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Title:
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR WATER EXTRACTION CONTROL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/201405
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A controller may control a system for extracting liquid water from air comprising a thermal unit, a primary desiccant wheel, and a regeneration fluid path. The controller may comprise a plurality of sensors, a plurality of motors, and a microcontroller coupled to the plurality of sensors and the plurality of motors. The microcontroller may be configured to determine a water extraction efficiency based on at least one signal received from at least one of the plurality of sensors and maximize the water extraction efficiency by adjusting a speed of at least one of the plurality of motors in response to the determined water extraction efficiency. The water extraction efficiency may be a value obtained by multiplying a regeneration fluid flow rate within the regeneration fluid path by an absolute humidity of air on a side of the primary desiccant wheel opposite a side in communication with the thermal unit.

Inventors:
FRIESEN, Cody, Alden (13216 N. Vista Del Oro, Ft. Mcdowell, AZ, 85264, US)
FRIESEN, Grant, Harrison (15823 N. 58th Place, Scottsdale, AZ, 85254, US)
LORZEL, Heath (3343 E. Glade Circle, Mesa, AZ, 85204, US)
GOLDBERG, Jonathan, Edward (1631 W Cottonwood Lane, Phoenix, AZ, 85045, US)
Application Number:
US2017/033540
Publication Date:
November 23, 2017
Filing Date:
May 19, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ZERO MASS WATER, INC. (6500 E. McDowell Road, Scottsdale, AZ, 85257, US)
International Classes:
B01D53/04; B01D53/06; B01D53/14; B01D53/26; B01D53/30; E03B3/28
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LAZAR, Dale, S. et al. (DLA Piper LLP US, P.O. Box 2758Reston, VA, 20195, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A controller for controlling a system for extracting liquid water from air, the system comprising a thermal unit, a primary desiccant wheel, and a regeneration fluid path, the controller comprising:

a plurality of sensors;

a plurality of motors; and

a microcontroller coupled to the plurality of sensors and the plurality of motors, the microcontroller being configured to:

determine a water extraction efficiency based on at least one signal received from at least one of the plurality of sensors; and

maximize the water extraction efficiency by adjusting a speed of at least one of the plurality of motors in response to the determined water extraction efficiency;

wherein the water extraction efficiency is a value obtained by multiplying a regeneration fluid flow rate within the regeneration fluid path by an absolute humidity of air on a side of the primary desiccant wheel opposite a side in communication with the thermal unit.

2. The controller of claim 1 , wherein at least one of the sensors comprises a flow sensor disposed in the regeneration fluid path.

3. The controller of claim 2, wherein the at least one signal comprises a regeneration fluid flow rate signal from the flow sensor.

4. The controller of claim 1, wherein at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed in the regeneration fluid path on the side of the primary desiccant wheel opposite a side in communication with the thermal unit.

5. The controller of claim 4, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor.

6. The controller of claim 1, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit.

7. The controller of claim 6, wherein:

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor; and

the microcontroller is further configured to estimate the absolute humidity using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

8. The controller of claim 6, wherein:

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor; and

the microcontroller is further configured to determine a dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

9. The controller of claim 6, wherein:

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor; and

the controller further comprises a filter configured to synchronize the temperature signal with the humidity signal.

10. The controller of claim 1, wherein:

the system further comprises a condenser including an inlet and an outlet; at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed at the inlet of the condenser;

at least one of the sensors comprises a first temperature sensor disposed at the inlet of the condenser; and at least one of the sensors comprises a second temperature sensor disposed at the outlet of the condenser.

11. The controller of claim 10, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor, a first temperature signal from the first temperature sensor, and a second temperature signal from the second temperature sensor.

12. The controller of claim 1, wherein the microcontroller is further configured to

selectively operate in:

a go mode wherein the microcontroller controls the plurality of motors to cause the system to extract the water; and

a no-go mode wherein the microcontroller controls the plurality of motors to prevent the system from extracting the water.

13. The controller of claim 12, wherein the microcontroller is further configured to

transition from the no-go mode to the go mode in response to determining that a dew point is above a threshold value based on the at least one signal received from the at least one of the plurality of sensors.

14. The controller of claim 13, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit;

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor; and

the microcontroller is further configured to determine the dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

15. The controller of claim 12, wherein the microcontroller is further configured to

transition from the go mode to the no-go mode in response to determining that a dew point is below a threshold value based on the at least one signal received from the at least one of the plurality of sensors.

16. The controller of claim 15, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit;

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor; and

the microcontroller is further configured to determine the dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

17. The controller of claim 12, wherein the microcontroller is further configured to set at least one starting speed for at least one of the plurality of motors when transitioning from the no-go mode to the go mode.

18. The controller of claim 17, further comprising a memory coupled to the

microcontroller, wherein the at least one starting speed is based on at least one value stored in the memory corresponding to at least one speed known to maximize the water extraction efficiency for a condition detected by at least one of the plurality of sensors.

19. The controller of claim 17, wherein:

the at least one of the plurality of motors comprises a motor for driving the primary desiccant wheel, a motor for driving a fan in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof; and

the at least one starting speed comprises a rotation speed for the primary desiccant wheel, a flow rate for fluid in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof.

20. The controller of claim 1 , wherein adjusting the speed comprises: increasing the speed in response to detecting an increase in the water generation efficiency; or

decreasing the speed in response to detecting a decrease in the water generation efficiency.

21. The controller of claim 20, wherein the at least one of the plurality of motors

comprises a motor for driving the primary desiccant wheel, a motor for driving a fan in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof.

22. The controller of claim 20, further comprising a memory coupled to the

microcontroller, wherein the microcontroller is further configured to store a log comprising the speed, the at least one signal, the water extraction efficiency, or a combination thereof in the memory.

23. The controller of claim 1 , further comprising a transceiver coupled to the

microcontroller, wherein the microcontroller is configured to:

send data comprising the speed, the at least one signal, the water extraction efficiency, or a combination thereof via the transceiver;

receive command data, update data, or a combination thereof via the transceiver; or

a combination thereof.

24. The controller of claim 1 , wherein the at least one signal comprises a signal indicative of ambient temperature, hot-side temperature, ambient relative humidity, external relative humidity, PV voltage, PV current, PV power, wheel motor target speed, wheel motor measured speed, regen fan target speed, regen fan measured speed, process fan target speed, process fan measured speed, water extraction efficiency, and/or accumulated water count, or a combination thereof.

25. The controller of claim 1, wherein:

the plurality of sensors comprises at least one PV output sensor;

the plurality of motors comprises at least one process fan motor; and the microcontroller is configured to optimize PV output by adjusting a speed of the at least one process fan motor.

26. The controller of claim 1, wherein the system further comprises a compressor and a secondary desiccant wheel disposed between the primary desiccant wheel and the compressor.

27. The controller of claim 26, wherein the microcontroller is configured to optimize a humidity at an inlet of the compressor by adjusting a speed of the secondary desiccant wheel.

28. A method for controlling a system for extracting liquid water from air, the system comprising a thermal unit, a primary desiccant wheel, and a regeneration fluid path, the method comprising:

determining, with a microcontroller coupled to a plurality of sensors and a plurality of motors, a water extraction efficiency based on at least one signal received from at least one of the plurality of sensors; and

maximizing, with the microcontroller, the water extraction efficiency by adjusting a speed of at least one of the plurality of motors in response to the determined water extraction efficiency;

wherein the water extraction efficiency is a value obtained by multiplying a regeneration fluid flow rate within the regeneration fluid path by an absolute humidity of air on a side of the primary desiccant wheel opposite a side in communication with the thermal unit.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein at least one of the sensors comprises a flow sensor disposed in the regeneration fluid path.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the at least one signal comprises a regeneration fluid flow rate signal from the flow sensor.

31. The method of claim 28, wherein at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed in the regeneration fluid path on the side of the primary desiccant wheel opposite a side in communication with the thermal unit.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor.

33. The method of claim 28, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor, the method further comprising estimating, with the microcontroller, the absolute humidity using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

35. The method of claim 33, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor, the method further comprising determining, with the microcontroller, a dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

36. The method of claim 33, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor, the method further comprising filtering the temperature signal to synchronize the temperature signal with the humidity signal.

37. The method of claim 28, wherein:

the system further comprises a condenser including an inlet and an outlet; at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed at the inlet of the condenser; at least one of the sensors comprises a first temperature sensor disposed at the inlet of the condenser; and

at least one of the sensors comprises a second temperature sensor disposed at the outlet of the condenser.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor, a first temperature signal from the first temperature sensor, and a second temperature signal from the second temperature sensor.

39. The method of claim 28, further comprising selectively operating the microcontroller in:

a go mode wherein the microcontroller controls the plurality of motors to cause the system to extract the water; and

a no-go mode wherein the microcontroller controls the plurality of motors to prevent the system from extracting the water.

40. The method of claim 39, further comprising transitioning, with the microcontroller, from the no-go mode to the go mode in response to determining that a dew point is above a threshold value based on the at least one signal received from the at least one of the plurality of sensors.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit; and

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor;

the method further comprising determining, with the microcontroller, the dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

42. The method of claim 39, further comprising transitioning, with the microcontroller, from the go mode to the no-go mode in response to determining that a dew point is below a threshold value based on the at least one signal received from the at least one of the plurality of sensors.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein:

at least one of the sensors comprises a humidity sensor disposed outside the system; and

at least another one of the sensors comprises a temperature sensor disposed in or near the thermal unit; and

the at least one signal comprises a humidity signal from the humidity sensor and a temperature signal from the temperature sensor;

the method further comprising determining, with the microcontroller, the dew point using the humidity signal and the temperature signal.

44. The method of claim 39, further comprising setting, with the microcontroller, at least one starting speed for at least one of the plurality of motors when transitioning from the no-go mode to the go mode.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the at least one starting speed is based on at least one value stored in a memory coupled to the microcontroller corresponding to at least one speed known to maximize the water extraction efficiency for a condition detected by at least one of the plurality of sensors.

46. The method of claim 44, wherein:

the at least one of the plurality of motors comprises a motor for driving the primary desiccant wheel, a motor for driving a fan in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof; and

the at least one starting speed comprises a rotation speed for the primary desiccant wheel, a flow rate for fluid in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof.

47. The method of claim 28, wherein adjusting the speed comprises:

increasing the speed in response to detecting an increase in the water generation efficiency; or

decreasing the speed in response to detecting a decrease in the water generation efficiency.

48. The method of claim 47, wherein the at least one of the plurality of motors comprises a motor for driving the primary desiccant wheel, a motor for driving a fan in the regeneration fluid path, or a combination thereof.

49. The method of claim 47, further comprising storing, with the microcontroller, a log comprising the speed, the at least one signal, the water extraction efficiency, or a combination thereof in a memory coupled to the microcontroller.

50. The method of claim 28, further comprising:

sending, with the microcontroller, data comprising the speed, the at least one signal, the water extraction efficiency, or a combination thereof via a transceiver coupled to the microcontroller;

receiving, with the microcontroller, command data, update data, or a combination thereof via the transceiver; or

a combination thereof.

51. The method of claim 28, wherein the at least one signal comprises a signal indicative of ambient temperature, hot-side temperature, ambient relative humidity, external relative humidity, PV voltage, PV current, PV power, wheel motor target speed, wheel motor measured speed, regen fan target speed, regen fan measured speed, process fan target speed, process fan measured speed, water extraction efficiency, and/or accumulated water count, or a combination thereof.

