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Title:
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CAPACITY MODULATION THROUGH EUTECTIC PLATES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/005988
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A refrigeration system may include a compressor, a first heat exchanger, a first working fluid flow path, and a second working fluid flow path. The first heat exchanger receives working fluid discharged from the compressor. The first working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include an evaporator and an evaporator control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the evaporator and a second position restricting fluid flow through the evaporator. The second working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a eutectic plate and a plate control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the eutectic plate and a second position restricting fluid flow through the eutectic plate.

Inventors:
VEHR, Shawn W. (1675 W. Campbell Road, Sidney, Ohio, 45365, US)
ROZSNAKI, Joseph J. (1675 W. Campbell Road, Sidney, Ohio, 45365, US)
SIEFKER, Louis (1675 W. Campbell Road, Sidney, Ohio, 45365, US)
Application Number:
US2017/040326
Publication Date:
January 04, 2018
Filing Date:
June 30, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EMERSON CLIMATE TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (1675 W. Campbell Road, Sidney, Ohio, 45365-0669, US)
International Classes:
F25B49/02; F25B5/02; F25B41/00; F25B41/04; F25B41/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2000049349A12000-08-24
Foreign References:
US20130333398A12013-12-19
US20070209378A12007-09-13
US4043144A1977-08-23
US20160144765A12016-05-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MALINZAK, Michael et al. (HARNESS, DICKEY & PIERCE P.L.C.,P.O. Box 82, Bloomfield Hills Michigan, 48303, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1 . A refrigeration system comprising:

a compressor;

a first heat exchanger receiving working fluid discharged from the compressor; a first working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger, the first working fluid flow path including an evaporator and an evaporator control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the evaporator and a second position restricting fluid flow through the evaporator; and

a second working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger, the second working fluid flow path including a eutectic plate and a plate control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the eutectic plate and a second position restricting fluid flow through the eutectic plate, the first and second working fluid flow paths diverging from each other at a first location downstream of the first heat exchanger.

2. The refrigeration system of Claim 1 , wherein the first working fluid flow path includes a first expansion device disposed between the evaporator control valve and the evaporator.

3. The refrigeration system of Claim 2, wherein the second working fluid flow path includes a second expansion device disposed between the plate control valve and the eutectic plate. 4. The refrigeration system of Claim 1 , wherein the first and second working fluid flow paths merge with each other at a second location that is upstream of the compressor.

5. The refrigeration system of Claim 4, wherein the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor.

6. The refrigeration system of Claim 5, further comprising a third working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger, the third working fluid flow path including a fluid-injection heat exchanger and a fluid-injection control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fluid- injection heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fluid- injection heat exchanger, wherein the third working fluid flow path is fluidly coupled with a fluid-injection inlet of the compressor and provides working fluid to an intermediate- pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor.

7. The refrigeration system of Claim 4, further comprising a control module in communication with the compressor, the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve, the control module controlling at least one of the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve based on a runtime of the compressor.

8. The refrigeration system of Claim 7, wherein the control module moves the evaporator control valve to the second position during operation of the compressor in response to a refrigerated space reaching a predetermined temperature.

9. The refrigeration system of Claim 8, wherein the eutectic plate and the evaporator are both in heat transfer relationships with the refrigerated space.

10. The refrigeration system of Claim 8, wherein the control module maintains operation of the compressor and maintains the plate control valve in the first position after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature as long as the runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

1 1 . The refrigeration system of Claim 10, further comprising a third working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger, the third working fluid flow path including a fluid-injection heat exchanger and a fluid-injection control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fluid- injection heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fluid- injection heat exchanger,

wherein the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor,

wherein the third working fluid flow path is fluidly coupled with a fluid-injection inlet of the compressor and provides working fluid to an intermediate-pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor, and wherein the control module is in communication with the fluid-injection control valve and maintains the fluid-injection control valve in the first position after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature. 12. A vehicle comprising the refrigeration system of Claim 1 and a cargo compartment in heat transfer relationships with the evaporator and the eutectic plate.

13. A method comprising:

directing working fluid from a discharge port of a compressor to a first heat exchanger;

directing a first portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through an evaporator;

directing a second portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through a eutectic plate;

discontinuing a flow of the working fluid through the evaporator in response to a refrigerated space reaching a predetermined temperature; and

maintaining operation of the compressor and maintaining a flow of the working fluid through the eutectic plate after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature and after discontinuation of the flow through the evaporator as long as a runtime of the compressor is less than a predetermined time period.

14. The method of Claim 13, wherein discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the evaporator includes closing an evaporator control valve. 15. The method of Claim 13, further comprising directing the first portion of the working fluid through a first expansion device before the working fluid flows through the evaporator; and directing the second portion of the working fluid through a second expansion device before the working fluid flows through the eutectic plate. 16. The method of Claim 13, further comprising discontinuing operation of the compressor and discontinuing a flow of working fluid through the eutectic plate in response to the runtime reaching the predetermined time period.

17. The method of Claim 16, wherein discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the eutectic plate includes closing a plate control valve.

18. A method comprising:

directing working fluid from a discharge port of a compressor to a first heat exchanger;

directing a first portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through a first evaporator corresponding to a first cargo compartment of a vehicle having a first setpoint temperature;

directing a second portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through a second evaporator corresponding to a second cargo compartment of a vehicle having a second setpoint temperature, the second setpoint temperature is lower than the first setpoint temperature;

discontinuing a flow of the working fluid through the first evaporator in response to the first cargo compartment reaching the first setpoint temperature; and

maintaining operation of the compressor and maintaining a flow of the working fluid through the second evaporator after the first cargo compartment reaches the first setpoint temperature and after discontinuation of the flow through the first evaporator even if the second cargo compartment is at a temperature lower than the second setpoint temperature, as long as a runtime of the compressor is less than a predetermined time period.

19. The method of Claim 18, wherein discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the first evaporator includes closing a first evaporator control valve.

20. The method of Claim 18, further comprising directing the first portion of the working fluid through a first expansion device before the working fluid flows through the first evaporator; and directing the second portion of the working fluid through a second expansion device before the working fluid flows through the second evaporator.

21 . The method of Claim 18, further comprising discontinuing operation of the compressor and discontinuing the flow of working fluid through the second evaporator in response to the runtime reaching the predetermined time period.

22. The method of Claim 21 , wherein discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the second evaporator includes closing a second evaporator control valve.

Description:
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CAPACITY MODULATION

THROUGH EUTECTIC PLATES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Utility Patent Application No. 15/635,372 filed on June 28, 2017 and also claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,639, filed on June 30, 2016. The entire disclosures of the above applications are incorporated herein by reference.

[0002] The entire disclosures of each of the following applications are incorporated herein by reference: U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,608, filed June 30, 2016; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,620, filed June 30, 2016; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,626, filed June 30, 2016; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,631 , filed June 30, 2016; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,647, filed June 30, 2016; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,652, filed June 30, 2016; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/356,666, filed June 30, 2016. FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure relates to vehicles and, more particularly, to refrigeration systems of vehicles.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Compressors may be used in a wide variety of industrial and residential applications to circulate refrigerant to provide a desired heating or cooling effect. For example, a compressor may be used to provide heating and/or cooling in a refrigeration system, a heat pump system, a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, or a chiller system. These types of systems can be fixed, such as at a building or residence, or can be mobile, such as in a vehicle. Vehicles include land based vehicles (e.g., trucks, cars, trains, etc.), water based vehicles (e.g., boats, ships, etc.), air based vehicles (e.g., airplanes), and vehicles that operate over a combination of more than one of land, water, and air.

[0005] The background description provided here is for the purpose of generally presenting the context of the disclosure. Work of the presently named inventors, to the extent it is described in this background section, as well as aspects of the description that may not otherwise qualify as prior art at the time of filing, are neither expressly nor impliedly admitted as prior art against the present disclosure.

SUMMARY

[0006] The present disclosure provides a refrigeration system that may include a compressor, a first heat exchanger (e.g., a condenser or gas cooler), a first working fluid flow path, and a second working fluid flow path. The first heat exchanger receives working fluid (e.g., refrigerant) discharged from the compressor. The first working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include an evaporator and an evaporator control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the evaporator and a second position restricting fluid flow through the evaporator. The second working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include one or more eutectic plates and a plate control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the one or more eutectic plates and a second position restricting fluid flow through the eutectic plate.

[0007] In some configurations, the first and second working fluid flow paths may diverge from each other at a first location downstream of the first heat exchanger and may merge with each other at a second location that is upstream of the compressor.

