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Title:
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING EVAPORATIVE FLUID LOSS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/028438
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A system for reducing evaporative cooling water losses using an electric and magnetic field inducing device is disclosed. The device influences a liquid's properties including evaporation rate, diffusion, vapor, heat transfer rate, and/or fluid properties. The device comprises a malleable core with notches and electrically conductive windings wrapped around the flexible core around the notches. An insulative coating isolates the windings from the core. The device is pliable and is wrapped and/or attached around a conduit (e.g., a makeup line or pipe or a recirculating line or pipe of an evaporative cooling tower) with flowing fluid and current is passed through the windings to treat the fluid.

Inventors:
WILSON, Gary D. (950 W. 1240 SO, Spanish Fork, Utah, 84660, US)
Application Number:
US2018/045280
Publication Date:
February 07, 2019
Filing Date:
August 03, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CIRRUS WATER, LLC (950 E. 1240 SO, Spanish Fork, Utah, 84660, US)
International Classes:
H01F7/06; C02F1/48; F28C1/16; H01F3/02; H01F5/02; C02F103/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006067418A12006-06-29
WO1996037029A11996-11-21
Foreign References:
RU2519292C22014-06-10
RU2016101620A2017-07-25
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ANDERSON, Dax (Kirton McConkie, 36 South State Street,Suite 190, Salt Lake City Utah, 84111, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A system for reducing evaporative water loss in an evaporative cooling tower, the system comprising:

an electric and magnetic field inducing device attached around one of either a makeup pipe or a recirculation pipe of the evaporative cooling tower, the electric and magnetic field inducing device comprising:

a core comprising a sheet having a front side, a back side, a top, a bottom, a first edge, a second edge and a plurality of notches; and

windings comprising electrically conductive material wrapped around the core, wherein the windings are positioned along the core at the notches, and wherein the windings are in electrical communication to allow current to flow therethrough; and

a power supply providing power to the core.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the core comprises a material selected from the group consisting of:

a metallic material;

a ferrous material;

a mesh material; and

one or more of a metal, a ceramic, and a polymer.

3. The system of claim 1, wherein the system comprises two cores as recited in claim 1, the two cores disposed end-to-end on the one of either the makeup pipe or the recirculation pipe of the evaporative cooling tower.

4. The system of claim 3, wherein a polarity of the two cores is selected from the group consisting of:

an opposite polarity of the two cores; and

a same polarity of the two cores.

5. The system of claim 1, wherein the system includes a water use measurement device that determines water used by the evaporative cooling tower.

6. The system of claim 5, wherein the system includes a communications module that transmits information received by the water measurement device over a network to a remote computing device.

7. The system of claim 1, wherein the electrically conductive material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of:

single-stranded wire;

multi-stranded wire;

carbon nano tubes;

single wall carbon nanotubes; and

polymeric conductors.

8. The system of claim 1, wherein the windings comprising electrically conductive material wrapped around the core comprise:

a first winding formed by wrapping the conductive material around the core a plurality of times in a first direction at a first set of aligned notches, wherein the conductive material is wrapped in a single direction from the front of the core to the back of the core; and

a second winding formed by wrapping the conductive material around the core a plurality of times in the first direction at a second set of aligned notches, wherein the conductive material is wrapped in a single direction around the core from a first end of a core to a second end of the core,

wherein the first winding and the second winding are conductively connected.

9. A system for reducing evaporative water loss in an evaporative cooling tower, the system comprising:

a first device for generating electric and magnetic fields disposed around a first pipe of an evaporative cooling tower;

a second device for generating electric and magnetic fields disposed around the first pipe of the evaporative cooling tower adjacent the first device for generating electric and magnetic fields;

wherein each of the first device for generating electric and magnetic fields and the second device for generating electric and magnetic fields comprises:

a plurality of notches disposed along opposing edges of a flexible planar core; a wire capable of conducting an electrical current, wherein a first portion of the first wire is disposed about a first set of notches by coiling the first portion of the wire about the first set of notches and wherein a second portion of the wire is disposed about a second set of notches by coiling the second portion of the wire about the second set of notches; and

a power supply operatively connected to supply power to the wire of the first device for generating electric and magnetic fields and to the wire of the second device for generating electric and magnetic fields.

10. The system of claim 9, wherein the system includes a water use measurement device that determines water used by the evaporative cooling tower.

11. The system of claim 9, wherein the first device for generating electric and magnetic fields has a first polarity and the second device for generating electric and magnetic fields has a second polarity, and wherein the first polarity and the second polarity are opposite each other.

12. The system of claim 9, wherein the wire comprises a material selected from the group consisting of:

single-stranded wire;

multi-stranded wire;

carbon nanotubes;

single wall carbon nanotubes; and

polymeric conductors.

13. The system of claim 9, wherein the first pipe comprises a pipe selected from the group consisting of:

a makeup line of the water cooling tower; and

a recirculation line of the water cooling tower.

14. A method of reducing evaporative water loss in an evaporative cooling tower, the method comprising:

providing two electric and magnetic field inducing devices each comprising:

a core comprising a sheet having a front side, a back side, a top, a bottom, a first edge, a second edge and a plurality of notches; and

windings comprising electrically conductive material wrapped around the core, wherein the windings are positioned along the core at the notches, and wherein the windings are in electrical communication to allow current to flow therethrough; and wrapping and securing the two electric and magnetic field inducing devices around either a makeup pipe or a recirculating pipe of the evaporative cooling tower;

attaching a power supply to the windings of the electric and magnetic field inducing devices; and

applying a current through the windings using the power supply.

15. The method of claim 14, further comprising molding the core to the shape of the makeup pipe.

16. The method of claim 14, wherein the electric and magnetic field inducing devices are a first and a second electric and magnetic field inducing device and are wrapped around the makeup pipe, the method further comprising:

providing a third and a fourth electric and magnetic field inducing device each comprising:

a core comprising a sheet having a front side, a back side, a top, a bottom, a first edge, a second edge and a plurality of notches; and

windings comprising electrically conductive material wrapped around the core, wherein the windings are positioned along the core at the notches, and wherein the windings are in electrical communication to allow current to flow therethrough;

wrapping and securing the third and fourth electric and magnetic field inducing devices around the recirculating pipe of the evaporative cooling tower; and

supplying power to the third and fourth electric and magnetic field inducing devices.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising measuring water use by the evaporative cooling tower.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising transmitting water use measurements to a remote computing device.