52. The method of claim 28, wherein:

the plurality of sensors comprises at least one PV output sensor; and the plurality of motors comprises at least one process fan motor; the method further comprising optimizing, with the microcontroller, PV output by adjusting a speed of the at least one process fan motor.

53. The method of claim 28, wherein the system further comprises a compressor and a secondary desiccant wheel disposed between the primary desiccant wheel and the compressor.

54. The method of claim 53, further comprising optimizing, with the microcontroller, a humidity at an inlet of the compressor by adjusting a speed of the secondary desiccant wheel.

Description:
TITLE

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR WATER EXTRACTION CONTROL

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/339,649, entitled "Systems and Methods for Water Extraction Control" and filed May 20, 2016, by reference in its entirety.

This application incorporates U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/145,995, entitled "Systems and Methods for Generating Liquid Water From Air" and filed April 10, 2015, by reference in its entirety.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagram of a system for generating liquid water from air according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a diagram of a system for generating liquid water from air according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 3A is a graph of diurnal variations in environmental conditions over one day, including ambient air relative humidity ("RH") and temperature, according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 3B is a graph of diurnal variations in environmental conditions over one day, including solar radiation (e.g., solar insolation), according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating flow paths through systems for generating liquid water from air according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5A is a diagram of a controller according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5B is a diagram of a control process according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 6 is an efficiency graph according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 7 is a series of efficiency graphs according to an embodiment of the invention. FIG. 8 is a series of water production rate graphs according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 9 is a series of water production rate graphs according to an embodiment of the invention. FIG. 10 is an efficiency graph according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIGS. 11A and 11B are graphs illustrating coefficients of quadratic regression models fit to the data sets illustrated in FIG. 10 according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 12 is a diagram of a system for generating liquid water from air according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 13 is a diagram of a controller according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 14 is a go/no-go mode determination process according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 15 is a network of water generating systems according to an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 16 is a diagram of a maximum power point tracking approach according to an embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL EMBOIMDENTS

The systems and methods described herein are generally related to control systems for the extraction of water vapor from atmospheric air. First, a general description of water extraction by a water extraction system is provided. Then, specific control system

embodiments are presented in the context of specific water generation system examples.

Water Extraction

Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIG. 1, shown therein and designated by the reference numeral 10 is an example system for generating liquid water from air. System 10 may be configured to function responsive to diurnal variations. For example, as described in more detail below, system 10 may be configured to control one or more operational parameters (e.g., control and/or controlled variables) based on one or more diurnal variations (e.g., variations in ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, solar insolation, and/or the like).

System 10 may comprise a desiccant unit 14. Desiccant unit 14 may comprise a desiccant (e.g., sorption medium) 18, where the desiccant 18 (e.g., or a portion thereof) may be selectively (e.g., and/or alternatively) movable between an adsorption zone 22, in which the desiccant is in fluid communication with a process air pathway (e.g., a process airflow path) 26 and a desorption zone 30, in which the desiccant is in fluid communication with a (e.g., closed-loop) regeneration fluid pathway (e.g., a regeneration fluid path) 34. In some embodiments, the adsorption and desorption zones may be defined by a housing (e.g., 38) of the desiccant unit.

Desiccant unit 14 may operate in a continuous, or non-batch, fashion, such that desiccant unit 14 is configured to absorb water and desorb water substantially simultaneously or simultaneously. For example, system 10 may be configured such that a first portion of desiccant 18 can be disposed within adsorption zone 22 (e.g., such that the first portion can capture water from process air in process air pathway 26), with a second portion of the desiccant simultaneously disposed within the desorption zone (e.g., such that the second portion can desorb water into regeneration fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34).

Regeneration fluids suitable for use in some embodiments of the present systems may include, but are not limited to, air (e.g., including any suitable amount of water vapor), supersaturated or high relative humidity gas (e.g., 90-100% relative humidity), glycols, ionic liquids, and/or the like.

Desiccant unit 14 may comprise a hygroscopic material (e.g., desiccant or sorption medium 18) configured to continuously alternate between a process air pathway 26 and a regeneration fluid pathway 34. In some embodiments, that the desiccant or sorption medium may be capable of quickly desorbing water back into low relative humidity air (e.g., to regenerate the desiccant). Therefore, in some embodiments, the performance of the desiccant or sorption medium may be driven by an ability to quickly cycle through an absorption state and a desorption state.

Desiccants 18 may comprise any suitable medium in any suitable configuration (e.g., such that the desiccant or sorption medium is capable of adsorption and desorption of water). In some embodiments, the desiccant or sorption medium may be capable of sorption at a first temperature and/or pressure and desorption at a second temperature and/or pressure. Suitable desiccants or sorption mediums may comprise liquids, solids, and/or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, desiccants or sorption mediums may comprise any suitable porous solid impregnated with hygroscopic materials. For example, desiccant 18 may comprise silica, silica gel, alumina, alumina gel, montmorillonite clay, zeolites, molecular sieves, activated carbon, metal oxides, lithium salts, calcium salts, potassium salts, sodium salts, magnesium salts, phosphoric salts, organic salts, metal salts, glycerin, glycols, hydrophilic polymers, polyols, polypropylene fibers, cellulosic fibers, derivatives thereof, and combinations of thereof. In some embodiments, the desiccant or sorption medium may be selected and/or configured to avoid sorption of certain molecules (e.g., molecules that may be poisonous when consumed by a human).

In some embodiments, desiccant particles may be packed in a shallow bed to maximize a surface area for interaction with air or fluid within adsorption zone 22 and desorption zone 30. In some embodiments, the desiccant particles may be agglomerated via a binder. In some embodiments, the desiccant particles may be dyed black (e.g., to improve absorption of thermal radiation). In some embodiments, the desiccant particles may be mixed and/or combined with thermal radiation absorbing materials.

System 10 may include one or more blowers 42 and/or one or more circulators 46. For example, in this embodiment, blower 42 is disposed in process air pathway 26 and is configured to adjust a flow rate of air through the process air pathway. Circulator 46, in this embodiment, is disposed in regeneration fluid pathway 34 and is configured to adjust a flow rate of fluid through the regeneration fluid pathway. In some embodiments, blower 42 and/or circulator 46 may be controlled by controller 50 (e.g., controlling a speed of blower 42 and/or circulator 46 to optimize liquid water production). In some embodiments, blower 42 and/or circulator 46 may be configured to substantially maintain a pre-determined flow rate through process air pathway 26 and/or regeneration fluid pathway 34, respectively.

System 10 may comprise a thermal unit 54 configured to provide thermal energy to fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34 (e.g., such that desiccant 18 may be regenerated). In some embodiments, thermal unit 54 may be a solar thermal unit (e.g., is configured to convert solar insolation to thermal energy). While the present systems may comprise any suitable thermal unit, whether solar or otherwise, the following description of thermal unit 54 is provided by way of example.

Thermal unit 54 may comprise a transparent layer 62 configured to allow sunlight to enter casing 58 of the thermal unit (e.g., a sheet of transparent material, a lens, and/or the like, which may comprise glass, polymers, poly crystalline materials, derivatives thereof, combinations thereof, and/or the like). In embodiments comprising a glass transparent layer 62, the glass may be configured to maximize transmissivity (e.g., low-iron and/or no-iron materials, and/or other compositions, uncoated materials, and/or the like). Transparent layers may comprise multiple layers (e.g., multi-pane layers, such as, for example, double-paned glass). Thermal unit 54 may comprise an absorber 68 configured to absorb thermal energy from the sunlight and provide at least a portion of the absorbed thermal energy to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway (e.g., absorber 68 may comprise a thermally permeable material). Absorbers may comprise any suitable material, such as, for example, metals (e.g. aluminum, copper, steel), thermally stable polymers, or other material, and/or the like. Absorbers may be substantially flat, roughened, channeled, or corrugated, for example. In some embodiments, a matte black coating or selective film may be applied to the surface of the absorber material. Absorber 68 may be configured to transfer thermal energy to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway without an intervening heat transfer fluid in some embodiments. In other embodiments, a fluid (e.g., liquid, gas, and/or the like) may be thermally disposed between the absorber and fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway (e.g., to function as a medium to transfer heat between the absorber and fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway).

Thermal unit 54 may comprise an insulator 72 configured to insulate at least a portion of casing 58. In this way, solar insolation may enter the casing of thermal unit 54 (e.g., through transparent layer 62), and insulator 72 may insulate a portion of the casing to, for example, minimize thermal energy losses to an environment outside of the thermal unit. Insulator(s) may comprise any suitable material (e.g., a material capable of resisting the flow of thermal energy), such as, for example, a solid foam comprising trapped pockets of gas and/or liquid. In some embodiments, insulators may be selected and/or configured for stability at high temperatures (e.g., temperatures exceeding 200° C).

One or more channels 76 may be disposed in thermal communication with absorber 68 such that the absorber may transfer absorbed thermal energy to fluid (e.g., regeneration fluid, a flowable heat carrier medium, and/or the like) within the one or more channels. The one or more channels 76 may form part of regeneration fluid pathway 34 (e.g., one or more channels 76 are configured to convey regeneration fluid). The one or more channels 76 may comprise any suitable structure, such as, for example, tubular hollow bodies or a plurality of flat plates adapted for fluid flow therebetween, and/or the like.

System 10 may comprise a condenser 80 configured to receive fluid from the desorption zone via the regeneration fluid pathway and produce liquid water from the received fluid (e.g., by condensing water vapor in fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway). Condensers may comprise any suitable material and may be of any suitable configuration (e.g., to condense water vapor in regeneration fluid into liquid water). For example, suitable condensers may comprise polymers, metals, and/or the like. Condensers may be arranged to include coils, fins, plates, tortuous passages, and/or the like. Condenser 80 may be configured to transfer thermal energy from fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34 downstream of desiccant 18 to air in process air pathway 26 upstream of desiccant 18 (e.g., such that air in process air pathway 26 may facilitate cooling of condenser 80). In some embodiments, condenser 80 may be cooled by ambient air.

System 10 may comprise a water collection unit 84 configured to receive liquid water produced by condenser 80. Liquid water produced by the condenser may be provided to water collection unit 84 by way of gravity; however, in other embodiments, flow of liquid water from the condenser to the water collection unit may be assisted (e.g., by one or more pumps, any other suitable delivery mechanism, and/or the like).

System 10 may comprise a filter 88 (e.g., a filtration membrane), which may be positioned between condenser 80 and water collection unit 84 (e.g., to reduce an amount of impurities, such as, for example, sand, bacteria, fibrous, carbonaceous species, and/or the like, which may be present in liquid water produced by condenser 80).

Water collection unit 84 (e.g., or filter 88 thereof) may comprise an ultraviolet (UV) light source (e.g., for disinfection of water produced by condenser 80). In some embodiments, suitable light sources may comprise light emitting diodes (LEDs) having, for example:

wavelengths below 400 nanometers (nm) (e.g., 385 nm, 365 nm, and/or the like),

wavelengths below 300 nm (e.g., 265 nm), and/or the like.

Water collection unit 84 may comprise one or more water level sensors (e.g., 122e). Such water level sensors may comprise conductance sensors (e.g., open and/or closed circuit resistance-type conductance sensors), which may operate via conductivity measurement of water in the range of 0.1 msiemens per cm.