[0008] In some configurations, the first working fluid flow path includes a first expansion device (e.g., an expansion valve) disposed between the evaporator control valve and the evaporator.

[0009] In some configurations, the second working fluid flow path includes a second expansion device (e.g., an expansion valve) disposed between the plate control valve and the eutectic plate. [0010] In some configurations, the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor.

[0011] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a third working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path may include a fluid-injection heat exchanger and a fluid-injection control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fluid-injection heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fluid-injection heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path may be fluidly coupled with a fluid- injection inlet of the compressor and may provide working fluid to an intermediate- pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor.

[0012] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a control module in communication with the compressor, the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve. The control module may control at least one of the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve (i.e., the evaporator control valve and/or the plate control valve) based on a runtime of the compressor.

[0013] In some configurations, the control module moves the evaporator control valve to the second position during operation of the compressor in response to a refrigerated space reaching a predetermined temperature.

[0014] In some configurations, the control module maintains operation of the compressor and maintains the plate control valve in the first position after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0015] In some configurations, the control module is in communication with the fluid- injection control valve and maintains the fluid-injection control valve in the first position after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature.

[0016] In some configurations, the one or more eutectic plates and the evaporator are both in heat transfer relationships with the same refrigerated space.

[0017] The present disclosure also provides a vehicle that may include a cargo compartment, a compressor, a first heat exchanger (e.g., a condenser or gas cooler), a first working fluid flow path, and a second working fluid flow path. The first heat exchanger receives working fluid discharged from the compressor. The first working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include an evaporator and an evaporator control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the evaporator and a second position restricting fluid flow through the evaporator. The evaporator may be in a heat transfer relationship with the cargo compartment. The second working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include one or more eutectic plates and a plate control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the eutectic plate and a second position restricting fluid flow through the one or more eutectic plates. The one or more eutectic plates may be in a heat transfer relationship with the cargo compartment.

[0018] In some configurations, the first and second working fluid flow paths may diverge from each other at a first location downstream of the first heat exchanger and may merge with each other at a second location that is upstream of the compressor.

[0019] In some configurations, the first working fluid flow path includes a first expansion device disposed between the evaporator control valve and the evaporator.

[0020] In some configurations, the second working fluid flow path includes a second expansion device disposed between the plate control valve and the one or more eutectic plates.

[0021] In some configurations, the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor.

[0022] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a third working fluid flow path that may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a fluid-injection heat exchanger and a fluid-injection control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fluid-injection heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fluid-injection heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path may be fluidly coupled with a fluid-injection inlet of the compressor and may provide working fluid to an intermediate-pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor.

[0023] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a control module in communication with the compressor, the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve. The control module may control at least one of the evaporator control valve and the plate control valve (i.e., the evaporator control valve and/or the plate control valve) based on a runtime of the compressor.

[0024] In some configurations, the control module moves the evaporator control valve to the second position during operation of the compressor in response to the cargo compartment reaching a predetermined temperature.

[0025] In some configurations, the control module maintains operation of the compressor and maintains the plate control valve in the first position after the cargo compartment reaches the predetermined temperature as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0026] In some configurations, the control module is in communication with the fluid- injection control valve and maintains the fluid-injection control valve in the first position after the cargo compartment reaches the predetermined temperature.

[0027] The present disclosure also provides a refrigeration system that may include a compressor, a first heat exchanger (e.g., a condenser or gas cooler), a first working fluid flow path, and a second working fluid flow path. The first heat exchanger receives working fluid discharged from the compressor. The first working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a second heat exchanger and a first control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through second heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the second heat exchanger. The second working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a third heat exchanger and a second control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the third heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the third heat exchanger.

[0028] In some configurations, the first and second working fluid flow paths diverging from each other at a first location downstream of the first heat exchanger and merging with each other at a second location that is upstream of the compressor.

[0029] In some configurations, the second and third heat exchangers are evaporators.

[0030] In some configurations, the second heat exchanger is in a heat transfer relationship with a first refrigerated space, and the third heat exchanger is in a heat transfer relationship with a second refrigerated space. The first refrigerated space has a first setpoint temperature, and the second refrigerated space has a second setpoint temperature that is lower than the first setpoint temperature.

[0031] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a control module in communication with the compressor and the first and second control valves. The control module may control at least one of the first and second control valves (i.e., the first control valve and/or the second control valve) based on a runtime of the compressor. [0032] In some configurations, the control module moves the first control valve to the second position during operation of the compressor in response to the first refrigerated space reaching a predetermined temperature.

[0033] In some configurations, the control module maintains operation of the compressor and maintains the second control valve in the first position after the first refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature even if the second refrigerated space is at a temperature lower than the second setpoint temperature, as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0034] In some configurations, the first refrigerated space is a non-frozen-cargo compartment of a vehicle, and the second refrigerated space is a frozen-cargo compartment of the vehicle.

[0035] In some configurations, the first and second refrigerated spaces are thermally isolated from each other.

[0036] In some configurations, the first working fluid flow path includes a first expansion device disposed between the first control valve and the second heat exchanger.

[0037] In some configurations, the second working fluid flow path includes a second expansion device disposed between the second control valve and the third heat exchanger. [0038] In some configurations, the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor.

[0039] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a third working fluid flow path that may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a fourth heat exchanger (e.g., a fluid-injection heat exchanger) and a third control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fourth heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fourth heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path may be fluidly coupled with a fluid-injection inlet of the compressor and may provide working fluid to an intermediate-pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor. [0040] The present disclosure also provides a vehicle that may include a non-frozen- cargo compartment, a frozen-cargo compartment, a compressor, a first heat exchanger (e.g., a condenser or gas cooler), a first working fluid flow path, and a second working fluid flow path. The first heat exchanger receives working fluid discharged from the compressor. The first working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a second heat exchanger and a first control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the second heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the second heat exchanger. The second heat exchanger may be in a heat transfer relationship with the non-frozen-cargo compartment. The second working fluid flow path may receive working fluid from the first heat exchanger and may include a third heat exchanger and a second control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the third heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the third heat exchanger. The third heat exchanger may be in a heat transfer relationship with the frozen-cargo compartment.

[0041] In some configurations, the first and second working fluid flow paths diverge from each other at a first location downstream of the first heat exchanger and merge with each other at a second location that is upstream of the compressor.

[0042] In some configurations, the second and third heat exchangers are evaporators.

[0043] In some configurations, non-frozen cargo compartment has a first setpoint temperature, and the frozen-cargo compartment has a second setpoint temperature that is lower than the first setpoint temperature.

[0044] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a control module in communication with the compressor and the first and second control valves. The control module may control at least one of the first and second control valves (i.e., the first control valve and/or the second control valve) based on a runtime of the compressor.

[0045] In some configurations, the control module moves the first control valve to the second position during operation of the compressor in response to the non-frozen- cargo compartment reaching a predetermined temperature.

[0046] In some configurations, the control module maintains operation of the compressor and maintains the second control valve in the first position after the non- frozen-cargo compartment reaches the predetermined temperature even if the frozen- cargo compartment is at a temperature lower than the second setpoint temperature, as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0047] In some configurations, the frozen-cargo compartment and the non-frozen- cargo compartment are thermally isolated from each other. [0048] In some configurations, the first working fluid flow path includes a first expansion device disposed between the first control valve and the second heat exchanger.

[0049] In some configurations, the second working fluid flow path includes a second expansion device disposed between the second control valve and the third heat exchanger.

[0050] In some configurations, the second location is fluidly coupled with a suction inlet of the compressor.

[0051] In some configurations, the refrigeration system includes a third working fluid flow path receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path including a fourth heat exchanger (e.g., a fluid-injection heat exchanger) and a third control valve that is movable between a first position allowing fluid flow through the fourth heat exchanger and a second position restricting fluid flow through the fourth heat exchanger. The third working fluid flow path may be fluidly coupled with a fluid- injection inlet of the compressor and may provide working fluid to an intermediate- pressure location within a compression mechanism of the compressor.

[0052] The present disclosure also provides a method that may include directing working fluid from a discharge port of a compressor to a first heat exchanger; directing a first portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through an evaporator; directing a second portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through one or more eutectic plates; discontinuing a flow of the working fluid through the evaporator in response to a refrigerated space reaching a predetermined temperature; and maintaining operation of the compressor and maintaining a flow of the working fluid through the one or more eutectic plates after the refrigerated space reaches the predetermined temperature and after discontinuation of the flow through the evaporator as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0053] In some configurations, discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the evaporator includes closing an evaporator control valve. [0054] In some configurations, the method includes directing the first portion of the working fluid through a first expansion device before the working fluid flows through the evaporator; and directing the second portion of the working fluid through a second expansion device before the working fluid flows through the one or more eutectic plates.

