillatory regimen.

The transversal speed vectors to the flow composite with the speed vector of the machine promoting thus a laminar displacement (low speed) sine of the fibers in suspension. These resultant vectors have intensively, direction and sense variable, therefore promoting laminar shear forces, forces these responsible for the intended agitation and also for the dissipation of energy. The oscillatory phenomenon occurs already that everything the potential energy introduced be dissipated. The oscillatory phenomenon have a time of duration many times superior to the time of flocculation represented before, therefore adjusted to the inhibition of flocculation same in conditions of high concentrations of fibers in the suspension.

The innovation of have effectors with control of movement quantify (speed of discharge and mass outflow) and regulation of spacement among the same permit that the introducing of perturbation in the mass flow that advance about the plain table be controlled, and provoke the forming of a series of waves in the mass, waves these

that possess in the your top a quantify of potential energy, result of the energy introduced for the disturb.

The oscillatory phenomenon that develop through of the eject bills (5) corresponds to two pendulum that are leaved in opposite directions until to reach a level of energy equal, and that, when free, shocks for many times until that the potential energy that was introduced be dissipated for the plastic deformations that occur in the impact moment.

The measurer or sensor 3DARTF (9) is used to measure the flocculation level after the paper formation.

Related sensor comprises an apparatus that use the light (radioactive font) as way of propagation, being interfaced to the computer (7a) and monitored for the computer program especially developed, showed reference value obtained for way of the light transmittance through the window measurement (B) of the a sample (A) (ilustrative figures of 18 to 25).

The sensor 3DARFT (9) was developed to realize prompt reading of gramature lined up in a plurality of directions, in relation to the differential direction of process (machine direction), of form to obtain a observation of sample (A) comparable the of a radar. The results of the analysis made for the sensor alluded (9) will contain, of this form, a correlation with a direction and the sense of the process (sense of the machine).

For this, the sensor, in a preferential building (to see figure 17), use a luminous font of great dimension (FLU),

that opposes to a plurality luminous intensity detectors interposed for the sample (A), detectors this that are focalized in the superficie of the sample through of a posterior optic group to the illumination and lied up in a determined direction. Great dimensions of the luminous font when compared with the size of the area of the sampling, this to guarantee for parallels rays.

For to be promoted a relative displacement between the sample (A) and the detectors group, in pre-determined increments and perpendicularly to the alignment direction of the sensors, obtains, an each relative rest position, a new luminous intensity reading. The related readings then are compared with the reference and treated for the transference function mentioned, and converted in a prompt gramature value localized in the relative position (x, y) of the collect point of the reading in the sample. The plurality of sensors determines the resolution of determination of point in the axle x, while the increment number determines the resolution of measurement in the axle y.

The development of the algorithm that could to correlate the propriety of the gramature distribution to the machine direction, was the development of the sensor model with reading of the type denominated of"Radar Function", because this function makes a sweepings of angular form of the sample (a) that, being synchronized with the machine direction, permits to measure phenomenon quantify them in relation to a reference

direction. The determination of the rotation point of the "Radar Function"in the sample and the inclusions of the sweepings as in angle as in distance to the rotation point, will be a function of the of substratum measured, and the means of flake diameter that pretends to reach with the control system.

The sensor (9) developed can, for example, to perceive the screen marks or felt left for the fabrication stages and until same lamina risks in case of substratum with application of covering, evidently when the order of magnitude of this interferences have significant value in the formation standard. This interference of neither felts and screen nor always is desirable in the final product, and this information of the sensor permits a qualitative evaluation and even same quantitative of comportment of this interferences in the sheet formation.

The methodology proposed in the present invention open several analysis options of the data that permits search and evaluation others"geometric problems"related to the formation as, for example, probable direction of fibers or systematic defects, among others.

Related sensor 3DARTF (9), to read the sample (A) (figures 17,17A and 17B), sends reading references that are compared with the referential formation index, denominated Formation Referential Index"FR", foreseen in the computer program and that have as principal objective, the automatic control of the paper formation.

The innovated formation index FR is constituted of an algorithm that not depends of the medium gramature of the sample in opposition to the index today in practical current.

In function of the formation index to be based in sample obtained through of data extracted of the reading for radar, this is, three-dimensional data, is use a group of indexes that represents the three dimensions involved, or be, practice index derivatives of the formation characteristics, of form that be possible to diagnostic the formation variations to permit your control and to permit the comparison between different situations of manufacture of a fibrous substratum.

The criterion of to calculate the FR, as the propriety of created solid, is therefore, as your"inertia moment", attributes to the virtual solid the geometry of a similar cylinder to the pack of virtual revolution solid created, and attributes to the volumetric density values the values of the spectral power measured and the distance until the rotation axle as the wave length measured, where: I 7s*R, being : ? = density ; h = height of the drum; R = <BR> <BR> <BR> FR=k*# Pmax* Pi* Ci@<BR> beam of drum, and being : P, t., aX-maximum power measure in the calculated specter; Pi-Power measure in the harmonic; Cl-Value of the wave length in the harmonic, and k-scale.

The index FR calculated for the system innovated indicate a number in such a way lesser how much better will be the formed paper, being that in the measure in that

the value tem to zero, the paper tend to possess a perfect superficie. with nor prompt variation of gramature. In the practice, this never will occur a time that the substance in suspension object of the measurement so compose for fibrous substance, and the proper diameter of fiber already would be a prompt variation to be computed.

Having less two times bigger than the bigger flake that desired to observe, and being the diameter of the fibers the smaller perturbation size that will can to observe, can to say that the index FR will be calculated into of a useful of band wave length, and your notation will stay FR (a, b).

- a-minimum wave length measured - b-maximum wave length measured The index FR (a, b) in form as is proposed was conceived to be used for the control system, object of this requested, and have the function of to indicate a tendency of improvement of the formation and propitious the numeric ways to feed the control algorithm to permit the automatic positioning of the modulator active already described.

The control methodology adapted for the system innovated differently of the control systems of the real time more usually encountered, not will be calculating a formation error in function of the time in principle a control system in relation.

The measurement methodology and of control are implanted yes in a function of space geometric distribution through of the measurement model proposed.

The control system proposed would can to work with a differential equations group that will be identified during the installation of the system. equations these that will make the paper to desencase the control variables the active modulator and the results previsible in FR.

The control system will can also to operate with control techniques more innovated, of type neural net, where the differential transference function imposed for the active modulator will be determined or learned for the control system, during your system.

Despite of detailed the invention, is important to understand that the same not limits your application to the details and stages descried here. The invention is capable of others modalities and of to be practiced or executed in a variety of modes. Have to stay understood that the terminology used here is for the finally of description and not of limitation.