19. The method of claim 14, further comprising measuring changes in water use by the evaporative cooling tower when the electric and magnetic field inducing devices are powered by the power supply.

20. The method of claim 19, further comprising transmitting measured changes in water use to a remote computing device.

Description:
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING EVAPORATIVE FLUID LOSS

BACKGROUND

Cross-Reference To Related Applications

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/541,091 filed August 3, 2017, is a continuation-in-part of prior Application No. 15/063,315, filed March 7, 2016, and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/128,908 filed March 5, 2015.

Background

Water scarcity is an issue more pressing than climate change, oil and energy production, or any other global risk issue. Scarcity of water is critical to agriculture, human health, and industry. Clean water is a vital, limited, and finite resource. More effort should be directed to finding sustainable solutions to increase water supply, reduce water usage, or to otherwise make more water available.

In many areas, a significant percentage of freshwater supply is used to operate evaporative cooling systems to cool office towers, shopping malls, data centers, power plants, oil refineries, and other large-scale warehouse and manufacturing facilities. All evaporative water towers lose between 1.8 to 3 gallons per minute per one hundred tons cooling through the evaporation of water. In many instances, the large plumes of "smoke" seen leaving industrial facilities is actually water vapor of water lost during cooling processes. There are hundreds of thousands of such evaporative cooling towers in the United States, and millions of such systems worldwide. Accordingly, a system that could provide the same amount of cooling with only minimal energy cost while significantly reducing fresh water use would provide significant benefit to a variety of industries.

The embodiments described herein relate generally to generating electromagnetic and electric fields and exposing fluids, gases, and bacteria in evaporative cooling systems to these electromagnetic and electric fields, and more particularly, to a device for generating electromagnetic and electric fields to cause an influence on a fluid as well as minerals in the fluid.

Electric and magnetic fields cause a charging or discharging of fluids and minerals in a fluid and entail ionic carriers that move in and out of the fluid, which form an aqueous circuit. Fluid flowing through a pipe will result in the evaporation of molecules, macromolecules and solute which will most often be left behind. Specifically, water flowing through pipes generally results in the exit of the pipe in a usually standard predictable rate of evaporation. There are currently no electrical or magnetic field systems for aqueous evaporation reduction or modification. Other devices aimed at solving this problem involve polymers for evaporation modification; see U.S. Application No. 62/846,671.

There are different ways in which water-based fluids subject to evaporation can be distinguished such as hard, soft and distilled water. Evaporation occurs when ambient air and/or a heat source is exposed to or added to the fluid. Conventionally, there are typically no electrical or magnetic methods for fluid evaporation modification. The conventional method is to simply measure the evaporation rates, humidity, heat sources and ambient temperatures without any modification. However, these methods rely on calculations and monitoring instead of modification of the fluid as a technology.

Therefore, what is needed is a means or device that can help reduce evaporative water losses using an electric field circuit in an aqueous environment and corresponding energy absorption of the fluid without the use of added polymers or other chemical modification of the water or similar fluid.

SUMMARY

Systems and methods for reducing evaporative water loss in evaporative cooling systems are disclosed and claimed. An apparatus, system and method for exerting an electric, magnetic, and/or electromagnetic field on a flowing fluid will modify the evaporation of the fluid. In one embodiment the device may include a plurality of hosting sites, such as notches about a core, a first layer of rubber tape wrapped around the core from notch to notch, a magnetic wire wrapped around the core on top of the rubber tape, a second layer of rubber tape wrapped around the core on top of the magnetic wire, resulting in the magnetic wire being sandwiched between the two layers of rubber tape, and a power supply wire attached to the magnetic wire, the power supply wire configured to engage with a power supply to provide the device with power. In certain embodiments the wire is wrapped in a single direction around the core. The device may conform to the shape of an object to which it is applied because the core may be pliable. When the device is in use, it tends to modify the evaporation rate and to alter the heat transfer rate in the fluid flowing through or positioned within the object.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

In order to describe the manner in which the above -recited and other advantages and features of the disclosure can be obtained, a more particular description of the disclosure briefly described above will be rendered by reference to specific embodiments thereof which are illustrated in the appended drawings. Understanding that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the disclosure and are not therefore to be considered to be limiting of its scope, the disclosure will be described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of a host for a plurality of wire hosting sites disposed on a flexible core;

FIG. IB illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of a host for a plurality of wire hosting sites disposed on a flexible core;

FIG. 2A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of plurality of wire hosting sites in the form of notches in the core of FIGS. 1A and IB;

FIG. 2B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of plurality of wire hosting sites in the form of notches in the core of FIGS. 1 and IB;

FIG. 3A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of placement of material to protect and isolate wire wrapped or coiled about wire hosting sites;

FIG. 3B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of placement of material to protect and isolate wire wrapped or coiled about wire hosting sites;

FIG. 4A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of wire coils wrapped about a plurality of wire hosting sites;

FIG. 4B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of wire coils wrapped about a plurality of wire hosting sites;

FIG. 5A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of placement of material to protect and isolate wire wrapped about the wire hosting sites;

FIG. 5B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of placement of material to protect and isolate wire wrapped about the wire hosting sites;

FIG. 6A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of providing electrical connection of the wire wrapped about the plurality of wire hosting sites to a power supply;

FIG. 6B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of providing electrical connection of the wire wrapped about the plurality of wire hosting sites to a power supply;

FIG. 7A illustrates a front view of one embodiment of providing a cover to enclose the device;

FIG. 7B illustrates a rear view of one embodiment of providing a cover to enclose the device;

FIG. 8 illustrates one embodiment of placing the assembled device about a conduit for treat of fluid in the conduit;

FIG. 9 illustrates one embodiment of placing the assembled device about a body part; FIG. 10 illustrates a front view of one embodiment of a device for use with an evaporative cooling tower;

FIG. 11 illustrates a back view of the device of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 illustrates a view of a pair of devices as they may be oriented around a makeup or recirculation line of an evaporative cooling tower according to one embodiment;

FIG. 13 illustrates a view of a pair of devices as they may be oriented around a makeup or recirculation line of an evaporative cooling tower according to an alternate embodiment;

FIG. 14 illustrates a view of measured magnetic field readings from embodiments of the device disposed around a makeup or recirculation line of an evaporative cooling tower according to one embodiment;