Water collection unit 84 may comprise a receptacle 92 configured to receive one or more additives for introduction to the produced liquid water. Such additives may be configured to dissolve slowly into liquid water stored in the water collection unit. Additives may include, but are not limited to, minerals, salts, other compounds, and/or the like. In some embodiments, additives may impart flavor to the produced liquid water. For example, additives may include potassium salts, magnesium salts, calcium salts, fluoride salts, carbonate salts, iron salts, chloride salts, silica, limestone, and/or combinations thereof. System 10 may comprise indicators (e.g., lights, such as, for example, LEDs), which may be configured to provide information regarding system operation. For example, in some embodiments, indicator lights may be configured to provide information (e.g., visually, for example, to a user) that the system is running, that solar power (e.g., from power unit 1 18) is available, that an air filter (e.g., within process air pathway 26) may need to be changed, that a water collection unit (e.g., 84) is full (e.g., in some embodiments, that the water collection unit contains 20 L of liquid water), that an actuator (e.g., actuator 1 14, blower 42, circulator 46, and/or the like) has failed and/or is failing, that telematics errors (e.g., as indicated by transceiver 126 operation) have and/or are occurring, and/or the like. As described below, any suitable information (including the information described above with reference to indicators) may be transmitted over a communications network (e.g., alone and/or in addition to operation of any indicators).

A controller (e.g., processor) 50 may control exposure of desiccant 18 (or a portion thereof) to air in process air pathway 26 and regeneration fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34 (e.g., to increase and/or optimize the liquid water ultimately produced by condenser 80), and such control may vary over a diurnal cycle (e.g., in response to diurnal variations). Such variations in environmental conditions (e.g., inputs into controller 50) may include, for example, ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, and solar insolation. Other inputs to controller 50 may include, for example, an amount of thermal energy generated by thermal unit 54, a relative humidity of air in process air pathway 26, a relative humidity of fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34, a temperature of fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway between desiccant 18 and thermal unit 54, a rate of water production, and/or the like. In embodiments that include a purge airflow path (e.g., 130), inputs to controller 50 may include a flow rate, temperature, relative humidity and/or the like of air in the purge airflow path. Controller 50 may be configured to optimize liquid water production by controlling a rate of desiccant 18 movement between the adsorption zone and the desorption zone, controlling a speed of blower 42 and/or circulator 46, and/or the like, based, on

measurements of one or more of such inputs (e.g., such that controller 50 may optimize liquid water production based on current environmental and system conditions). As described in more detail below, inputs to controller 50 may be measured in that they are indicated in data captured by one or more sensors (e.g., 122). Specific controller embodiments and functions are described in greater detail in the "Control Systems and Methods" section below. Controller 50 is discussed in the "Water Extraction" section to explain how a controller may be integrated into the system 10 in general. However, it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that additional and/or alternative functions (e.g., those described in the "Control Systems and Methods" section) may be performed by controller 50 and/or other control systems in various water extraction system embodiments.

FIG. 2 is a diagram of an embodiment 98 of a system for generating liquid water from air. System 98 may be substantially similar to system 10, with the primary differences and/or additions described below. Otherwise, system 98 may comprise any and/or all features described with respect to system 10.

In system 98, as with system 10, desiccant 18 (or a first portion thereof) may be in fluid communication with process air in process air pathway 26 while the desiccant 14 (or a second portion thereof) is simultaneously in fluid communication with regeneration fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34, and, thus, desiccant unit 14 operates in a continuous and non- batch manner. In this embodiment, sections of desiccant 18 may be exposed to air in process air pathway 26 and fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34 in an alternating manner.

System 98 may comprise a rotatable disk 102 (e.g., with desiccant 18 disposed thereon). Desiccant 18 (or sections thereof) may be configured to move between the adsorption zone and the desorption zone as disk 102 is rotated. For example, in the depicted orientation of disk 102, a portion 106 of the desiccant is in communication with process air pathway 26, and a portion 110 of the disk is in communication with regeneration fluid pathway 34. System 98 may comprise an actuator (e.g., electrical motor) 1 14 configured to cause rotation of disk 102. Controller 50 may be configured to optimize liquid water production at least by controlling movement (e.g., through control of actuator 114) of desiccant 18 (e.g., disk 102) between the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. In other embodiments, motor 114 may rotate disk 102 at a predetermined rotation rate.

System 98 may comprise a solar power unit 118 configured to provide power to at least a portion of system 98 (e.g., blower 42, circulator 46, actuator 114, and/or the like). Solar power unit 118 may be configured to convert solar insolation to electrical power (e.g., solar power unit 118 comprises a solar panel). For example, solar power unit 1 18 may be provided as a photovoltaic solar panel comprising semiconducting materials exhibiting a photovoltaic effect. In these and similar embodiments, controller 50 may be configured to control system 98 in response to diurnal variations in solar insolation (e.g., an amount of electrical power generated by solar power unit 1 18).

Systems for generating liquid water from air may be modular in nature. For example, systems may be configured such that each component (e.g. solar power unit 118, thermal unit 54, desiccant unit 14, condenser 80, water collection unit 84, and/or the like) may be separated from one another, transported, assembled and/or re-assembled with one another (e.g., in a same or a different configuration), and/or the like. For example, in some embodiments, the system may be configured such that no dimension of any singular component (e.g., water collection unit 84, desiccant unit 14, solar power unit 1 18, thermal unit 54, condenser 80, and/or the like) is larger than six to eight feet (e.g., to facilitate transport of the system or components thereof, for example, in a single cab truck bed, such as a bed of a Toyota Hilux pickup truck) (e.g., each component has a footprint that is less than or equal to 64 square feet (ft 2 ) and/or each component can be contained within a cubic volume less than or equal to 512 cubic feet (ft 3 )).

Controller 50 may be configured to control one or more of blower 42, circulator 46, actuator 1 14, and/or the like (e.g., to optimize liquid water production, where such control may be in response to diurnal variations, for example, in ambient temperature, ambient air relative humidity, solar insolation, and/or the like). For example, controller 50 may be configured to increase a rate of liquid water production by controlling blower 42, circulator 46, actuator 114, and/or the like, taking into account, for example, diurnal variations. Such variations may change the amount of thermal energy generated by thermal unit 54, the level of electrical power provided by solar power unit 118, the level of humidity in process air entering the system, and/or the like. In some embodiments, ambient conditions may be measured in real-time or can be forecast based on, for example, historical averages and/or the like. In embodiments in which controller 50 receives real-time measurements, various sensors (described in more detail below) may provide data indicative of ambient conditions to controller 50 (e.g., continuously, periodically, when requested by controller 50, and/or the like).

Controller 50 may operate the system based on one or more of: a user selection, data received from one or more sensors, programmatic control, and/or by any other suitable bases. For example, controller 50 may be associated with peripheral devices (including sensors) for sensing data information, data collection components for storing data information, and/or communication components for communicating data information relating to the operation of the system.

System 98 may comprise one or more peripheral devices, such as sensors 122 (e.g., temperature sensors 122a, humidity sensors 122b, solar insolation sensor 122c, flow rate sensors 122d, water level sensors 122e, and/or the like). In some embodiments, one or more sensors (e.g., 122) may provide data indicative of ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, solar insolation, process air temperature, regeneration fluid temperature, process air relative humidity, regeneration fluid relative humidity, process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, liquid water production rate, water usage rate, and/or the like.

One or more sensors 122 may be located remotely from other components of the system and may provide captured data to the other components of the system via a wired and/or wireless connection. For example, a town, village, city, and/or the like may include a plurality of the present systems, and one of the plurality of the present systems may provide data indicative of ambient environmental conditions (e.g., air temperature, air relative humidity, a solar insolation level, and/or the like) to another one of the plurality of the present systems. In this way, in some embodiments, a single sensor 122 may be shared by multiple systems. In some embodiments, data communicated to a controller (e.g., 50) by one or more peripheral devices (e.g., one or more sensors 122) may be stored in a data logging unit.

System 98 may comprise a telematics unit (e.g., a transmitter, receiver, transponder, transverter, repeater, transceiver, and/or the like, sometimes referred to herein as "transceiver 126"). For example, a transceiver 126 may be configured to communicate data to and/or from the system (e.g., controller 50) via a wired and/or wireless interface (e.g., which may conform to standardized communications protocols, such as, for example, GSM, SMS components operating at relatively low rates (e.g., operating every few minutes), protocols that may be geographically specified, and/or the like).

Transceiver 126 may be associated with a server and a communications network for communicating information between the server and the transceiver (e.g., and thus the system and/or a controller 50 thereof). Two-way communication may be facilitated by a cellular tower in cellular range of the system. In some embodiments, a database (e.g., which may be remote from the system) may be configured to store information received from the server over the communications network. In embodiments with telematics capability, a network administrator or device owner may send a command to controller 50 to update or delete look-up table data (described below) and/or a control algorithm. In this way, data security may be maintained, for example, in the case that the system is stolen or otherwise lost.

Controller 50 may be configured to vary operation of system 98 at least based on realtime and/or forecast variations in ambient conditions. For example, controller 50 may control exposure of desiccant 18 (e.g., or sections thereof) to process air and regeneration fluid in response to changes in ambient conditions (e.g., by changing the rotational speed of disk 102, such that the time that a portion of desiccant 18 disposed thereon is exposed to process air in process air pathway 26 or regeneration fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 34 may be increased or decreased). In some embodiments, controller 50 may be configured to vary a size of an adsorption zone or a desorption zone (e.g., in response to diurnal variations).

FIG. 3A is a graph of diurnal variations in environmental conditions over one day, including ambient air relative humidity ("RH") and temperature. FIG. 3B is a graph of diurnal variations in environmental conditions over one day, including solar radiation (e.g., solar insolation). During nighttime hours, ambient air relative humidity may be relatively high, and ambient temperature may be relatively low. As the sun rises, solar insolation may increase (e.g., peaking around noon), which may result in a decrease in ambient air relative humidity and an increase in ambient temperature. At a certain point during the day, ambient air relative humidity may reach a minimum, and, at a certain point during the day, ambient temperature may increase to a maximum, and these points may generally coincide. Finally, as the sun begins to set, ambient air relative humidity may tend to increase, and ambient temperature may tend to decrease (e.g., as solar insolation approaches its minimum during nighttime hours).

As shown, a particular set of environmental conditions may exist at each point in a diurnal cycle (e.g., ambient air relative humidity, ambient temperature, solar insolation, and/or the like). The system may be configured to vary operational parameters (e.g., control variables), taking into account variations in these environmental conditions, thus optimizing system performance (e.g., liquid water production) for each point of the diurnal cycle. By way of illustration, in the early part of a day, solar insolation may be relatively limited. Thus, in some embodiments, the system (e.g., or a controller 50 thereof) may adjust operational parameters to account for a relatively low amount of available solar thermal energy and/or a relatively low amount of electrical power available from solar power units, despite the relative high ambient air relative humidity. For example, in these circumstances, a controller may cause a desiccant to move more slowly between an adsorption zone and a desorption zone due to the relatively low amount of thermal energy and/or solar power available, despite the relatively high levels of ambient air relative humidity in available process air. On the other hand, later in the day, the controller may adjust operational parameters to account for a relatively low amount of ambient air relative humidity, despite a relatively high amount of available solar thermal energy and/or a relatively high amount of electrical power available from solar power units (e.g., due to a relatively high amount of solar insolation). Controllers may make such adjustments to operational parameters periodically and/or continuously.