[0055] In some configurations, the method includes discontinuing operation of the compressor and discontinuing the flow of working fluid through the one or more eutectic plates in response to the compressor runtime reaching the predetermined time period.

[0056] In some configurations, discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the one or more eutectic plates includes closing a plate control valve.

[0057] The present disclosure also provides a method that may include directing working fluid from a discharge port of a compressor to a first heat exchanger; directing a first portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through a first evaporator corresponding to a first cargo compartment of a vehicle having a first setpoint temperature; directing a second portion of the working fluid from the first heat exchanger through a second evaporator corresponding to a second cargo compartment of a vehicle having a second setpoint temperature, the second setpoint temperature is lower than the first setpoint temperature; discontinuing a flow of the working fluid through the first evaporator in response to the first cargo compartment reaching the first setpoint temperature; and maintaining operation of the compressor and maintaining a flow of the working fluid through the second evaporator after the first cargo compartment reaches the first setpoint temperature and after discontinuation of the flow through the first evaporator even if the second cargo compartment is at a temperature lower than the second setpoint temperature, as long as the compressor runtime is less than a predetermined time period.

[0058] In some configurations, discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the first evaporator includes closing a first evaporator control valve.

[0059] In some configurations, the method includes directing the first portion of the working fluid through a first expansion device before the working fluid flows through the first evaporator; and directing the second portion of the working fluid through a second expansion device before the working fluid flows through the second evaporator. [0060] In some configurations, the method includes discontinuing operation of the compressor and discontinuing the flow of working fluid through the second evaporator in response to the compressor runtime reaching the predetermined time period.

[0061] In some configurations, discontinuing the flow of the working fluid through the second evaporator includes closing a second evaporator control valve.

[0062] Further areas of applicability of the present disclosure will become apparent from the detailed description, the claims and the drawings. The detailed description and specific examples are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0063] The present disclosure will become more fully understood from the detailed description and the accompanying drawings.

[0064] FIGs. 1 A and 1 B are functional block diagrams of example vehicle systems.

[0065] FIGs. 2A and 2B are schematics including a battery pack for a refrigeration system of a vehicle and example charging systems for charging the battery pack.

[0066] FIG. 3 is a functional block diagram of an example implementation of a refrigeration system of a vehicle including a eutectic plate and an evaporator system.

[0067] FIG. 4A includes a functional block diagram of a portion of an example refrigeration system including multiple eutectic plates. [0068] FIG. 4B includes a functional block diagram of a portion of an example refrigeration system including multiple evaporator systems.

[0069] FIG. 5 includes a functional block diagram of an example system including a control module, sensors of the vehicle, and actuators of the vehicle.

[0070] FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating an example method of controlling a refrigeration system.

[0071] FIG. 7 includes a functional block diagram of a portion of an example refrigeration system including multiple evaporator systems.

[0072] FIG. 8 is a flowchart illustrating another example method of controlling a refrigeration system. [0073] In the drawings, reference numbers may be reused to identify similar and/or identical elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0074] The present disclosure provides refrigeration systems and methods for operating the refrigeration systems. As will be described in more detail below, the refrigeration systems may include one or more eutectic plates and/or one or more evaporators that may be used to cool one or more refrigerated spaces (e.g., refrigerated cargo compartments of a vehicle). In delivery vehicles, doors to such refrigerated cargo compartments may be frequently opened and closed at delivery stops. If the doors have only been open for a brief period, only a relatively small amount of system capacity may be needed to pull the air temperature within the compartment back to a setpoint temperature. The present disclosure provides an method of operating the refrigeration system that efficiency and effectively allocates system capacity in a manner that avoids over cooling the refrigerated space and allows a compressor of the refrigeration system to run for at least a predetermined minimum runtime even if the refrigerated space is cooled to its setpoint temperature before the compressor has run for the predetermined minimum runtime. In this manner, short cycling of the compressor (and potential damage to the compressor and/or excessive wear associated with short cycling) can be avoided. [0075] FIGs. 1 A and 1 B are functional block diagrams of example systems of a vehicle 100. The vehicle 100 includes an internal combustion engine 104 that combusts air and fuel within cylinders to generate propulsion torque for the vehicle 100. The engine 104 may combust, for example, gasoline, diesel fuel, natural gas, and/or one or more other types of fuel. The engine 104 outputs torque to a drivetrain 108. The drivetrain 108 transfers torque to two or more wheels of the vehicle. While the example of a wheeled vehicle is provided, the present application is not limited to vehicles having wheels and is also applicable to water and/or air based vehicles.

[0076] An electrical source 1 12 is driven by the engine 104 and converts mechanical energy of the engine 104 into electrical energy to charge a battery 1 16. The electrical source 1 12 may include an alternator, a generator, and/or another type of device that converts mechanical energy of the engine 104 into electrical energy. While the example of a single electrical source is provided, multiple or zero electrical sources driven by the engine 104 may be included. The electrical source 1 12 may be, for example, a 12 V alternator (e.g., in the example of FIG. 1 A) and/or a 48 V alternator (e.g., in the example of FIG. 1 B).

[0077] The vehicle 100 also includes a battery pack 120. For example only, the battery pack 120 may be a 48 Volt (V) direct current (DC) battery pack, although another suitable battery pack may be used. The battery pack 120 may include two or more individual batteries connected together or may include one battery. For example, in the case of a 48 V battery pack, the battery pack 120 may include four 12 V batteries connected in series. The batteries may be connected such that a lower voltage, such as 12 V, 24 V, and/or 36 V can also be obtained from one, two, or three of the batteries.

[0078] FIGs. 2A and 2B are schematics including examples of the battery pack 120 for a refrigeration system of a vehicle and example charging systems. In the examples of FIGs. 2A and 2B, the battery pack 120 includes four individual 12 V batteries connected in series. The batteries are arranged in two banks (A and B), each bank having two individual 12 V batteries (batteries 1 and 2) connected in series, to provide two 24 V reference potentials.

[0079] Referring back to FIGs. 1 A and 1 B, the battery pack 120 supplies power to a refrigeration system 124. The refrigeration system 124 cools a refrigerated space 128. The refrigerated space 128 may be one refrigerated space that is cooled based on a setpoint temperature. Alternatively, the refrigerated space 128 may be divided (e.g., physically) into multiple refrigerated spaces that may be cooled based on respective setpoint temperatures. For example, a first portion of the refrigerated space 128 may be cooled based on a first setpoint temperature (e.g., for refrigerated items) and a second portion of the refrigerated space 128 may be cooled based on a second setpoint temperature (e.g., for frozen items) that is less than the first setpoint temperature. One example of such a vehicle includes a truck for transporting perishable food items between locations. The refrigerated space(s) may be cooled with a closed loop control system based on temperature(s) within the refrigerated space(s) and the set point temperature(s), respectively. [0080] The vehicle 100 includes a door 132 that provides access to the refrigerated space 128, for example, for loading and unloading of contents of the refrigerated space 128. While the example of one door is provided, the vehicle 100 may include two or more doors. Some vehicles include fourteen (14) or more doors. [0081] An unlock actuator 136 and a lock actuator 140 may unlock and lock the door 132, respectively. The unlock and lock actuators 136 and 140 may, for example, slide a pin out of and into a receiver to lock and unlock the door 132, respectively. An unlock actuator and a lock actuator may be provided with each door to the refrigerated space in various implementations.

[0082] A control module (discussed further below) of the refrigeration system 124 may actuate the unlock actuator 136 to unlock the door 132 (and the other doors to the refrigerated space 128) in response to user input to unlock doors of a passenger cabin of the vehicle 100. The control module may actuate the lock actuator 140 to lock the door 132 (and the other doors to the refrigerated space 128) in response to user input to lock the doors of the passenger cabin of the vehicle 100. User input to lock and unlock the doors of the passenger cabin may be provided, for example, via a wireless key fob, a mobile device (e.g., cell phone, tablet, or other handheld device), a remote computer system, and/or one or more lock/unlock switches accessible from within the passenger cabin of the vehicle 100.