FIG. 15 illustrates a view of a device in a flat position, illustrating magnetic lines generated around the device;

FIG. 16 illustrates a view of devices as they may be disposed around a water line, illustrating a magnetic field that may be generated around one device;

FIG. 17 illustrates magnetic field readings measured around a device while in use in a flat position; and

FIG. 18 illustrates a magnetic field generated around a device while in use in a flat position.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following detailed description, numerous details, examples, and embodiments are described. However, it will be clear and apparent to one skilled in the art that the present application is not limited to the embodiments set forth and that the present application can be adapted for any of several applications.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure relates to a device that is used to reduce or modify the evaporation rate and heat transfer rate of a fluid. While the device may comprise any suitable component that allows it to function as intended, in some embodiments the device comprises a core, a plurality of wire hosting sites on the core, insulating material, windings made from electrically conductive material, and/or a power supply cord. This list of possible constituent elements is intended to be alternative embodiments only, and it is not intended that this list be used to limit the device of the present application to just these elements. Persons having ordinary skill in the art relevant to the present disclosure may understand there to be equivalent elements that may be substituted within the present disclosure without changing the essential function or operation of the device. While the various elements of the disclosed device may be related in the following alternative embodiment fashion, it is not intended to limit the scope or nature of the relationships between the various elements and the following alternative examples are presented as illustrative alternative examples only.

Referring to FIGS. 1-9, a device 1 for performing one or more of generating electromagnetic fields, generating electrical fields, generating magnetic fields, and for modifying the evaporation rate in a fluid is disclosed. Methods of manufacturing, assembling, constructing, and otherwise building the device 1 are also disclosed. The device 1 can be used in a variety of fluids including aqueous and organic solvents (e.g., gasoline, other petroleum based fluids, inorganic solvents, aqueous solvents, salt water, fresh water, and water-based fluids such as that which form the basis for most biological systems).

FIGS. 1A and IB show a substrate or core 10. FIG. 1A shows a front view of the core 10. FIG. IB shows a rear view of the core 10. Reference A indicates a shared corner between the front view of FIG. 1A and the rear view of FIG IB. While the core 10 can comprise any suitable material, in some embodiments, the core 10 comprises a sheet. In other embodiments, the sheet may be pliable. The core 10 may comprise a solid or a mesh. The core 10 may comprise a metal (e.g., a ferrous metal or a non-ferrous metal), a polymer, a composite such as a ceramic, or it may comprise a combination of these materials. The core may comprise a modular system wherein core modules may be selectively coupled to form a core with the desired properties. The core 10 may comprise a flexible sheet metal such as a galvanized sheet metal or a flexible metal mesh. In yet other embodiments, a spacing of the metal mesh is determined by the application. The core 10 can comprise a front 10A and a back 10B.

In some embodiments, the core 10 may comprise a magnetic material which will host or maintain an electrical charge, such as iron. Alternatively, the core 10 may comprise any other desired material, such as a galvanized sheet, wherein the composition of the core 10 may be dependent on the application. In other embodiments, the core 10 may be substantially rectangular. In yet other embodiments, the core 10 comprises any other suitable shape such as substantially round, oval, triangular, or square.

As depicted in FIGS. 2 A and 2B, the core 10 may be substantially rectangular and flat having a plurality of hosting sites 12 positioned along a length of two opposing edges of the core 10. FIG. 2A shows a front view of the core 10 with a plurality of notches 12 and FIG. 2B shows a rear view of the core 10 with a plurality of notches 12. Alternative embodiments of the notches 12 may comprise variations of the notches 12 (e.g., protrusions, such as hook, lip, ledge, clip notch recess or other surface feature including welding or soldering sites to which a winding may be secured). Notches 12 may be formed by cutting out or stamping part of core 10 to form notches 12. In an alternative embodiment, hosting sites 12 can be formed by other means such as a mold or other shaping process. The result being, as shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B, that the notches 12 are disposed near opposing sides of the core 10. In certain embodiments the top and bottom edges may comprise notches 12. The notches 12 may be aligned or may be offset. The notches may vary in size or be uniform. The notches may comprise one angle to form a V-shape, or may comprise multiple angles. The shape of the notch 12 may be configured to accommodate the gauge of the wire that is used to wrap around the core 10. The notches 12 may be spaced depending on the application, the wire size, the voltage, and the core size. For example, in some embodiments, the notches 12 are spaced from about one half inch to about three inches apart. In alternative embodiments, the notches 12 may be evenly spaced along an edge of the core 10.

Referring now to FIGS. 3 A and 3B, the device 1 is shown with a coating 14 applied to the surface of the core 10. FIG. 3A shows a front view of the coating 14 applied to the core 10 and FIG 3B shows a rear view of the coating 14 applied to the core 10. In some embodiments, the coating 14 is wrapped in a pattern linking a path along the surface of the core between the hosting sites 12. While the coating 14 can comprise any suitable insulating material, in some embodiments, coating 14 comprises any suitable electrical insulation such as insulating rubber tape wrapped around the core 10 from notch 12 to notch 12. The coating 14 may comprise any material comprising insulating qualities (e.g., rubber, plastic, polymer, ceramic, and any other similar insulating material). The coating 14 can be configured as an insulating layer between the wire and the core 10.

In some embodiments, the coating 14 is wrapped from a first notch 12 on a first edge, to a first opposing notch 12 on a second edge, and back up on the first notch 12 on the first edge, and then down diagonally to a second notch 12 on the second edge with this pattern repeated as necessary until the coating 14 has been wrapped through every notch 12. Thus, the applied coating 14 may appear as vertical lines with diagonal lines connecting each vertical line, as shown in the FIGS. The number of times the coating 14 and is wrapped around the core 10 may depend on the application and the size of the core 10.

Referring now to FIGS. 4 A and 4B, an electrically conductive material can be used to form windings 16. FIG. 4A shows a front view of winding 16 wound onto the coating 14 and FIG. 4B shows a rear view of windings 16 wound onto the coating. The windings 16 can further comprise a first end 18 and a second end 19. The electrically conductive material may comprise wire, carbon nanotubes, single wall carbon nanotubes, polymeric conductors or any other material through which a current can flow to generate an electro-magnetic field, an electric field and/or a magnetic field. The windings 16 may be electrical wire such as a copper wire capable of generating an electric field, magnetic field and/or electromagnetic field when electrical power is conducted through windings 16. The windings 16 may comprise stranded wire, non-stranded wire, or any combination of the two. The wire can comprise any suitable or desired electrically conductive or magnetic wire. Depending on the application, the size and composition of the wire may vary.

