Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/144854
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Methods and compositions are provided for oligonucleotides that bind targets of interest. The targets include cells and microvesicles, such as those derived from various diseases. The oligonucleotides can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The target of the oligonucleotides can be a member of a ribonucleoprotein or spliceosomal complex such heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U).

Inventors:
O'NEILL HEATHER (US)
MAYER GÜNTER (DE)
TONAPI SONAL (US)
PANNU VAISHALI (US)
MIGLARESE MARK (US)
SPETZLER DAVID (US)
Application Number:
US2018/016634
Publication Date:
August 09, 2018
Filing Date:
February 02, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CARIS SCIENCE INC (US)
International Classes:
C07H19/00; C07H21/00; C12N15/11
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017019918A12017-02-02
Foreign References:
US20150025029A12015-01-22
US20100317723A12010-12-16
US20070083334A12007-04-12
Other References:
SOUNDARARAJAN ET AL.: "Plasma Membrane Nucleolin Is a Receptor for the Anticancer Aptamer ' AS1411 in MV4-11 Leukemia Cells", MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY, vol. 76, no. 5, 1 November 2009 (2009-11-01), pages 984 - 991, XP055619401, ISSN: 0026-895X, DOI: @ # EK E3 El * rtF- 'EfiH iti Q. • '/ © © &
TUCKER ET AL.: "G-quadruplex DNA aptamers and their ligands: Structure, function and application", CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN, vol. 18, no. 14, 2012, pages 2014 - 2026, XP055533421
See also references of EP 3577127A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
THOMAS, Jeff (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS What is claimed is: 1. An oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357- 4368 or 4372-4407. 2. An oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to SEQ ID NO.4357. 3. An oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357- 4368 or 4372-4407, and a 5’ region with sequence 5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131), a 3’ region with sequence 5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132), or both. 4. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such target therein. 5. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53. 6. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55. 7. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or both. 8. The oligonucleotide of claim 6, wherein the MYC function comprises expression, downstream signaling, transcription regulation, histone acetylation, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, or any combination thereof. 9. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10 cells, or any combination thereof. 10. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of PARP1, HIST1H1B, HIST1H1D, NCL, FBL, SFPQ, RPL12, ACTB, HIST1H4A, SSBP1, NONO, H2AFJ, and DDX21, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 11. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2-like protein 1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 12. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 13. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin P2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 14. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Nucleolin; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome;

Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Prohibitin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; rRNA 2’-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; RNA-binding protein 14; 78 kDa glucose-regulared protein; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; Actin, cytoplasmic 2; Nucleophosmin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; Histone H3.3, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 15. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2-like protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 16. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Calcyphosin-2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Non- POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Polyubiquitin-B; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; Keratin, type 1 cytoskeletal 19, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 17. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; 78 kDa glucose- regulated protein; Histone H2B type F-S; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; Isoform 2 of ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Prohibitin; Prohibitin-2, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 18. The oligonucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Nucleolin; histone H4; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; Histone H2B type F-S; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Histone H1.5; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Ig mu chain C region; Isoform 4 of Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; RNA-binding protein 14; Isoform 1 of RNA-binding protein Raly; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein sm d3; NHP2-like protein 1; 60S ribosomal protein L12; glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase; Polyubiquitin-B; RNA-binding protein EWS; Signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B; Polyadenylate-binding protein 1; RNA-binding protein FUS; Non-POU domain-containing octamer- binding protein; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin;

Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; Polymerase delta- interacting protein 3; Histone H1.4; Histone H1.5; Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2; histone H2A type 1; Histone H2A type 2-B; Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0; Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial; 40S ribosomal protein S3; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; 60S ribosomal protein L23a; Calcyphosin-2; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 19. An oligonucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence or a portion thereof that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous to an oligonucleotide sequence according to any preceding claim. 20. A plurality of oligonucleotides comprising at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, or at least 10000 different oligonucleotide sequences according to any previous claim. 21. An oligonucleotide aptamer that binds a target protein on the surface of a cell, wherein the binding to the cell results in alternative splicing patterns in the cell, cellular death, or both. 22. The oligonucleotide aptamer of claim 21, wherein the target protein is part of a ribonucleoprotein or spliceosomal complex. 23. The oligonucleotide aptamer of claim 21 or claim 22, wherein the target protein is heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U).

24. The oligonucleotide aptamer of claim 21 or claim 22, wherein the target protein is selected from the proteins in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such protein therein. 25. The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim, wherein the oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises a DNA, RNA, 2’-O-methyl or phosphorothioate backbone, or any combination thereof. 26. The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim, wherein the oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least one of DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA, UNA, and any combination thereof. 27. The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim, wherein the oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least one functional modification selected from the group consisting of biotinylation, a non-naturally occurring nucleotide, a deletion, an insertion, an addition, and a chemical modification. 28. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to claim 27, wherein the chemical modification comprises at least one of C18, polyethylene glycol (PEG), PEG4, PEG6, PEG8, PEG12, and an SM(PEG)n crosslinker. 29. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim, wherein the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides is labeled. 30. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim, wherein the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides is attached to a nanoparticle, liposome, gold, magnetic label, fluorescent label, light emitting particle, or radioactive label. 31. An isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim. 32. A composition comprising the isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to claim 31. 33. The composition of claim 32, wherein the isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides is capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such target therein, binding to a cell having a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such protein on its surface, binding Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, modulating cell proliferation, regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53, regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55, regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or any combination thereof. 34. The composition of claim 33, wherein the cell proliferation is that of lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. 35. The composition of claim 33, wherein the cell proliferation is that of leukemia, lymphoma or renal carcinoma cells. 36. A method comprising synthesizing the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any preceding claim. 37. A method comprising contacting a biological sample with the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any one of claims 1-30. 38. The method of claim 37, further comprising detecting a presence or level of at least one protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, and Tables 57-59, in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. 39. The method of claim 37, further comprising detecting a presence or level of a

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U protein or complex thereof in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. 40. The method of claim 37, further comprising detecting a presence or level of a cell population in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. 41. The method of claim 40, wherein the cell population comprises cells having a disease or disorder. 42. The method of claim 40, wherein the cell population comprises neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. 43. The method of claim 40, wherein the cell population comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. 44. The method of any one of claims 38-43, wherein the detecting comprises detecting the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides using at least one of sequencing, amplification, hybridization, gel electrophoresis, chromatography, and any combination thereof. 45. The method of claim 44, wherein the sequencing comprises at least one of next generation sequencing, dye termination sequencing, pyrosequencing, and any combination thereof. 46. The method of any one of claims 38-43, wherein the detecting comprises using at least one of an immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA), affinity isolation, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, gel electrophoresis, microscopy or flow cytometry. 47. The method of any one of claims 38-43, wherein detecting comprises transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of immunogold labeled oligonucleotides. 48. The method of any one of claims 38-43, wherein detecting comprises confocal microscopy of fluor labeled oligonucleotides. 49. The method of any one of claims 38-39 or 44-48, wherein the bound protein is associated with a microvesicle population. 50. The method of claim 49, further comprising isolating the microvesicle population prior to the contacting, after the contacting, or both. 51. The method of claim 50, wherein the isolating comprises affinity purification, filtration, concentration, polymer precipitation, PEG precipitation, ultracentrifugation, a molecular crowding reagent, affinity selection, chromatography, or any combination thereof. 52. The method of any one of claims 37-51, wherein the biological sample comprises a bodily fluid, tissue sample or cell culture. 53. The method of claim 52, wherein the tissue sample comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer tissue. 54. The method of claim 52, wherein the cell culture comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. 55. The method of claim 52, wherein the bodily fluid comprises peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair oil, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, or umbilical cord blood. 56. The method of claim 52, wherein the bodily fluid comprises whole blood, serum or plasma. 57. The method of claim 55 or 56, wherein the bodily fluid comprises cells selected from the group consisting of lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. 58. The method of any one of claims 37-51, wherein the biological sample comprises a purified protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59, or complexes, subunits or fragments thereof. 59. The method of any one of claims 52-58, wherein the biological sample further comprises a purified protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59, or complexes, subunits or fragments thereof. 60. The method of any one of claims 38-58, wherein the presence or level is used to characterize a phenotype. 61. The method of claim 60, wherein the phenotype is a disease or disorder. 62. The method of claim 61, wherein the characterizing comprises providing, or assisting in providing, at least one of diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic information for the disease or disorder. 63. The method of any one of claims 60-62, wherein the characterizing comprises comparing the presence or level to a reference. 64. The method of claim 63, wherein the reference comprises the presence or level determined in a sample from at least one individual without the phenotype or from at least one individual with a different phenotype. 65. The method any one of claims 60-64, wherein the sample is from a subject suspected of having or being predisposed to the disease or disorder. 66. A kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method of any of claims 36-65. 67. Use of a reagent for carrying out the method of any of claims 36-65. 68. The kit of claim 66 or use of claim 67, wherein the reagent comprises the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides, one or more primer for amplification or sequencing of such oligonucleotides, at least one binding agent to at least one protein, a binding buffer with or without MgCl2, a sample processing reagent, a microvesicle isolation reagent, a detection reagent, a secondary detection reagent, a wash buffer, an elution buffer, a solid support, and any combination thereof. 69. The kit or use of claim 68, wherein the microvesicle isolation reagent comprises at least one of a concentrator unit, a filtration unit, a polymer, PEG, a size exclusion column, a binding agent to a microvesicle antigen, and any combination thereof; and/or the detection or secondary detection agent comprises streptavidin-horse radish peroxide (HRP), a streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore, a

streptavidin-conjugated quantum dot, and any combination thereof. 70. A method of imaging at least one cell or tissue, comprising contacting the at least one cell or tissue with at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to any one of claims 1-30, and detecting the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides in contact with at least one cell or tissue. 71. The method of claim 70, wherein the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides is according to claim 29 or 30. 72. The method of claim 70 or 71, wherein the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides is administered to a subject prior to the detecting. 73. The method of any one of claims 70-72, wherein the at least one cell or tissue comprises cells displaying a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, and Tables 57-59, on their surface. 74. The method any one of claims 70-73, wherein the at least one cell or tissue is from a subject suspected of having or being predisposed to a disease or disorder. 75. The method of any one of claims 70-74, wherein the at least one cell or tissue comprises neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. 76. The method of any one of claims 70-74, wherein the at least one cell or tissue comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non- small cell lung cancer cells. 77. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any one of claims 1-30, or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. 78. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 77, wherein the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides is attached to a toxin or chemotherapeutic agent.

79. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 77, wherein the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides is attached to a liposome or nanoparticle. 80. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 79, wherein the liposome or nanoparticle comprises a small molecule, drug, toxin or chemotherapeutic agent. 81. A method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering the composition of any of claims 77-80 to the subject. 82. A method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering the composition of any of claims 77-80 to the subject. 83. A method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the composition of any of claims 77-80 to the subject based on the comparison. 84. The method of claim 83, wherein the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-55 and Tables 57-59. 85. The method of any one of claims 81-84, wherein the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. 86. A nanoparticle conjugated to the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides according to any one of claims 1-30. 87. The nanoparticle of claim 86, wherein the nanoparticle comprises a small molecule, drug, toxin or chemotherapeutic agent. 88. The nanoparticle of claim 86 or claim 87, wherein the nanoparticle is≤ 100 nm in diameter. 89. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the nanoparticle of claim 86 or claim 87, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. 90. A method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition of claim 89 to the subject. 91. A method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition of claim 89 to the subject.

92. A method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the

pharmaceutical composition of claim 89 to the subject based on the comparison. 93. The method of claim 83, wherein the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-55 or 57-59. 94. The method of any one of claims 90-93, wherein the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. 95. A method of immune therapy comprising using a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, and Tables 57-59, as a target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. 96. A method of immune therapy comprising identifying a target of an oligonucleotide probe, and using the target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. 97. A method comprising identifying an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide. 98. The method of claim 97, wherein the identifying is performed with MHC complexes on cells or using an in vitro system. 99. A method comprising using an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide to detect or target the loaded MHC. 100. A multipartite construct that comprises a first segment that binds to a first target and a second segment that binds to a second target, wherein the first segment comprises SEQ ID NO.4357, or a region that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto. 101. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54 or Tables 57-59. 102. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of PARP1, HIST1H1B, HIST1H1D, NCL, FBL, SFPQ, RPL12, ACTB, HIST1H4A, SSBP1, NONO, H2AFJ, and DDX21, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 103. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2-like protein 1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 104. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U or a complex thereof. 105. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin P2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 106. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of Nucleolin; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; Ubiquitin- 60S ribosomal protein L40; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Prohibitin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; rRNA 2’-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; RNA-binding protein 14; 78 kDa glucose- regulared protein; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; Actin, cytoplasmic 2; Nucleophosmin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; Histone H3.3, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 107. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2-like protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 108. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of Calcyphosin-2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Non- POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Polyubiquitin-B; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; Keratin, type 1 cytoskeletal 19, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 109. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; Histone H2B type F-S; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; Isoform 2 of ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Prohibitin; Prohibitin-2, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 110. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the first target comprises a protein selected from the group consisting of Nucleolin; histone H4; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; Histone H2B type F-S; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Histone H1.5; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Ig mu chain C region; Isoform 4 of Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; RNA-binding protein 14; Isoform 1 of RNA-binding protein Raly; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein sm d3; NHP2-like protein 1; 60S ribosomal protein L12; glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase; Polyubiquitin-B; RNA-binding protein EWS; Signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B; Polyadenylate-binding protein 1; RNA-binding protein FUS; Non-POU domain-containing octamer- binding protein; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin;

Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; Polymerase delta- interacting protein 3; Histone H1.4; Histone H1.5; Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2; histone H2A type 1; Histone H2A type 2-B; Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0; Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial; 40S ribosomal protein S3; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; 60S ribosomal protein L23a; Calcyphosin-2; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. 111. The multipartite construct of claim 101, further comprising a first oligonucleotide primer region and/or a second oligonucleotide primer region surrounding the first segment. 112. The multipartite construct of claim 101, wherein the first segment is capable of capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57- 59 or a complex comprising such target therein, binding Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, modulating cell proliferation, regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53, regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55, regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or any combination thereof. 113. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the second target comprises an immunomodulatory molecule.

114. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the second target comprises at least one of a member of the innate immune system, a member of the complement system, C1q, C1r, C1s, C1, C3a, C3b, C3d, C5a, C2, C4, and any combination thereof. 115. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the second target comprises C1q or a subunit thereof. 116. The multipartite construct of claim 116, wherein the C1q subunit is the A, B or C subunit. 117. The multipartite construct of claim 115, wherein the A subunit has at least one modification selected from Table 25. 118. The multipartite construct of any of claims 100-117, wherein the second segment comprises an antibody or oligonucleotide. 119. The multipartite construct of claim 118, further comprising a first oligonucleotide primer region and/or a second oligonucleotide primer region surrounding the second segment. 120. The multipartite construct of any of claims 100-119, wherein the second segment comprises an oligonucleotide having a sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NOs.1472, 1475, 1477, 1482, and 4151-4325, or that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto. 121. The multipartite construct of claim 100, further comprising a linker region between the first segment and second segment. 122. The multipartite construct of claim 121, wherein the linker region comprises an immunostimulatory sequence and/or an anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic sequence. 123. The multipartite construct of claim 121, wherein the linker region comprises one or more CpG motif. 124. The multipartite construct of claim 121, wherein the linker region comprises a polyG sequence. 125. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the multipartite construct is further modified to comprise at least one oligonucleotide chemical modification. 126. The multipartite construct of claim 125, wherein the modification is selected from the group consisting: of a chemical substitution at a sugar position; a chemical substitution at a phosphate position; and a chemical substitution at a base position of the nucleic acid. 127. The multipartite construct of claim 125, wherein the modification is selected from the group consisting of: incorporation of a modified nucleotide, 3’ capping, conjugation to an amine linker, conjugation to a high molecular weight, non-immunogenic compound, conjugation to a lipophilic compound, conjugation to a drug, conjugation to a cytotoxic moiety and labeling with a radioisotope. 128. The multipartite construct of claim 127, wherein the non-immunogenic, high molecular weight compound is polyalkylene glycol. 129. The multipartite construct of claim 128, wherein the polyalkylene glycol is polyethylene glycol. 130. The multipartite construct of claim 100, wherein the multipartite construct further comprises an immunostimulating moiety and/or a membrane disruptive moiety. 131. The multipartite construct of any of claims 100-130, wherein the multipartite construct comprises an oligonucleotide polymer, and optionally wherein the multipartite construct is flanked by a first oligonucleotide primer region and a second oligonucleotide primer region. 132. The multipartite construct of any of claims 100-131, wherein the construct comprises an oligonucleotide having a sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NO.4357-4368 or 4372-4407, or that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto. 133. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the multipartite construct of any of claims 100-132, or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. 134. A method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder, comprising administering the composition of claim 133 to a subject in need thereof. 135. The method of claim 134, wherein the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. 136. A method of inducing killing of a cell, comprising contacting the cell with a multipartite construct of any of claims 100-132. 137. The method of claim 136, wherein the cell comprises a disease or disorder. 138. The method of any one of claims 41, 61-65, 74-76, 81, 85, 90, 94, 96, or 134-137, wherein the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. 139. The method of claim 138, wherein the cancer comprises an acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma; AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors; cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer; ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer;

esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma; extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma;

hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer;

Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma; medulloepithelioma; melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides; myelodysplastic syndromes; myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non- small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate

differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma;

pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma; squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer; thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor.