[0083] The battery pack 120 can be charged using multiple different power sources. For example, in the example of FIG. 1 A, the vehicle 100 includes a voltage converter 150 that converts power output by the electrical source 1 12 (e.g., 12 V) into power for charging the battery pack 120. The voltage converter 150 may convert the DC output of the electrical source 1 12 into, for example, 240 V alternating current (AC). Since the electrical source 1 12 is driven by rotation of the engine 104, the electrical source 1 12 may be used to charge the battery pack 120 when the engine 104 is running.

[0084] While the electrical source 1 12 is shown as providing power for charging both the battery 1 16 and the battery pack 120, a second electrical source may be used to convert power of the engine 104 into electrical power for the battery pack 120. In that case, the electrical source 1 12 may be used to charge the battery 1 16. In various implementations, the voltage converter 150 and a switch 162 may be omitted, and the engine 104 may not be used to charge the battery pack 120. The battery pack 120 may instead be charged via one or more other power sources, such as those discussed further below.

[0085] As another example, in the example of FIG. 1 B, the electrical source 1 12 may charge the battery pack 120. In this example, a voltage converter 152 may convert the power output by the electrical source 1 12 (e.g., 48 V) into power for charging the battery 1 16. The voltage converter 152 may convert the DC output of the electrical source 1 12 into, for example, 12 V for the battery 1 16. Alternatively, however, another electrical source may be used to charge the battery 1 16. In various implementations, an (engine driven) electrical source for charging the battery pack 120 may be omitted. [0086] The battery pack 120 can be charged using power from a utility received via a receptacle 154. The receptacle 154 is configured to receive AC or DC power. For example, the receptacle 154 may receive AC power from a utility via a power cord (e.g., an extension cord) connected between the receptacle 154 and a wall outlet or charger of a building. The receptacle 154 may be, for example, a single phase 1 10/120 or 208/240 V AC receptacle or a 3-phase 208/240 V AC receptacle. In various implementations, the vehicle 100 may include both a 1 10/120 V AC receptacle and a 208/240 V AC receptacle. While the example of the receptacle 154 receiving AC power is provided, the receptacle 154 may alternatively receive DC power from via a power cord. In various implementations, the vehicle 100 may include one or more AC receptacles and/or one or more DC receptacles. Power received from a utility via the receptacle 154 will be referred to as shore power.

[0087] The vehicle 100 also includes one or more battery chargers 158. The battery chargers 158 charge the batteries of the battery pack 120 using shore power received via the receptacle 154 (or power output by the voltage converter 150 in the examples of FIGs. 1 A and 2A). When the receptacle 154 is connected to shore power, the switch 162 opens (or is opened) to isolate power from the electrical source 1 12. While the switch 162 is shown illustratively as one switch, the switch 162 may include one, two, or more than two switching devices (e.g., normally closed or normally open relays). In the examples of FIGs. 2A and 2B, the switch 162 is illustrated as including two relays, one relay for each power line.

[0088] When the receptacle 154 is connected to shore power and the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is OFF, a switch 166 closes (or is closed) to relay power from the receptacle 154 to the battery chargers 158, and the battery chargers 158 charge the batteries using shore power. While the switch 166 is also shown illustratively as one switch, the switch 166 may include one, two, or more than two switching devices (e.g., normally closed or normally open relays). In the example of FIGs. 2A and 2B, the switch 166 is illustrated as including two relays, one relay for each power line. [0089] When the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is ON, the switch 166 isolates the receptacle 154 from the battery chargers 1 58. In the examples of FIGs. 1 A and 2A, when the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is ON (such that the engine 104 is running and the voltage converter 150 is outputting power to charge the battery pack 120), the switch 162 connects the voltage converter 150 to the battery chargers 158. The battery chargers 158 can then charge the batteries of the battery pack 120 using power output by the voltage converter 150. In the examples of FIGs. 1 B and 2B, when the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is ON (such that the engine 104 is running and the electrical source 1 12 is outputting power), the switch 162 connects the electrical source 1 12 to the battery pack 120 so the electrical source 1 12 charges the battery pack 120.

[0090] One battery charger may be provided for each battery of the battery pack 120. Two or more battery chargers may be connected in series and/or parallel in various implementations. Each battery charger may convert input power (e.g., shore power or power output by the voltage converter 150) into, for example, 24 V, 40 amp (A) DC power for charging. For example only, the battery chargers 158 may include one model SEC-2440 charger, manufactured by Samlex America Inc., of Burnaby, BC, Canada. In the examples of FIGs. 2A and 2B, two groups of two 24 V, 40 A battery chargers are connected to provide a 48 V, 80 A output for battery charging. While the example of battery chargers having a 24 V, 40 A output is provided, battery chargers having another output may be used, such as one 12 V charger connected to each battery. The battery chargers 158 may also monitor the individual batteries and control application of power to the respective batteries to prevent overcharging.

[0091] The vehicle 100 may optionally include a solar panel 172. The solar panel 172 converts solar energy into electrical energy. While the example of one solar panel is provided, multiple solar panels may be used. A voltage converter 176 converts power output by the solar panel 172 and charges the battery pack 120.

[0092] As discussed further below, the refrigeration system 124 includes one or more eutectic plates. The eutectic plate(s) are cooled when the vehicle 100 is connected to shore power. When the vehicle 100 is later disconnected from shore power (e.g., for delivery of contents of the refrigerated space 128), the eutectic plate(s) can be used to cool the refrigerated space 128 via power from the battery pack 120. The eutectic plate(s) can also be cooled by the refrigeration system 124 when the vehicle 100 is disconnected from shore power. [0093] By charging the battery pack 120 when the vehicle 100 is connected to shore power (and/or via the solar panel 172), use of the engine 104 to generate power to operate the refrigeration system 124 when the vehicle 100 is disconnected from shore power may be minimized or eliminated. This may decrease fuel consumption (and increase fuel efficiency) of the engine 104 and the vehicle 100.

[0094] A defrost device 180 may be used to defrost the eutectic plate(s) when the vehicle 100 is connected to shore power. One example of the defrost device 180 includes a resistive heater that warms air circulated over, around, and/or through the eutectic plate(s), such as by one or more fans. Another example of the defrost device 180 includes a resistive heater that warms a fluid (e.g., a glycol solution) that is circulated over, around, and/or through the eutectic plate(s), such as by one or more pumps. In this way, heat from the warm air or warm fluid defrosts the eutectic plate(s).

[0095] FIG. 3 includes a functional block diagram of an example implementation of the refrigeration system 124. In the example of FIG. 3, dotted lines indicate refrigerant flow, while solid lines indicate electrical connections. In various implementations, some, all, or none of the components of the refrigeration system 124 may be located within the refrigerated space 128.

[0096] A compressor 204 receives refrigerant vapor from an accumulator 208 via a suction line of the compressor 204. The accumulator 208 collects liquid refrigerant to minimize liquid refrigerant flow to the compressor 204. The compressor 204 compresses the refrigerant and provides pressurized refrigerant in vapor form to a condenser heat exchanger (HEX) 212. The compressor 204 includes an electric motor 216 that drives a pump to compress the refrigerant. For example only, the compressor 204 may include a scroll compressor, a reciprocating compressor, or another type of refrigerant compressor. The electric motor 216 may include, for example, an induction motor, a permanent magnet motor (brushed or brushless), or another suitable type of electric motor. In various implementations, the electric motor 216 may be a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor, for example, due to BPM motors being more efficient than other types of electric motors.

[0097] All or a portion of the pressurized refrigerant is converted into liquid form within the condenser HEX 212. The condenser HEX 212 transfers heat away from the refrigerant, thereby cooling the refrigerant. When the refrigerant vapor is cooled to a temperature that is less than a saturation temperature of the refrigerant, the refrigerant transitions into liquid (or liquefied) form. One or more condenser fans 220 may be implemented to increase airflow over, around, and/or through the condenser HEX 212 and increase the rate of heat transfer away from the refrigerant.

[0098] Refrigerant from the condenser HEX 212 is delivered to a receiver 224. The receiver 224 may be implemented to store excess refrigerant. In various implementations, the receiver 224 may be omitted. A filter drier 228 may be implemented to remove moister and debris from the refrigerant. In various implementations, the filter drier 228 may be omitted.

[0099] When an enhanced vapor injection (EVI) valve 232 is open, a portion of the refrigerant may be expanded to vapor form by an expansion valve 236 and provided to an EVI HEX 240. The EVI valve 232 may be, for example, a solenoid valve or another suitable type of valve.