While the windings 16 can be wrapped around the core 10 in any suitable fashion, in some embodiments, a core with a first and a second end and a first side and a second side. The winding 16 begins at a first end of the core where a wire is wrapped clockwise around the core, and windings are formed from repeatedly wrapping the wire around the core in sets of notches aligned on opposite sides of the core. Once a first winding is formed the same wire continues to be wrapped clockwise around the core between a second set of aligned notches. Once the first winding is completed the wire is guided across the first side of the core to the next set of aligned notches. This process is repeated between aligned notches along the length of the core until the second end of the core is reached. The wire is then wrapped in the same clockwise direction moving from the second end of the core to the first end of the core and the wire is guided across the second surface of the core instead of the first the wire is continuously wrapped in a single direction and the wire connecting the aligned windings is crossed on opposite sides of the core.

In some embodiments the wire is wrapped in an orthogonal fashion. Alternatively, windings 16 may be placed completely on one side of the core 10 and secured to the core 10 at two directly opposing hosting sites 12. In some embodiments, the windings 16 are formed by wrapping the electrically conductive material around the core 10 on top of the coating 14 from hosting site 12 to hosting site 12 with the coating 14 disposed between the core 10 and the windings 16. The pattern used to wrap the core 10 may comprise multiple wrappings between opposing notches 12 with a single diagonal wire connecting parallel sets of notches 12. Wires may connect adjacent notches 12 or they may wrap non-adjacent notches 12. For example, the windings 16 can be arranged by winding the electrically conductive material between two directly opposing notches 12 for several windings then making a diagonal transition to an adjacent pair of directly opposing notches 12, wrapping the adjacent pair of directly opposing notches 12, and continuing for the length of the core 10 until the windings 16 are wrapped around each of the notches 12.

A preferred wrapping pattern for the windings 16 may comprise wrapping a wire clockwise around the core between two directly opposing notches five times, then transitioning from the two directly opposing notches across the core 10 in a diagonal direction to the next adjacent pair of opposing notches 12 where the wire is then wrapped between the adjacent pair of opposing notches for five winding and the process continued for a length of the core 10. This pattern of wrapping the wire multiple times between two aligned notches 12, then leading the wire from the bottom notch to the next adjacent top notch in an upward-diagonal pattern where the wire is wrapped around the aligned notches 12 multiple times is repeated until each notch set of aligned hosting sites 12 has a multiple-wire winding with a single wire connecting the adjacent notches on the front side 10A.

The wrapping pattern is continued with the same continuous length of wire with the wrapping pattern repeated from the last winding to the first winding, with the wire used to form windings that overlap the previously placed windings in the same notches where the earlier windings were formed. In stage of the winding, the wire connecting the adjacent notches 12 connects the top notch 12 and extends in a downward diagonal direction to the notch 12 on the bottom edge of the core. The diagonal transition wires on the front of the core 10A and the diagonal transition wires on the back of the core 10B appear to form an "X" although the two wires are on opposite sides of the core 10 and do not touch or physically intersect. In this configuration, current flowing through the windings flows in opposite directions on opposite sides of the core 10.

In some embodiments, the wrapping pattern may comprise wrapping around alternating notches so the wrapping pattern is diagonally offset. Alternatively, the length of the diagonal transition may comprise multiple wrappings or it may be longer to connect wrappings between offset notches. The present disclosure contemplates a core 10 with windings 16 positioned in any suitable fashion along the core. Alternatively, core 10 modules may be formed with windings in place, the core 10 modules being connected consistent with the patterns described herein to allow an electrical current to flow in opposite directions on the front of the core 10A and the back of the core 10B.

In some embodiments, the number of wraps between two aligned notches 12 may vary between 2 wraps and 200 or more wraps. In alternative embodiments the desired number of wraps is completed and the wrapping is continued in the next adjacent notch alignment 12, and as a result, a single wire follows the coating 14 between the two notch alignments 12, and then the wrapping is repeated between the two new notch alignments 12. This pattern is repeated down the length of the core until the wrapping comes to the terminal opposite edge of the core 10, where the same wrapping pattern is repeated along the length of the core 10 in the opposite direction.

As illustrated on the front of core 10A and the back of core 10B in FIGS. 4 A and 4B, the wire is wound one or more times between opposing notches 12 to create a wire coil circumscribing the core 10. The wire then passes diagonally across core 10 to the next adjacent opposing notches 12 at which point the wire is again wound one or more times between opposing notches 12 to create another wire coil circumscribing core 10. This wrapping pattern is repeated along the length of core 10 until a coil of wire is disposed between each pair of opposing notches 12 along a length of core 10. This generates a first set of wire coils wrapped around the core 10. When generating the first set of wire coils each diagonal pass of wire 16 to the next adjacent opposing notches 12 can occur on the same side of the core 10 as shown on the front of core 10A as shown in FIG. 4A where a diagonal wire passes diagonally on top of coating 14.

As further illustrated in FIGS. 4 A and 4B, after the first set of wire coils is disposed about the core 10, the wire is passed diagonally across the back of the core 10A as shown in FIG. 4B to the next adjacent opposing notches 12 at which point the wire is again wound one or more times between opposing notches 12 to create another wire coil circumscribing the core 10 in the opposite direction. This is repeated along the length of the core 10 until another coil of wire is disposed between each opposing notches 12 along a length of core 10 in an opposing direction. This generates a second or opposing set of wire coils wrapped about the core 10. When generating the second or opposing set of wire coils across the back panel of the core 10B each diagonal pass of wire to the next adjacent opposing notches 12 occurs on the same side of the core as shown for example on the back of the core 10B in FIG. 4B which shows a diagonal transition wire passing diagonally on top of the coating 14. The first set of wire coils and the second or opposing set of wire coils results in the flow of electrical power through the wire in opposing directions between the same two opposing two notches 12.

In some embodiments, the wire is coiled on one side of the core 10 by utilizing two adjacent notches 12 on a same edge around which one end of the coil is wrapped with the other end of the coil being wrapped around two adjacent notches 12 on the opposing edge of the core 10. In other embodiments, posts, hooks or other raised, recessed and/or attached members are disposed on the core 10 to receive and maintain a coil of wire on or about the core 10.