140. The method of claim 138, wherein the premalignant condition comprises Barrett’s Esophagus or a colorectal polyp. 141. The method of claim 138, wherein the autoimmune disease comprises inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Grave’s disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. 142. The method of claim 138, wherein the cardiovascular disease comprises atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, ischemia, high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. 143. The method of claim 138, wherein the neurological disease comprises Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick’s disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down’s syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen’s encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler- Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. 144. The method of claim 138, wherein the pain comprises fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. 145. The method of claim 138, wherein the infectious disease comprises a bacterial infection, viral infection, yeast infection, Whipple’s Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein Barr virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. 146. A kit comprising a multipartite construct of any of claims 100-132, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 133. 147. A kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method of any of claims 134-145. 148. Use of a reagent for carrying out the method of any of claims 134-145. 149. Use of a reagent for the manufacture of a kit or reagent for carrying out the method of any of claims 134-145. 150. Use of a reagent for the manufacture of a medicament for carrying out the method of any of claims 134-145.

151. The kit of claim 147 or use of any of claims 148-150, wherein the reagent comprises a multipartite construct of any of claims 100-132, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 133.

Description:
TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDES RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of priority to United States Provisional Patent Application Serial Nos. 62/453,988, filed February 2, 2017; 62/477,751, filed March 28, 2017; 62/490,595, filed April 26, 2017; and 62/595,954, filed December 7, 2017. This application is related to International Patent Application Nos. PCT/US2016/021632, filed March 9, 2016; PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016; and

PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016; all of which applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. SEQUENCE LISTING SUBMITTED VIA EFS-WEB

[0001] The entire content of the following electronic submission of the sequence listing via the USPTO EFS-WEB server, as authorized and set forth in MPEP §1730 II.B.2(a), is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes. The sequence listing is within the electronically filed text file that is identified as follows:

[0002] File Name: 826602_SeqListing_ST25.txt

[0003] Date of Creation: February 1, 2018

[0004] Size (bytes): 897,393 bytes BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0005] The invention relates generally to the field of aptamers. The aptamers may be useful as therapeutics and in diagnostics of cancer and/or other diseases or disorders. The invention further relates to materials and methods for the administration of aptamers capable of binding to desired targets. The targets may be derived from cells indicative of cancer, including without limitation a lymphoma.

[0006] Aptamers are oligomeric nucleic acid molecules having specific binding affinity to molecules, which may be through interactions other than classic Watson-Crick base pairing. Unless otherwise specified, an“aptamer” as the term is used herein can refer to nucleic acid molecules that can be used to characterize a phenotype, regardless of manner of target recognition. Unless other specified, the terms “aptamer,”“oligonucleotide,”“polynucleotide,” or the like may be used interchangeably herein.

[0007] Aptamers, like peptides generated by phage display or monoclonal antibodies (“mAbs”), are capable of specifically binding to selected targets and modulating the target's activity, e.g., through binding aptamers may block their target’s ability to function. Created by an in vitro selection process from pools of random sequence oligonucleotides, aptamers have been generated for over 100 proteins including growth factors, transcription factors, enzymes, immunoglobulins, and receptors. A typical aptamer is 10- 15 kDa in size (30-45 nucleotides), binds its target with sub-nanomolar affinity, and discriminates against closely related targets (e.g., aptamers will typically not bind other proteins from the same gene family). A series of structural studies have shown that aptamers are capable of using the same types of binding interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, electrostatic complementarity, hydrophobic contacts, steric exclusion) that drive affinity and specificity in antibody-antigen complexes.

[0008] Aptamers have a number of desirable characteristics for use as therapeutics and diagnostics including high specificity and affinity, biological efficacy, and excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, they offer specific competitive advantages over antibodies and other protein biologics, for example:

[0009] Speed and control. Aptamers are produced by an entirely in vitro process, allowing for the rapid generation of initial leads, including therapeutic leads. In vitro selection allows the specificity and affinity of the aptamer to be tightly controlled and allows the generation of leads, including leads against both toxic and non-immunogenic targets.

[0010] Toxicity and Immunogenicity. Aptamers as a class have demonstrated little or no toxicity or immunogenicity. In chronic dosing of rats or woodchucks with high levels of aptamer (10 mg/kg daily for 90 days), no toxicity is observed by any clinical, cellular, or biochemical measure. Whereas the efficacy of many monoclonal antibodies can be severely limited by immune response to antibodies themselves, it is extremely difficult to elicit antibodies to aptamers most likely because aptamers cannot be presented by T-cells via the MHC and the immune response is generally trained not to recognize nucleic acid fragments.

[0011] Administration. Whereas most currently approved antibody therapeutics are administered by intravenous infusion (typically over 2-4 hours), aptamers can be administered by subcutaneous injection (aptamer bioavailability via subcutaneous administration is >80% in monkey studies (Tucker et al., J. Chromatography B.732: 203-212, 1999)). This difference is primarily due to the comparatively low solubility and thus large volumes necessary for most therapeutic mAbs. With good solubility (>150 mg/mL) and comparatively low molecular weight (aptamer: 10-50 kDa; antibody: 150 kDa), a weekly dose of aptamer may be delivered by injection in a volume of less than 0.5 mL. In addition, the small size of aptamers allows them to penetrate into areas of conformational constrictions that do not allow for antibodies or antibody fragments to penetrate, presenting yet another advantage of aptamer-based therapeutics or prophylaxis.

[0012] Scalability and cost. Aptamers are chemically synthesized and are readily scaled as needed to meet production demand for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Whereas difficulties in scaling production are currently limiting the availability of some biologics and the capital cost of a large-scale protein production plant is enormous, a single large-scale oligonucleotide synthesizer can produce upwards of 100 kg/year and requires a relatively modest initial investment. The current cost of goods for aptamer synthesis at the kilogram scale is estimated at $100/g, comparable to that for highly optimized antibodies.

[0013] Stability. Aptamers are chemically robust. They are intrinsically adapted to regain activity following exposure to factors such as heat and denaturants and can be stored for extended periods (>1 yr) at room temperature as lyophilized powders. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0014] All publications, patents and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0015] Compositions and methods of the invention provide aptamers that bind biomarkers of interest. In various embodiments, oligonucleotide probes of the invention are used in diagnostic, prognostic or theranostic processes to screen a biological sample for the presence or levels of biomarkers, including without limitation surface antigens, determined to provide a relevant readout. The diagnosis may be related to a disease or disorder, e.g., a cancer. In other embodiments, oligonucleotide probes of the invention are chemically modified or comprised within a pharmaceutical composition for therapeutic or medical imaging applications.

[0016] In an aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357-4368 or 4372-4407. In a preferred embodiment, the oligonucleotide comprises a sequence according to SEQ ID NO.4357, i.e., the sequence of aptamer C10.36. The invention further provides an oligonucleotide having a substitution in aptamer C10.36 such as in SEQ ID NOs.4372-4407. The substitution can be chosen to such that the aptamer retains or improves upon desired such as target recognition and G quadruplex structure. In a related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357-4368 or 4372-4407, and a 5’ region with sequence 5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131), a 3’ region with sequence 5’- CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132), or both.

[0017] The oligonucleotide of the invention can be capable of binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising one or more of such targets therein. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or both. For example, the MYC function can be expression, downstream signaling, transcription regulation, histone acetylation, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10 cells, or any combination thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of PARP1, HIST1H1B, HIST1H1D, NCL, FBL, SFPQ, RPL12, ACTB, HIST1H4A, SSBP1, NONO, H2AFJ, and DDX21, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2-like protein 1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of binding to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin P2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Nucleolin; RNA-binding motif protein, X

chromosome; Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Prohibitin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; rRNA 2’-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; RNA-binding protein 14; 78 kDa glucose-regulared protein; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterologous nuclear

ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; Actin, cytoplasmic 2; Nucleophosmin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; Histone H3.3, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2-like protein 1,

heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface Calcyphosin-2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Polyubiquitin-B; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; Keratin, type 1 cytoskeletal 19, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; Histone H2B type F-S; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; Isoform 2 of ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial;

Prohibitin; Prohibitin-2, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface Nucleolin; histone H4; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; Histone H2B type F-S; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Histone H1.5; 78 kDa glucose- regulated protein; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Ig mu chain C region; Isoform 4 of Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; RNA-binding protein 14; Isoform 1 of RNA-binding protein Raly; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein sm d3; NHP2-like protein 1; 60S ribosomal protein L12; glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase; Polyubiquitin-B; RNA-binding protein EWS; Signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B; Polyadenylate-binding protein 1; RNA-binding protein FUS; Non-POU domain-containing octamer- binding protein; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin;

Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; Polymerase delta- interacting protein 3; Histone H1.4; Histone H1.5; Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2; histone H2A type 1; Histone H2A type 2-B; Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0; Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial; 40S ribosomal protein S3; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; 60S ribosomal protein L23a; Calcyphosin-2; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. In various embodiments, the oligonucleotide or oligonucleotides of the invention are capable of binding to such proteins, complexes comprising such proteins, or cells displaying such complexes or proteins on their surface.

[0018] In a related aspect the invention provides an oligonucleotide aptamer that binds a target protein on the surface of a cell, wherein the binding to the cell results in alternative splicing patterns in the cell, cellular death, or both. In some embodiments, the target protein is part of a ribonucleoprotein or spliceosomal complex. In some embodiments, the target protein is heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U). In some embodiments, the target protein is selected from the proteins in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such protein therein.

[0019] The invention further provides an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence or a portion thereof that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 86, 86, 88, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous to an oligonucleotide sequence described above.

[0020] In another aspect, the invention provides a plurality of oligonucleotides comprising at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, or at least 10000 different oligonucleotide sequences described above.

[0021] The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention may comprise a DNA, RNA, 2’-O-methyl or phosphorothioate backbone, or any combination thereof. The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides may comprise at least one of DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA, UNA, and any combination thereof.

[0022] In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least one functional modification selected from the group consisting of biotinylation, a non-naturally occurring nucleotide, a deletion, an insertion, an addition, and a chemical modification. The chemical modification can be chosen to modulate desired properties such as stability, capture, detection, or binding efficiency. In some embodiments, the chemical modification comprises at least one of C18, polyethylene glycol (PEG), PEG4, PEG6, PEG8, PEG12, and an SM(PEG) n crosslinker (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, lL USA). The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be labeled. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be attached to a nanoparticle, liposome, gold, magnetic label, fluorescent label, light emitting particle, or radioactive label. The liposome or particle can incorporate desired entities such as chemotherapeutic agents or detectable labels.

[0023] In an aspect, the invention provides an isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides having a sequence as described above. In a related aspect, the invention provides a composition comprising such isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides.

[0024] In some embodiments, the isolated oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides is capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such target therein, binding to a cell having a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such protein on its surface, binding Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, modulating cell proliferation, regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53, regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55, regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or any combination thereof. The cell proliferation can be neoplastic or dysplastic growth. The cell proliferation can be that of cancer cells such as disclosed herein, including without limitation that of lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non- small cell lung cancer. In certain embodiments, the cell proliferation is that of leukemia, lymphoma or renal carcinoma cells.

[0025] The isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides may bind to a cell surface splicing complexes or cell surface ribonucleoprotein complexes. Such bound outer complex may mediate cellular internalization of the complex. Such binding may also interfere with cellular machinery such as the MYC pathway or splicing.

[0026] In an aspect, the invention provides a method comprising synthesizing the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided above. Techniques for synthesizing oligonucleotides are disclosed herein or are known in the art.

[0027] In another aspect, the invention provides a method comprising contacting a biological sample with the at least one oligonucleotide, the plurality of oligonucleotides, or composition as described above. The method can further comprise detecting a presence or level of at least one protein in Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. In some embodiments, the method comprises detecting a presence or level of a

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U protein or complex thereof in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. As used herein,“a complex thereof” indicates that the protein can be found within the complex. For example, hnRNP U may be found with a ribonucleoprotein complex. Relatedly, the method may further comprise detecting a presence or level of a cell population in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. For example, the cells may display a protein in in Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59 on their surface. The cell population can be any desired population, including without limitation cells having or indicative of a disease or disorder, e.g., neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. In some embodiments, the cell population comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells.

[0028] The detecting step of the method may comprise detecting the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. The presence or level of oligonucleotide serves as a proxy for the level of oligonucleotide’s target. The oligonucleotides can be detecting using any desired technique such as described herein or known in the art, including without limitation at least one of sequencing, amplification, hybridization, gel electrophoresis, chromatography, and any combination thereof. Any useful sequencing method can be employed, including without limitation at least one of next generation sequencing, dye termination sequencing, pyrosequencing, and any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the detecting comprises transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of immunogold labeled oligonucleotides. In some embodiments, the detecting comprises confocal microscopy of fluor labeled oligonucleotides.

[0029] The detecting step of the method may comprise detecting the protein or cell using techniques described herein or known in the art for detecting proteins, including without limitation at least one of an immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme- linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA), affinity isolation, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, gel electrophoresis, microscopy or flow cytometry.

[0030] In some embodiments of the method, the detected protein is associated with a microvesicle population. The method may further comprise isolating the microvesicle population prior to the contacting with the oligonucleotides, after the contacting, or both. The isolating may be in whole or in part. For example, the microvesicle population may be partially isolated from other components in the sample before or after contacting the sample with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides. The invention may use any appropriate techniques to isolate microvesicles. Various techniques of isolating microvesicles are disclosed herein or known in the art, including without limitation affinity purification, filtration, concentration, polymer precipitation, PEG precipitation, ultracentrifugation, a molecular crowding reagent, affinity selection, chromatography, or any combination thereof.

[0031] Any desired biological sample can be contacted with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to the invention. In various embodiments, the biological sample comprises a bodily fluid, tissue sample or cell culture. Any desired tissue sample can be contacted. In some embodiments, the tissue sample comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma,

hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer tissue. Similarly, any desired cell culture sample can be contacted. In certain embodiments, the cell culture comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. Any appropriate bodily fluid can be contacted, including without limitation peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair oil, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, or umbilical cord blood. In certain preferred embodiments, the bodily fluid comprises whole blood or a derivative or fraction thereof, such as sera or plasma. The bodily fluid may comprise cancer cells, including without limitation lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells.

[0032] The biological sample may be spiked with a purified or recombinant protein. In some

embodiments, such protein is selected from Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59, or complexes, subunits or fragments thereof.

[0033] As desired, the method of detecting the presence or level of the at least one oligonucleotide, the plurality of oligonucleotides, or composition bound to a target can be used to characterize a phenotype. The phenotype can be any appropriate phenotype, including without limitation a disease or disorder. In such cases, the characterizing may include providing, or assisting in providing, at least one of diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic information for the disease or disorder. Characterizing the phenotype may comprise comparing the presence or level to a reference. Any appropriate reference level can be used. For example, the reference can be the presence or level determined in a sample from at least one individual without the phenotype or from at least one individual with a different phenotype. As a further example, if the phenotype is a disease or disorder, the reference level may be the presence or level determined in a sample from at least one individual without the disease or disorder, or with a different state of the disease or disorder (e.g., in remission, different stage or grade, different prognosis, metastatic versus local, etc).

[0034] As noted, the sample can be from a subject suspected of having or being predisposed to a disease or disorder. The disease or disorder can be any disease or disorder that can be assessed by the subject method. For example, the disease or disorder may be a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain.

[0035] As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the method. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent can be the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides, one or more primer for amplification or sequencing of such oligonucleotides, at least one binding agent to at least one protein, a binding buffer with or without MgCl 2 , a sample processing reagent, a microvesicle isolation reagent, a cell isolation reagent, a detection reagent, a secondary detection reagent, a wash buffer, an elution buffer, a solid support, and any combination thereof. The microvesicle isolation reagent may comprise at least one of a concentrator unit, a filtration unit, a polymer, PEG, a size exclusion column, a binding agent to a microvesicle antigen, and any combination thereof; and/or the detection or secondary detection agent comprises streptavidin-horse radish peroxide (HRP), a streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore, a streptavidin-conjugated quantum dot, and any combination thereof.