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating example flow paths through some embodiments of the present systems for generating liquid water from air. Embodiments of the present systems for generating liquid water from air may comprise any suitable flow path (e.g., process air pathway and/or regeneration fluid pathway), including, for example, those described below (e.g., whether alone and/or in combination), which are provided merely by way of example.

In some embodiments, air within the process air pathway may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, B, C, E, and F of a desiccant 18 (e.g., such that the desiccant or sections thereof may absorb water from the air in the process air pathway), pass through a condenser 80 (e.g., where air in the process air pathway may be heated by thermal energy from fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway), and be exhausted to the outside environment. In these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80 (e.g., where fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway may transfer thermal energy to air in the process air pathway), pass through a thermal unit 54 (e.g., where fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway may be heated), communicate with section D of a desiccant 18 (e.g., such that the desiccant or sections thereof may release water to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway), and flow back through the condenser (e.g., such that the condenser may produce liquid water from fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway).

In some embodiments, the present systems may include a purge airflow path 130 configured to transfer thermal energy from regeneration fluid in a regeneration fluid pathway downstream of a desiccant 18 to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway upstream of the condenser. For example, in these and similar embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, B, and F of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to the outside environment. In these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of a desiccantl 8, and flow back through the condenser. In these and similar embodiments, air in a purge airflow path 130 may communicate between section E of a desiccantl 8 and section D of the desiccant (e.g., to transfer heat from section D of the desiccant, which may be provided to section D of the desiccant by regeneration fluid within the regeneration fluid pathway flowing from a thermal unit 54 to section E of the desiccant) (e.g., to perform a pre-heating operation before section E of the desiccant moves into a desorption zone).

Some embodiments may comprise a recovery heat exchanger 134 configured to transfer thermal energy from regeneration fluid in a regeneration fluid pathway downstream of a desiccant 18 to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway upstream of the condenser. For example, in these and similar embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, B, C, E, and F of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to the outside environment. In these and similar

embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, pass through a heat exchanger (e.g., such that the heat exchanger may transfer thermal energy from fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway downstream of the desiccant to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway upstream of the condenser), pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of the desiccant, flow back through the heat exchanger, and flow back through the condenser. In this way, thermal energy that may otherwise be lost to the environment through the condenser may be at least partially recovered to be used for desorption purposes.

Some embodiments may comprise a second desiccant 138 (e.g., which may be disposed on a disk, similarly to as described above for desiccant 18) configured to transfer water from fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway downstream of a condenser 80 to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway upstream of the condenser. For example, in these and similar embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, B, C, E, and F of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to the outside environment. In these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, communicate with section L of a second desiccant 138 (e.g., such that desiccant 138 may capture water in fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway before the fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway enters thermal unit 54), pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of the desiccant, communicate with section K of the second desiccant (e.g., such that desiccant 138 may release water to fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway before fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway enters condenser 80), and flow back through the condenser.

Some embodiments may achieve at least some of the functionality described above for a regeneration fluid pathway in communication with a second desiccant 138 without requiring a second desiccant. For example, in some embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, E, and F, of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to the outside environment, n these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, communicate with section C of a desiccant 18, pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of the desiccant, communicate with section B of the desiccant, and flow back through the condenser.

In some embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with section A, E, and F of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to an outside environment. In these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, communicate with section C of a desiccant 18, pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of the desiccant, and flow back through the condenser. Such embodiments may achieve at least some of the benefits of embodiments having a recovery heat exchanger 134 or a purge airflow path 130.

In some embodiments, process air may enter the system from an outside environment, communicate with sections A, B, E, and F of a desiccant 18, pass through a condenser 80, and be exhausted to an outside environment. In these and similar embodiments, regeneration fluid may pass through a condenser 80, flow through a recovery heat exchanger

134,communicate with section C of a desiccant 18, pass through a thermal unit 54, communicate with section D of the desiccant, flow back through the recovery heat exchanger, and flow back through the condenser.

In some embodiments of the present systems (e.g., 10, 98, and/or the like), production rate of liquid water C¾O raf e) may be expressed, at least in part, as a function of environmental conditions (e.g., ambient air temperature (T amb ), ambient air relative humidity (RH amb ), and solar insolation (Q so iar)), as wei l as system operating parameters (e.g., control variables) (e.g., process air flow rate (V process), regeneration fluid flow rate (V regen ), and exposure time of a desiccant to process air and regeneration fluid (e.g., which, for a desiccant disposed on a rotatable disk, may be a function of a rotation rate of the rotatable disk (( dlsk )) (Eq. 1). (1)

Efficiency of some embodiments of the present systems may be expressed in a variety of ways. The following examples are provided only by way of illustration, and each of the following examples may be used alone or in combination with other expressions (whether or not explicitly disclosed below) to describe an efficiency of some embodiments of the present systems. For example, efficiency may be defined as:

Λ U m liquid H 2 0,produced ..-^

V — &tivap,H 2 0 7. \ Z )

Qtotal

where η represents efficiency, ΔΗ ναρ Ηζ0 represents the heat of vaporization of water, ™uquid H 2 o,produced represents a mass of liquid water produced, and Q total represents the heat energy required by the system to produce the mass of liquid water. From Eq. 2, it can be seen that an efficiency of 100% equates to 2260 joules (J) of heat energy required to produce 1 gram (g) of liquid water.

In some embodiments, efficiency may be defined as regeneration efficiency, or, for example:

mliquid H 2 0.produced

m H 2 O, recirculating

where m H O, recirculating represents a total mass of water present in the regeneration fluid pathway. As seen in Eq. 3, efficiency may generally improve as exit temperature of regeneration fluid from the condenser decreases.

In some embodiments, efficiency may be defined in terms of an effectiveness parameter (e.g., determined from psychrometric charts). Such an effectiveness parameter may be defined, for example, as the ratio of an actual amount of water adsorbed and/or desorbed by a desiccant to an idea isenthalpic path in the psychrometric chart. To illustrate, an effectiveness parameter may tend towards a value of unity (one), with higher gel carrying capacities, decreased disk rotation rates, lower disk heat capacity, and/or the like.

In some embodiments, efficiency may be defined as dehumidification effectiveness, or, for example: m H 7 0,in ~ m H 7 0,out , .

= -^- ™. Η 2 0,ίη (4)

where m H20 in represents a total mass of water present in air entering process air pathway 26, and m H2 o out represents a total mass of water leaving process air pathway 26.

As depicted in FIG. 5A, in some embodiments, a controller 50 may control the system operating parameters, based on one or more of the environmental conditions (e.g., which may be measured by and/or indicated in data captured by one or more sensors 122) in order to optimize, for example, liquid water production. By way of illustration, in some embodiments, for each combination of particular environmental conditions corresponding to a given point in the diurnal cycle (e.g., 0° C < T amb < 45° C; 20% < RH amb 90%; 200 watts per square meter (W/m 2 ) < Q solar < * 000 W/m 2 ), the controller may perform a simulation using a model of a system (e.g., 10, 98, and/or the like) to estimate the optimal system operating parameters

(e.g., (<*> disk) optimum, (V process) optimum, m & Y re gen) optimum)■> mat maximize and/or optimize liquid water production (e.g., as defined in Eq. 1), where:

( ω 'disk) optimum f (Tambi ^^amb> Qsolar) ( )

(Yprocess) optimum f (Tambi Q solar) (6)

(Yre gen) optimum f (Tamb> ^^amb> Qsolar) (Ό

In some embodiments, a controller 50 may employ a control algorithm that incorporates design variables (e.g. disk 102 geometry, such as, for example, thickness, radius, and/or the like, thermal unit 54 geometry, and/or the like), and, in some embodiments, these design variables may be incorporated in the control algorithm along with environmental conditions (e.g. ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, solar insolation, and/or the like).

As described above, in some embodiments, ambient air temperature and ambient air relative humidity may be measured directly with one or more sensors 122. In some embodiments, solar insolation may be measured indirectly (e.g., and continuously) by measuring a temperature of fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway between a thermal unit 54 and a desiccant 18 (e.g., at a known and controlled flow rate of regeneration fluid through the regeneration fluid pathway). In some embodiments, data captured by various sensor(s) may be transmitted to a controller (e.g., which may be in communication with a memory that stores a look-up table containing data generated during simulation runs) which then determines the optimum system operating parameters (e.g., process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, disk rotation rate, and/or the like).

In some embodiments, a numerical simulator may be used to create a look-up table of optimized operational parameters for the system. For example, in these embodiments, each run of the numerical simulator may take a single set of design specifications (e.g. disk kinetics, disk size, desiccant configuration, solar collector size, condenser geometry and performance, and/or the like), instantaneous and/or forecast ambient conditions (e.g. ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, a level of solar insolation), and system operation variables (e.g., process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, desiccant exposure time to process air and/or regeneration fluid, and/or the like) to determine and/or estimate an optimized efficiency and/or liquid water production rate for the system (e.g., which optimized values may vary over a diurnal cycle).

FIG. 5B is a flow chart of a non-limiting example of simulation-based control suitable for use in some embodiments of the present systems. Note that while simulation-based control may be used in some cases, additional control schemes and methods are discussed in the "Control Systems and Methods" section below. As shown, the system may be initialized at step 142 with one or more design inputs, control inputs, and/or controller variables. In this embodiment, design inputs can include one or more of system size, disk materials and/or dimensions, desiccant materials and/or dimensions, control inputs can include ambient air relative humidity (e.g., or a range thereof), ambient air temperature (e.g., or a range thereof), and a level of solar insolation (e.g., or a range thereof), and controller variables may include process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, desiccant rate of movement, and/or the like. In some embodiments, one or more of the steps of this example may be performed by a controller 50. In some embodiments, certain steps depicted in FIG. 5B may be omitted.

At step 146, movement of a desiccant 18 may be simulated (e.g., by simulating rotation of disk 102 by a small amount, such as, for example, from 1-5°). In this embodiment, at step 150, simulated process air may be passed over a simulated condenser 80. In the depicted embodiment, also at step 150, process air temperature and process air relative humidity may be recalculated (e.g., using thermodynamic equations) after picking up thermal energy within the simulated condenser. At step 154, in this embodiment, process air fluid communication with the desiccant may be simulated, and process air temperature and process air relative humidity may be recalculated based on the simulated interaction with the desiccant.

At step 158, a simulation of regeneration fluid passing through a thermal unit (e.g., 54) may be performed, where regeneration fluid temperature and regeneration fluid relative humidity may be recalculated (e.g., again, using thermodynamic equations). In the depicted embodiment, at step 162, regeneration fluid communication with the desiccant may be simulated, and the system may determine the regeneration fluid temperature and regeneration fluid relative humidity after the simulated interaction with the desiccant. In this embodiment, also at step 162, the system may determine the temperature and water content of the desiccant (or a portion thereof). In some embodiments, temperature sensor may provide readings more quickly than humidity sensor. To compensate for this effect, controller 50 may synchronize the readings by passing temperature readings through a signal filter (e.g., a first-order low- pass digital filter implemented in controller 50 hardware or software or firmware executed by controller 50) to slow the temperature sensor reading response time to match the response time of the humidity sensor. At step 166, regeneration fluid passing through the condenser may be simulated, and the regeneration fluid temperature and the regeneration fluid relative humidity may be recalculated. As in step 162, in some embodiments controller 50 may synchronize the readings by passing temperature readings through a signal filter (e.g., a first- order low-pass digital filter implemented in controller 50 hardware or software or firmware executed by controller 50) to slow the temperature sensor reading response time to match the response time of the humidity sensor. In some embodiments, the amount of condensed water produced may also be calculated at step 166. At step 170, the systems of equations used to perform at least some of steps 146 through 166 may be evaluated to determine if a steady state solution has been reached. In this embodiment, if no steady state solution has been reached, the main loop may be repeated beginning at step 146.