[0100] The EVI HEX 240 may be a counter flow plate HEX and may superheat the vapor refrigerant from the EVI valve 232. Vapor refrigerant from the EVI HEX 240 may be provided to the compressor 204, such as at a midpoint (i.e., at an intermediate- pressure location) within a compression chamber (e.g., an intermediate-pressure compression pocket of a scroll compressor) of the compressor 204. EVI may be performed, for example, to increase capacity and increase efficiency of the refrigeration system 124. The EVI valve 232 may include a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) or an electronic expansion valve (EXV).

[0101] The refrigerant not flowing through the EVI valve 232 is circulated to a plate control valve 244 and an evaporator control valve 248. The plate control valve 244 may be, for example, a solenoid valve or another suitable type of valve. The evaporator control valve 248 may be, for example, a solenoid valve or another suitable type of valve.

[0102] Before flowing to the plate control valve 244 and the evaporator control valve 248, the refrigerant may flow through a drive HEX 252. The drive HEX 252 draws heat away from a drive 256 and transfers heat to refrigerant flowing through the drive HEX 252. While the example of the drive HEX 252 being liquid (refrigerant) cooled is provided, the drive 256 may additionally or alternatively be air cooled. Air cooling may be active (e.g., by a fan) or passive (e.g., by conduction and convection). [0103] The drive 256 controls application of power to the motor 216 from the battery pack 120. For example, the drive 256 may control application of power to the motor 216 based on a speed command from a control module 260. Based on the speed command, the drive 256 may generate three-phase AC power (e.g., 208/240 V AC) and apply the three-phase AC power to the motor 216. The drive 256 may set one or more characteristics of the three-phase AC power based on the speed command, such as frequency, voltage, and/or current. For example only, the drive 256 may be a variable frequency drive (VFD). In various implementations, one or more electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters may be implemented between the battery pack 120 and the drive 256.

[0104] The control module 260 may set the speed command to a plurality of different possible speeds for variable speed operation of the motor 216 and the compressor 204. The control module 260 and the drive 256 may communicate, for example, using RS485 Modbus or another suitable type of communication including, but not limited to, controller area network (CAN) bus or analog signaling (e.g., 0-10V signals).

[0105] A high pressure cut off (HPCO) 262 may be implemented to disconnect the drive 256 from power and disable the motor 216 when the pressure of refrigerant output by the compressor 204 exceeds a predetermined pressure. The control module 260 may also control operation of the compressor 204 based on a comparison of the pressure of refrigerant output by the compressor 204. For example, the control module 260 may shut down or reduce the speed of the compressor 204 when the pressure of refrigerant output by the compressor is less than a second predetermined pressure that is less than or equal to the predetermined pressure used by the HPCO 262.

[0106] When the plate control valve 244 is open, refrigerant may be expanded to vapor form by an expansion valve 264 and provided to a eutectic plate 268. The vapor refrigerant cools the eutectic plate 268 and a solution within the eutectic plate 268. For example only, the solution may be a solution including one or more salts. The solution may have a freezing point temperature of, for example, approximately 12 degrees Fahrenheit or another suitable freezing point temperature. The solution of the eutectic plate 268 may be selected, for example, based on the items typically cooled within the refrigerated space 128. The expansion valve 264 may include a TXV or may be an EXV. [0107] The eutectic plate 268 is located within the refrigerated space 128 and cools the refrigerated space 128. By freezing the solution within the eutectic plate 268, the eutectic plate 268 can be used to cool the refrigerated space for a period of time after the freezing, such as while the vehicle 100 is transporting items within the refrigerated space 128.

[0108] When the evaporator control valve 248 is open, refrigerant may be expanded to vapor form by an expansion valve 272 and provided to an evaporator HEX 276. The expansion valve 272 may include a TXV or may be an EXV. Like the eutectic plate 268, the evaporator HEX 276 cools the refrigerated space 128. More specifically, the vapor refrigerant within the evaporator HEX 276 transfers heat away (i.e., absorbs heat) from air within the refrigerated space 128.

[0109] The example refrigeration system 124 shown in FIG. 3 includes a first working fluid flow path 205 and a second working fluid flow path 207 that may receive working fluid from the condenser HEX 212 (e.g., via the drive HEX 252). The first working fluid flow path 205 may include the evaporator control valve 248, the expansion valve 272, and the evaporator HEX 276. The second working fluid flow path 207 may include the plate control valve 244, the expansion valve 264, and the eutectic plate 268. The first and second working fluid flow paths 205, 207 may diverge from each other at a location downstream of the condenser HEX 212 (e.g., downstream of the drive HEX 252). The first and second working fluid flow paths 205, 207 may merge with each other at a location upstream of the suction-pressure inlet of the compressor 204 (e.g., upstream of the accumulator 208). The control module 260 may move the evaporator control valve 248 between open and closed positions to allow and prevent the flow of working fluid through the first working fluid flow path 205. The control module 260 may move the plate control valve 244 between open and closed positions to allow and prevent the flow of working fluid through the second working fluid flow path 207.

[0110] One or more evaporator fans 280 may draw air from the refrigerated space 128. The evaporator fan(s) 280 may increase airflow over, around, and/or through the evaporator HEX 276 and the eutectic plate 268 to increase the rate of heat transfer away from (i.e., cooling of) the air within the refrigerated space 128. A damper door 284 may be implemented to allow or block airflow from the evaporator fan(s) 280 to the eutectic plate 268. For example, when the damper door 284 is open, the evaporator fan(s) 280 may circulate air past the evaporator HEX 276 and the eutectic plate 268. When the damper door 284 is closed, the damper door 284 may block airflow from the evaporator fan(s) 280 to the eutectic plate 268, and the evaporator fan(s) 280 may circulate air over, around, and/or through the evaporator HEX 276. While the example of the damper door 284 is provided, another suitable actuator may be used to allow/prevent airflow from the evaporator fan(s) 280 to the eutectic plate 268. Alternatively, one or more fans may be provided with the evaporator HEX 276, and one or more fans may be provided with the eutectic plate 268. Refrigerant flowing out of the eutectic plate 268 and the evaporator HEX 276 may flow back to the accumulator 208. Air cooled by the evaporator HEX 276 and the eutectic plate 268 flows to the refrigerated space to cool the refrigerated space 128. While separate cooled air paths are illustrated in the example of FIG. 3, air flowing out of the eutectic plate 268 may be combined with air flowing out of the evaporator HEX 276 before the cooled air is output to cool the refrigerated space 128. Curved lines in FIG. 3 are illustrative of air flow.

[0111] The refrigeration system 124 may also include a compressor pressure regulator (CPR) valve 288 that regulates pressure of refrigerant input to the compressor 204 via the suction line. For example, the CPR valve 288 may be closed to limit pressure into the compressor 204 during startup of the compressor 204. The CPR valve 288 may be an electronically controlled valve (e.g., a stepper motor or solenoid valve), a mechanical valve, or another suitable type of valve. In various implementations, the CPR valve 288 may be omitted.

[0112] The example of one eutectic plate and one evaporator HEX is provided in FIG. 3. However, the refrigeration system 124 may include more than one eutectic plate, such as two, three, four, five, six, or more eutectic plates. One expansion valve may be provided for each eutectic plate. FIG. 4A includes a functional block diagram of a portion of an example refrigeration system including multiple eutectic plates.

[0113] Additionally or alternatively to having one or multiple eutectic plates, the refrigeration system 124 may include more than one evaporator HEX, such as two, three, four, five, six, or more evaporator HEXs. For example, different evaporator HEXs may be provided for different sections of the refrigerated space 128. One expansion valve and one or more evaporator fans may be provided for each evaporator HEX. FIG. 4B includes a functional block diagram of a portion of an example refrigeration system including three evaporator HEXes. [0114] Some vehicles may include two or more refrigerated spaces, but only include an evaporator (or multiple) and a eutectic plate (or multiple) in one of the refrigerated spaces. A damper door or another suitable actuator may be provided to open and close the one refrigerated space having the evaporator and eutectic plate to and from one or more other refrigerated spaces not having an evaporator or a eutectic plate (i.e., not having any evaporators and not having any eutectic plates). The control module 260 may control opening and closing of such a damper door or actuator, for example, based on maintaining a temperature within the other refrigerated space based on a setpoint for that other refrigerated space. [0115] FIG. 5 includes a functional block diagram of an example system including the control module 260, various sensors of the vehicle 100, and various actuators of the vehicle 100. The control module 260 receives various measured parameters and indications from sensors of the vehicle 100. The control module 260 controls actuators of the vehicle 100. As an example, the control module 260 may be an iPRO series control module (e.g., 100 series, 200 series, 4 DIN series, 10 DIN series) by Dixell S.r.l., located in Pieve d'Alpago (BL) Italy. One example is an iPRO IPG1 15D control module, however, the control module 260 may be another suitable type of control module.