[0036] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of imaging a cell or tissue, comprising contacting the cell or tissue with at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides as described above, and detecting the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides in contact with at least one cell or tissue. In some embodiments, the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides is labeled, e.g., in order to facilitate detection or medical imaging. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be attached to a nanoparticle, liposome, gold, magnetic label, fluorescent label, light emitting particle, radioactive label, or other useful label such as disclosed herein or known in the art. The oligonucleotides can be administered to a subject prior to the detecting. The at least one cell or tissue can comprise cells displaying hnRNP U or another protein from Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59 on their surface. In some embodiments, the at least one cell or tissue is from a subject suspected of having or being predisposed to a disease or disorder. In some embodiments, the at least one cell or tissue comprises neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. For example, the at least one cell or tissue may comprise lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the imaging method. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the imaging method. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent can be the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides, one or more primer for amplification or sequencing of such oligonucleotides, at least one binding agent to at least one protein, a binding buffer with or without MgCl 2 , a sample processing reagent, a microvesicle isolation reagent, a cell isolation reagent, a detection reagent, a secondary detection reagent, a wash buffer, an elution buffer, a solid support, and any combination thereof. [0037] In an aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides of the invention, or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides are attached to a toxin or chemotherapeutic agent. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides are attached to a liposome or nanoparticle. The liposome or nanoparticle may comprise a small molecule, drug, toxin or chemotherapeutic agent. In such embodiments, the at least one

oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides can be used for targeted delivery of the toxin, chemotherapeutic agent, liposome or nanoparticle to a desired target cell or tissue. In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering such pharmaceutical composition to the subject. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering such pharmaceutical to the subject. The pharmaceutical composition can be administered in any useful format. In various embodiments, the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. The carrier or diluent can be any useful carrier or diluent, as described herein or known in the art. As desired, the pharmaceutical composition can be administered in combination with additional known drugs, immunotherapies, chemotherapeutic agents, or the like. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the pharmaceutical composition above to the subject based on the comparison. In some embodiments, the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-55 or Tables 57-59. The administering can be through any useful methods, including without limitation at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the administering. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the administering. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent may comprise the pharmaceutical composition and/or items needed for the desired administration route.

[0038] In an aspect, the invention provides nanoparticle conjugated to the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention. In some embodiments, the nanoparticle comprises a useful payload, including without limitation a small molecule, drug, toxin or

chemotherapeutic agent. The nanoparticle can be selected for desired properties. For example, if internalization inside a cell is desired, it may be preferred that the nanoparticle is≤ 100 nm in diameter, e.g.,≤ 10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm, 40 nm, 50 nm, 60 nm, 70 nm, 80 nm, 90 nm, or≤ 100 nm in diameter. In other embodiments, the nanoparticle is≥ 100 nm in diameter. In a related aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the conjugated nanoparticle, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. In still another related aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition to the subject. The invention further provides a method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition to the subject. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the pharmaceutical composition to the subject based on the comparison. In some embodiments, the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-55 or Tables 57-59. The administering can be through any useful methods, including without limitation at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the administering. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the administering. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent may comprise the pharmaceutical composition and/or items needed for the desired administration route.

[0039] In still another aspect, the invention provides a method of immune therapy comprising using a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-54 or Tables 57-59 as a target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. The invention also provides a method of immune therapy comprising identifying a target of an oligonucleotide probe, and using the target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. The invention also provides method comprising identifying an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide. The identifying can be performed with MHC complexes on cells or using an in vitro system. The invention also provides a method comprising using an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide to detect or target the loaded MHC. As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the method. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent may comprise one or more oligonucleotide probe, isolated MHC constructs, peptides of interest, and various buffers and the like for performing the method.

[0040] In an aspect, the invention provides a multipartite (chimeric) construct that comprises a first segment that binds to a first target and a second segment that binds to a second target. As desired, the first segment, the second segment, or both, comprises SEQ ID NO.4357, or a region that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto. For example, the first segment can be according to any of SEQ ID NOs.4372-4407.

[0041] In an embodiment, the first target comprises a protein selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-55 or Tables 57-59. For example, the first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of PARP1, HIST1H1B, HIST1H1D, NCL, FBL, SFPQ, RPL12, ACTB, HIST1H4A, SSBP1, NONO, H2AFJ, and DDX21, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. In some embodiments, the first target comprises Heterogeneous nuclear

ribonucleoprotein U or a complex thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2- like protein 1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin P2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of Nucleolin; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Prohibitin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; rRNA 2’-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin; RNA-binding protein 14; 78 kDa glucose-regulared protein; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; Actin, cytoplasmic 2; Nucleophosmin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; Histone H3.3, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2- like protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of Calcyphosin-2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Polyubiquitin-B; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; Keratin, type 1 cytoskeletal 19, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; Histone H2B type F-S; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; Isoform 2 of ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Prohibitin; Prohibitin-2, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The first target can be a protein selected from the group consisting of Nucleolin; histone H4; heterogeneous nuclear

ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; Histone H2B type F-S; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Histone H1.5; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Ig mu chain C region; Isoform 4 of Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; RNA-binding protein 14; Isoform 1 of RNA-binding protein Raly; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein sm d3; NHP2-like protein 1; 60S ribosomal protein L12; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Polyubiquitin-B; RNA-binding protein EWS; Signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B; Polyadenylate-binding protein 1; RNA-binding protein FUS; Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; Polymerase delta-interacting protein 3; Histone H1.4; Histone H1.5; Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2; histone H2A type 1; Histone H2A type 2-B; Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0; Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial; 40S ribosomal protein S3; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; 60S ribosomal protein L23a;

Calcyphosin-2; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof.

[0042] The first segment may be capable of binding to Ramos cells.

[0043] As described herein, the invention contemplates various configuration of the multipartite construct. See, e.g., FIGs.23A-D herein and related discussion herein. The construct may further comprise a first oligonucleotide primer region and/or a second oligonucleotide primer region surrounding the first segment.

[0044] In some embodiments, the second target of the multipartite construct of the invention comprises an immunomodulatory molecule. For example, the immunomodulatory molecule may be selected from at least one of a member of the innate immune system, a member of the complement system, C1q, C1r, C1s, C1, C3a, C3b, C3d, C5a, C2, C4, and any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the second target comprises C1q or a subunit thereof, e.g., the A, B or C subunit. The second target may comprise any number of post-translational modifications. For example, when the immunomodulatory molecule comprises C1q A, the A subunit may have at least one modification selected from Table 46.

[0045] As noted above, the invention contemplates various configuration of the multipartite construct. In various embodiments of the invention, the second segment comprises an antibody or oligonucleotide. And in preferred embodiments, the second segment comprises an oligonucleotide. Such a second segment may further comprise a first oligonucleotide primer region and/or a second oligonucleotide primer region surrounding the second segment. The second segment may comprise an oligonucleotide as provided by the invention. For example, the oligonucleotide can be as described above, including without limitation a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.137-969 and 1072-4325, or a region that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto.

[0046] As desired, the multipartite construct of the invention can include a linker region between the first segment and second segment. The linker region can be chosen to achieve any desired purpose, such as modulate the distance between the first and second targets, e.g., to relieve steric hindrance or to bring the targets into close proximity. The linker can also provide certain functionalities, including without limitation an immunostimulatory sequence, an anti-proliferative sequence, a pro-apoptotic sequence, or some combination thereof. In an embodiment, the linker region comprises one or more CpG motif. In another embodiment, the linker comprises a polyG sequence. In still other emobdiments, the multipartite construct of the invention comprises an immunostimulating moiety, a membrane disruptive moiety, or both.

[0047] The multipartite construct of the invention can be modified to comprise at least one

oligonucleotide chemical modification. Various useful modifications are disclosed herein or known in the art. In some embodiments, the modification is selected from the group consisting: of a chemical substitution at a sugar position; a chemical substitution at a phosphate position; a chemical substitution at a base position of the nucleic acid; and any combination thereof. The modification can be selected from the group consisting of: incorporation of a modified nucleotide, 3’ capping, conjugation to an amine linker, conjugation to a high molecular weight, non-immunogenic compound, conjugation to a lipophilic compound, conjugation to a drug, conjugation to a cytotoxic moiety, labeling with a radioisotope, and any combination thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the non-immunogenic, high molecular weight compound is polyalkylene glycol, such as polyethylene glycol.

[0048] In preferred embodiments, the multipartite construct comprises an oligonucleotide polymer. Such a construct can be flanked by a first oligonucleotide primer region and a second oligonucleotide primer region. In various embodiments, the second segment comprises an oligonucleotide provided by the invention, e.g., an oligonucleotide that can bind C1q or a subunit thereof. For example, the multipartite construct may comprise an oligonucleotide having a sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NO.4358- 4368, or that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous thereto.

[0049] In a related aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the multipartite construct described herein, or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or both. In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering such pharmaceutical composition to the subject. The pharmaceutical composition can be administered in any useful format. In various embodiments, the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. The carrier or diluent can be any useful carrier or diluent, as described herein or known in the art.

[0050] In another related aspect, the invention provides a method of inducing killing of a cell, comprising contacting the cell with a multipartite construct described herein. In some embodiments, the cell that is killed comprises a disease or disorder.

[0051] As described above, the multipartite construct of the invention can be administered to a subject to treat a disease or disorder, or to induce cell killing. In various embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain.

[0052] In an aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition provided by the invention, e.g., as described above. In a related aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the methods making use of such multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition. Similarly, the invention provides use of a reagent for carrying out the methods making use of such multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition. The invention also provides use of a reagent for the manufacture of a kit or reagent for carrying out the methods making use of such multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition. The invention further contemplates use of a reagent for the manufacture of a medicament for carrying out the method methods making use of such multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition. In such kits or uses, the reagent may comprise a multipartite construct or a pharmaceutical composition provided by the invention, e.g., as described above.

[0053] As described above, the invention provides methods and compositions useful for analysis, detection, characterization, imaging, and treatment of various diseases and disorders. In various embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. The cancer can include without limitation one of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma; AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma,

medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors; cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic

myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer; ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma; extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer;

gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma; medulloepithelioma; melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides; myelodysplastic syndromes; myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma;

nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis;

paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma;

squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer; thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The premalignant condition can include without limitation Barrett’s Esophagus. The autoimmune disease can include without limitation one of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. The cardiovascular disease can include without limitation one of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, ischemia, high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. The neurological disease can include without limitation one of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down’s syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The pain can include without limitation one of fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. The infectious disease can include without limitation one of a bacterial infection, viral infection, yeast infection, Whipple’s Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein Barr virus,

Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0054] FIG.1 illustrates a competitive assay selection strategy: the random pool of aptamer (the library) is incubated with the target protein, in this case, EpCAM. After washing and elution from the target, the eluted aptamers are again added to the target and allowed to bind. The antibody is then added to the reaction, competing with the aptamers at the epitope of the antibody. The aptamers displaced by the antibody are then collected.

[0055] FIGs.2A-2F illustrate methods of assessing biomarkers such as microvesicle surface antigens. FIG.2A is a schematic of a planar substrate coated with a capture agent, such as an aptamer or antibody, which captures vesicles expressing the target antigen of the capture agent. The capture agent may bind a protein expressed on the surface of vesicles shed from diseased cells (“disease vesicle”). The detection agent, which may also be an aptamer or antibody, carries a detectable label, here a fluorescent signal. The detection agent binds to the captured vesicle and provides a detectable signal via its fluorescent label. The detection agent can detect an antigen that is generally associated with vesicles, or is associated with a cell- of-origin or a disease, e.g., a cancer. FIG.2B is a schematic of a particle bead conjugated with a capture agent, which captures vesicles expressing the target antigen of the capture agent. The capture agent may bind a protein expressed on the surface of vesicles shed from diseased cells (“disease vesicle”). The detection agent, which may also be an aptamer or antibody, carries a detectable label, here a fluorescent signal. The detection agent binds to the captured vesicle and provides a detectable signal via its fluorescent label. The detection agent can detect an antigen that is generally associated with vesicles, or is associated with a cell-of-origin or a disease, e.g., a cancer. FIG.2C is an example of a screening scheme that can be performed by using different combinations of capture and detection agents to the indicated biomarkers. The biomarker combinations can be detected using assays as shown in FIGs.2A-2B. FIGs. 2D-2E present illustrative schemes for capturing and detecting vesicles to characterize a phenotype. FIG. 2F presents illustrative schemes for assessing vesicle payload to characterize a phenotype.

[0056] FIGs.3A-B illustrates a non-limiting example of an aptamer nucleotide sequence and its secondary structure. FIG.3A illustrates a secondary structure of a 32-mer oligonucleotide, Aptamer 4, with sequence 5’-CCCCCCGAATCACATGACTTGGGCGGGGGTCG (SEQ ID NO. 1). In the figure, the sequence is shown with 6 thymine nucleotides added to the end, which can act as a spacer to attach a biotin molecule. This particular oligo has a high binding affinity to the target, EpCAM (see Table 4). Additional candidate EpCAM binders are identified by modeling the entire database of sequenced oligos to the secondary structure of this oligo. FIG.3B illustrates another 32-mer oligo with sequence 5’- ACCGGATAGCGGTTGGAGGCGTGCTCCACTCG (SEQ ID NO.2) that has a different secondary structure than the aptamer in FIG. 3A. This aptamer is also shown with a 6-thymine tail.

[0057] FIG.4 illustrates a process for producing a target-specific set of aptamers using a cell subtraction method, wherein the target is a biomarker associated with a specific disease. In Step 1, a random pool of oligonucleotides are contacted with a biological sample from a normal patient. In Step 2, the oligos that did not bind in Step 1 are added to a biological sample isolated from diseased patients. The bound oligos from this step are then eluted, captured via their biotin linkage and then combined again with normal biological sample. The unbound oligos are then added again to disease-derived biological sample and isolated. This process can be repeated iteratively. The final eluted aptamers are tested against patient samples to measure the sensitivity and specificity of the set. Biological samples can include blood, including plasma or serum, or other components of the circulatory system, such as microvesicles.

[0058] FIG.5 illustrates results from a binding assay showing the binding affinity of an exemplary aptamer (Aptamer ID BTX176881 (SEQ ID NO: 3)) to the target EpCAM protein at various target concentrations. The aptamer to be tested is fixed to a substrate using a biotin tail and is incubated with various concentrations of target (125, 250 and 500 nM). The test is performed on a surface plasmon resonance machine (SPR). The SPR machine detects association and disassociation of the aptamer and the target. Target is applied until the association and disassociation events are equal, resulting in a plateau of the curve. The equations describing the curve at each concentration can then be used to calculate the K D of the aptamer (see Table 4).

[0059] FIGs.6A-D illustrate the use of an anti-EpCAM aptamer (Aptamer 4; SEQ ID NO.1) to detect a microvesicle population. Vesicles in patient plasma samples were captured using bead-conjugated antibodies to the indicated microvesicle surface antigens: A) EGFR; B) PBP; C) EpCAM; D) KLK2. Fluorescently labeled Aptamer 4 was used as a detector in the microbead assay. The figure shows average median fluorescence values (MFI values) for three cancer (C1-C3) and three normal samples (N1-N3) in each plot. In each plot, the samples from left to right are ordered as: C1, C2, C3, N1, N2, N3.

[0060] FIG.7 comprises a schematic for identifying a target of a selected aptamer, such as an aptamer selected by the process of the invention. The figure shows a binding agent 702, here an aptamer for purposes of illustration, tethered to a substrate 701. The binding agent 702 can be covalently attached to substrate 701. The binding agent 702 may also be non-covalently attached. For example, binding agent 702 can comprise a label which can be attracted to the substrate, such as a biotin group which can form a complex with an avidin/streptavidin molecule that is covalently attached to the substrate. The binding agent 702 binds to a surface antigen 703 of microvesicle 704. In the step signified by arrow (i), the microvesicle is disrupted while leaving the complex between the binding agent 702 and surface antigen 703 intact. Disrupted microvesicle 705 is removed, e.g., via washing or buffer exchange, in the step signified by arrow (ii). In the step signified by arrow (iii), the surface antigen 703 is released from the binding agent 702. The surface antigen 703 can be analyzed to determine its identity.

[0061] FIGs.8A-8G illustrate using an oligonucleotide probe library to differentiate cancer and non- cancer samples.

[0062] FIG.9 shows protein targets of oligonucleotide probes run on a silver stained SDS-PAGE gel.

[0063] FIGs.10A-G illustrate use of oligonucleotides that differentiate microvesicles in breast cancer plasma from normal controls.

[0064] FIGs.11A-B illustrate a model generated using a training (FIG.11A) and test (FIG.11B) set from a round of cross validation. The AUC for the test set was 0.803. Another exemplary round of cross- validation is shown in FIGs.11C-D with training (FIG.11C) and test (FIG.11D) sets. The AUC for the test set was 0.678.

[0065] FIGs.12A-C illustrate use of aptamers in methods of characterizing a phenotype. FIG.12A is a schematic 1200 showing an assay configuration that can be used to detect and/or quantify a target of interest. In the figure, capture aptamer 1202 is attached to substrate 1201. Target of interest 1203 is bound by capture aptamer 1202. Detection aptamer 1204 is also bound to target of interest 1203. Detection aptamer 1204 carries label 1205 which can be detected to identify target captured to substrate 1201 via capture aptamer 1202. FIG.12B is a schematic 1210 showing use of an aptamer pool to characterize a phenotype. A pool of aptamers to a target of interest is provided 1211. The pool is contacted with a test sample to be characterized 1212. The mixture is washed to remove unbound aptamers. The remaining aptamers are disassociated and collected 1213. The collected aptamers are identified 1214 and the identity of the retained aptamers is used to characterize the phenotype 1215. FIG.12C is a schematic 1220 showing an implementation of the method in FIG.12B. A pool of aptamers identified as binding a microvesicle population is provided 1219. The input sample comprises microvesicles that are isolated from a test sample 1220. The pool is contacted with the isolated microvesicles to be characterized 1223. The mixture is washed to remove unbound aptamers and the remaining aptamers are disassociated and collected 1225. The collected aptamers are identified and the identity of the retained aptamers is used to characterize the phenotype 1226.