Once a steady state solution is reached, in the embodiment shown, the controller 50 may set the process air flow rate, the regeneration fluid flow rate, and the rate of movement of the desiccant (e.g., in a real system, for example, corresponding to the simulated system used to perform the steps of FIG. 5B) to optimize liquid water production and/or efficiency. The above steps are provided only by way of example, as, in some embodiments, the sequence of these steps may be changed. For example, in another embodiment, two separate process air pathways may exist such that in one of the process air pathways, process air passes through a condenser 80, and in the other of the process air pathways, process air passes through a desiccant 18, and the above steps may be modified accordingly.

In some embodiments, each run of the simulation depicted in FIG. 5B may produce a single data point in the data look-up table (e.g., liquid water production rate and/or efficiency) as a function of the design inputs, control inputs, and/or control variables. Such a numerical simulation may be repeated many times (e.g. from 100 to 100,000 times or more) to produce a look-up table of liquid water production rates and/or efficiencies as a function of the relevant variables. Such a table may then be used by a controller 50 to operate a system (e.g, 10, 98, and/or the like), for example, by referencing optimal control variables (e.g., process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, desiccant movement rate, and/or the like) based upon known design inputs and/or measured control inputs (e.g., ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, a level of solar insolation, and/or the like).

By way of example, Table 1, below, provides optimized operating conditions (e.g., control variables) versus design inputs and control inputs for an embodiment of the present systems that includes a disk 102 having a silica desiccant disposed thereon.

TABLE 1 : Illustrative Optimal Operating Conditions and Design Specifications for an Embodiment of the Present Systems for Generating Liquid Water from Air

Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

30 0.1 147

20% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 9% 89 24%

40 0.1286

20% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 7% 47 20%

50 0.1264

20% 10 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 6% 55 16%

20% 10 1 90 4 60 0.05 0.12 6% 0.1 173 12% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 78

70 0.1 173

20% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 6% 24 1 1%

80 0.1 173

20% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 6% 04 9%

30 0.1 168

20% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 10% 98 24%

40 0.1354

20% 15 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 8% 25 21%

50 0.1366

20% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 7% 5 17%

60 0.1279

20% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 7% 31 13%

70 0.1235

20% 15 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 7% 28 1 1%

80 0.1234

20% 15 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 7% 02 10%

30 0.1 145

20% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 92 24%

40 0.1362

20% 20 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 10% 52 21%

50 0.1406

20% 20 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 9% 14 18% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

60 0.1334

20% 20 1.8 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 8% 03 14%

70 0.1254

20% 20 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 8% 02 1 1%

80 0.1274

20% 20 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 7% 96 10%

30 0.1 175

20% 25 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 12% 21 25%

40 0.1425

20% 25 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 99 22%

50 0.1556

20% 25 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 9% 49 20%

60 0.1529

20% 25 1.8 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 8% 8 16%

70 0.1510

20% 25 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 9% 51 14%

80 0.1376

20% 25 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 9% 63 1 1%

30 0.1203

20% 30 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 13% 65 25%

40 0.1445

20% 30 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 86 23%

20% 30 1.4 90 4 50 0.05 0.12 10% 0.1587 20% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 95

60 0.1666

20% 30 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 10% 99 17%

70 0.1641

20% 30 1.8 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 9% 22 15%

80 0.1487

20% 30 2.6 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 8% 56 12%

30 0.1 174

20% 35 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 13% 52 25%

40 0.1398

20% 35 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 12% 12 22%

50 0.1474

20% 35 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 49 19%

60 0.1521

20% 35 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 62 16%

70 0.1553

20% 35 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 68 14%

80 0.1579

20% 35 1.4 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 1 1 12%

30 0.1299

30% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 14% 74 27%

40 0.1563

30% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 5 25% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

50 0.1694

30% 10 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 9% 55 21%

60 0.1716

30% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 8% 71 18%

70 0.1693

30% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 8% 47 15%

80 0.1692

30% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 8% 09 13%

30 0.1355

30% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 16% 76 28%

40 0.1647

30% 15 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 13% 91 26%

50 0.1778

30% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 66 22%

60 0.1810

30% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 10% 01 19%

70 0.1788

30% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 10% 58 16%

80 0.1786

30% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 10% 63 14%

30 0.1388

30% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 17% 59 29%

30% 20 1 90 4 40 0.05 0.12 14% 0.1705 27% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 58

50 0.1860

30% 20 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 13% 46 23%

60 0.1909

30% 20 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 55 20%

70 0.1903

30% 20 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 10% 29 17%

80 0.1919

30% 20 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 10% 53 15%

30 0.1425

30% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 18% 98 30%

40 0.1819

30% 25 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 16% 79 29%

50 0.2058

30% 25 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 14% 25 26%

60 0.2176

30% 25 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 12% 98 23%

70 0.2178

30% 25 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 38 20%

80 0.2163

30% 25 2.2 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 24 17%

30 0.1431

30% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 19% 71 30% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

40 0.1888

30% 30 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 17% 55 30%

50 0.2158

30% 30 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 15% 39 27%

60 0.2285

30% 30 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 13% 51 24%

70 0.2294

30% 30 2.2 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 12% 72 21%

80 0.2274

30% 30 2.2 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 12% 13 18%

30 0.1577

30% 35 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 75 33%

40 0.1902

30% 35 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 18% 79 30%

50 0.2167

30% 35 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 16% 48 27%

60 0.2569

30% 35 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 14% 55 27%

70 0.2599

30% 35 2.2 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 13% 82 23%

80 0.2357

30% 35 2.6 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 12% 21 18%

40% 10 0.6 90 4 30 0.05 0.12 19% 0.1476 31 % Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 54

40 0.1824

40% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 16% 17 29%

50 0.2099

40% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 13% 19 26%

60 0.2181

40% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 39 23%

70 0.2181

40% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 86 20%

80 0.2179

40% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 11 % 67 17%

30 0.1545

40% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 58 32%

40 0.1893

40% 15 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 18% 38 30%

50 0.2198

40% 15 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 15% 99 28%

60 0.2309

40% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 13% 24 24%

70 0.2308

40% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 13% 29 21%

80 0.2305

40% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 13% 95 18% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

30 0.1597

40% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 23% 79 33%

40 0.1970

40% 20 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 20% 03 31%

50 0.2285

40% 20 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 17% 99 29%

60 0.2470

40% 20 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 15% 23 26%

70 0.2547

40% 20 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 13% 03 23%

80 0.2540

40% 20 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 13% 27 20%

30 0.1659

40% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 25% 97 35%

40 0.2093

40% 25 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 69 33%

50 0.2473

40% 25 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 18% 1 1 31%

60 0.2754

40% 25 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 16% 85 29%

70 0.2895

40% 25 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 14% 35 26%

40% 25 2.2 90 7 80 0.05 0.12 13% 0.2908 23% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 37

30 0.1703

40% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 26% 85 36%

40 0.2181

40% 30 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 22% 17 34%

50 0.2554

40% 30 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 20% 19 32%

60

40% 30 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 18% 0.288 30%

70 0.3056

40% 30 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 16% 18 27%

80 0.3064

40% 30 2.2 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 14% 37 24%

30 0.1704

40% 35 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 27% 05 36%

40 0.2210

40% 35 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 24% 43 35%

50 0.2605

40% 35 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 56 33%

60 0.2896

40% 35 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 19% 96 30%

70 0.3075

40% 35 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 17% 34 28% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

80 0.3075

40% 35 2.6 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 15% 5 24%

30 0.1611

50% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 25% 31 34%

40 0.2090

50% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 20% 95 33%

50 0.2385

50% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 16% 43 30%

60 0.2536

50% 10 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 14% 61 27%

70 0.2605

50% 10 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 12% 25 23%

80 0.2586

50% 10 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 12% 66 20%

30 0.1686

50% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 28% 04 35%

40 0.2156

50% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 23% 71 34%

50 0.2498

50% 15 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 19% 56 31%

60 0.2682

50% 15 1.4 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 17% 91 28%

50% 15 1.4 90 6 70 0.05 0.12 15% 0.2760 25% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 09

80 0.2763

50% 15 1.8 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 14% 55 22%

30 0.1747

50% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 30% 07 37%

40 0.2199

50% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 25% 77 35%

50 0.2616

50% 20 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 22% 04 33%

60 0.2877

50% 20 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 19% 84 30%

70 0.3052

50% 20 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 17% 06 27%

80 0.3140

50% 20 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 15% 38 25%

30 0.1821

50% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 31 % 08 38%

40 0.2290

50% 25 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 27% 61 36%

50 0.2809

50% 25 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 23% 57 35%

60 0.3159

50% 25 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 20% 1 33% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

70 0.3404

50% 25 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 18% 44 31%

80 0.3550

50% 25 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 16% 1 1 28%

30 0.1886

50% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 33% 14 39%

40 0.2388

50% 30 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 29% 5 37%

50 0.2920

50% 30 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 25% 67 37%

60 0.3314

50% 30 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 22% 55 35%

70 0.3590

50% 30 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 20% 95 32%

80 0.3752

50% 30 2.2 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 18% 97 29%

30 0.1923

50% 35 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 34% 77 40%

40 0.2440

50% 35 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 30% 36 38%

50 0.2952

50% 35 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 27% 48 37%

50% 35 1.4 90 6 60 0.05 0.12 24% 0.3382 35% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 13

70 0.3672

50% 35 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 78 33%

80 0.3842

50% 35 2.2 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 19% 49 30%

30 0.1674

60% 10 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 31 % 31 35%

40 0.2276

60% 10 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 25% 07 36%

50 0.2590

60% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 32 33%

60 0.2864

60% 10 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 17% 05 30%

70 0.2988

60% 10 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 15% 12 27%

80 0.2986

60% 10 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 14% 56 23%

30 0.1759

60% 15 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 34% 9 37%

40 0.2359

60% 15 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 28% 77 37%

50 0.2712

60% 15 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 24% 62 34% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

60 0.3002

60% 15 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 20% 76 31%

70 0.3174

60% 15 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 18% 78 28%

80 0.3213

60% 15 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 16% 77 25%

30 0.1866

60% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 36% 51 39%

40 0.2431

60% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 30% 41 38%

50 0.2847

60% 20 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 26% 12 36%

60 0.3176

60% 20 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 23% 63 33%

70 0.3479

60% 20 1.4 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 20% 1 1 31%

80 0.3651

60% 20 1.8 90 8 0 0.05 0.12 18% 39 29%

30 0.1949

60% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 38% 72 41%

40 0.2528

60% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 33% 43 40%

60% 25 1 90 5 50 0.05 0.12 28% 0.3040 38% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 25