Referring now to FIGS. 5A and 5B, a second layer of coating 14 can be applied to the front of the core 10A and the back of the core 10B to cover the windings 16 and the diagonal transitions. FIG. 5A shows a front view of the coating 14 covering the winding 16 and FIG. 4B shows a rear view of the coating 14 covering the windings 16. In some embodiments, the windings 16 are sandwiched between the two layers of coating 14.

Referring now to FIGS. 6A and 6B, in some embodiments, a power supply wire 20 is attached to the first end 18 and the second end 19 to electrically connect the windings 16 to a power supply 30. The power supply wire 20 can be configured to conduct electrical power from the power supply 30 through the first end 18 and the second end 19 and through the windings 16. The power supply wire 20 may be attached to the first end 18 and the second end 19 using any suitable connection mechanism and, in some embodiments, is soldered to the first end 18 and the second end 19. The power supply wire 20 may comprise any cord configured to engage with the power supply 30 and, in some embodiments, comprises a USB cord or a 21 mm cord, depending on the application. The power supply 30 can comprise a power supply configured to provide a low amount of power, as the system does not require a large amount of power to function. For example, the power supply 30 can comprise a solar power system or any other power system providing from about 3 volts at about 0.1 ampere to about 40 volts at about 15 amperes. In other embodiments, the power supply 30 comprises a power supply providing up to about 1000 volts at up to about 50 amperes.

Referring now to FIGS. 7 A and 7B, in some embodiments the device 1 further comprises a cover 40. FIG. 7A shows a front view of the device 1 with the cover 40 and FIG. 7B shows a rear view of the device 1 with the cover 40. The cover 40 can comprise any suitable material configured to protect the device 1, to electrically insulate the device 1, and/or to prevent a user from contacting the coatings 14, the windings 16, the first end 18, the second end 19, or any other part of the core 10. In some embodiments, the cover 40 comprises a flexible material. The cover 40 may comprise any suitable cover to protect the core. For example, in some embodiments, the cover 40 may comprise a rubberized coating or headliner or any other type of material bonded with adhesive glue, depending on the application.

Without being bound by theory, it is thought that the device functions in configurations that allow competing electric and magnetic fields to interact with sediment in a fluid to reduce the particle size and activate particles suspended in the solution. The reduction in the size of the particulates allows the fluid to flow without creating scaling, blockages or other phenomena that prevent flow, such as in an evaporative cooling system. The activation of the particles prevents the particles from bonding together and precipitating out of solutions. This may result in a supersaturated solution that flows without forming blockages or other obstructions in the system.

In some embodiments, the device functions by adding electrons to the water, other minerals in the water, or whatever substance is in the conduit. In other embodiments, device functions by adding electrons so that the pH is increased by reducing the concentration of Hydrogen Ions (H+). In some cases, the device decreases the concentration of Hydrogen Ions by adding electrons. In other cases, the device adds electrons to substances to change Ca (Calcium) and other minerals to stabilize them. Ca is a positive ion that can be stabilized by introducing additional electrons. The stabilized calcium can resist clumping and is stabilized into a particle.

In some embodiments, the device functions by stabilizing all solutions into suspension. In some cases, the device can stabilize molecules into particles that are in suspension instead of solution. By increasing stabilization, a new level of super saturation can be achieved. In other cases, the device can allow the pH to remain stable by employing a focused electron field as a beam— like along the electromagnetic field lines to introduce the electrons into the water, minerals or other substances in the conduit.

In some embodiments, there are two ways that bacteria are affected by the device. The first is that the electron beam or field of electron energy can disrupt the cell membranes of the bacteria and cause the bacteria to die. The second method is by stabilizing the minerals in the water thereby preventing the bacteria from using these minerals. In other embodiments, the device does not affect algae or plants because, as a more complex life form, the algae and plants are able to target the minerals directly for processing by the cells. In some cases, the device can stabilize minerals to promote absorption of the minerals by plants to promote greater and more efficient plant growth.

In some embodiments, the device removes existing hard water deposits. The stabilization effect or crystallization can make the calcium become a particle. In other embodiments, the device changes the water from being a solution to a suspension to allow for super saturation which also can remove existing deposits. In yet other embodiments, the existing deposits become more brittle for solid plate scale cracking during the heating of the bundles. In some embodiments, a granular type of hard water deposit falls off as the calcium is stabilized and no longer binds to metal. In other embodiments, metal is reinforced by the added electrons which prevent corrosion and binding to calcium or other positive ions.

In some embodiments, the device affects the heat energy transfer rate of treated fluids.

For example, in water cooling towers, the heat energy given off by the towers increases the vibration of the water. That vibration increases until the bonds of the molecules break apart to become vapor by boiling. By adding electrons the device can strengthen the existing bonds so the water does not become vapor as easily. This can allow the water to hold more heat energy thereby increasing the heat energy transfer rate.

In conventional systems, chemicals are used for water treatment to prevent bacteria growth and/or biofouling in the water. With added chemicals in conventional systems, the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) is high in the acidic range. Although these added chemicals prevent bacteria or other forms of biofouling, acidic water can cause corrosion of pipes and other systems. Therefore, in conventional systems, corrosion inhibitors need to be added to prevent corrosion. In some cases, it can be a delicate balance to get the right amount of added chemicals to prevent biofouling while at the same time preventing corrosion. In some embodiments, the device treats water to control bacterial growth and to reduce and/or prevent biofouling without the need for added chemicals.

In some embodiments, the device functions through the physical phenomena of the electron. The physical phenomena of the electron can be created by electric field lines and directed by electromagnetic fields. When the device is flat it can send out electrons with very little focus. When the device is curved the electromagnetic field can become focused. The physical phenomena can also be called electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. In some cases, electricity can be stopped by resistance (absorbing electrons) while magnetism needs to be redirected for shielding. When the device is in a flat configuration, the device can emit electrons on the positive (magnetic north) side of the core and can absorb electrons from the negative (magnetic south) side of the core. When the device is curved the beneficial effects of the device can be concentrated. The intensity of the electric and magnetic fields can increase as the ends of the core are curved together.

In some embodiments, when the device is curved into a cylinder shape, the electromagnetic field becomes a ring magnet. The directional flow of elections along the magnetic field lines can now move from south to north. The electrons can emit from the north end of the device to create a beam effect. The electric and magnetic field can be intensified by bringing the ends of the core closer together. The directional flow of elections along the magnetic field lines are now moving from south to north. The electrons can emit from the north end of the device to create a beam effect.