[0066] FIGs.13A-I illustrate development and use of an oligonucleotide probe library to distinguish biological sample types.

[0067] FIGs.14A-C illustrate enriching a naïve oligonucleotide library with balanced design for oligonucleotides that differentiate between breast cancer and non-cancer microvesicles derived from plasma samples.

[0068] FIGs.15A-D shows characterization of breast cancer samples as cancer or non-cancer using two different but related oligonucleotide probe libraries.

[0069] FIGs.16A-E illustrate oligonucleotide constructs that recognize immunomodulatory (IMD) targets.

[0070] FIGs.17A-C illustrate identification of oligonucleotides that recognize C1q and other targets.

[0071] FIGs.18A-G illustrate identification of targets of aptamer C10.36 (SEQ ID NO. 4357).

[0072] FIGs.19A-E illustrate cell killing by aptamer C10.36 (SEQ ID NO.4357).

[0073] FIGs.20A-H illustrate cell killing by aptamer C10.36 (SEQ ID NO.4357).

[0074] FIGs.21A-B illustrate proteins that affinity purify with aptamer C10.36 in various cell lines.

[0075] FIG.22 shows an analysis of gene expression in cells treated with or without aptamer C10.36.

[0076] FIGs.23A-L illustrate B-cell lymphoma specific aptamer C10.36 binding a ribonucleoprotein.

[0077] FIGs.24A-B show cellular internalization of aptamer C10.36. FIG.24A: C10.36 binds to Ramos and Jurkat cells but is only internalized by Ramos. FIG.24B: Mβcd inhibits C10.36 internalization in Ramos cells. [0078] FIGs.25A-B show that C10.36 internalization leads to changes in splicing in Ramos cells. FIG. 25A: C10.36 treatment leads to alternative splicing at 24 hours. STRING network map of alternatively spliced genes indicates global impact on splicing regulation following C10.36 binding and internalization. FIG.25B: Alternatively spliced exons were located in the 5´and 3´ terminals of genes. The majority of the alternatively spliced exons were located in the 5´and 3´ terminals of genes indicating differential usage of alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites following C10.36 treatment.

[0079] FIGs.26A-D show that C10.36 treatment inhibits proliferation of Ramos cells by necrosis. FIG. 26A: C10.36 treatment does not lead to caspase dependent apoptosis. FIG.26B: C10.36 mediated loss in viability is most likely due to necrosis. FIG.26C: C10.36 treatment does not lead autophagy mediated cell death. FIG.26D: C10.36 treatment leads to formation of necrotic blebs.

[0080] FIGs.27A-D shows that C10.36 binding and internalization play a role in cell death. MEC1 cells do not internalize C10.36 upon binding unlike Ramos 2G6.4 C10 (FIG.27A) or SUDHL-1 (FIG.27B). FIGs.27C-27D show that an anti-hnRNP U monoclonal antibody did not effect Ramos cell proliferation (FIG.27D), unlike C10.36 under similar conditions (FIG.27C).

[0081] FIG.28 shows cellular internalization of C10.36-nanoparticles.

[0082] FIGs.29A-D show characterization of C10.36 resistant Ramos cells.

[0083] FIG.30 shows binding of C10.36 to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0084] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying description below. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, the preferred methods and materials are now described. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description. In the specification, the singular forms also include the plural unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. In the case of conflict, the present Specification will control.

[0085] Disclosed herein are compositions and methods that can be used to assess a biomarker profile, which can include a presence or level of one or more biomarkers. The compositions and methods of the invention comprise the use of oligonucleotide probes (aptamers) that bind target biomarkers. The biomarkers may comprise proteins or polypeptides but can be any useful component displayed on a cell or microvesicle surface including nucleic acids, lipids and/or carbohydrates. In general, the oligonucleotides disclosed are synthetic nucleic acid molecules, including DNA and RNA, and variations thereof. Unless otherwise specified, the oligonucleotide probes can be synthesized in DNA or RNA format or as hybrid molecules as desired. The methods disclosed comprise diagnostic processes and techniques using one or more aptamer of the invention, to determine the level or presence of relevant microvesicle surface antigens or a functional fragment thereof. Alternatively, an oligonucleotide probe of the invention can also be used as a binding agent to capture, isolate, or enrich, a cell, cell fragment, vesicle or any other fragment or complex that comprises the antigen or functional fragments thereof.

[0086] The compositions and methods of the invention comprise individual oligonucleotides that are identified for use in assessing a biomarker profile. The invention further discloses compositions and methods of oligonucleotide pools that can be used to detect a biomarker profile in a given sample.

[0087] Oligonucleotide probes and sequences disclosed in the compositions and methods of the invention may be identified herein in the form of DNA or RNA. Unless otherwise specified, one of skill in the art will appreciate that an oligonucleotide may generally be synthesized as either form of nucleic acid and carry various chemical modifications and remain within the scope of the invention. The term aptamer may be used in the art to refer to a single oligonucleotide that binds specifically to a target of interest through mechanisms other than Watson crick base pairing, similar to binding of a monoclonal antibody to a particular antigen. Within the scope of this disclosure and unless stated explicitly or otherwise implicit in context, the terms aptamer, oligonucleotide and oligonucleotide probe, and variations thereof, may be used interchangeably to refer to an oligonucleotide capable of distinguishing biological entities of interest (e.g, biomarkers) whether or not the specific entity has been identified or whether the precise mode of binding has been determined.

[0088] An oligonucleotide probe of the invention can also be used to provide in vitro or in vivo detection or imaging, to provide any appropriate diagnostic readout (e.g., diagnostic, prognostic or theranostic).

[0089] Separately, an oligonucleotide probe of the invention can also be used for treatment or as a therapeutic to specifically target a cell, tissue or organ.

Aptamers

[0090] SELEX. A suitable method for generating an aptamer is with the process entitled“Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment” (“SELEX”) generally described in, e.g., U.S. patent application Ser. No.07/536,428, filed Jun.11, 1990, now abandoned, U.S. Pat. No.5,475,096 entitled “Nucleic Acid Ligands”, and U.S. Pat. No.5,270,163 (see also WO 91/19813) entitled“Nucleic Acid Ligands”. Each SELEX-identified nucleic acid ligand, i.e., each aptamer, is a specific ligand of a given target compound or molecule. The SELEX process is based on the unique insight that nucleic acids have sufficient capacity for forming a variety of two- and three-dimensional structures and sufficient chemical versatility available within their monomers to act as ligands (i.e., form specific binding pairs) with virtually any chemical compound, whether monomeric or polymeric. Molecules of any size or composition can serve as targets.

[0091] SELEX relies as a starting point upon a large library or pool of single stranded oligonucleotides comprising randomized sequences. The oligonucleotides can be modified or unmodified DNA, RNA, or DNA/RNA hybrids. In some examples, the pool comprises 100% random or partially random

oligonucleotides. In other examples, the pool comprises random or partially random oligonucleotides containing at least one fixed and/or conserved sequence incorporated within randomized sequence. In other examples, the pool comprises random or partially random oligonucleotides containing at least one fixed and/or conserved sequence at its 5' and/or 3' end which may comprise a sequence shared by all the molecules of the oligonucleotide pool. Fixed sequences are sequences such as hybridization sites for PCR primers, promoter sequences for RNA polymerases (e.g., T3, T4, T7, and SP6), restriction sites, or homopolymeric sequences, such as poly A or poly T tracts, catalytic cores, sites for selective binding to affinity columns, and other sequences to facilitate cloning and/or sequencing of an oligonucleotide of interest. Conserved sequences are sequences, other than the previously described fixed sequences, shared by a number of aptamers that bind to the same target.

[0092] The oligonucleotides of the pool preferably include a randomized sequence portion as well as fixed sequences necessary for efficient amplification. Typically the oligonucleotides of the starting pool contain fixed 5' and 3' terminal sequences which flank an internal region of 30-50 random nucleotides. The randomized nucleotides can be produced in a number of ways including chemical synthesis and size selection from randomly cleaved cellular nucleic acids. Sequence variation in test nucleic acids can also be introduced or increased by mutagenesis before or during the selection/amplification iterations.

[0093] The random sequence portion of the oligonucleotide can be of any length and can comprise ribonucleotides and/or deoxyribonucleotides and can include modified or non-natural nucleotides or nucleotide analogs. See, e.g. U.S. Pat. No.5,958,691; U.S. Pat. No.5,660,985; U.S. Pat. No.5,958,691; U.S. Pat. No.5,698,687; U.S. Pat. No.5,817,635; U.S. Pat. No.5,672,695, and PCT Publication WO 92/07065. Random oligonucleotides can be synthesized from phosphodiester-linked nucleotides using solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis techniques well known in the art. See, e.g., Froehler et al., Nucl. Acid Res.14:5399-5467 (1986) and Froehler et al., Tet. Lett.27:5575-5578 (1986). Random

oligonucleotides can also be synthesized using solution phase methods such as triester synthesis methods. See, e.g., Sood et al., Nucl. Acid Res.4:2557 (1977) and Hirose et al., Tet. Lett., 28:2449 (1978). Typical syntheses carried out on automated DNA synthesis equipment yield 10 14 -10 16 individual molecules, a number sufficient for most SELEX experiments. Sufficiently large regions of random sequence in the sequence design increases the likelihood that each synthesized molecule is likely to represent a unique sequence.

[0094] The starting library of oligonucleotides may be generated by automated chemical synthesis on a DNA synthesizer. To synthesize randomized sequences, mixtures of all four nucleotides are added at each nucleotide addition step during the synthesis process, allowing for random incorporation of nucleotides. As stated above, in one embodiment, random oligonucleotides comprise entirely random sequences; however, in other embodiments, random oligonucleotides can comprise stretches of nonrandom or partially random sequences. Partially random sequences can be created by adding the four nucleotides in different molar ratios at each addition step.

[0095] The starting library of oligonucleotides may be for example, RNA, DNA, or RNA/DNA hybrid. In those instances where an RNA library is to be used as the starting library it is typically generated by transcribing a DNA library in vitro using T7 RNA polymerase or modified T7 RNA polymerases and purified. The library is then mixed with the target under conditions favorable for binding and subjected to step-wise iterations of binding, partitioning and amplification, using the same general selection scheme, to achieve virtually any desired criterion of binding affinity and selectivity. More specifically, starting with a mixture containing the starting pool of nucleic acids, the SELEX method includes steps of: (a) contacting the mixture with the target under conditions favorable for binding; (b) partitioning unbound nucleic acids from those nucleic acids which have bound specifically to target molecules; (c) dissociating the nucleic acid-target complexes; (d) amplifying the nucleic acids dissociated from the nucleic acid-target complexes to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids; and (e) reiterating the steps of binding, partitioning, dissociating and amplifying through as many cycles as desired to yield highly specific, high affinity nucleic acid ligands to the target molecule. In those instances where RNA aptamers are being selected, the SELEX method further comprises the steps of: (i) reverse transcribing the nucleic acids dissociated from the nucleic acid-target complexes before amplification in step (d); and (ii) transcribing the amplified nucleic acids from step (d) before restarting the process.

[0096] Within a nucleic acid mixture containing a large number of possible sequences and structures, there is a wide range of binding affinities for a given target. A nucleic acid mixture comprising, for example, a 20 nucleotide randomized segment can have 4 20 candidate possibilities. Those which have the higher affinity constants for the target are most likely to bind to the target. After partitioning, dissociation and amplification, a second nucleic acid mixture is generated, enriched for the higher binding affinity candidates. Additional rounds of selection progressively favor better ligands until the resulting nucleic acid mixture is predominantly composed of only one or a few sequences. These can then be cloned, sequenced and individually tested for binding affinity as pure ligands or aptamers.

[0097] Cycles of selection and amplification are repeated until a desired goal is achieved. In the most general case, selection/amplification is continued until no significant improvement in binding strength is achieved on repetition of the cycle. The method is typically used to sample approximately 10 14 different nucleic acid species but may be used to sample as many as about 10 18 different nucleic acid species. Generally, nucleic acid aptamer molecules are selected in a 5 to 20 cycle procedure. In one embodiment, heterogeneity is introduced only in the initial selection stages and does not occur throughout the replicating process.

[0098] In one embodiment of SELEX, the selection process is so efficient at isolating those nucleic acid ligands that bind most strongly to the selected target, that only one cycle of selection and amplification is required. Such an efficient selection may occur, for example, in a chromatographic-type process wherein the ability of nucleic acids to associate with targets bound on a column operates in such a manner that the column is sufficiently able to allow separation and isolation of the highest affinity nucleic acid ligands.

[0099] In many cases, it is not necessarily desirable to perform the iterative steps of SELEX until a single nucleic acid ligand is identified. The target-specific nucleic acid ligand solution may include a family of nucleic acid structures or motifs that have a number of conserved sequences and a number of sequences which can be substituted or added without significantly affecting the affinity of the nucleic acid ligands to the target. By terminating the SELEX process prior to completion, it is possible to determine the sequence of a number of members of the nucleic acid ligand solution family. The invention provides for the identification of aptamer pools and uses thereof that jointly can be used to characterize a test sample. For example, the aptamer pools can be identified through rounds of positive and negative selection to identify microvesicle indicative of a disease or condition. The invention further provides use of such aptamer pools to detect and/or quantify such microvesicles in a sample, thereby allowing a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis to be provided.

[00100] A variety of nucleic acid primary, secondary and tertiary structures are known to exist. The structures or motifs that have been shown most commonly to be involved in non-Watson-Crick type interactions are referred to as hairpin loops, symmetric and asymmetric bulges, pseudoknots and myriad combinations of the same. Almost all known cases of such motifs suggest that they can be formed in a nucleic acid sequence of no more than 30 nucleotides. For this reason, it is often preferred that SELEX procedures with contiguous randomized segments be initiated with nucleic acid sequences containing a randomized segment of between about 20 to about 50 nucleotides and in some embodiments, about 30 to about 40 nucleotides. In one example, the 5'-fixed:random:3'-fixed sequence comprises a random sequence of about 30 to about 50 nucleotides.

[00101] The core SELEX method has been modified to achieve a number of specific objectives. For example, U.S. Pat. No.5,707,796 describes the use of SELEX in conjunction with gel electrophoresis to select nucleic acid molecules with specific structural characteristics, such as bent DNA. U.S. Pat. No. 5,763,177 describes SELEX based methods for selecting nucleic acid ligands containing photoreactive groups capable of binding and/or photocrosslinking to and/or photoinactivating a target molecule. U.S. Pat. No.5,567,588 and U.S. Pat. No.5,861,254 describe SELEX based methods which achieve highly efficient partitioning between oligonucleotides having high and low affinity for a target molecule. U.S. Pat. No.5,496,938 describes methods for obtaining improved nucleic acid ligands after the SELEX process has been performed. U.S. Pat. No.5,705,337 describes methods for covalently linking a ligand to its target.

[00102] SELEX can also be used to obtain nucleic acid ligands that bind to more than one site on the target molecule, and to obtain nucleic acid ligands that include non-nucleic acid species that bind to specific sites on the target. SELEX provides means for isolating and identifying nucleic acid ligands which bind to any envisionable target, including large and small biomolecules such as nucleic acid- binding proteins and proteins not known to bind nucleic acids as part of their biological function as well as lipids, cofactors and other small molecules. For example, U.S. Pat. No.5,580,737 discloses nucleic acid sequences identified through SELEX which are capable of binding with high affinity to caffeine and the closely related analog, theophylline.

[00103] Counter-SELEX is a method for improving the specificity of nucleic acid ligands to a target molecule by eliminating nucleic acid ligand sequences with cross-reactivity to one or more non-target molecules. Counter-SELEX is comprised of the steps of: (a) preparing a candidate mixture of nucleic acids; (b) contacting the candidate mixture with the target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture; (c) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture; (d) dissociating the increased affinity nucleic acids from the target; e) contacting the increased affinity nucleic acids with one or more non-target molecules such that nucleic acid ligands with specific affinity for the non-target molecule(s) are removed; and (f) amplifying the nucleic acids with specific affinity only to the target molecule to yield a mixture of nucleic acids enriched for nucleic acid sequences with a relatively higher affinity and specificity for binding to the target molecule. As described above for SELEX, cycles of selection and amplification are repeated until a desired goal is achieved.

[00104] One potential problem encountered in the use of nucleic acids as therapeutics and vaccines is that oligonucleotides in their phosphodiester form may be quickly degraded in body fluids by intracellular and extracellular enzymes such as endonucleases and exonucleases before the desired effect is manifest. The SELEX method thus encompasses the identification of high-affinity nucleic acid ligands containing modified nucleotides conferring improved characteristics on the ligand, such as improved in vivo stability or improved delivery characteristics. Examples of such modifications include chemical substitutions at the ribose and/or phosphate and/or base positions. SELEX identified nucleic acid ligands containing modified nucleotides are described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. No.5,660,985, which describes oligonucleotides containing nucleotide derivatives chemically modified at the 2' position of ribose, 5' position of pyrimidines, and 8' position of purines, U.S. Pat. No.5,756,703 which describes oligonucleotides containing various 2'- modified pyrimidines, and U.S. Pat. No.5,580,737 which describes highly specific nucleic acid ligands containing one or more nucleotides modified with 2'-amino (2'--NH 2 ), 2'-fluoro (2'-F), and/or 2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe) substituents.