60 0.3444

60% 25 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 25% 25 36%

70 0.3839

60% 25 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 22% 39 34%

80 0.4080

60% 25 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 19% 65 32%

30 0.2034

60% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 39% 87 43%

40 0.2597

60% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 34% 67 41%

50 0.3164

60% 30 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 30% 3 40%

60 0.3610

60% 30 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 27% 17 38%

70 0.4028

60% 30 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 24% 37 36%

80 0.4308

60% 30 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 06 34%

30 0.2109

60% 35 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 41 % 29 44%

40 0.2624

60% 35 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 36% 3 41% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

50 0.3224

60% 35 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 32% 88 40%

60 0.3702

60% 35 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 29% 66 39%

70 0.4103

60% 35 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 26% 92 37%

80 0.4413

60% 35 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 23% 2 35%

30 0.1775

70% 10 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 37% 7 37%

40 0.2375

70% 10 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 30% 89 37%

50 0.2751

70% 10 1 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 25% 47 35%

60 0.3135

70% 10 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 77 33%

70 0.3301

70% 10 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 18% 61 30%

80 0.3350

70% 10 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 16% 88 26%

30 0.1865

70% 15 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 40% 47 39%

70% 15 0.6 90 6 40 0.05 0.12 34% 0.2433 38% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 51

50 0.2883

70% 15 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 28% 1 36%

60 0.3289

70% 15 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 24% 54 34%

70 0.3507

70% 15 1.4 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 96 31%

80 0.3613

70% 15 1.8 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 19% 02 28%

40 0.2598

70% 20 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 36% 06 41%

50 0.3025

70% 20 1 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 31 % 29 38%

60 0.3478

70% 20 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 27% 49 36%

70 0.3821

70% 20 1.4 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 24% 06 34%

80 0.4059

70% 20 1.8 90 8 0 0.05 0.12 21 % 31 32%

30 0.2030

70% 25 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 45% 98 43%

40 0.2721

70% 25 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 38% 49 43% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

50 0.3221

70% 25 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 34% 65 40%

60 0.3745

70% 25 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 29% 67 39%

70 0.4167

70% 25 1.4 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 26% 46 37%

80 0.4472

70% 25 1.8 90 8 0 0.05 0.12 23% 21 35%

30 0.2107

70% 30 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 46% 18 44%

40 0.2831

70% 30 0.6 90 4 0 0.05 0.12 40% 04 44%

50 0.3359

70% 30 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 36% 56 42%

60 0.3894

70% 30 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 32% 23 41%

70 0.4366

70% 30 1.4 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 28% 59 39%

80 0.4708

70% 30 1.8 90 8 0 0.05 0.12 25% 57 37%

30 0.2148

70% 35 0.6 90 5 0 0.05 0.12 48% 85 45%

70% 35 0.6 90 4 40 0.05 0.12 42% 0.2881 45% Table 1

Proc

Desicc ess Regenera Disk Exha Liquid

Ambi ant Air tion Oute ust H 2 0

Ambi ent Rotati Flow Fluid He Desicc r Proce Product ent Air on Rate Flow at ant Radi ss ion

Air Temp Rate (cfm Rate (W Thickn us Air Rate Efficie

%RH (C) (°/s) ) (cfm) ) ess (m) (m) %RH (L/hr) ncy

0 2

50 0.3438

70% 35 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 38% 64 43%

60 0.3955

70% 35 1 90 6 0 0.05 0.12 34% 23 41%

70 0.4476

70% 35 1.4 90 7 0 0.05 0.12 30% 79 40%

80 0.4844

70% 35 1.8 90 8 0 0.05 0.12 27% 05 38%

To illustrate how a controller 50 may rely on a look-up table to operate a system (e.g., 10, 98, and/or the like) a series of graphs is provided with environmental conditions as independent variables, and efficiency or liquid water production rate and system operating parameters as the dependent variables (e.g., and values illustrated in the below graphs may be contained in a look-up table for reference by a controller).

For example, FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating an efficiency of some embodiments of the present systems for generating liquid air from water, at a constant process airflow rate of 90 (cfm), versus ambient air temperature (°C) ("Tl "), ambient air relative humidity ("RHl"), and solar insolation as indicated by heat (W) provided by a thermal unit, such that each point on the graph may represent a system efficiency at a point in a diurnal cycle.

FIG. 7 is a series of graphs illustrating an efficiency of some embodiments of the present systems for generating liquid air from water (e.g., highest efficiency represented as darkest gray), at constant ambient air relative humidities ("RH"), at a constant process airflow rate of 90 cfm, versus environmental diurnal variations, including ambient air temperature (°C) and solar insolation as indicated by heat (W) provided by a thermal unit, such that each point on each graph may represent a system efficiency at a point in a diurnal cycle.

FIG. 8 is a series of graphs illustrating a liquid water production rate in kilograms per hour (kg/hr) of some embodiments of the present systems for generating liquid water from air (e.g., highest liquid water production rate represented as darkest gray), at constant ambient air relative humidities ("RH"), at a constant process airflow rate of 90 cfm, versus environmental diurnal variations, including ambient air temperature (°C) and solar insolation as indicated by heat (W) provided by a thermal unit, such that each point on each graph may represent a system liquid water production rate at a point in a diurnal cycle (e.g., in Amman, Jordan, on a day in July, at 2:00 PM, RH was 26% (approximately 30%), and heat was 700 W (generated by a solar thermal unit having an area of 1.5 square meters (m2) at an efficiency of 50%), which resulted in a liquid water production rate of approximately 0.30 kg/hr).

FIG. 9 is the series of graphs of FIG. 8, including points representing various times on a given day. A total amount of liquid water produced during the day may be approximated by integrating across the series of graphs (e.g., in this example, approximately 2.5 liters (L) in the morning hours of the day, and approximately 5 L over a 24 hour period).

In some embodiments, a controller 50 may reference a parametric function and/or a table generated thereby to operate according to optimal (e.g., in terms of liquid water production rate and/or efficiency) operational variables for the system. For example, for each system operational variable (e.g., process air flow rate, regeneration fluid flow rate, desiccant exposure time to process air and/or regeneration fluid, and/or the like), a parametric function may be created that provides the value of the system operational variable which optimizes efficiency and/or liquid water production rate of the system, and the parametric function may be dependent on design specifications (e.g., disk kinetics, disk size, desiccant configuration, solar collector size, condenser geometry and performance, and/or the like) and/or variable ambient conditions (e.g., ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, a level of solar insolation).

By way of illustration, an example derivation of a two variable parametric function is provided below. In this example, a simulation (e.g., as described above with respect to FIG. 5B) may be performed holding all variables constant except for a system operational variable (e.g., in the following example, ambient air temperature is held constant, and regeneration fluid flow rate may be varied). In subsequent steps, the simulation may be repeated, changing the value of the constant (e.g., ambient air temperature, in this example) between simulations in order to develop multiple data sets. Table 2 provides example efficiency data obtained from such simulations (e.g., seven data sets are represented in Table 2, representing simulations performed at seven values of constant ambient air temperature).

TABLE 2: Exemplary Efficiency versus Regeneration Fluid Flow Rate Data for an

Embodiment of the Present Systems for Generating Liquid Water from Air

Temperature MFRi Efficiency Temperature MFRi Efficiency (°C) (cfm) (°C) (cfm)

20 26 0.440308 28 18 0.433456

20 28 0.43278 28 20 0.432251

20 30 0.424646 28 22 0.424547

20 32 0.415998 28 24 0.419341

22 16 0.463092 28 26 0.413667

22 18 0.458915 28 28 0.407432

22 20 0.45105 28 30 0.400671

22 22 0.446573 28 32 0.393431

22 24 0.439184 22 26 0.432482

Data from Tab e 2, above, is illustratec in FIG. 10. In this example, a mathemat regression may be used to model each data set. To illustrate, a polynomial (e.g., quadratic) regression may be fitted to each data set using the following equations:

η = dj V j -ggg jj 2 + bj V regen + c 1 at T amb l (8)

Ύ] = a 2 V regen 2 + b 2 V re en + c 2 at T amb 2 (9)

*7 &nY regen (10)

where a, b, and, c, are coefficients of the quadratic regression for each n data set. These coefficients may then modeled with a (e.g., further) mathematical regression. To illustrate, in this example, a quadratic regression may be fitted to each set of coefficients, a, b, and c, using the following equations:

a = diT amb 2 + β- ) Ύ αΎη1) + fi_

b = d 2 T amb 2 + e 2 T amb + f 2

c = d 3 T amb 2 + e 3 T amb + f 3

FIGS. 11 A and 1 IB provide graphs of these coefficients versus T amb . Through substitution, it may be seen that the efficiency of the system as a function of T amb and V, may then be expressed as:

η = (diT ajnb 2 + e x T ' amb + fi)V regen 2 + (d 2 T amb 2 + e 2 T amb + +

(d 3 T amb 2 + e 3 T amb + f 3 ) (14)

While Eq. 14 is expressed in terms of two variables (e.g., V regen , and T amb ), the same or a substantially similar process as described above can be performed to express efficiency (e.g., and/or liquid water production rate, and/or the like) as a function of any suitable number of variables (e.g., by performing an additional regression for each added variable).

The maximum efficiency and/or maximum liquid water production rate (e.g., which may be the desired operational state for a system) may be determined by maximizing Eq. 14 (or a similar equation) with respect to each operational variable (e.g., V regen , in this example). By way of illustration, in the depicted example, the desired operational state that maximizes efficiency may be the value of V regen at which the partial derivative of Eq. 14 with respect to V reqen at a given (e.g., or measured) T amb is equal to zero, or:

dn

10 (15)

reg en = o

Tamb

Eq. 15 (or similar equation(s)) may be evaluated over a range of ambient conditions, which may be used to produce a table of optimal operational variables (e.g., in this example, optimal V regen for a range of T amb ). Such tables may then be further modeled by a mathematical regression (e.g., a quadratic regression). In this example, this may be shown as: l-> V regen.optimal amb ^'amb ί (16)

where V regen.optimal represents the optimal regeneration fluid flow rate at a given temperature. A controller 50 may then reference any of: the table of optimal operational variables, a parametric equation based on the table of optimal operational variables (e.g., Eq. 16), and/or the like. In some embodiments, a controller 50 may perform any and/or all of the 20 above steps to develop such parametric equation(s) and/or tables. In some embodiments, a controller 50 may be programmed with such parametric equations, for example, in some embodiments, the controller may be programmed with the following equations:

(1 )

Vprocess.optimal f (Tambi ( )

25 V regen.optimal f amb> ambi ^regen) ( 9)

where (o alsk .optimab Vprocess.optimah V regen.optimal represent optimal disk rotation rate, process air flow rate, and regeneration fluid flow rate operational variables at given values of ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, and regeneration fluid temperature (e.g., indicative of a level of solar insolation).

30 Control Systems and Methods

FIG. 12 is a diagram of a system 1000 for generating liquid water from air according to an embodiment of the invention. Similarly to system 10 described above, system 1000 may be configured to function responsive to diurnal variations. For example, as described in more detail below, system 1000 may be configured to control one or more operational parameters (e.g., control and/or controlled variables) based on one or more diurnal variations (e.g., variations in ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, solar insolation, and/or the like).