In some embodiments, the directional flow of electrons along electric and magnetic field lines creates an electrodynamic energy effect called a focused electron field. In other embodiments, the focused electron field induces molecular stabilization by deionization and recombination from the introduction of an electrodynamic or iontronic field effect.

In some embodiments, the device provides beneficial health effects when used on a body part. These beneficial health effects can include better absorption of calcium, reduction and/or prevention of kidney stones, decreased viscosity of bloods and/or other bodily fluids, which then increases blood flow, faster healing, better pain management, and dilution of heavy concentration of ions, potential toxins, and improved filtering by the body.

In some embodiments, the device and methods described here are used to improve water softener systems. In some cases, the devices and methods can be used to treat water containing sodium. In other cases, the devices and methods can be used to convert sodium chloride into sodium hydroxide. In yet other cases, the devices and methods can be used to stabilize sodium hydroxide to make it less dangerous. By converting sodium chloride to sodium hydroxide, the device can treat saline water. In some instances, the device and methods can be used to reclaim saline water that was unusable into usable water that can be used for farming or irrigation.

In some embodiments, the overall device may have any desired or required size and may be moldable to mimic the external or internal shape of an object to which it is being applied. In some cases, the device can be configured to be waterproof and/or to be immersed. In other cases, the device can be configured to be oriented within a fluid flow. In general, the device can be used by wrapping around any conduit with flowing fluid. The device can be wrapped such that the windings are parallel to a flow of the fluid. The device is then powered up to generate electric and electromagnetic fields that penetrate the conduct to provide beneficial effects to the flowing fluid. Beneficial effects can include a reduction in the level of microorganisms in the fluid, a reduction and/or a reversal of scale buildup, improved fluid flow, and in the case of application to a body part, improved health benefits.

In some embodiments, the device is applied by wrapping around an object such as a pipe and applying power to the device to cause the minerals and/or precipitates in fluid flowing through the object to align or to be sufficiently suspended in the fluid to prevent scale and other mineral build-up from sticking and/or accumulating to walls, pipes, or other equipment in contact with the fluid. In other embodiments, the device may be used for water treatment to enhance the flavor of water, replace salt-based water softener systems and/or allow salt-based water softeners to operate at a reduction in the use of salt (e.g., a 50% reduction in the use of salt). In yet other embodiments, the device may break the sodium bonds in water so that treated water can be used for plant growth. In some cases, the device is applied to a body to increase blood flow and reduce inflammation. In other cases, the device reduces bacteria growth in treated fluids.

In some embodiments, the core 10 comprises a flexible material configured to be manipulated to match the exterior shape of a conduit such as a pipe in the flow system. In other embodiments, the core 10 may be substantially flat and may be fitted to the desired size for the intended application such as to be wrapped around a pipe, conduit or grease trap. In yet other embodiments, the core 10 may comprise any material configured to form fit to the shape of an object such as a pipe or a body part.

Referring to FIG. 8, in some embodiments, the device is configured to be flexible or moderately flexible to conform to conduits such as pipe. For example, the device 1 can comprise a flexible material configured to be wrapped around a conduit such as a pipe 50. When the device is activated, any fluid flowing through pipe 50 can experience the beneficial effects described above such as, but not limited to, reduced evaporative water loss, reduced scaling, reduced microorganism levels, and improved fluid flow. In some cases, the device can be configured to wrap around a pipe 50 in a rolled or blanket- like fashion.

Referring to FIG. 9, in some embodiments, the device is configured as a health pad configured to wrap around a body part such as a knee. For example, the device 1 can comprise a flexible material configured to be wrapped around a body part such as a knee 60. When the device is activated, the wrapped body part can experience the beneficial effects described above such as, but not limited to, reduced inflammation and increase blood flow. In some cases, the device can be configured to wrap around a body part in a rolled or blanket-like fashion. In other cases, body parts can include, but are not limited to toes, feet, ankles, calves, knees, thighs, legs, waists, pelvic areas, abdomen, chest, upper body, shoulders, arms, forearms, hands, necks, or any other suitable body part.

Returning to FIG. 8, FIG. 8 illustrates an environment in which embodiments of the device may be of particular value in reducing or otherwise influencing evaporative rates of the liquid within the pipe 50. Specifically, when embodiments of the device are wrapped around and/or attached to conduits of an evaporative cooling tower, and in particular either a makeup line or pipe and/or a recirculating line or pipe of an evaporative cooling tower, and the device is provided power, the evaporative rate experienced by the evaporative cooling tower can be influenced and reduced. In particular, evaporative water loss can be reduced by approximately 30% to 60% or even more using embodiments of the device on the makeup and recirculating lines.

When the device is used with evaporative cooling towers, there is only minimal modification of the evaporative cooling towers necessary. Specifically, there is no need to cut existing water lines, and no need to adjust, calibrate, or change existing water treatment systems, though use of the device with such systems may reduce or eliminate the need for other treatment chemicals. One or more of the devices is merely attached around one or more of the makeup line(s) and/or the recirculation line(s). Power is supplied using a power supply that may be attached to a standard 110-volt outlet. If desired, a monitoring module may obtain information about ongoing water use by the evaporative cooling tower and/or changes in water use when the device is active. The monitoring module may utilize and receive information from existing wireless water meters contained in the evaporative cooling tower system. The monitoring module may transmit or otherwise communicate information regarding water use and savings over a wired or wireless network, including the Internet, to a remote computing device such as a smartphone, laptop, tablet, desktop computer, or the like for informational or billing purposes.

In embodiments of the device 1 as used with evaporative cooling towers, an illustrative device may be adapted to be disposed around an approximately one-inch water line. In such an environment, the core 10 may have a measurement of approximately seven by approximately five inches, and there may be approximately seven windings 16 disposed around the core 10 at a spacing of slightly less than one inch between windings 16. In some embodiments, the core 10 incorporates a moderately flexible steel plate, such as a thirty-six gauge steel plate. The steel plate is sufficiently flexible to permit the core 10 to be bent and formed around the water line, but is sufficiently rigid thereafter as to maintain its shape around the water line. If necessary, the ends of the core 10 may be overlapped such that the device 1 is wrapped relatively snugly around the water line.