[00105] Modifications of the nucleic acid ligands contemplated in this invention include, but are not limited to, those which provide other chemical groups that incorporate additional charge, polarizability, hydrophobicity, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction, and fluxionality to the nucleic acid ligand bases or to the nucleic acid ligand as a whole. Modifications to generate oligonucleotide populations which are resistant to nucleases can also include one or more substitute internucleotide linkages, altered sugars, altered bases, or combinations thereof. Such modifications include, but are not limited to, 2'- position sugar modifications, 5-position pyrimidine modifications, 8-position purine modifications, modifications at exocyclic amines, substitution of 4-thiouridine, substitution of 5-bromo or 5-iodo-uracil; backbone modifications, phosphorothioate or allyl phosphate modifications, methylations, and unusual base-pairing combinations such as the isobases isocytidine and isoguanosine. Modifications can also include 3' and 5' modifications such as capping.

[00106] In one embodiment, oligonucleotides are provided in which the P(O)O group is replaced by P(O)S (“thioate”), P(S)S (“dithioate”), P(O)NR 2 (“amidate”), P(O)R, P(O)OR', CO or CH 2 (“formacetal”) or 3'-amine (--NH--CH 2 --CH 2 --), wherein each R or R' is independently H or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. Linkage groups can be attached to adjacent nucleotides through an --O--, --N--, or --S-- linkage. Not all linkages in the oligonucleotide are required to be identical. As used herein, the term phosphorothioate encompasses one or more non-bridging oxygen atoms in a phosphodiester bond replaced by one or more sulfur atoms.

[00107] In further embodiments, the oligonucleotides comprise modified sugar groups, for example, one or more of the hydroxyl groups is replaced with halogen, aliphatic groups, or functionalized as ethers or amines. In one embodiment, the 2'-position of the furanose residue is substituted by any of an O-methyl, O-alkyl, O-allyl, S-alkyl, S-allyl, or halo group. Methods of synthesis of 2'-modified sugars are described, e.g., in Sproat, et al., Nucl. Acid Res.19:733-738 (1991); Cotten, et al., Nucl. Acid Res.19:2629-2635 (1991); and Hobbs, et al., Biochemistry 12:5138-5145 (1973). Other modifications are known to one of ordinary skill in the art. Such modifications may be pre-SELEX process modifications or post-SELEX process modifications (modification of previously identified unmodified ligands) or may be made by incorporation into the SELEX process.

[00108] Pre-SELEX process modifications or those made by incorporation into the SELEX process yield nucleic acid ligands with both specificity for their SELEX target and improved stability, e.g., in vivo stability. Post-SELEX process modifications made to nucleic acid ligands may result in improved stability, e.g., in vivo stability without adversely affecting the binding capacity of the nucleic acid ligand.

[00109] The SELEX method encompasses combining selected oligonucleotides with other selected oligonucleotides and non-oligonucleotide functional units as described in U.S. Pat. No.5,637,459 and U.S. Pat. No.5,683,867. The SELEX method further encompasses combining selected nucleic acid ligands with lipophilic or non-immunogenic high molecular weight compounds in a diagnostic or therapeutic complex, as described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. No.6,011,020, U.S. Pat. No.6,051,698, and PCT Publication No. WO 98/18480. These patents and applications teach the combination of a broad array of shapes and other properties, with the efficient amplification and replication properties of oligonucleotides, and with the desirable properties of other molecules.

[00110] The identification of nucleic acid ligands to small, flexible peptides via the SELEX method has also been explored. Small peptides have flexible structures and usually exist in solution in an equilibrium of multiple conformers, and thus it was initially thought that binding affinities may be limited by the conformational entropy lost upon binding a flexible peptide. However, the feasibility of identifying nucleic acid ligands to small peptides in solution was demonstrated in U.S. Pat. No.5,648,214. In this patent, high affinity RNA nucleic acid ligands to substance P, an 11 amino acid peptide, were identified.

[00111] The aptamers with specificity and binding affinity to the target(s) of the present invention can be selected by the SELEX N process as described herein. As part of the SELEX process, the sequences selected to bind to the target are then optionally minimized to determine the minimal sequence having the desired binding affinity. The selected sequences and/or the minimized sequences are optionally optimized by performing random or directed mutagenesis of the sequence to increase binding affinity or alternatively to determine which positions in the sequence are essential for binding activity. Additionally, selections can be performed with sequences incorporating modified nucleotides to stabilize the aptamer molecules against degradation in vivo. [00112] 2' Modified SELEX

[00113] For an aptamer to be suitable for use as a therapeutic, it is preferably inexpensive to synthesize, and safe and stable in vivo. Wild-type RNA and DNA aptamers are typically not stable is vivo because of their susceptibility to degradation by nucleases. Resistance to nuclease degradation can be greatly increased by the incorporation of modifying groups at the 2'-position.

[00114] Fluoro and amino groups have been successfully incorporated into oligonucleotide pools from which aptamers have been subsequently selected. However, these modifications greatly increase the cost of synthesis of the resultant aptamer, and may introduce safety concerns in some cases because of the possibility that the modified nucleotides could be recycled into host DNA by degradation of the modified oligonucleotides and subsequent use of the nucleotides as substrates for DNA synthesis.

[00115] Aptamers that contain 2'-O-methyl (“2'-OMe”) nucleotides, as provided herein, may overcome one or more potential drawbacks. Oligonucleotides containing 2'-OMe nucleotides are nuclease-resistant and inexpensive to synthesize. Although 2'-OMe nucleotides are ubiquitous in biological systems, natural polymerases do not accept 2'-OMe NTPs as substrates under physiological conditions, thus there are no safety concerns over the recycling of 2'-OMe nucleotides into host DNA. The SELEX method used to generate 2'-modified aptamers is described, e.g., in U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No.

60/430,761, filed Dec.3, 2002, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No.60/487,474, filed Jul.15, 2003, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No.60/517,039, filed Nov.4, 2003, U.S. patent application Ser. No.10/729,581, filed Dec.3, 2003, and U.S. patent application Ser. No.10/873,856, filed Jun.21, 2004, entitled“Method for in vitro Selection of 2'-O-methyl substituted Nucleic Acids”, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

METHODS

[00116] Biomarker Detection and Diagnotics

[00117] The aptamers of the invention can be used in various methods to assess presence or level of biomarkers in a biological sample, e.g., biological entities of interest such as proteins, nucleic acids, or microvesicles. The aptamer functions as a binding agent to assess presence or level of the cognate target molecule. Therefore, in various embodiments of the invention directed to diagnostics, prognostics or theranostics, one or more aptamers of the invention are configured in a ligand-target based assay, where one or more aptamer of the invention is contacted with a selected biological sample, where the or more aptamer associates with or binds to its target molecules. Aptamers of the invention are used to identify candidate biosignatures based on the biological samples assessed and biomarkers detected. In further embodiments, aptamers may themselves provide a biosignature for a particular condition or disease. A biosignature refers to a biomarker profile of a biological sample comprising a presence, level or other characteristic that can be assessed (including without limitation a sequence, mutation, rearrangement, translocation, deletion, epigenetic modification, methylation, post-translational modification, allele, activity, complex partners, stability, half life, and the like) of one or more biomarker of interest.

Biosignatures can be used to evaluate diagnostic and/or prognostic criteria such as presence of disease, disease staging, disease monitoring, disease stratification, or surveillance for detection, metastasis or recurrence or progression of disease. For example, methods of the invention using aptamers against microvesicle surface antigen are useful for correlating a biosignature comprising microvesicle antigens to a selected condition or disease. A biosignature can also be used clinically in making decisions concerning treatment modalities including therapeutic intervention. A biosignature can further be used clinically to make treatment decisions, including whether to perform surgery or what treatment standards should be used along with surgery (e.g., either pre-surgery or post-surgery). As an illustrative example, a biosignature of circulating biomarkers that indicates an aggressive form of cancer may call for a more aggressive surgical procedure and/or more aggressive therapeutic regimen to treat the patient.

[00118] A biosignature can be used in any methods disclosed herein, e.g., to assess whether a subject is afflicted with disease, is at risk for developing disease or to assess the stage or progression of the disease. For example, a biosignature can be used to assess whether a subject has prostate cancer, colon cancer, or other cancer as described herein. Furthermore, a biosignature can be used to determine a stage of a disease or condition, such as colon cancer. The biosignature/biomarker profile comprising a microvesicle can include assessment of payload within the microvesicle. For example, one or more aptamer of the invention can be used to capture a microvesicle population, thereby providing readout of microvesicle antigens, and then the payload content within the captured microvesicles can be assessed, thereby providing further biomarker readout of the payload content.

[00119] A biosignature for characterizing a phenotype may comprise any number of useful criteria. As described further below, the term“phenotype” as used herein can mean any trait or characteristic that is attributed to a biosignature / biomarker profile. A phenotype can be detected or identified in part or in whole using the compositions and/or methods of the invention. In some embodiments, at least one criterion is used for each biomarker. In some embodiments, at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or at least 100 criteria are used. For example, for the characterizing of a cancer, a number of different criteria can be used when the subject is diagnosed with a cancer: 1) if the amount of microRNA in a sample from a subject is higher than a reference value; 2) if the amount of a microRNA within cell type specific vesicles (i.e. vesicles derived from a specific tissue or organ) is higher than a reference value; or 3) if the amount of microRNA within vesicles with one or more cancer specific biomarkers is higher than a reference value. Similar rules can apply if the amount of microRNA is less than or the same as the reference. The method can further include a quality control measure, such that the results are provided for the subject if the samples meet the quality control measure. In some embodiments, if the criteria are met but the quality control is questionable, the subject is reassessed.

[00120] Theranostics

[00121] A biosignature can be used in therapy related diagnostics to provide tests useful to diagnose a disease or choose the correct treatment regimen, such as provide a theranosis. Theranostics includes diagnostic testing that provides the ability to affect therapy or treatment of a diseased state. Theranostics testing provides a theranosis in a similar manner that diagnostics or prognostic testing provides a diagnosis or prognosis, respectively. As used herein, theranostics encompasses any desired form of therapy related testing, including predictive medicine, personalized medicine, integrated medicine, pharmacodiagnostics and Dx/Rx partnering. Therapy related tests can be used to predict and assess drug response in individual subjects, i.e., to provide personalized medicine. Predicting a drug response can be determining whether a subject is a likely responder or a likely non-responder to a candidate therapeutic agent, e.g., before the subject has been exposed or otherwise treated with the treatment. Assessing a drug response can be monitoring a response to a drug, e.g., monitoring the subject’s improvement or lack thereof over a time course after initiating the treatment. Therapy related tests are useful to select a subject for treatment who is particularly likely to benefit from the treatment or to provide an early and objective indication of treatment efficacy in an individual subject. Thus, a biosignature as disclosed herein may indicate that treatment should be altered to select a more promising treatment, thereby avoiding the great expense of delaying beneficial treatment and avoiding the financial and morbidity costs of administering an ineffective drug(s).

[00122] The compositions and methods of the invention can be used to identify or detect a biosignature associated with a variety of diseases and disorders, which include, but are not limited to cardiovascular disease, cancer, infectious diseases, sepsis, neurological diseases, central nervous system related diseases, endovascular related diseases, and autoimmune related diseases. Therapy related diagnostics (i.e., theranostics) are also useful in clinical diagnosis and management of many such diseases and disorders. Therapy related diagnostics also aid in the prediction of drug toxicity, drug resistance or drug response. Therapy related tests may be developed in any suitable diagnostic testing format, which include, but are not limited to, e.g., immunohistochemical tests, clinical chemistry, immunoassay, cell-based technologies, nucleic acid tests or body imaging methods. Therapy related tests can further include but are not limited to, testing that aids in the determination of therapy, testing that monitors for therapeutic toxicity, or response to therapy testing.^Thus, a biosignature can be used to predict or monitor a subject’s response to a treatment. A biosignature can be determined at different time points for a subject after initiating, removing, or altering a particular treatment.

[00123] In some embodiments, the compositions and methods of the invention provide for a determination or prediction as to whether a subject is responding to a treatment is made based on a change in the amount of one or more components of a biosignature (i.e., the microRNA, vesicles and/or biomarkers of interest), an amount of one or more components of a particular biosignature, or the biosignature detected for the components. In another embodiment, a subject’s condition is monitored by determining a biosignature at different time points. The progression, regression, or recurrence of a condition is determined. Response to therapy can also be measured over a time course. Thus, the invention provides a method of monitoring a status of a disease or other medical condition in a subject, comprising isolating or detecting a biosignature from a biological sample from the subject, detecting the overall amount of the components of a particular biosignature, or detecting the biosignature of one or more components (such as the presence, absence, or expression level of a biomarker). The biosignatures are used to monitor the status of the disease or condition.

[00124] One or more novel biosignatures of a vesicle can also be identified. For example, one or more vesicles can be isolated from a subject that responds to a drug treatment or treatment regimen and compared to a reference, such as another subject that does not respond to the drug treatment or treatment regimen. Differences between the biosignatures can be determined and used to identify other subjects as responders or non-responders to a particular drug or treatment regimen.

[00125] In some embodiments, a biosignature is used to determine whether a particular disease or condition is resistant to a drug, in which case a physician need not waste valuable time with such drug treatment. To obtain early validation of a drug choice or treatment regimen, a biosignature is determined for a sample obtained from a subject. The biosignature is used to assess whether the particular subject’s disease has the biomarker associated with drug resistance. Such a determination enables doctors to devote critical time as well as the patient’s financial resources to effective treatments.

[00126] Biosignatures can be used in the theranosis of a cancer, such as identifying whether a subject suffering from cancer is a likely responder or non-responder to a particular cancer treatment. The subject methods can be used to theranose cancers including those listed herein, e.g., in the“Phenotypes” section below. These include without limitation lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer small cell lung cancer (including small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma, and combined small cell carcinoma), colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, kidney cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, glioma, glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, papillary renal carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, or other solid tumors.

[00127] A biosignature of circulating biomarkers, including markers associated with a component present in a biological sample (e.g., cell, cell-fragment, cell-derived extracellular vesicle), in a sample from a subject suffering from a cancer can be used select a candidate treatment for the subject. The biosignature can be determined according to the methods of the invention presented herein. In some embodiments, the candidate treatment comprises a standard of care for the cancer. The treatment can be a cancer treatment such as radiation, surgery, chemotherapy or a combination thereof. The cancer treatment can be a therapeutic such as anti-cancer agents and chemotherapeutic regimens. Further drug associations and rules that are used in embodiments of the invention are found in PCT/US2007/69286, filed May 18, 2007; PCT/ US2009/60630, filed October 14, 2009; PCT/ 2010/000407, filed February 11, 2010; PCT/US12/41393, filed June 7, 2012; PCT/US2013/073184, filed December 4, 2013; PCT/US2010/54366, filed October 27, 2010; PCT/US11/67527, filed December 28, 2011; PCT/US15/13618, filed January 29, 2015; and PCT/US16/20657, filed March 3, 2016.

Biomarker Detection

[00128] The compositions and methods of the invention can be used to assess any useful biomarkers in a biological sample for charactering a phenotype associated with the sample. Such biomarkers include all sorts of biological entities such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, complexes of any thereof, and microvesicles. Various molecules associated with a microvesicle surface or enclosed within the microvesicle (referred to herein as“payload”) can serve as biomarkers. The microvesicles themselves can also be used as biomarkers.

[00129] The aptamers of the invention can be used to assess levels or presence of a microvesicle population. See, e.g., FIGs.12B-C. The aptamers of the invention can also be used to assess levels or presence of their specific target molecule. See, e.g., FIG.12A. In addition, aptamers of the invention are used to capture or isolated a component present in a biological sample that has the aptamer’s target molecule present. For example, if a given microvesicle surface antigen is present on a cell, cell fragment or cell-derived extracellular vesicle. A binding agent to the biomarker, including without limitation an aptamer provided by the invention, may be used to capture or isolate the cell, cell fragment or cell-derived extracellular vesicles. See, e.g., FIGs.2A-B, 12A. Such captured or isolated entities may be further characterized to assess additional surface antigens or internal“payload” molecules present (i.e., nucleic acid molecules, lipids, sugars, polypeptides or functional fragments thereof, or anything else present in the cellular milieu that may be used as a biomarker), where one or more biomarkers provide a biosignature to assess a desired phenotype, such a s disease or condition. See, e.g., FIG.2F. Therefore, aptamers of the invention are used not only to assess one or more microvesicle surface antigen of interest but are also used to separate a component present in a biological sample, where the components themselves can be further assessed to identify a candidate biosignature.