System 1000 may comprise a primary desiccant unit 1040 and secondary desiccant unit 1045. Each desiccant unit 1040/1045 may comprise a desiccant (e.g., sorption medium), where the desiccant (e.g., or a portion thereof) may be selectively (e.g., and/or alternatively) movable between zones. The desiccant in the primary desiccant unit 1040 may be movable between an adsorption zone, in which the desiccant is in fluid communication with a process air pathway (e.g., a process airflow path) 1026 and a desorption zone, in which the desiccant is in fluid communication with a (e.g., closed-loop) regeneration fluid pathway (e.g., a regeneration fluid path) 1034. The desiccant in the secondary desiccant unit 1045 may be movable between different sections of the regeneration fluid pathway 1034. In some embodiments, the adsorption and desorption zones may be defined by housings of each desiccant unit 1040/1045. Each desiccant unit 1040/1045 may be configured similarly to those of system 10 above (e.g., the materials, desiccants used, arrangements, and/or operations may be as described above).

Similarly to system 10, system 1000 may include one or more blowers and/or one or more circulators. For example, a blower may be disposed in process air pathway 1026 and may be configured to adjust a flow rate of air through the process air pathway. A circulator may be disposed in regeneration fluid pathway 1034 and may be configured to adjust a flow rate of fluid through the regeneration fluid pathway. In some embodiments, blowers and/or circulators may be controlled by controller 1050 (e.g., controlling speeds of blowers and/or circulators to optimize liquid water production). In some embodiments, blowers and/or circulators may be configured to substantially maintain a pre-determined flow rate through process air pathway 1026 and/or regeneration fluid pathway 1034.

System 1000 may comprise a thermal unit 1054 configured to provide thermal energy to fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 1034 (e.g., such that desiccant may be regenerated). In some embodiments, thermal unit 1054 may be a solar thermal unit (e.g., is configured to convert solar insolation to thermal energy). While the present systems may comprise any suitable thermal unit, whether solar or otherwise, thermal unit 1054 may be similar to thermal unit 54 described above, for example.

System 1000 may comprise a condenser 1080 configured to receive fluid from the desorption zone via the regeneration fluid pathway and produce liquid water from the received fluid (e.g., by condensing water vapor in fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway). Condenser 1080 may comprise any suitable material and may be of any suitable

configuration. For example, condenser 1080 may be similar to sensor 80 described above.

System 1000 may comprise a water collection unit 1084 configured to receive liquid water produced by condenser 1080. Water collection unit 1084 may be similar to water collection unit 84 described above, for example. In some embodiments, a filter may be positioned between condenser 1080 and water collection unit 1084 (e.g., to reduce an amount of impurities, such as, for example, sand, bacteria, fibrous, carbonaceous species, and/or the like, which may be present in liquid water produced by condenser 1080). Water collection unit 1084 (e.g., or filter thereof) may comprise an ultraviolet (UV) light source, one or more water level sensors, and/or a receptacle configured to receive one or more additives for introduction to the produced liquid water, such as those described in the context of system 10 above.

System 1000 may comprise indicators (e.g., lights, such as, for example, LEDs), which may be configured to provide information regarding system operation. For example, indicators may be configured similarly to those in system 10, as described above.

A controller (e.g., processor) 1050 may control exposure of desiccant (or a portion thereof) to air in process air pathway 1026 and regeneration fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 1034 (e.g., to increase and/or optimize the liquid water ultimately produced by condenser 1080), and such control may vary over a diurnal cycle (e.g., in response to diurnal variations). Such variations in environmental conditions (e.g., inputs into controller 1050) may include, for example, ambient air temperature, ambient air relative humidity, and solar insolation. Other inputs to controller 1050 may include, for example, an amount of thermal energy generated by thermal unit 1054, a relative humidity of air in process air pathway

1026, a relative humidity of fluid in regeneration fluid pathway 1034, a temperature of fluid in the regeneration fluid pathway between desiccant and thermal unit 1054, a rate of water production, and/or the like. Controller 1050 may be configured to optimize liquid water production by controlling a rate of desiccant movement between the adsorption zone and the desorption zone, controlling a speed of blower and/or circulator, and/or the like, based, on measurements of one or more of such inputs (e.g., such that controller 1050 may optimize liquid water production based on current environmental and system conditions). Controller may be powered by photovoltaic power source (PV) 1090. Generally, controller 1050 may perform functions similar to those detailed in the "Water Extraction" section.

FIG. 13 is a diagram of a controller 1050 according to an embodiment of the invention. Controller 1050 of FIG. 13 is one example embodiment which may be configured to perform the functions described herein, although those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that other configurations may be possible. Controller 1050 may be powered by PV 1090. Controller 1050 may include a microcontroller 1305, for example a microcontroller based on the STM32F401 - ARM Cortex-M4 with FPU. Controller 1050 may include a motor power supply 1310 (e.g., based on a synchronous buck topology) for powering motors such as those used to drive the desiccant wheels and/or fans. Controller 1050 may include a desiccant wheel motor controller power supply 1315 (e.g., based on a buck topology) for powering motor controllers. Controller 1050 may include three motor/fan pulse width modulation (PWM) outputs 1320 and five motor/fan tachometer inputs 1325 for controlling and monitoring motors and fans. Controller 1050 may include three external NTC thermistor temperature inputs 1330, one on-board temperature and humidity sensor 1335, one interface to an off-board temperature and humidity sensor 1340, one water level input 1345, and one digital flow meter input 1350 for receiving sensor data. Controller 1050 may include a LED driver for 3 ultraviolet LEDs 1355 and three drivers for status LEDs 1360 for controlling the LEDs. Controller 1050 may include a UART interface to GSM or other radio transceiver 1365 for network communications and a USB or other hardware interface 1370 (e.g., to enable communication with a PC-based service tool). Controller 1050 may include serial EEPROM or other memory 1375.

Controller 1050 may be configured to control operations of system 1000 through execution of instructions stored in memory 1375 by microcontroller 1305, for example. Controller 1050 may control system 1000 operation through control of wheel motor operation and speed, regen fan operation and speed, and process fan operation and speed. In embodiments wherein one or more of the sensors output analog signals, microcontroller 1305 may use an analog to digital converter to receive sensor outputs. For example, PV voltage, PV current, 12V voltage (e.g., from one or more power supplies), wheel motor currents, fan currents, and/or LED currents may be sensed with sensors outputting analog signals. Other sensors may output digital signals, and microcontroller 1305 may read such signals directly. For example, humidity, temperature, water level, and water flow may be sensed with sensors outputting digital signals. Controller 1050 may control system 1000 to optimize water production as described below. Additionally, controller 1050 may be used with systems 10 and 98, for example, or other water collection systems, to control such systems to optimize water production in those systems in like fashion.

In some embodiments, sensors may not deliver outputs at similar speeds. For example, temperature sensor may provide readings more quickly than humidity sensor. In some embodiments, humidity sensor readings may lag behind temperature sensor readings by 18 seconds. To compensate for this effect, controller 1050 may include a signal filter (e.g., a first-order low-pass digital filter implemented in controller 1050 hardware or software or firmware executed by controller 1050). For example, for a filter having a time constant of 6 seconds (i.e., the time it takes the filtered content to reach 63.2% of its step value), the filter may have a cut off frequency of 0.026526 Hz. Temperature sensor readings may pass through the signal filter to slow the temperature sensor reading response time to match the response time of the humidity sensor. Accordingly, temperature sensor readings and humidity sensor readings may be synchronized when relative humidity is not at steady state.

Controller 1050 may determine motor and/or fan speed by measuring a period from rising edge to rising edge of each tachometer feedback signal and converting the measured period to RPM, given that there may be two tachometer pulses per revolution. Controller 1050 may output a PWM signal for each motor/fan with a nominal frequency of 100 kHz, for example. Speed control error may be reduced by performing PID closed-loop feedback speed control.

Water flow may be determined by controller 1050 through sensing of rising and falling edges in the output of a digital water flow meter (e.g., where each edge represents 5 mL of water production).

Status LEDs 1360 may include a system on (e.g. green) LED, a maintenance required

(e.g., yellow) LED, and/or a general failure (e.g., red) LED. Controller 1050 may communicate specific data through control of the status LEDs 1360. For example, controller 1050 may blink system on LED at a rate of 1 Hz with 25% duty cycle whenever the system is powered on, thereby indicating normal operation. Controller 1050 may activate the maintenance required LED whenever the water filter life remaining falls below 5%.

Controller 1050 may operate the general failure LED in a variety of patterns to indicate different failures. For example, the following patterns may be used in some embodiments:

1. regen fan failure - 1 blink followed by 5 seconds of off time

2. wheel motor failure - 2 blinks followed by 5 seconds of off time

3. process fan failure - 3 blinks followed by 5 seconds of off time

wherein a blink may be defined as 0.25 seconds on followed by 0.25 seconds off, for example. If multiple failure conditions are active, controller 1050 may control the general failure LED to blink through the active patterns consecutively.

Controller 1050 may operate in a variety of modes. For example, by default in some embodiments, controller 1050 may operate in a run mode, wherein the microcontroller 1305 may execute autonomous tasks such as obtaining measurements from sensors, controlling motors and fans, controlling LEDs, optimizing water flow, optimizing water production, enabling a service interface (e.g., interface 1370), and/or gathering and/or reporting telematics information (e.g., via transceiver 1365).

Controller 1050 may be operable in a full mode, for example when controller 1050 determines through sensor data that the water level in reservoir 1084 has reached a threshold level (e.g., reached a depth at which a maximum water level sensor is mounted). In full mode, controller 1050 may turn off motors and fans (e.g., to halt accumulation of moisture in desiccants and flow of fluids) while continuing to operate the service interface and telematics features.

Controller 1050 may be operable in a stop mode, for example when controller 1050 receives a stop command through interface 1370 or transceiver 1365. In stop mode, controller 1050 may turn off motors and fans while continuing to operate the service interface and telematics features. When controller 1050 receives a start command through interface 1370 or transceiver 1365, controller 1050 may transition to run mode.

Controller 1050 may be operable in a test mode, for example when controller 1050 receives a test command through interface 1370 (e.g., from a service tool or other computer coupled to interface 1370). In test mode, controller 1050 may communicate input values from sensors to the service tool and/or accept commands for controlling outputs from the service tool. When controller 1050 receives a run command through interface 1370 or after a period of receiving no commands through interface 1370 (e.g., 5 seconds or some other period of time), controller 1050 may transition to run mode.

Controller 1050 may control the components of system 1000 to optimize water production. For example, controller 1050 may control system 1000 to refrain from producing water when environmental conditions are such that water cannot be produced (or cannot be produced at a desired efficiency level), such as at night when solar thermal unit 1054 cannot operate. At such times, controller 1050 may control system 1000 to operate in a "no-go" mode. When water may be produced efficiently, controller 1050 may control system 1000 to produce the water (i.e., to operate in a "go" mode).

FIG. 14 is a go/no-go mode determination process 1400 according to an embodiment of the invention. After a power-on reset, controller 1050 may operate in the no-go mode 1410. While in this mode, controller 1050 may set the wheel motor speeds and regen fan speeds to speeds at or near minimum operating levels (e.g., supplying minimum operating voltage so that they may be quickly sped up when transitioning to go mode). For example, controller 1050 may set the wheel motor speeds to 125 RPM (assuming gear ratio of 3000: 1 , this may result in a wheel speed of 0.25 degrees per second), and controller 1050 may set the set the regen fan to a speed of 2000 RPM, for example, which may result in an air flow rate of less than 10 CFM.