[0116] An ignition sensor 304 indicates whether an ignition system of the vehicle 100 is ON or OFF. A driver may turn the ignition system of the vehicle 100 ON and start the engine 104, for example, by actuating an ignition key, button, or switch. The ignition system being ON may indicate that that a refrigeration system (discussed further below) is being or can be powered via a charging system powered by the engine 104. A driver may turn the ignition system of the vehicle 100 OFF and shut down the engine 104, for example, by actuating the ignition key, button, or switch.

[0117] A shore power sensor 308 indicates whether the vehicle 100 is receiving shore power via the receptacle 154.

[0118] A discharge pressure sensor 312 measures a pressure of refrigerant output by the compressor 204 (e.g., in the discharge line). The pressure of refrigerant output by the compressor 204 can be referred to as discharge pressure.

[0119] A liquid line temperature sensor 314 measures a temperature of liquid refrigerant output from the condenser HEX 212 (e.g., in the liquid line). The temperature of refrigerant output by the condenser HEX 212 can be referred to as liquid line temperature. The control module 260 may determine a subcooling value based on the liquid line temperature. The control module may determine a refrigerant charge level based on the subcooling value. While one example location of the liquid line temperature sensor 314 is shown, the liquid line temperature sensor 314 may be located at another location where liquid refrigerant is present in the refrigerant path from the condenser HEX 212 to the evaporator HEX 276 (and the eutectic plate 324).

[0120] A suction pressure sensor 316 measures a pressure of refrigerant input to the compressor 204 (e.g., in the suction line). The pressure of refrigerant input to the compressor 204 can be referred to as suction pressure.

[0121] A suction temperature sensor 318 measures a temperature of refrigerant input to the compressor 204 (e.g., in the suction line). The temperature of refrigerant input to the compressor 204 can be referred to as suction temperature. The control module 260 may determine a superheat value at the compressor 204. The control module 260 may detect and/or predict the presence of a liquid floodback condition based on the superheat value.

[0122] A return air temperature sensor 320 measures a temperature of air input to the evaporator HEX 276. The temperature of air input to the evaporator HEX 276 can be referred to as return air temperature (RAT). One return air temperature sensor may be provided for each set of one or more evaporator HEX and one or more eutectic plates.

[0123] A plate temperature sensor 324 measures a temperature of the eutectic plate 268. The temperature of the eutectic plate 268 can be referred to as a plate temperature.

[0124] A box temperature sensor 328 measures a temperature within the refrigerated space 128. The temperature within the refrigerated space 128 can be referred to as a box temperature. One or more box temperature sensors may be provided and measure a box temperature within each different portion of the refrigerated space 128.

[0125] An ambient temperature sensor 332 measures a temperature of ambient air at the location of the vehicle 100. This temperature can be referred to as ambient air temperature. In various implementations, the control module 260 may receive the ambient air temperature from an engine control module (ECM) that controls actuators of the engine 104. [0126] A door position sensor 336 indicates whether the door 132 is closed or open. An indication that the door 132 is open may mean that the door 132 is at least partially open (i.e., not closed), while an indication that the door 132 is closed may mean that the door 132 is fully closed. One or more door position sensors may be provided for each door to the refrigerated space 128.

[0127] A cabin door sensor 340 indicates whether the doors of the passenger cabin have been commanded to be locked or unlocked. A driver may command unlocking and locking of the doors of the passenger cabin, for example, via a wireless key fob. As discussed above, the control module 260 may actuate the unlock actuator 136 to unlock the door(s) to the refrigerated space 128 when the driver commands unlocking of the doors passenger cabin. The control module 260 may actuate the lock actuator 140 to lock the door(s) to the refrigerated space 128 when the driver commands locking of the doors of the passenger cabin.

[0128] A battery sensor 344 measures a characteristic of a battery of the battery pack 120, such as voltage, current, and/or temperature. In various implementations, a voltage sensor, a current sensor, and/or a temperature sensor may be provided with each battery of the battery pack 120.

[0129] A discharge line temperature sensor 352 measures a temperature of refrigerant output by the compressor 204 (e.g., in the discharge line). The temperature of refrigerant output by the compressor 204 can be referred to as discharge line temperature (DLT). In various implementations, the discharge line temperature sensor 352 may provide the DLT to the drive 256, and the drive 256 may communicate the DLT to the control module 260.

[0130] Sensors described herein may be analog sensors or digital sensors. In the case of an analog sensor, the analog signal generated by the sensor may be sampled and digitized (e.g., by the control module 260, the drive 256, or another control module) to generate digital values, respectively, corresponding to the measurements of the sensor. In various implementations, the vehicle 100 may include a combination of analog sensors and digital sensors. For example, the ignition sensor 304, the shore power sensor 308, the door position sensor 336 may be digital sensors. The discharge pressure sensor 312, the suction pressure sensor 316, the return air temperature sensor 320, the plate temperature sensor 324, the box temperature sensor 328, the ambient temperature sensor 332, the battery sensor 344, and the discharge line temperature sensor 352 may be analog sensors.

[0131] As discussed further below, the control module 260 controls actuators of the refrigeration system 124 based on various measured parameters, indications, setpoints, and other parameters.

[0132] For example, the control module 260 may control the motor 216 of the compressor 204 via the drive 256. The control module 260 may control the condenser fan(s) 220. The condenser fan(s) 220 may be fixed speed, and the control module 260 may control the condenser fan(s) 220 to be either ON or OFF. Alternatively, the condenser fan(s) 220 may be variable speed, and the control module 260 may determine a speed setpoint for the condenser fan(s) 220 and control the condenser fan(s) 220 based on the speed setpoint, for example, by applying a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal to the condenser fan(s) 220.

[0133] The control module 260 may also control the EVI valve 232. For example, the control module 260 may control the EVI valve 232 to be open to enable EVI or closed to disable EVI. In the example of the expansion valve 236 being an EXV, the control module 260 may control opening of the expansion valve 236.

[0134] The control module 260 may also control the plate control valve 244. For example, the control module 260 may control the plate control valve 244 to be open to enable refrigerant flow through the eutectic plate 268 or closed to disable refrigerant flow through the eutectic plate 268. In the example of the expansion valve 264 being an EXV, the control module 260 may control opening of the expansion valve 264.

[0135] The control module 260 may also control the evaporator control valve 248. For example, the control module 260 may control the evaporator control valve 248 to be open to enable refrigerant flow through the evaporator HEX 276 or closed to disable refrigerant flow through the evaporator HEX 276. In the example of the expansion valve 272 being an EXV, the control module 260 may control opening of the expansion valve 272.

[0136] The control module 260 may receive a signal that indicates whether the HPCO 262 has tripped (open circuited). The control module 260 may take one or more remedial actions when the HPCO 262 has tripped, such as closing one, more than one, or all of the above mentioned valves and/or turning OFF one, more than one, or all of the above mentioned fans. The control module 260 may generate an output signal indicating that the HPCO 262 has tripped when the discharge pressure of the compressor 204 is greater than a predetermined pressure. The control module 260 may enable operation of the refrigeration system 124 after the HPCO 262 closes in response to the discharge pressure falling below than the predetermined pressure. In various implementations, the control module 260 may also require that one or more operating conditions be satisfied before enabling operation of the refrigeration system 124 after the HPCO 262 closes.

[0137] The control module may control the evaporator fan(s) 280. The evaporator fan(s) 280 may be fixed speed, and the control module 260 may control the evaporator fan(s) 280 to be either ON or OFF. Alternatively, the evaporator fan(s) 280 may be variable speed, and the control module 260 may determine a speed setpoint for the evaporator fan(s) 280 and control the evaporator fan(s) 280 based on the speed setpoint, for example, by applying a PWM signal to the evaporator fan(s) 280. [0138] In the case of the CPR valve 288 being an electronic CPR valve, the control module 260 may also control the CPR valve 288. For example, the control module 260 may actuate the CPR valve 288 to limit the suction pressure during startup and later open the CPR valve 288.

[0139] The control module 260 may also control operation of the defrost device 180 by activating or deactivating the defrost device 180.