[00130] The methods of the invention can comprise multiplex analysis of at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 50, 75 or 100 different biomarkers. For example, an assay of a heterogeneous population of vesicles can be performed with a plurality of particles that are differentially labeled. There can be at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 50, 75 or 100 differentially labeled particles. The particles may be externally labeled, such as with a tag, or they may be intrinsically labeled. Each differentially labeled particle can be coupled to a capture agent, such as a binding agent, for a vesicle, resulting in capture of a vesicle. The multiple capture agents can be selected to characterize a phenotype of interest, including capture agents against general vesicle biomarkers, cell- of-origin specific biomarkers, and disease biomarkers. One or more biomarkers of the captured vesicle can then be detected by a plurality of binding agents. The binding agent can be directly labeled to facilitate detection. Alternatively, the binding agent is labeled by a secondary agent. For example, the binding agent may be an antibody for a biomarker on the vesicle, wherein the binding agent is linked to biotin. A secondary agent comprises streptavidin linked to a reporter and can be added to detect the biomarker. In some embodiments, the captured vesicle is assayed for at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 50, 75 or 100 different biomarkers. For example, multiple detectors, i.e., detection of multiple biomarkers of a captured vesicle or population of vesicles, can increase the signal obtained, permitted increased sensitivity, specificity, or both, and the use of smaller amounts of samples. Detection can be with more than one biomarker, including without limitation more than one vesicle marker such as in any of Tables 3, 10-17, 24, 29-32, 39-41 or 46-49, and Table 4 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016, which reference is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00131] An immunoassay based method (e.g., sandwich assay) can be used to detect a biomarker of a vesicle. An example includes ELISA. A binding agent can be bound to a well. For example, a binding agent such as an aptamer or antibody to an antigen of a vesicle can be attached to a well. A biomarker on the captured vesicle can be detected based on the methods described herein. FIG.2A shows an illustrative schematic for a sandwich-type of immunoassay. The capture agent can be against a vesicle antigen of interest, e.g., a general vesicle biomarker, a cell-of-origin marker, or a disease marker. In the figure, the captured vesicles are detected using fluorescently labeled binding agent (detection agent) against vesicle antigens of interest. Multiple capture binding agents can be used, e.g., in distinguishable addresses on an array or different wells of an immunoassay plate. The detection binding agents can be against the same antigen as the capture binding agent, or can be directed against other markers. The capture binding agent can be any useful binding agent, e.g., tethered aptamers, antibodies or lectins, and/or the detector antibodies can be similarly substituted, e.g., with detectable (e.g., labeled) aptamers, antibodies, lectins or other binding proteins or entities. In an embodiment, one or more capture agents to a general vesicle biomarker, a cell-of-origin marker, and/or a disease marker are used along with detection agents against general vesicle biomarker, such as tetraspanin molecules including without limitation one or more of CD9, CD63 and CD81, or other markers in Table 3 herein. Examples of microvesicle surface antigens are disclosed herein, e.g. in Table 3 or Tables 10-17, Table 4 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016, or are known in the art, and examples useful in methods and compositions of the invention are disclosed of International Patent Application Nos. PCT/US2009/62880, filed October 30, 2009; PCT/US2009/006095, filed November 12, 2009; PCT/US2011/26750, filed March 1, 2011; PCT/US2011/031479, filed April 6, 2011; PCT/US11/48327, filed August 18, 2011; PCT/US2008/71235, filed July 25, 2008;

PCT/US10/58461, filed November 30, 2010; PCT/US2011/21160, filed January 13, 2011;

PCT/US2013/030302, filed March 11, 2013; PCT/US12/25741, filed February 17, 2012;

PCT/2008/76109, filed September 12, 2008; PCT/US12/42519, filed June 14, 2012; PCT/US12/50030, filed August 8, 2012; PCT/US12/49615, filed August 3, 2012; PCT/US12/41387, filed June 7, 2012; PCT/US2013/072019, filed November 26, 2013; PCT/US2014/039858, filed May 28, 2013;

PCT/IB2013/003092, filed October 23, 2013; PCT/US13/76611, filed December 19, 2013;

PCT/US14/53306, filed August 28, 2014; and PCT/US15/62184, filed November 23, 2015;

PCT/US2016/021632, filed March 9, 2016; PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016; and

PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016; each of which applications is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00132] FIG.2D presents an illustrative schematic for analyzing vesicles according to the methods of the invention. Capture agents are used to capture vesicles, detectors are used to detect the captured vesicles, and the level or presence of the captured and detected microvesicles is used to characterize a phenotype. Capture agents, detectors and characterizing phenotypes can be any of those described herein. For example, capture agents include antibodies or aptamers tethered to a substrate that recognize a vesicle antigen of interest, detectors include labeled antibodies or aptamers to a vesicle antigen of interest, and characterizing a phenotype includes a diagnosis, prognosis, or theranosis of a disease. In the scheme shown in FIG.2D i), a population of vesicles is captured with one or more capture agents against general vesicle biomarkers (200). The captured vesicles are then labeled with detectors against cell-of-origin biomarkers (201) and/or disease specific biomarkers (202). If only cell-of-origin detectors are used (201), the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (203) can include the general vesicle markers (200) and the cell-of-origin biomarkers (201). If only disease detectors are used (202), the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (203) can include the general vesicle markers (200) and the disease biomarkers (202). Alternately, detectors are used to detect both cell-of-origin biomarkers (201) and disease specific biomarkers (202). In this case, the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (203) can include the general vesicle markers (200), the cell-of-origin biomarkers (201) and the disease biomarkers (202). The biomarkers combinations are selected to characterize the phenotype of interest and can be selected from the biomarkers and phenotypes described herein, e.g., in Table 1, Table 3 or Tables 10-17, or in Table 4 of PCT/US2016/044595.

[00133] In the scheme shown in FIG.2D ii), a population of vesicles is captured with one or more capture agents against cell-of-origin biomarkers (210) and/or disease biomarkers (211). The captured vesicles are then detected using detectors against general vesicle biomarkers (212). If only cell-of-origin capture agents are used (210), the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (213) can include the cell-of- origin biomarkers (210) and the general vesicle markers (212). If only disease biomarker capture agents are used (211), the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (213) can include the disease biomarkers (211) and the general vesicle biomarkers (212). Alternately, capture agents to one or more cell-of-origin biomarkers (210) and one or more disease specific biomarkers (211) are used to capture vesicles. In this case, the biosignature used to characterize the phenotype (213) can include the cell-of- origin biomarkers (210), the disease biomarkers (211), and the general vesicle markers (213). The biomarkers combinations are selected to characterize the phenotype of interest and can be selected from the biomarkers and phenotypes described herein.

[00134] The methods of the invention comprise capture and detection of microvesicles of interest using any combination of useful biomarkers. For example, a microvesicle population can be captured using one or more binding agent to any desired combination of cell of origin, disease specific, or general vesicle markers. The captured microvesicles can then be detected using one or more binding agent to any desired combination of cell of origin, disease specific, or general vesicle markers. FIG. 2E represents a flow diagram of such configurations. Any one or more of a cell-of-origin biomarker (240), disease biomarkers (241), and general vesicle biomarker (242) is used to capture a microvesicle population. Thereafter, any one or more of a cell-of-origin biomarker (243), disease biomarkers (244), and general vesicle biomarker (245) is used to detect the captured microvesicle population. The biosignature of captured and detected microvesicles is then used to characterize a phenotype. The biomarkers combinations are selected to characterize the phenotype of interest and can be selected from the biomarkers and phenotypes described herein.

[00135] A microvesicle payload molecule can be assessed as a member of a biosignature panel. A payload molecule comprises any of the biological entities contained within a cell, cell fragment or vesicle membrane. These entities include without limitation nucleic acids, e.g., mRNA, microRNA, or DNA fragments; protein, e.g., soluble and membrane associated proteins; carbohydrates; lipids; metabolites; and various small molecules, e.g., hormones. The payload can be part of the cellular milieu that is encapsulated as a vesicle is formed in the cellular environment. In some embodiments of the invention, the payload is analyzed in addition to detecting vesicle surface antigens. Specific populations of vesicles can be captured as described above then the payload in the captured vesicles can be used to characterize a phenotype. For example, vesicles captured on a substrate can be further isolated to assess the payload therein. Alternately, the vesicles in a sample are detected and sorted without capture. The vesicles so detected can be further isolated to assess the payload therein. In an embodiment, vesicle populations are sorted by flow cytometry and the payload in the sorted vesicles is analyzed. In the scheme shown in FIG. 2F iv), a population of vesicles is captured and/or detected (220) using one or more of cell-of-origin biomarkers (220), disease biomarkers (221), and/or general vesicle markers (222). The payload of the isolated vesicles is assessed (223). A biosignature detected within the payload can be used to characterize a phenotype (224). In a non-limiting example, a vesicle population can be analyzed in a plasma sample from a patient using antibodies against one or more vesicle antigens of interest. The antibodies can be capture antibodies which are tethered to a substrate to isolate a desired vesicle population. Alternately, the antibodies can be directly labeled and the labeled vesicles isolated by sorting with flow cytometry. The presence or level of microRNA or mRNA extracted from the isolated vesicle population can be used to detect a biosignature. The biosignature is then used to diagnose, prognose or theranose the patient.

[00136] In other embodiments, vesicle or cellular payload is analyzed in a population (e.g., cells or vesicles) without first capturing or detected subpopulations of vesicles. For example, a cellular or extracellular vesicle population can be generally isolated from a sample using centrifugation, filtration, chromatography, or other techniques as described herein and known in the art. The payload of such sample components can be analyzed thereafter to detect a biosignature and characterize a phenotype. In the scheme shown in FIG.2F v), a population of vesicles is isolated (230) and the payload of the isolated vesicles is assessed (231). A biosignature detected within the payload can be used to characterize a phenotype (232). In a non-limiting example, a vesicle population is isolated from a plasma sample from a patient using size exclusion and membrane filtration. The presence or level of microRNA or mRNA extracted from the vesicle population is used to detect a biosignature. The biosignature is then used to diagnose, prognose or theranose the patient.

[00137] The biomarkers used to detect a vesicle population can be selected to detect a microvesicle population of interest, e.g., a population of vesicles that provides a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of a selected condition or disease, including but not limited to a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. See Section“Phenotypes” herein for more detail. In an embodiment, the biomarkers are selected from the group consisting of EpCam

(epithelial cell adhesion molecule), CD9 (tetraspanin CD9 molecule), PCSA (prostate cell specific antigen, see Rokhlin et al., 5E10: a prostate-specific surface-reactive monoclonal antibody. Cancer Lett. 1998131:129-36), CD63 (tetraspanin CD63 molecule), CD81 (tetraspanin CD81 molecule), PSMA (FOLH1, folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1), B7H3 (CD276 molecule), PSCA (prostate stem cell antigen), ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), STEAP (STEAP1, six

transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1), KLK2 (kallikrein-related peptidase 2), SSX2 (synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 2), SSX4 (synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 4), PBP (prostatic binding protein), SPDEF (SAM pointed domain containing ets transcription factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), and a combination thereof. One or more of these markers can provide a biosignature for a specific condition, such as to detect a cancer, including without limitation a carcinoma, a prostate cancer, a breast cancer, a lung cancer, a colorectal cancer, an ovarian cancer, melanoma, a brain cancer, or other type of cancer as disclosed herein. In an embodiment, a binding agent to one or more of these markers is used to capture a microvesicle population, and an aptamer of the invention is used to assist in detection of the capture vesicles as described herein. In other embodiments, an aptamer of the invention is used to capture a microvesicle population, and a binding agent to one or more of these markers is used to assist in detection of the capture vesicles as described herein. The binding agents can be any useful binding agent as disclosed herein or known in the art, e.g., antibodies or aptamers.

[00138] The methods of characterizing a phenotype can employ a combination of techniques to assess a component or population of components present in a biological sample of interest. For example, an aptamer of the invention can be used to assess a single cell, or a single extracellular vesicle or a population of cells or population of vesicles. A sample may be split into various aliquots, where each is analyzed separately. For example, protein content of one or more aliquot is determined and microRNA content of one or more other aliquot is determined. The protein content and microRNA content can be combined to characterize a phenotype. In another embodiment, a component present in a biological sample of interest is isolated and the payload therein is assessed (e.g., capture a population of subpopulation of vesicles using an aptamer of the invention and further assess nucleic acid or proteins present in the isolated vesicles).

[00139] In one embodiment, a population of vesicles with a given surface marker can be isolated by using a binding agent to a microvesicle surface marker. See, e.g., FIGs.2A, 2B, 21A. The binding agent can be an aptamer that was identified to target the microvesicle surface marker using to the methods of the invention. The isolated vesicles is assessed for additional biomarkers such as surface content or payload, which can be contemporaneous to detection of the aptamer-specific target or the assessment of additional biomarkers can be before or subsequent to aptamer-specific target detection. [00140] A biosignature can be detected qualitatively or quantitatively by detecting a presence, level or concentration of a circulating biomarker, e.g., a microRNA, protein, vesicle or other biomarker, as disclosed herein. These biosignature components can be detected using a number of techniques known to those of skill in the art. For example, a biomarker can be detected by microarray analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (including PCR-based methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR/qPCR) and the like), hybridization with allele-specific probes, enzymatic mutation detection, ligation chain reaction (LCR), oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA), flow-cytometric heteroduplex analysis, chemical cleavage of mismatches, mass spectrometry, nucleic acid sequencing, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), restriction fragment polymorphisms, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), or combinations thereof. A biomarker, such as a nucleic acid, can be amplified prior to detection. A biomarker can also be detected by immunoassay, immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; EIA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), flow cytometry, or electron microscopy (EM).

[00141] Biosignatures can be detected using aptamers of the invention that function as either as capture agents and detection agents, as described herein. A capture agent can comprise an antibody, aptamer or other entity which recognizes a biomarker and can be used for capturing the biomarker. Biomarkers that can be captured include circulating biomarkers, e.g., a protein, nucleic acid, lipid or biological complex in solution in a bodily fluid. Similarly, the capture agent can be used for capturing a vesicle. A detection agent can comprise an antibody or other entity which recognizes a biomarker and can be used for detecting the biomarker vesicle, or which recognizes a vesicle and is useful for detecting a vesicle. In some embodiments, the detection agent is labeled and the label is detected, thereby detecting the biomarker or vesicle. The detection agent can be a binding agent, e.g., an antibody or aptamer. In other embodiments, the detection agent comprises a small molecule such as a membrane protein labeling agent. See, e.g., the membrane protein labeling agents disclosed in Alroy et al., US. Patent Publication US 2005/0158708. In an embodiment, vesicles are isolated or captured as described herein, and one or more membrane protein labeling agent is used to detect the vesicles. In many cases, the antigen or other vesicle- moiety that is recognized by the capture and detection agents are interchangeable.

[00142] In a non-limiting embodiment, a vesicle having a cell-of-origin specific antigen on its surface and a cancer-specific antigen on its surface, is captured using a binding agent that is specific to a cells-specific antigen, e.g., by tethering the capture antibody or aptamer to a substrate, and then the vesicle is detected using a binding agent to a disease-specific antigen, e.g., by labeling the binding agent used for detection with a fluorescent dye and detecting the fluorescent radiation emitted by the dye.

[00143] It will be apparent to one of skill in the art that where the target molecule for a binding agent (such as an aptamer of the invention) is informative as to assessing a condition or disease, the same binding agent can be used to both capture a component comprising the target molecule (e.g., microvesicle surface antigen of interest) and also be modified to comprise a detectable label so as to detect the target molecule, e.g., binding agent 1 -antigen-binding agent 2 *, wherein the * signifies a detectable label; binding agent 1 and binding agent 2 may be the same binding agent or a different binding agent (e.g., same aptamer or different aptamer). In addition, binding agent 1 and binding agent 2 can be selected from wholly different categories of binding agents (e.g., antibody, aptamer, synthetic antibody, peptide-nucleic acid molecule, or any molecule that is configured to specifically bind to or associate with its target molecule). Such binding molecules can be selected solely based on their binding specificity for a target molecule.

Examples of additional biomarkers that can be incorporated into the methods and compositions of the invention are known in the art, such as those disclosed in International Patent Publication Nos.

WO/2012/174282 (Int’l Appl. PCT/US2012/042519 filed June 14, 2012) and WO/2013/020995 (Int’l Appl. PCT/US2012/050030 filed August 8, 2013). The detectable signal can itself be associated with a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes with a stretch of nucleic acids present in each oligonucleotide comprising a probing library. The stretch can be the same or different as to one or more oligonucleotides in a library. The detectable signal can comprise fluorescence agents, including color-coded barcodes which are known, such as in U.S. Patent Application Pub. No.20140371088, 2013017837, and

20120258870.

[00144] Techniques of detecting biomarkers or capturing sample components using an aptamer of the invention include the use of a planar substrate such as an array (e.g., biochip or microarray), with molecules immobilized to the substrate as capture agents that facilitate the detection of a particular biosignature. The array can be provided as part of a kit for assaying one or more biomarkers. Additional examples of binding agents described above and useful in the compositions and methods of the invention are disclosed in International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219, entitled“Circulating Biomarkers for Disease” and filed April 6, 2011, which application is incorporated by reference in its entirety herein. Aptamers of the invention can be included in an array for detection and diagnosis of diseases including presymptomatic diseases. In some embodiments, an array comprises a custom array comprising biomolecules selected to specifically identify biomarkers of interest. Customized arrays can be modified to detect biomarkers that increase statistical performance, e.g., additional biomolecules that identifies a biosignature which lead to improved cross-validated error rates in multivariate prediction models (e.g., logistic regression, discriminant analysis, or regression tree models). In some embodiments, customized array(s) are constructed to study the biology of a disease, condition or syndrome and profile biosignatures in defined physiological states. Markers for inclusion on the customized array be chosen based upon statistical criteria, e.g., having a desired level of statistical significance in differentiating between phenotypes or physiological states. In some embodiments, standard significance of p-value = 0.05 is chosen to exclude or include biomolecules on the microarray. The p-values can be corrected for multiple comparisons. As an illustrative example, nucleic acids extracted from samples from a subject with or without a disease can be hybridized to a high density microarray that binds to thousands of gene sequences. Nucleic acids whose levels are significantly different between the samples with or without the disease can be selected as biomarkers to distinguish samples as having the disease or not. A customized array can be constructed to detect the selected biomarkers. In some embodiments, customized arrays comprise low density microarrays, which refer to arrays with lower number of addressable binding agents, e.g., tens or hundreds instead of thousands. Low density arrays can be formed on a substrate. In some embodiments, customizable low density arrays use PCR amplification in plate wells, e.g., TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays (Applied Biosystems by Life Technologies Corporation, Carlsbad, CA).