In some embodiments, controller 1050 may completely power off the wheel motors and fans in no-go mode. In such cases, controller 1050 may monitor PV power to formulate an estimate of the solar energy taken in by solar thermal unit 1054, for example. If PV 1090 is receiving solar energy and using it to generate electricity, solar energy taken in by solar thermal unit 1054 may be estimated based on how much electricity is being generated by PV 1090. When PV power reaches a specified threshold, wheel motors and fans may be turned on in anticipation of entering go mode shortly thereafter.

While in no-go mode, controller 1050 may calculate the dew point as a function of ambient relative humidity and the hot-side temperature according to Eq. 20 (or similar equation) 1420. Ambient relative humidity and hot-side temperature may be obtained from a humidity sensor placed on the outside of system 1000 and a temperature sensor placed between thermal unit 1054 and primary desiccant wheel 1040 or within thermal unit 1054, respectively. As noted above, in some embodiments, temperature sensor output may pass through a filter to synchronize the temperature sensor and humidity sensor outputs.

Controller 1050 may transition to go mode if the calculated dew point is greater than the ambient temperature plus some additional temperature (e.g., 10° C). While in go mode, controller 1050 may maximize water collection efficiency by maximizing VAP, which may be defined as absolute humidity of the air between the primary and secondary desiccant wheels (estimated via Eq. 21 or similar or observed directly via a sensor disposed in regeneration fluid pathway 1034 between the primary desiccant wheel 1040 and secondary desiccant wheel 1045) multiplied by regeneration fluid flow (Eq. 22 or similar).

VAP = Flow Regen X AH (22)

When go mode is entered, fan and wheel speeds may be adjusted to starting values and subsequently modified to maximize VAP. In some embodiments, starting values may be defaults (e.g., fan speed set such that regeneration fluid flow is approximately 30 CFM, desiccant wheel speed set to 0.25° of rotation per second). In some embodiments, starting values may be established dynamically. For example, starting values may be based upon previously established optimal values for similar conditions obtained at system 1000 or from another system in communication with system 1000. Starting values may be prescribed by a user (e.g., via network or service tool). Starting values may be based on a prediction made according to the efficiency models described above in the "Water Extraction" section.

Starting values may be based on a previous day's values at time start + X (e.g., where X=l hour or some other time that may allow VAP to be maximized), which may be stored in memory 1375.

Periodically (e.g., after a certain amount of time, such as 30 seconds in one example, elapses) 1440, controller 1050 may perturb regen fan speed 1450 to maximize VAP. For example, controller 1050 may make an initial VAP determination and adjust regen fan speed upward (faster) or downward (slower). If adjusting the fan speed upward causes VAP to increase, controller 1050 may adjust fan speed upward again in the next period. If adjusting the fan speed upward causes VAP to decrease, controller 1050 may adjust fan speed downward in the next period. Likewise, if adjusting the fan speed downward causes VAP to increase, controller 1050 may adjust fan speed downward again in the next period. If adjusting the fan speed downward causes VAP to decrease, controller 1050 may adjust fan speed upward in the next period.

Similarly, controller 1050 may periodically (e.g., after a certain amount of time, such as 300 seconds in one example, elapses) 1460 perturb desiccant wheel speed 1470 to maximize VAP. Controller 1050 may perturb desiccant wheel speed less frequently than regen fan speed in some embodiments (e.g., once for every ten perturbations of regen fan speed). For example, controller 1050 may make an initial VAP determination and adjust desiccant wheel speed upward (faster) or downward (slower). If adjusting the desiccant wheel speed upward causes VAP to increase, controller 1050 may adjust desiccant wheel speed upward again in the next period. If adjusting the desiccant wheel speed upward causes VAP to decrease, controller 1050 may adjust desiccant wheel speed downward in the next period. Likewise, if adjusting the desiccant wheel speed downward causes VAP to increase, controller 1050 may adjust desiccant wheel speed downward again in the next period. If adjusting the desiccant wheel speed downward causes VAP to decrease, controller 1050 may adjust desiccant wheel speed upward in the next period.

While operating in go mode, controller 1050 may continue to calculate Eq. 20 periodically to track the relationship between dew point and ambient temperature 1480. If the calculated dew point falls below the ambient temperature plus some additional temperature (e.g., 5° C), controller 1050 may switch back to no-go mode, as it may no longer be efficient or possible to produce water in such conditions.

When VAP is maximized, perturbations of fan speed and wheel speed may tend to cause fan speed and wheel speed to oscillate closely about the optimal settings for maximizing VAP. Such settings may be observed by controller 1050 and stored in memory 1375 along with observed operating conditions (e.g., Eq. 20, ambient humidity, etc.).

Accordingly, the stored observations may be used to define starting settings on future go mode startups as noted above. When transitioning to go mode, controller 1050 may compare current conditions with previously observed settings at similar conditions and set initial fan speed and wheel speed values according to the stored settings. Controller 1050 may control primary wheel 1040 and secondary wheel 1045 to operate at the same speed and at the same time. For example, in some embodiments secondary wheel 1045 may be controlled with the same control signal as primary wheel 1040. However, in other embodiments, controller 1050 may perform active control of secondary wheel 1045. Active control of secondary wheel 1045 may be undertaken to further optimize water vapor exchange from condenser 1080 outlet to condenser 1080 inlet and further optimize the transfer of heat from the inlet side to the outlet side of condenser 1080.

Active control of secondary wheel 1045 may be managed in a variety of ways. For example, one or more sensors may be installed at the inlet to condenser 1080 (i.e., the outlet of secondary wheel 1045) to monitor relative humidity and temperature. Under the assumption that relative humidity at the outlet to condenser 1080 may be 100%, and given that the expected condenser efficiency, flow characteristics, and other design variables may be known, the temperature at the outlet to condenser 1080 may be implicitly known. To optimize this temperature, controller 1050 may modulate secondary wheel 1045 speed to maximize absolute humidity at the inlet to condenser 1080. Similar to 1460-1480 of FIG. 14, controller 1050 may wait for a period of time to elapse and perturb the speed of secondary wheel 1405. After changing the speed, controller 1050 may monitor sensors at the inlet to condenser 1080 to see if absolute humidity has increased or decreased. If absolute humidity has increased, on the next cycle controller 1050 may perturb speed of secondary wheel 1405 in the same direction as last time. If absolute humidity has decreased, on the next cycle controller 1050 may perturb speed of secondary wheel 1405 in the opposite direction as last time. In another example, relative humidity alone may be monitored at the inlet to condenser 1080 and maximized through the same perturbation technique.

Note that in embodiments wherein a relative humidity and temperature sensor are disposed at an inlet of condenser 1080, VAP may be calculated differently. Assuming 100% relative humidity at condenser 1080 output, and measuring temperature at condenser 1080 output via a temperature sensor, may yield the following:

VAP = ~~ & β» αί*α$» .&*&« ίι} ' (23)

In some embodiments, relative humidity may also be monitored at the outlet of condenser 1080. It may be possible to meet the go condition and see less than 100% relative humidity on the outlet of condenser 1080. This may indicate that system 100 has not crossed through the dew point in the condenser 1080, suggesting a potential problem at some point in the system 100 (e.g., a control error or leak).

Controller 1050 may also perform maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV 1090. For example, controller 1050 may track MPPT by perturbing process fans according to Table 2: MPPT Truth Table. Changes in PV voltage and power may be observed as a result of fan speed adjustment, and fans may be perturbed periodically to maximize PV output (with the understanding that PV output may necessarily be affected by regen fan and motor speed, which may be assumed as givens for the purposes of MPPT).

Table 2: MPPT Truth Table

PV Power PV Voltage 1 Action

Decrease Decrease 1 Decrease process fan speed

Decrease Increase I Increase process fan speed

Yes No I Increase process fan speed

Yes Yes I Decrease process fan speed

FIG. 16 is a diagram of an MPPT approach 1600 according to an embodiment of the invention. The primary electrical loads during the day may include a set of high-powered fans 1610 and 1620 (e.g., regen fan and process fan). Controller 1050 may include closed-loop speed controllers for fans 1610 and 1620. Controller 1050 may use respective tachometer feedback signals from each fan 1610 and 1620 to measure fan speed. Controller 1050 may use respective PWM signals to set fan speeds for each fan 1610 and 1620. Controller 1050 may perturb the fan speeds by changing the PWM duty cycle and observe the power delivered by PV 1090 using a voltage measurement and a current sensor, thus resulting in MPPT.

Using transceiver 1365, system 1000 may join a network of similar systems and other devices. FIG. 15 is a network 1500 of water generating systems 1000 according to an embodiment of the invention. Individual systems 1000A-E may be able to communicate with one another using transceiver 1365, which may be, for example, a GSM radio or an 802.15.4 radio. Each controller 1305 may include a network protocol stack (e.g., MyWy, 6L0WPAN, etc.) for creating a wireless mesh network 1500 connecting one or more systems 1000A-D to a remote gateway 1510. Five systems 1000A-E and one gateway 1510 are shown in this example, although any number of systems and/or gateways may be possible. In some cases, gateway 1510 may be integrated into one or more of systems 1000.

In some embodiments, systems 1000 may communicate with one another, such that one system 1000 may forward communications for another system 1000 to and from gateway 1510 (e.g., as shown in FIG. 15, where systems A and C communicate with system D, and system B communicates with system C) and/or may communicate directly with gateway 1510 (e.g., systems D and E). Gateway 1510 may be connected to another network (e.g., the Internet) via any suitable networking hardware (e.g., cellular data modem, wired or wireless Internet connection, etc.). Accordingly, systems 1000 may communicate, via the Internet through gateway 1510, with remote servers.

Each system 1000 may gather telemetry data and report it to a server via network 1500. For example, controller 1050 may periodically (e.g., every two minutes) assemble and send a data stream including some or all of the following data elements to a configured e-mail address using SMS or some other suitable protocol if a GSM radio is connected, or to a remote gateway 1510: ambient temperature, hot-side temperature, ambient relative humidity, external relative humidity, PV voltage, PV current, PV power, wheel motor target speed, wheel motor measured speed, regen fan target speed, regen fan measured speed, process fan target speed, process fan measured speed, VAP, and/or accumulated water count. Controller 1050 may also receive commands via network 1500, for example, but not limited to start water production, stop water production, read configuration, write configuration, and/or reboot. Controller 1050 may also accept memory programming commands for upgrades. Controller 1050 may make use of AES-128 encryption or other suitable security measures to transfer memory programming data and CRC algorithms to ensure memory programming data integrity in some embodiments.

While various embodiments have been described above, it should be understood that they have been presented by way of example and not limitation. It will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant arts that various changes in form and detail can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope. In fact, after reading the above description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant arts how to implement alternative embodiments.

In addition, it should be understood that any figures that highlight the functionality and advantages are presented for example purposes only. The disclosed methodology and system are each sufficiently flexible and configurable such that they may be utilized in ways other than that shown.

Although the term "at least one" may often be used in the specification, claims and drawings, the terms "a", "an", "the", "said", etc. also signify "at least one" or "the at least one" in the specification, claims, and drawings.

Finally, it is the applicant's intent that only claims that include the express language "means for" or "step for" be interpreted under 35 U.S.C. 112(f). Claims that do not expressly include the phrase "means for" or "step for" are not to be interpreted under 35 U.S.C. 112(f).