While the core 10 incorporates a steel plate in such embodiments, the core 10 also may incorporate insulation separating the core 10 from the windings 16. In some embodiments of the device 1, each of the winding locations includes approximately four windings 16 of copper wire. The wire may be approximately twenty gauge or approximately twenty-two gauge copper insulated wire.

FIGs. 10-18 illustrate embodiments and features of the device 1 as they are to be used in conjunction with reducing evaporative water loss in systems such as evaporative cooling towers and the like. FIG. 10 illustrates a front view of one embodiment of a device for use with an evaporative cooling tower, and FIG. 11 illustrates a back view of the device of FIG. 10. As shown in these views, the flow of current through the windings 16 in the direction shown establishes an electric field and a corresponding magnetic field in the core 10, as illustrated by the plus and minus symbols of FIGs. 10-11. The magnetic and/or electric field established in the core 10 causes an accumulation of charge on the core 10, which accumulation of charge may lead to the transference of electrons through the adjacent/encompassed line or pipe, thereby causing the reduction in evaporative water loss and the other effects discussed herein.

FIGs. 12 and 13 illustrate views of a pair of devices 1 as they may be oriented around a makeup or recirculation line of an evaporative cooling tower according to certain embodiments. In the embodiment of FIG. 12, the devices 1 are wrapped around the water line or pipe adjacent to each other but with a polarity (e.g., current direction and accompanying electric and/or magnetic field) of one device 1 reversed with respect to the other device 1. In the embodiment of FIG. 13, the devices are wrapped around the water line or pipe adjacent to each other and with a same polarity (i.e., with a same current direction and accompanying electric and/or magnetic field). The addition of a second device 1 enables an increase of the reduction in evaporative water loss in some embodiments. The decision of whether to orient the devices 1 with an opposite polarity or with a similar polarity may be based on the normal chemical makeup of the water being treated. For example, water high in magnesium content may be treated more effectively (may best achieve a reduction in evaporative water loss) by one configuration (such as the reversed-polarity configuration of FIG. 12) while water high in calcium content may be treated more effectively (may achieve a reduction in evaporative water loss) by an alternate configuration (such as the same-polarity configuration of FIG. 13).

In other instances, one configuration (such as the same-polarity configuration of FIG. 13) may be used on the makeup line, and another configuration (such as the opposite -polarity configuration of FIG. 12) may be used on the recirculation line. Accordingly, different embodiments of the device 1 may be used in different configurations on different lines of a single evaporative cooling tower simultaneously.

FIGs. 12 and 13 also illustrate magnetic fields 70 that may be generated around each device 1 while powered and disposed around a water line or pipe. These FIGs. illustrate how the magnetic fields may be aligned (similar polarity) or opposed (opposite polarity). While FIGs. 12 and 13 illustrate embodiments with two devices 1 on a water line or pipe, alternate embodiments may incorporate more than two devices 1, such as three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, etc. devices, and the devices 1 may have any combination of similar and opposite polarities in like manner to that illustrated in FIGs. 12 and 13. Where more than one device 1 is present, not all devices need be supplied with power at all times. In embodiments illustrated by the embodiments shown, the power supply 30 may be a DC power supply providing approximately five volts at approximately one amp current, illustrating the low power use of the system incorporating devices 1 to provide reduced evaporative water loss. In other embodiments illustrated by the embodiments shown, the power supply 30 may be a DC power supply providing approximately eleven to approximately fifteen volts at less than five amps current. The voltage/amperage may be varied according to the particular application to achieve desired results, such as based on fluid flow, contamination levels, existing deposit levels, and the like. Accordingly, embodiments of the invention are not to be limited to specific voltage/amperage examples disclosed herein unless specifically set forth in the appended claims. It should be understood that the power use of the system is low enough that electrolysis of the water in the pipe or line does not occur.

FIG. 14 illustrates a view of measured magnetic field readings (e.g., in microteslas) obtained from embodiments of the device disposed around a makeup or recirculation line of an evaporative cooling tower according to one embodiment (e.g., an embodiment similar to that of FIG. 12). The measured magnetic field readers were obtained using a gauss meter. FIG. 15 illustrates a view of a device 1 in a flat position, illustrating magnetic lines 70 representative of the magnetic field generated around the device 1. FIG. 16 illustrates a view of devices 1 as they may be disposed around a water line, illustrating magnetic field lines 70 representative of the magnetic field that may be generated around one of the two devices 1. FIG. 17 illustrates magnetic field readings measured around a device while in use in a flat position, again using a gauss meter and in microteslas. FIG. 18 also illustrates a magnetic field generated around a device while in use in a flat position.

Embodiments of the device 1 and its systems have been tested in extremely harsh environments, such as environments where the fresh water supplied to the evaporative cooling tower is extremely hard and contain significant minerals, environments where the evaporative cooling tower is subject to blown-in dust and other contaminants from the surrounding environs, environments where pre-existing mineral deposits are present, environments where differing pipe or line materials are present (metal and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes). Favorable results have been obtained in all such situations, including in combinations of such situations. Evaporative water losses have been reduced. Additionally, even in environments where the evaporative cooling tower is subject to significant environmental contamination difficulties, the cooling tower and the recirculated water have remained substantially cleaner. Where pre- existing mineral deposits have been present, such deposits have been softened, loosened, or completely eliminated. Because the fluid of the evaporative cooling towers has remained clearer, bleed and/or blow-down has been significantly reduced as well.

Because use of embodiments of the device in evaporative cooling towers achieves benefits such as these, use of treatment chemicals in evaporative cooling water can be reduced or eliminated, whereby the fluid removed from the evaporative cooling tower is significantly cleaner. Such bleed or blow-down water may no longer require treatment or other wastewater management prior to release into the environment or further use. By way of example only, the bleed or blow-down water may safely be used for irrigation or other use without requiring a separate treatment step to remove the otherwise harmful chemicals.

The reduction of water usage in cooling towers using systems incorporating one or more devices 1 can be significant, as has been observed in real-world testing. As the device 1 can be applied (wrapped around) to a makeup or recirculation line, no cutting of pipes or other costly modifications need be necessary. In one study of a system incorporating the device 1 to an existing evaporative cooling tower, no changes were made to the existing operation of the tower, no pipes were cut, and no costly electrical modifications were required. Furthermore, no chemical modifications or reductions in use of chemicals were performed. No additional cleaning or maintenance was performed.