[00145] An aptamer of the invention or other useful binding agent may be linked directly or indirectly to a solid surface or substrate. See, e.g., FIGs.2A-2B, 9, 21A. A solid surface or substrate can be any physically separable solid to which a binding agent can be directly or indirectly attached including, but not limited to, surfaces provided by microarrays and wells, particles such as beads, columns, optical fibers, wipes, glass and modified or functionalized glass, quartz, mica, diazotized membranes (paper or nylon), polyformaldehyde, cellulose, cellulose acetate, paper, ceramics, metals, metalloids,

semiconductive materials, quantum dots, coated beads or particles, other chromatographic materials, magnetic particles; plastics (including acrylics, polystyrene, copolymers of styrene or other materials, polypropylene, polyethylene, polybutylene, polyurethanes, Teflon material, etc.), polysaccharides, nylon or nitrocellulose, resins, silica or silica-based materials including silicon and modified silicon, carbon, metals, inorganic glasses, plastics, ceramics, conducting polymers (including polymers such as polypyrole and polyindole); micro or nanostructured surfaces such as nucleic acid tiling arrays, nanotube, nanowire, or nanoparticulate decorated surfaces; or porous surfaces or gels such as methacrylates, acrylamides, sugar polymers, cellulose, silicates, or other fibrous or stranded polymers. In addition, as is known the art, the substrate may be coated using passive or chemically-derivatized coatings with any number of materials, including polymers, such as dextrans, acrylamides, gelatins or agarose. Such coatings can facilitate the use of the array with a biological sample.

[00146] As provided in the examples, below, an aptamer or other useful binding agent can be conjugated to a detectable entity or label.

[00147] Appropriate labels include without limitation a magnetic label, a fluorescent moiety, an enzyme, a chemiluminescent probe, a metal particle, a non-metal colloidal particle, a polymeric dye particle, a pigment molecule, a pigment particle, an electrochemically active species, semiconductor nanocrystal or other nanoparticles including quantum dots or gold particles, fluorophores, quantum dots, or radioactive labels. Protein labels include green fluorescent protein (GFP) and variants thereof (e.g., cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein); and luminescent proteins such as luciferase, as described below. Radioactive labels include without limitation radioisotopes (radionuclides), such as 3 H, 11 C, 14 C, 18 F, 32 P, 35 S, 64 Cu, 68 Ga, 86 Y, 99 Tc, 111 In, 123 I, 124 I, 125 I, 131 I, 133 Xe, 177 Lu, 211 At, or 213 Bi. Fluorescent labels include without limitation a rare earth chelate (e.g., europium chelate), rhodamine; fluorescein types including without limitation FITC, 5-carboxyfluorescein, 6-carboxy fluorescein; a rhodamine type including without limitation TAMRA; dansyl; Lissamine; cyanines; phycoerythrins; Texas Red; Cy3, Cy5, dapoxyl, NBD, Cascade Yellow, dansyl, PyMPO, pyrene, 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid and other coumarin derivatives, Marina Blue™, Pacific Blue™, Cascade Blue™, 2-anthracenesulfonyl, PyMPO, 3,4,9,10- perylene-tetracarboxylic acid, 2,7-difluorofluorescein (Oregon Green™ 488-X), 5-carboxyfluorescein, Texas Red™-X, Alexa Fluor 430, 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (5-TAMRA), 6- carboxytetramethylrhodamine (6-TAMRA), BODIPY FL, bimane, and Alexa Fluor 350, 405, 488, 500, 514, 532, 546, 555, 568, 594, 610, 633, 647, 660, 680, 700, and 750, and derivatives thereof, among many others. See, e.g.,“The Handbook--A Guide to Fluorescent Probes and Labeling Technologies,” Tenth Edition, available on the internet at probes (dot) invitrogen (dot) com/handbook. The fluorescent label can be one or more of FAM, dRHO, 5-FAM, 6FAM, dR6G, JOE, HEX, VIC, TET, dTAMRA, TAMRA, NED, dROX, PET, BHQ, Gold540 and LIZ.

[00148] Using conventional techniques, an aptamer can be directly or indirectly labeled, e.g., the label is attached to the aptamer through biotin-streptavidin (e.g., synthesize a biotinylated aptamer, which is then capable of binding a streptavidin molecule that is itself conjugated to a detectable label; non-limiting example is streptavidin, phycoerythrin conjugated (SAPE)). Methods for chemical coupling using multiple step procedures include biotinylation, coupling of trinitrophenol (TNP) or digoxigenin using for example succinimide esters of these compounds. Biotinylation can be accomplished by, for example, the use of D-biotinyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide. Succinimide groups react effectively with amino groups at pH values above 7, and preferentially between about pH 8.0 and about pH 8.5. Alternatively, an aptamer is not labeled, but is later contacted with a second antibody that is labeled after the first antibody is bound to an antigen of interest.

[00149] Various enzyme-substrate labels may also be used in conjunction with a composition or method of the invention. Such enzyme-substrate labels are available commercially (e.g., U.S. Pat. No.4,275,149). The enzyme generally catalyzes a chemical alteration of a chromogenic substrate that can be measured using various techniques. For example, the enzyme may catalyze a color change in a substrate, which can be measured spectrophotometrically. Alternatively, the enzyme may alter the fluorescence or

chemiluminescence of the substrate. Examples of enzymatic labels include luciferases (e.g., firefly luciferase and bacterial luciferase; U.S. Pat. No.4,737,456), luciferin, 2,3-dihydrophthalazinediones, malate dehydrogenase, urease, peroxidase such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase (AP), ^-galactosidase, glucoamylase, lysozyme, saccharide oxidases (e.g., glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), heterocyclic oxidases (such as uricase and xanthine oxidase), lactoperoxidase, microperoxidase, and the like. Examples of enzyme-substrate combinations include, but are not limited to, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with hydrogen peroxidase as a substrate, wherein the hydrogen peroxidase oxidizes a dye precursor (e.g., orthophenylene diamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine hydrochloride (TMB)); alkaline phosphatase (AP) with para-nitrophenyl phosphate as chromogenic substrate; and ^-D-galactosidase ( ^-D-Gal) with a chromogenic substrate (e.g., p-nitrophenyl- ^ ^-D-galactosidase) or fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl- ^-D-galactosidase.

[00150] Aptamer(s) can be linked to a substrate such as a planar substrate. A planar array generally contains addressable locations (e.g., pads, addresses, or micro-locations) of biomolecules in an array format. The size of the array will depend on the composition and end use of the array. Arrays can be made containing from 2 different molecules to many thousands. Generally, the array comprises from two to as many as 100,000 or more molecules, depending on the end use of the array and the method of manufacture. A microarray for use with the invention comprises at least one biomolecule that identifies or captures a biomarker present in a biosignature of interest, e.g., a microRNA or other biomolecule or vesicle that makes up the biosignature. In some arrays, multiple substrates are used, either of different or identical compositions. Accordingly, planar arrays may comprise a plurality of smaller substrates.

[00151] The present invention can make use of many types of arrays for detecting a biomarker, e.g., a biomarker associated with a biosignature of interest. Useful arrays or microarrays include without limitation DNA microarrays, such as cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide microarrays and SNP microarrays, microRNA arrays, protein microarrays, antibody microarrays, tissue microarrays, cellular microarrays (also called transfection microarrays), chemical compound microarrays, and carbohydrate arrays (glycoarrays). These arrays are described in more detail above. In some embodiments, microarrays comprise biochips that provide high-density immobilized arrays of recognition molecules (e.g., aptamers or antibodies), where biomarker binding is monitored indirectly (e.g., via fluorescence).

[00152] An array or microarray that can be used to detect one or more biomarkers of a biosignature and comprising one or more aptamers of the invention can be made according to the methods described in U.S. Pat. Nos.6,329,209; 6,365,418; 6,406,921; 6,475,808; and 6,475,809, and U.S. Patent Application Ser. No.10/884,269, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Custom arrays to detect specific selections of sets of biomarkers described herein can be made using the methods described in these patents. Commercially available microarrays can also be used to carry out the methods of the invention, including without limitation those from Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA), Illumina (San Diego, CA), Agilent (Santa Clara, CA), Exiqon (Denmark), or Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). Custom and/or commercial arrays include arrays for detection proteins, nucleic acids, and other biological molecules and entities (e.g., cells, vesicles, virii) as described herein.

[00153] In some embodiments, multiple capture molecules are disposed on an array, e.g., proteins, peptides or additional nucleic acid molecules. In certain embodiments, the proteins are immobilized using methods and materials that minimize the denaturing of the proteins, that minimize alterations in the activity of the proteins, or that minimize interactions between the protein and the surface on which they are immobilized. The capture molecules can comprise one or more aptamer of the invention. In one embodiment, an array is constructed for the hybridization of a pool of aptamers. The array can then be used to identify pool members that bind a sample, thereby facilitating characterization of a phenotype. See FIGs.12B-19C and related disclosure for further details.

[00154] Array surfaces useful may be of any desired shape, form, or size. Non-limiting examples of surfaces include chips, continuous surfaces, curved surfaces, flexible surfaces, films, plates, sheets, or tubes. Surfaces can have areas ranging from approximately a square micron to approximately 500 cm 2 . The area, length, and width of surfaces may be varied according to the requirements of the assay to be performed. Considerations may include, for example, ease of handling, limitations of the material(s) of which the surface is formed, requirements of detection systems, requirements of deposition systems (e.g., arrayers), or the like.

[00155] In certain embodiments, it is desirable to employ a physical means for separating groups or arrays of binding islands or immobilized biomolecules: such physical separation facilitates exposure of different groups or arrays to different solutions of interest. Therefore, in certain embodiments, arrays are situated within microwell plates having any number of wells. In such embodiments, the bottoms of the wells may serve as surfaces for the formation of arrays, or arrays may be formed on other surfaces and then placed into wells. In certain embodiments, such as where a surface without wells is used, binding islands may be formed or molecules may be immobilized on a surface and a gasket having holes spatially arranged so that they correspond to the islands or biomolecules may be placed on the surface. Such a gasket is preferably liquid tight. A gasket may be placed on a surface at any time during the process of making the array and may be removed if separation of groups or arrays is no longer desired.

[00156] In some embodiments, the immobilized molecules can bind to one or more biomarkers or vesicles present in a biological sample contacting the immobilized molecules. In some embodiments, the immobilized molecules modify or are modified by molecules present in the one or more vesicles contacting the immobilized molecules. Contacting the sample typically comprises overlaying the sample upon the array.

[00157] Modifications or binding of molecules in solution or immobilized on an array can be detected using detection techniques known in the art. Examples of such techniques include immunological techniques such as competitive binding assays and sandwich assays; fluorescence detection using instruments such as confocal scanners, confocal microscopes, or CCD-based systems and techniques such as fluorescence, fluorescence polarization (FP), fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET), total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS);

colorimetric/spectrometric techniques; surface plasmon resonance, by which changes in mass of materials adsorbed at surfaces are measured; techniques using radioisotopes, including conventional radioisotope binding and scintillation proximity assays (SPA); mass spectroscopy, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI) and MALDI-time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy; ellipsometry, which is an optical method of measuring thickness of protein films; quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a very sensitive method for measuring mass of materials adsorbing to surfaces; scanning probe microscopies, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning force microscopy (SFM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM); and techniques such as electrochemical, impedance, acoustic, microwave, and IR/Raman detection. See, e.g., Mere L, et al.,"Miniaturized FRET assays and

microfluidics: key components for ultra-high-throughput screening," Drug Discovery Today 4(8):363-369 (1999), and references cited therein; Lakowicz J R, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd Edition, Plenum Press (1999), or Jain KK: Integrative Omics, Pharmacoproteomics, and Human Body Fluids. In: Thongboonkerd V, ed., ed. Proteomics of Human Body Fluids: Principles, Methods and Applications. Volume 1: Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press, 2007, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00158] Microarray technology can be combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis and other tools. Electrospray interface to a mass spectrometer can be integrated with a capillary in a microfluidics device. For example, one commercially available system contains eTag reporters that are fluorescent labels with unique and well-defined electrophoretic mobilities; each label is coupled to biological or chemical probes via cleavable linkages. The distinct mobility address of each eTag reporter allows mixtures of these tags to be rapidly deconvoluted and quantitated by capillary electrophoresis. This system allows concurrent gene expression, protein expression, and protein function analyses from the same sample Jain KK:

Integrative Omics, Pharmacoproteomics, and Human Body Fluids. In: Thongboonkerd V, ed., ed.

Proteomics of Human Body Fluids: Principles, Methods and Applications. Volume 1: Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press, 2007, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00159] A biochip can include components for a microfluidic or nanofluidic assay. A microfluidic device can be used for isolating or analyzing biomarkers, such as determining a biosignature. Microfluidic systems allow for the miniaturization and compartmentalization of one or more processes for isolating, capturing or detecting a vesicle, detecting a microRNA, detecting a circulating biomarker, detecting a biosignature, and other processes. The microfluidic devices can use one or more detection reagents in at least one aspect of the system, and such a detection reagent can be used to detect one or more biomarkers. In one embodiment, the device detects a biomarker on an isolated or bound vesicle. Various probes, antibodies, proteins, or other binding agents can be used to detect a biomarker within the microfluidic system. The detection agents may be immobilized in different compartments of the microfluidic device or be entered into a hybridization or detection reaction through various channels of the device.

[00160] A vesicle in a microfluidic device can be lysed and its contents detected within the microfluidic device, such as proteins or nucleic acids, e.g., DNA or RNA such as miRNA or mRNA. The nucleic acid may be amplified prior to detection, or directly detected, within the microfluidic device. Thus microfluidic system can also be used for multiplexing detection of various biomarkers. In an embodiment, vesicles are captured within the microfluidic device, the captured vesicles are lysed, and a biosignature of microRNA from the vesicle payload is determined. The biosignature can further comprise the capture agent used to capture the vesicle.

[00161] Novel nanofabrication techniques are opening up the possibilities for biosensing applications that rely on fabrication of high-density, precision arrays, e.g., nucleotide-based chips and protein arrays otherwise known as heterogeneous nanoarrays. Nanofluidics allows a further reduction in the quantity of fluid analyte in a microchip to nanoliter levels, and the chips used here are referred to as nanochips. See, e.g., Unger M et al., Biotechniques 1999; 27(5):1008-14, Kartalov EP et al., Biotechniques 2006;

40(1):810-170, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. Commercially available nanochips currently provide simple one step assays such as total cholesterol, total protein or glucose assays that can be run by combining sample and reagents, mixing and monitoring of the reaction. Gel-free analytical approaches based on liquid chromatography (LC) and nanoLC separations (Cutillas et al. Proteomics, 2005;5:101-112 and Cutillas et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 2005;4:1038-1051, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) can be used in combination with the nanochips.

[00162] An array suitable for identifying a disease, condition, syndrome or physiological status can be included in a kit. A kit can include, an aptamer of the invention, including as non-limiting examples, one or more reagents useful for preparing molecules for immobilization onto binding islands or areas of an array, reagents useful for detecting binding of a vesicle to immobilized molecules, and instructions for use.

[00163] Further provided herein is a rapid detection device that facilitates the detection of a particular biosignature in a biological sample. The device can integrate biological sample preparation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a chip. The device can facilitate the detection of a particular biosignature of a vesicle in a biological sample, and an example is provided as described in Pipper et al., Angewandte Chemie, 47(21), p.3900-3904 (2008), which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. A biosignature can be incorporated using micro-/nano-electrochemical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors and oral fluid for diagnostic applications as described in Li et al., Adv Dent Res 18(1): 3-5 (2005), which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00164] Particle arrays

[00165] As an alternative to planar arrays, assays using particles, such as bead based assays are also capable of use with an aptamer of the invention. Aptamers are easily conjugated with commercially available beads. See, e.g., Srinivas et al. Anal. Chem.2011 Oct.21, Aptamer functionalized Microgel Particles for Protein Detection; See also, review article on aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents, Brody and Gold, Rev. Mol. Biotech.2000, 74:5-13.

[00166] Multiparametric assays or other high throughput detection assays using bead coatings with cognate ligands and reporter molecules with specific activities consistent with high sensitivity automation can be used. In a bead based assay system, a binding agent for a biomarker or vesicle, such as a capture agent (e.g. capture antibody), can be immobilized on an addressable microsphere. Each binding agent for each individual binding assay can be coupled to a distinct type of microsphere (i.e., microbead) and the assay reaction takes place on the surface of the microsphere, such as depicted in FIG.2B. A binding agent for a vesicle can be a capture antibody coupled to a bead. Dyed microspheres with discrete fluorescence intensities are loaded separately with their appropriate binding agent or capture probes. The different bead sets carrying different binding agents can be pooled as desired to generate custom bead arrays. Bead arrays are then incubated with the sample in a single reaction vessel to perform the assay.