[0140] The control module 260 may also control the switches 162 and 166. For example, the control module 260 may switch the switch 162 from the closed state to the open state and switch the switch 166 from the open state to the closed state when the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is OFF and shore power is connected to the vehicle 100 via the receptacle 154. The control module 260 may switch the switch 162 from the open state to the closed state and switch the switch 166 from the closed state to the open state when the ignition system of the vehicle 100 is ON. This may be the case regardless of whether shore power is or is not connected to the vehicle 100. The switches 162 and 166 may be active switches, for example, so the control module 260 can ensure that both switches 162 and 166 are not both in the closed state at the same time. [0141] In various implementations, the switches 162 and 166 may be passive devices configured to have opposite open and closed states based on whether shore power is connected to the vehicle 100. For example, the switch 166 may transition to the closed state and the switch 162 may transition to the open state when shore power is connected to the vehicle 100. The switch 166 may transition to the open state and the switch 162 may transition to the closed state when shore power is not connected to the vehicle 100.

[0142] Referring now to FIG. 6, a method 400 of operating the refrigeration system 124 shown in FIG. 3 will be described. The method 400 starts at block 410, where the refrigeration system 124 is initially in a standby condition. At step 420, if the refrigerated space 128 is above its setpoint temperature or if suction pressure is above a setpoint level, the control module 260 will read these conditions (e.g., from temperature and/or pressure sensors) and may, at step 430, initiate a predetermined delay period of about ten seconds, for example. Thereafter, at step 440, the control module 260 may turn on the compressor 204, open the plate control valve 244, and open the evaporator control valve 248.

[0143] With the compressor 204 on and the plate control valve 244 and evaporator control valve 248 in open positions, working fluid (e.g., refrigerant) can flow through the expansion valves 264, 272 and through the eutectic plate 268 and evaporator HEX 276 before returning to the compressor 204. Working fluid flowing through the eutectic plate 268 and evaporator HEX 276 may cool the air that is blown into the refrigerated space 128 by the fan(s) 280, thereby cooling the refrigerated space 128. The refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate in this condition (i.e., with the compressor 204 on the and the control valves 244, 248 in the open positions) until the control module 260 determines, at step 450, that the refrigerated space 128 is at or below the setpoint temperature and/or the suction pressure is at or below the setpoint level. If, at step 450, the refrigerated space 128 is not at or below the setpoint temperature, the refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate with the compressor on and with the plate control valve 244 and the evaporator control valve 248 in the open positions. [0144] When the refrigerated space 128 reaches or drops below the setpoint temperature, the control module 260 may determine, at step 460, whether the compressor runtime (i.e., the amount of time that the compressor 204 has been running since being turned on at step 440) is greater than or equal to a predetermined minimum runtime. The predetermined minimum runtime can be approximately three minutes, for example, or any other period of time.

[0145] If, at step 460, the compressor 204 has not been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime, the control module 260 may (at step 480) close the evaporator control valve 248. Thereafter, the refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate with the compressor 204 on, the plate control valve 244 in the open position, and the evaporator control valve 248 in the closed position, until the control module 260 determines that the compressor 204 has been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime. [0146] When the control module 260 determines, at step 460, that the compressor 204 has been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime, the control module 260 may shutdown the compressor 204. Thereafter, the method 400 may be repeated if and when the refrigerated space 128 rises above the setpoint temperature.

[0147] While the description above states that the control module 260 opens the plate control valve 244 at step 440, in some configurations and/or under certain circumstances, the control module 260 may close the plate control valve 244 at step 440 and may move the plate control valve 244 to the open position at step 480.

[0148] By closing the evaporator control valve 248 and continuing to run the compressor 204 for at least the predetermined minimum runtime, the method 400 prevents the compressor 204 from being operated for short cycle times (which can damage and/or excessively wear the compressor 204), while also preventing the refrigerated space 128 from being overcooled. The method 400 also avoids wasting work output of the compressor 204 by further cooling the eutectic plate 268.

[0149] It will be appreciated that the control module 260 could vary the speed of a variable-speed compressor, pulse-width-modulate the plate control valve 244 and/or the evaporator control valve 248, and/or control the amount of vapor-injection into the compressor 204 to further regulate the amount of system capacity that is directed to the eutectic plate 268 and/or the evaporator HEX 276.

[0150] Referring now to FIGs. 7 and 8, a method 600 is provided for operating a configuration of the refrigeration system 124, a portion of which is shown in FIG. 7. It will be appreciated that the portions of the refrigeration system 124 that are not shown in FIG. 7 may be structurally and functionally similar or identical to that of the refrigeration system 124 shown in FIG. 3.

[0151] As shown in FIG. 7, the refrigeration system 124 may include a first evaporator HEX 275 and a second evaporator HEX 277. The first evaporator HEX 275 may be in a heat transfer relationship with a first refrigerated space 123 of the vehicle 100. The second evaporator HEX 277 may be in a heat transfer relationship with a second refrigerated space 125 of the vehicle 100. That is, the first and second evaporator HEXs 275, 277 may absorb heat from air from the first and second refrigerated spaces 123, 125, respectively, as the fans 279, 281 force the air across the first and second evaporator HEXs 275, 277. In some configurations, the first refrigerated space 123 may be a non-frozen or fresh cargo compartment, and the second refrigerated space 125 may be a frozen cargo compartment. The first and second refrigerated spaces 123, 125 may be thermally isolated from each other. The first refrigerated space 123 may have a first setpoint temperature (e.g., 35 degrees Fahrenheit or another temperature above 32 degrees Fahrenheit) and the second refrigerated space 125 may have a second setpoint temperature (e.g., 32 degrees Fahrenheit or lower) that is lower than the first setpoint temperature.

[0152] First and second expansion valves 271 , 273 (e.g., a TXV or EXV) may be disposed upstream of and in fluid communication with the first and second evaporator HEXs 275, 277, respectively. First and second control valves 247, 249 may be disposed upstream of and in fluid communication with the first and second expansion valves 271 , 273, respectively.

[0153] The example refrigeration system 124 shown in FIG. 7 includes a first working fluid flow path 305 and a second working fluid flow path 307 that may receive working fluid from the condenser HEX 212 (e.g., via the drive HEX 252). The first working fluid flow path 305 may include the first control valve 247, the first expansion valve 271 , and the first evaporator HEX 275. The second working fluid flow path 307 may include the second control valve 249, the second expansion valve 273, and the second evaporator HEX 277. The first and second working fluid flow paths 305, 307 may diverge from each other at a location downstream of the condenser HEX 212 (e.g., downstream of the drive HEX 252). The first and second working fluid flow paths 305, 307 may merge with each other at a location upstream of the suction-pressure inlet of the compressor 204 (e.g., upstream of the accumulator 208). The control module 260 may move the first control valve 247 between open and closed positions to allow and prevent the flow of working fluid through the first working fluid flow path 305. The control module 260 may move the second control valve 249 between open and closed positions to allow and prevent the flow of working fluid through the second working fluid flow path 307. [0154] When the first control valve 247 is open, refrigerant may be expanded to vapor form by the first expansion valve 271 and provided to a the first evaporator HEX 275. Closing the first control valve 247 prevents the flow of refrigerant through the first expansion valve 271 and the first evaporator HEX 275. When the second control valve 249 is open, refrigerant may be expanded to vapor form by the second expansion valve 273 and provided to the second evaporator HEX 277. Closing the second control valve 249 prevents the flow of refrigerant through the second expansion valve 273 and the second evaporator HEX 277.

[0155] Referring now to FIG. 8, the method 600 of operating the refrigeration system 124 shown in FIG. 7 will be described. The method 600 starts at block 610, where the refrigeration system 124 is initially in a standby condition. At step 620, if the first refrigerated space 123 is above the first setpoint temperature or if suction pressure is above a setpoint level, the control module 260 will read these conditions (e.g., from temperature and/or pressure sensors) and may, at step 630, initiate a predetermined delay period of about ten seconds, for example. Thereafter, at step 640, the control module 260 may turn on the compressor 204, open the first control valve 247, and optionally, open the second control valve 249.

[0156] With the compressor 204 on and the first and second control valves 247, 249 in open positions, working fluid can flow through the expansion valves 271 , 273 and through the first and second evaporator HEXs 275, 277 before returning to the compressor 204. Working fluid flowing through the first and second evaporator HEXs 275, 277 may cool the air that is blown into the first and second refrigerated spaces 123, 125 by the fans 279, 281 , thereby cooling the first and second refrigerated spaces 123, 125. The refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate in this condition (i.e., with the compressor 204 on the and the control valves 247, 249 in the open positions) until the control module 260 determines, at step 650, that the first refrigerated space 123 is at or below the setpoint temperature and/or the suction pressure is at or below the setpoint level. If, at step 650, the first refrigerated space 123 is not at or below the setpoint temperature, the refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate with the compressor on and with the control valves 247, 249 in the open positions.