As a result of the trial, which extended over seventeen days, it was observed that an overall water reduction of approximately 30% was achieved. It was further observed that the highest water savings were achieved when the cooling tower was pushed to provide maximum cooling, when water savings approaching 50% were achieved. Daily water savings varied from between approximately 20% to approximately 50%. During the trial, one recirculation filler pump that had not been working (it is believed due to accumulated hard water scale) began working again two weeks into the trial (it is believed due to scale softening or descaling). No scale removal chemicals were added to achieve this benefit.

It is believed that treatment of cooling tower water using the system incorporating devices 1 as illustrated in FIGs 10-18 modifies the attributes of the particles of dirt and/or minerals (e.g., calcium) suspended in the tower water such that the particles of dirt and/or minerals become unavailable to any bacteria in the cooling tower system (or modify the bacteria themselves), such that the bacteria are unable to utilize the suspended materials and thus cannot grow or reproduce. Such modification may include making the particle size smaller and/or crystallizing the materials. In contrast, it does not appear that the ability of algae or plants to use suspended materials is negatively affected. Accordingly, further use of the cooling tower water is not negatively affected. Accordingly, the use of systems incorporating the device 1 as described herein can be viewed as use of systems to prevent, reduce, or inhibit growth of bacteria in the system.

It has been observed that use of the system achieves differing observed water conductivity (as a result of calcium concentration in the water), with decreasing detected calcium concentration over time. When the incoming water is chemically treated (e.g. for bacteria and/or corrosion), it has been observed that calcium concentration changes are not achieved. Because use of the system achieves reduced bacteria growth without the use of such chemicals, it may be advantageous to reduce or avoid the use of treatment chemicals to maximize performance of the system and reduce post-use water treatment needs. Embodiments of the system achieve the benefits described herein without requiring use of filtration systems.

In some embodiments, the disclosed device and methods of use are suitable for any application that requires the treatment of a fluid. For example, the device and methods can be used for health applications in the form of a health pad that is applied different body parts. In some cases, the device and methods can be used for water treatment for one or more of improving water quality, reducing microorganism levels, reducing scaling, and improving water flow. In other cases the devices and methods can be used for fuel treatment for one or more of improving fuel efficiency, improving fuel quality, reducing fuel impurities, and improving combustion. In yet other cases, the devices and methods can be used to assist in filtration of fluids by reducing scaling, improving fluid flow, and/or reducing biofouling. In some instances, the devices and methods can be applied to desalination by reducing scaling, improving water flow, reducing levels of microorganisms, and reducing biofouling. In other instances, the devices and methods can be applied to irrigation to improve water quality, reduce microorganism levels, reduce scaling, and improve water flow. In yet other instances, the devices and methods can be applied to pH adjustment of fluids, hydrogen production, electrolysis, and/or carpet cleaning.

In some embodiments, the present application discloses an electric and magnetic field inducing device comprising a core comprising a sheet having a front side, a back side, a top, a bottom, a first edge, a second edge and a plurality of notches and windings comprising electrically conductive material wrapped around the core, wherein the windings are positioned along the core at the notches, and wherein the windings are in electrical communication to allow current to flow therethrough. In other embodiments, the core comprises a metallic material. In yet other embodiments, the core comprises a ferrous material. In some embodiments, the core comprises a mesh. In other embodiments, the core comprises one or more of a metal, a ceramic, and a polymer. In yet other embodiments, the device further comprises an insulative coating on a surface of the core. In some embodiments, the insulative coating comprises a lower conductance than the electrically conductive material. In other embodiments, the insulative coating is applied to the front and back surfaces of the core in a pattern comprising a plurality of vertical lines connected with diagonal lines. In yet other embodiments, the electrically conductive material comprises wire.

In some embodiments, the device further comprises a first winding formed by wrapping the conductive material around the core a plurality of times in an orthogonal direction at a first set of directly opposing notches, wherein the conductive material is wrapped in a single direction from the front of the core to the back of the core and a second winding formed by wrapping the conductive material around the core a plurality of times in an orthogonal direction at a second set of directly opposing notches, wherein the conductive material is wrapped in a single direction from the front of the core to the back of the core, and wherein the first winding and the second winding are conductively connected. In some embodiments, the notches comprise protrusions extending from an edge of the core configured so that the conductive material forms a first winding wherein the conductive material is wrapped around a first set of aligned hosting sites so the winding occupies only one surface of the core, wherein the conductive material forms a second winding wherein the conductive material is wrapped around a second set of directly opposed notches so the winding occupies only one surface of the core, and wherein the first winding and the second winding are conductively connected. In other embodiments, the device further comprises a first length of wire disposed about at least two notches by coiling the first length of wire about the two notches in a first direction and a second length of wire disposed about the same two notches by coiling the second length of wire about the same two wire hosting sites in a second direction. In yet other embodiments, the first direction opposes the second direction. In some embodiments, the first length of wire and the second wire are both part of a continuous wire.

In some embodiments, the present application discloses a device for generating electric and magnetic fields, with the device comprising notches, a first wire capable of conducting an electrical current, wherein a first portion of the first wire is disposed about a first set of the notches by coiling the first portion of the first wire about the first set of notches and wherein a second portion of the first wire is disposed about a second set of notches by coiling the second portion of the first wire about the second set of wire hosting sites, and a second wire capable of conducting an electrical current, wherein a first portion of the second wire is disposed about the first set of notches by coiling the first portion of the second wire about the first set of notches in a direction opposing the coiling of the first wire about the first set of notches and wherein a second portion of the second wire disposed about the second set of notches by coiling the second portion of the second wire about the second set of notches in a direction opposing the coiling of the first wire about the second set of notches. In other embodiments, the first wire and the second wire are both part of a continuous wire.

In some embodiments, the present application discloses a method of passing a fluid through an electric and magnetic field comprising providing a core comprising a first set of windings wrapped from a first edge of the core to a second edge of the core and a second set of windings wrapped from the second edge of the core to the first edge of the core, placing the core adjacent to a conduit with fluid flowing therethrough, and applying a current through the windings. In other embodiments, the method further comprises molding the core to the shape of the conduit. In yet other embodiments, the method further comprises wrapping the core around the conduit. The above-described embodiments of the invention are presented for purposes of illustration and not of limitation. While these embodiments of the invention have been described with reference to numerous specific details, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the invention can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit of the invention. Thus, one of ordinary skill in the art would understand that the invention is not to be limited by the foregoing illustrative details, but rather is to be defined by the appended claims.