[0157] When the first refrigerated space 123 reaches or drops below the setpoint temperature, the control module 260 may determine, at step 660, whether the compressor runtime (i.e., the amount of time that the compressor 204 has been running since being turned on at step 640) is greater than or equal to a predetermined minimum runtime. The predetermined minimum runtime can be approximately three minutes, for example, or any other period of time.

[0158] If, at step 660, the compressor 204 has not been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime, the control module 260 may (at step 680) close the first control valve 247. Thereafter, the refrigeration system 124 may continue to operate with the compressor 204 on, the second control valve 249 in the open position, and the first control valve 247 in the closed position, until the control module 260 determines that the compressor 204 has been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime.

[0159] When the control module 260 determines, at step 660, that the compressor 204 has been running for at least the predetermined minimum runtime and if the second refrigerated space 125 is at or below the second setpoint temperature, the control module 260 may shutdown the compressor 204. Thereafter, the method 600 may be repeated if and when the first refrigerated space 123 rises above the setpoint temperature.

[0160] While the description above states that the control module 260 opens the second control valve 249 at step 640, in some configurations and/or under certain circumstances, the control module 260 may close the second control valve 249 at step 640 and may move the second control valve 249 to the open position at step 680.

[0161] By closing the first control valve 247 and continuing to run the compressor 204 for at least the predetermined minimum runtime, the method 600 prevents the compressor 204 from being operated for short cycle times (which can damage and/or excessively wear the compressor 204), while also preventing the first refrigerated space 123 from being overcooled. The method 600 also avoids wasting work output of the compressor 204 by further cooling the second refrigerated space 125. The further cooling of the second refrigerated space 125 is acceptable or desirable, as products that are transported in a frozen cargo compartment (i.e., the second refrigerated space 125) of a delivery vehicle are often tolerant of a much wider range of temperatures below 32 degrees Fahrenheit than products that are transported in a non-frozen compartment (i.e., the first refrigerated space 123) of a delivery vehicle. [0162] It will be appreciated that the control module 260 could vary the speed of a variable-speed compressor, pulse-width-modulate the first and/or second control valves 247, 249, and/or control the amount of vapor-injection into the compressor 204 to further regulate the amount of system capacity that is directed to the first and/or second evaporator HEXs 275, 277. [0163] The foregoing description is merely illustrative in nature and is in no way intended to limit the disclosure, its application, or uses. The broad teachings of the disclosure can be implemented in a variety of forms. Therefore, while this disclosure includes particular examples, the true scope of the disclosure should not be so limited since other modifications will become apparent upon a study of the drawings, the specification, and the following claims. It should be understood that one or more steps within a method may be executed in different order (or concurrently) without altering the principles of the present disclosure. Further, although each of the embodiments is described above as having certain features, any one or more of those features described with respect to any embodiment of the disclosure can be implemented in and/or combined with features of any of the other embodiments, even if that combination is not explicitly described. In other words, the described embodiments are not mutually exclusive, and permutations of one or more embodiments with one another remain within the scope of this disclosure.

[0164] Spatial and functional relationships between elements (for example, between modules, circuit elements, semiconductor layers, etc.) are described using various terms, including "connected," "engaged," "coupled," "adjacent," "next to," "on top of," "above," "below," and "disposed." Unless explicitly described as being "direct," when a relationship between first and second elements is described in the above disclosure, that relationship can be a direct relationship where no other intervening elements are present between the first and second elements, but can also be an indirect relationship where one or more intervening elements are present (either spatially or functionally) between the first and second elements. As used herein, the phrase at least one of A, B, and C should be construed to mean a logical (A OR B OR C), using a non-exclusive logical OR, and should not be construed to mean "at least one of A, at least one of B, and at least one of C."

[0165] In the figures, the direction of an arrow, as indicated by the arrowhead, generally demonstrates the flow of information (such as data or instructions) that is of interest to the illustration. For example, when element A and element B exchange a variety of information but information transmitted from element A to element B is relevant to the illustration, the arrow may point from element A to element B. This unidirectional arrow does not imply that no other information is transmitted from element B to element A. Further, for information sent from element A to element B, element B may send requests for, or receipt acknowledgements of, the information to element A.

[0166] In this application, including the definitions below, the term "module" or the term "control module" may be replaced with the term "circuit." The term "module" may refer to, be part of, or include: an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC); a digital, analog, or mixed analog/digital discrete circuit; a digital, analog, or mixed analog/digital integrated circuit; a combinational logic circuit; a field programmable gate array (FPGA); a processor circuit (shared, dedicated, or group) that executes code; a memory circuit (shared, dedicated, or group) that stores code executed by the processor circuit; other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality; or a combination of some or all of the above, such as in a system-on-chip.

[0167] The module may include one or more interface circuits. In some examples, the interface circuits may include wired or wireless interfaces that are connected to a local area network (LAN), the Internet, a wide area network (WAN), or combinations thereof. The functionality of any given module of the present disclosure may be distributed among multiple modules that are connected via interface circuits. For example, multiple modules may allow load balancing. In a further example, a server (also known as remote, or cloud) module may accomplish some functionality on behalf of a client module.

[0168] The term code, as used above, may include software, firmware, and/or microcode, and may refer to programs, routines, functions, classes, data structures, and/or objects. The term shared processor circuit encompasses a single processor circuit that executes some or all code from multiple modules. The term group processor circuit encompasses a processor circuit that, in combination with additional processor circuits, executes some or all code from one or more modules. References to multiple processor circuits encompass multiple processor circuits on discrete dies, multiple processor circuits on a single die, multiple cores of a single processor circuit, multiple threads of a single processor circuit, or a combination of the above. The term shared memory circuit encompasses a single memory circuit that stores some or all code from multiple modules. The term group memory circuit encompasses a memory circuit that, in combination with additional memories, stores some or all code from one or more modules.

[0169] The term memory circuit is a subset of the term computer-readable medium. The term computer-readable medium, as used herein, does not encompass transitory electrical or electromagnetic signals propagating through a medium (such as on a carrier wave); the term computer-readable medium may therefore be considered tangible and non-transitory. Non-limiting examples of a non-transitory, tangible computer-readable medium are nonvolatile memory circuits (such as a flash memory circuit, an erasable programmable read-only memory circuit, or a mask read-only memory circuit), volatile memory circuits (such as a static random access memory circuit or a dynamic random access memory circuit), magnetic storage media (such as an analog or digital magnetic tape or a hard disk drive), and optical storage media (such as a CD, a DVD, or a Blu-ray Disc). [0170] The apparatuses and methods described in this application may be partially or fully implemented by a special purpose computer created by configuring a general purpose computer to execute one or more particular functions embodied in computer programs. The functional blocks and flowchart elements described above serve as software specifications, which can be translated into the computer programs by the routine work of a skilled technician or programmer.

[0171] The computer programs include processor-executable instructions that are stored on at least one non-transitory, tangible computer-readable medium. The computer programs may also include or rely on stored data. The computer programs may encompass a basic input/output system (BIOS) that interacts with hardware of the special purpose computer, device drivers that interact with particular devices of the special purpose computer, one or more operating systems, user applications, background services, background applications, etc. [0172] The computer programs may include: (i) descriptive text to be parsed, such as HTML (hypertext markup language) or XML (extensible markup language), (ii) assembly code, (iii) object code generated from source code by a compiler, (iv) source code for execution by an interpreter, (v) source code for compilation and execution by a just-in-time compiler, etc. As examples only, source code may be written using syntax from languages including C, C++, C#, Objective-C, Swift, Haskell, Go, SQL, R, Lisp, Java®, Fortran, Perl, Pascal, Curl, OCamI, Javascript®, HTML5 (Hypertext Markup Language 5th revision), Ada, ASP (Active Server Pages), PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor), Scala, Eiffel, Smalltalk, Erlang, Ruby, Flash®, Visual Basic®, Lua, MATLAB, SIMULINK, and Python®.

[0173] None of the elements recited in the claims are intended to be a means-plus- function element within the meaning of 35 U.S.C. §1 12(f) unless an element is expressly recited using the phrase "means for," or in the case of a method claim using the phrases "operation for" or "step for."