[00167] Bead-based assays can also be used with one or more aptamers of the invention. A bead substrate can provide a platform for attaching one or more binding agents, including aptamer(s). For multiplexing, multiple different bead sets (e.g., Illumina, Luminex) can have different binding agents (specific to different target molecules). For example, a bead can be conjugated to an aptamer of the invention used to detect the presence (quantitatively or qualitatively) of an antigen of interest, or it can also be used to isolate a component present in a selected biological sample (e.g., cell, cell-fragment or vesicle comprising the target molecule to which the aptamer is configured to bind or associate). Any molecule of organic origin can be successfully conjugated to a polystyrene bead through use of commercially available kits.

[00168] One or more aptamers of the invention can be used with any bead based substrate, including but not limited to magnetic capture method, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) or laser cytometry. Magnetic capture methods can include, but are not limited to, the use of magnetically activated cell sorter (MACS) microbeads or magnetic columns. Examples of bead or particle based methods that can be modified to use an aptamer of the invention include methods and bead systems described in U.S. Patent Nos.4,551,435, 4,795,698, 4,925,788, 5,108,933, 5,186,827, 5,200,084 or 5,158,871; 7,399,632;

8,124,015; 8,008,019; 7,955,802; 7,445,844; 7,274,316; 6,773,812; 6,623,526; 6,599,331; 6,057,107; 5,736,330; International Patent Publication No. WO/2012/174282; WO/1993/022684.

[00169] Flow Cytometry

[00170] Isolation or detection of circulating biomarkers, e.g., protein antigens, from a biological sample, or of the biomarker-comprising cells, cell fragments or vesicles may also be achieved using an aptamer of the invention in a cytometry process. As a non-limiting example, aptamers of the invention can be used in an assay comprising using a particle such as a bead or microsphere The invention provides aptamers as binding agents, which may be conjugated to the particle. Flow cytometry can be used for sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. As particles pass through they can be selectively charged and on their exit can be deflected into separate paths of flow. It is therefore possible to separate populations from an original mix, such as a biological sample, with a high degree of accuracy and speed. Flow cytometry allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and/or chemical characteristics of single cells flowing through an optical/electronic detection apparatus. A beam of light, usually laser light, of a single frequency (color) is directed onto a hydrodynamically focused stream of fluid. A number of detectors are aimed at the point where the stream passes through the light beam; one in line with the light beam (Forward Scatter or FSC) and several perpendicular to it (Side Scatter or SSC) and one or more fluorescent detectors.

[00171] Each suspended particle passing through the beam scatters the light in some way, and fluorescent chemicals in the particle may be excited into emitting light at a lower frequency than the light source. This combination of scattered and fluorescent light is picked up by the detectors, and by analyzing fluctuations in brightness at each detector (one for each fluorescent emission peak), it is possible to deduce various facts about the physical and chemical structure of each individual particle. FSC correlates with the cell size and SSC depends on the inner complexity of the particle, such as shape of the nucleus, the amount and type of cytoplasmic granules or the membrane roughness. Some flow cytometers have eliminated the need for fluorescence and use only light scatter for measurement.

[00172] Flow cytometers can analyze several thousand particles every second in "real time" and can actively separate out and isolate particles having specified properties. They offer high-throughput automated quantification, and separation, of the set parameters for a high number of single cells during each analysis session. Flow cytometers can have multiple lasers and fluorescence detectors, allowing multiple labels to be used to more precisely specify a target population by their phenotype. Thus, a flow cytometer, such as a multicolor flow cytometer, can be used to detect one or more vesicles with multiple fluorescent labels or colors. In some embodiments, the flow cytometer can also sort or isolate different vesicle populations, such as by size or by different markers.

[00173] The flow cytometer may have one or more lasers, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more lasers. In some embodiments, the flow cytometer can detect more than one color or fluorescent label, such as at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 different colors or fluorescent labels. For example, the flow cytometer can have at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 fluorescence detectors.

[00174] Examples of commercially available flow cytometers that can be used to detect or analyze one or more vesicles, to sort or separate different populations of vesicles, include, but are not limited to the MoFlo™ XDP Cell Sorter (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA), MoFlo™ Legacy Cell Sorter (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA), BD FACSAria™ Cell Sorter (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), BD™ LSRII (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), and BD FACSCalibur™ (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Use of multicolor or multi-fluor cytometers can be used in multiplex analysis of vesicles, as further described below. In some

embodiments, the flow cytometer can sort, and thereby collect or sort more than one population of vesicles based one or more characteristics. For example, two populations of vesicles differ in size, such that the vesicles within each population have a similar size range and can be differentially detected or sorted. In another embodiment, two different populations of vesicles are differentially labeled.

[00175] The data resulting from flow-cytometers can be plotted in 1 dimension to produce histograms or seen in 2 dimensions as dot plots or in 3 dimensions with newer software. The regions on these plots can be sequentially separated by a series of subset extractions which are termed gates. Specific gating protocols exist for diagnostic and clinical purposes especially in relation to hematology. The plots are often made on logarithmic scales. Because different fluorescent dye's emission spectra overlap, signals at the detectors have to be compensated electronically as well as computationally. Fluorophores for labeling biomarkers may include those described in Ormerod, Flow Cytometry 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York (1999), and in Nida et al., Gynecologic Oncology 2005;4889-894 which is incorporated herein by reference. In a multiplexed assay, including but not limited to a flow cytometry assay, one or more different target molecules can be assessed, wherein at least one of the target molecules is a microvesicle surface antigen assessed using an aptamer of the invention.

[00176] Microfluidics

[00177] One or more aptamer of the invention can be disposed on any useful planar or bead substrate. In one aspect of the invention one or more aptamer of the invention is disposed on a microfluidic device, thereby facilitating assessing, characterizing or isolating a component of a biological sample comprising a polypeptide antigen of interest or a functional fragment thereof. For example, the circulating antigen or a cell, cell fragment or cell-derived vesicles comprising the antigen can be assessed using one or more aptamers of the invention (alternatively along with additional binding agents). Microfluidic devices, which may also be referred to as "lab-on-a-chip" systems, biomedical micro-electro-mechanical systems (bioMEMs), or multicomponent integrated systems, can be used for isolating and analyzing a vesicle. Such systems miniaturize and compartmentalize processes that allow for binding of vesicles, detection of biosignatures, and other processes.

[00178] A microfluidic device can also be used for isolation of a vesicle through size differential or affinity selection. For example, a microfluidic device can use one more channels for isolating a vesicle from a biological sample based on size or by using one or more binding agents for isolating a vesicle from a biological sample. A biological sample can be introduced into one or more microfluidic channels, which selectively allows the passage of a vesicle. The selection can be based on a property of the vesicle, such as the size, shape, deformability, or biosignature of the vesicle.

[00179] In one embodiment, a heterogeneous population of vesicles can be introduced into a microfluidic device, and one or more different homogeneous populations of vesicles can be obtained. For example, different channels can have different size selections or binding agents to select for different vesicle populations. Thus, a microfluidic device can isolate a plurality of vesicles wherein at least a subset of the plurality of vesicles comprises a different biosignature from another subset of the plurality of vesicles. For example, the microfluidic device can isolate at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 different subsets of vesicles, wherein each subset of vesicles comprises a different biosignature.

[00180] In some embodiments, the microfluidic device can comprise one or more channels that permit further enrichment or selection of a vesicle. A population of vesicles that has been enriched after passage through a first channel can be introduced into a second channel, which allows the passage of the desired vesicle or vesicle population to be further enriched, such as through one or more binding agents present in the second channel.

[00181] Array-based assays and bead-based assays can be used with microfluidic device. For example, the binding agent can be coupled to beads and the binding reaction between the beads and vesicle can be performed in a microfluidic device. Multiplexing can also be performed using a microfluidic device. Different compartments can comprise different binding agents for different populations of vesicles, where each population is of a different cell-of-origin specific vesicle population. In one embodiment, each population has a different biosignature. The hybridization reaction between the microsphere and vesicle can be performed in a microfluidic device and the reaction mixture can be delivered to a detection device. The detection device, such as a dual or multiple laser detection system can be part of the microfluidic system and can use a laser to identify each bead or microsphere by its color-coding, and another laser can detect the hybridization signal associated with each bead.

[00182] Any appropriate microfluidic device can be used in the methods of the invention. Examples of microfluidic devices that may be used, or adapted for use with vesicles, include but are not limited to those described in U.S. Pat. Nos.7,591,936, 7,581,429, 7,579,136, 7,575,722, 7,568,399, 7,552,741, 7,544,506, 7,541,578, 7,518,726, 7,488,596, 7,485,214, 7,467,928, 7,452,713, 7,452,509, 7,449,096, 7,431,887, 7,422,725, 7,422,669, 7,419,822, 7,419,639, 7,413,709, 7,411,184, 7,402,229, 7,390,463, 7,381,471, 7,357,864, 7,351,592, 7,351,380, 7,338,637, 7,329,391, 7,323,140, 7,261,824, 7,258,837, 7,253,003, 7,238,324, 7,238,255, 7,233,865, 7,229,538, 7,201,881, 7,195,986, 7,189,581, 7,189,580, 7,189,368, 7,141,978, 7,138,062, 7,135,147, 7,125,711, 7,118,910, 7,118,661, 7,640,947, 7,666,361, 7,704,735; and International Patent Publication WO 2010/072410; each of which patents or applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Another example for use with methods disclosed herein is described in Chen et al.,“Microfluidic isolation and transcriptome analysis of serum vesicles,” Lab on a Chip, Dec.8, 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b916199f.

[00183] Other microfluidic devices for use with the invention include devices comprising elastomeric layers, valves and pumps, including without limitation those disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos.5,376,252, 6,408,878, 6,645,432, 6,719,868, 6,793,753, 6,899,137, 6,929,030, 7,040,338, 7,118,910, 7,144,616, 7,216,671, 7,250,128, 7,494,555, 7,501,245, 7,601,270, 7,691,333, 7,754,010, 7,837,946; U.S. Patent Application Nos.2003/0061687, 2005/0084421, 2005/0112882, 2005/0129581, 2005/0145496,

2005/0201901, 2005/0214173, 2005/0252773, 2006/0006067; and EP Patent Nos.0527905 and 1065378; each of which application is herein incorporated by reference. In some instances, much or all of the devices are composed of elastomeric material. Certain devices are designed to conduct thermal cycling reactions (e.g., PCR) with devices that include one or more elastomeric valves to regulate solution flow through the device. The devices can comprise arrays of reaction sites thereby allowing a plurality of reactions to be performed. Thus, the devices can be used to assess circulating microRNAs in a multiplex fashion, including microRNAs isolated from vesicles. In an embodiment, the microfluidic device comprises (a) a first plurality of flow channels formed in an elastomeric substrate; (b) a second plurality of flow channels formed in the elastomeric substrate that intersect the first plurality of flow channels to define an array of reaction sites, each reaction site located at an intersection of one of the first and second flow channels; (c) a plurality of isolation valves disposed along the first and second plurality of flow channels and spaced between the reaction sites that can be actuated to isolate a solution within each of the reaction sites from solutions at other reaction sites, wherein the isolation valves comprise one or more control channels that each overlay and intersect one or more of the flow channels; and (d) means for simultaneously actuating the valves for isolating the reaction sites from each other. Various modifications to the basic structure of the device are envisioned within the scope of the invention. MicroRNAs can be detected in each of the reaction sites by using PCR methods. For example, the method can comprise the steps of the steps of: (i) providing a microfluidic device, the microfluidic device comprising: a first fluidic channel having a first end and a second end in fluid communication with each other through the channel; a plurality of flow channels, each flow channel terminating at a terminal wall; wherein each flow channel branches from and is in fluid communication with the first fluidic channel, wherein an aqueous fluid that enters one of the flow channels from the first fluidic channel can flow out of the flow channel only through the first fluidic channel; and, an inlet in fluid communication with the first fluidic channel, the inlet for introducing a sample fluid; wherein each flow channel is associated with a valve that when closed isolates one end of the flow channel from the first fluidic channel, whereby an isolated reaction site is formed between the valve and the terminal wall; a control channel; wherein each the valve is a deflectable membrane which is deflected into the flow channel associated with the valve when an actuating force is applied to the control channel, thereby closing the valve; and wherein when the actuating force is applied to the control channel a valve in each of the flow channels is closed, so as to produce the isolated reaction site in each flow channel; (ii) introducing the sample fluid into the inlet, the sample fluid filling the flow channels; (iii) actuating the valve to separate the sample fluid into the separate portions within the flow channels; (iv) amplifying the nucleic acid in the sample fluid; (v) analyzing the portions of the sample fluid to determine whether the amplifying produced the reaction. The sample fluid can contain an amplifiable nucleic acid target, e.g., a microRNA, and the conditions can be polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions, so that the reaction results in a PCR product being formed.

[00184] The microfluidic device can have one or more binding agents attached to a surface in a channel, or present in a channel. For example, the microchannel can have one or more capture agents, such as a capture agent for a tissue related antigen in Table 4 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016, one or more general microvesicle antigen in Table 3 herein or a cell-of-origin or cancer related antigen in Table 4 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016, including without limitation EpCam, CD9, CD63, CD81, B7H3, ICAM, STEAP, KLK2, SSX2, SSX4, PBP, SPDEF, and EGFR. The capture agent may be an aptamer selected by the methods of the invention. The surface of the channel can also be contacted with a blocking aptamer. In one embodiment, a microchannel surface is treated with avidin and a capture agent, such as an antibody, that is biotinylated can be injected into the channel to bind the avidin. In other embodiments, the capture agents are present in chambers or other components of a microfluidic device. The capture agents can also be attached to beads that can be manipulated to move through the microfluidic channels. In one embodiment, the capture agents are attached to magnetic beads. The beads can be manipulated using magnets.

[00185] A biological sample can be flowed into the microfluidic device, or a microchannel, at rates such as at least about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 ^l per minute, such as between about 1-50, 5-40, 5-30, 3-20 or 5-15 ^l per minute. One or more vesicles can be captured and directly detected in the microfluidic device. Alternatively, the captured vesicle may be released and exit the microfluidic device prior to analysis. In another embodiment, one or more captured vesicles are lysed in the microchannel and the lysate can be analyzed, e.g., to examine payload within the vesicles. Lysis buffer can be flowed through the channel and lyse the captured vesicles. For example, the lysis buffer can be flowed into the device or microchannel at rates such as at least about a, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 ^l per minute, such as between about 1-50, 5-40, 10-30, 5-30 or 10-35 ^l per minute. The lysate can be collected and analyzed, such as performing RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, Western blotting, or other assays, to detect one or more biomarkers of the vesicle. Phenotypes

[00186] Disclosed herein are products and processes for characterizing a phenotype using the methods and compositions of the invention. The term“phenotype” as used herein can mean any trait or characteristic that is attributed to a biomarker profile that is identified using in part or in whole the compositions and/or methods of the invention. For example, a phenotype can be a diagnostic, prognostic or theranostic determination based on a characterized biomarker profile for a sample obtained from a subject. A phenotype can be any observable characteristic or trait of, such as a disease or condition, a stage of a disease or condition, susceptibility to a disease or condition, prognosis of a disease stage or condition, a physiological state, or response / potential response to therapeutics. A phenotype can result from a subject’s genetic makeup as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two, as well as from epigenetic modifications to nucleic acid sequences.

[00187] A phenotype in a subject can be characterized by obtaining a biological sample from a subject and analyzing the sample using the compositions and/or methods of the invention. For example, characterizing a phenotype for a subject or individual can include detecting a disease or condition (including pre- symptomatic early stage detecting), determining a prognosis, diagnosis, or theranosis of a disease or condition, or determining the stage or progression of a disease or condition. Characterizing a phenotype can include identifying appropriate treatments or treatment efficacy for specific diseases, conditions, disease stages and condition stages, predictions and likelihood analysis of disease progression, particularly disease recurrence, metastatic spread or disease relapse. A phenotype can also be a clinically distinct type or subtype of a condition or disease, such as a cancer or tumor. Phenotype determination can also be a determination of a physiological condition, or an assessment of organ distress or organ rejection, such as post-transplantation. The compositions and methods described herein allow assessment of a subject on an individual basis, which can provide benefits of more efficient and economical decisions in treatment.

[00188] In an aspect, the invention relates to the analysis of biomarkers such as microvesicles to provide a diagnosis, prognosis, and/or theranosis of a disease or condition. Theranostics includes diagnostic testing that provides the ability to affect therapy or treatment of a disease or disease state. Theranostics testing provides a theranosis in a similar manner that diagnostics or prognostic testing provides a diagnosis or prognosis, respectively. As used herein, theranostics encompasses any desired form of therapy related testing, including predictive medicine, personalized medicine, integrated medicine, pharmacodiagnostics and Dx/Rx partnering. Therapy related tests can be used to predict and assess drug response in individual subjects, i.e., to provide personalized medicine. Predicting a drug response can be determining whether a subject is a likely responder or a likely non-responder to a candidate therapeutic agent, e.g., before the subject has been exposed or otherwise treated with the treatment. Assessing a drug response can be monitoring a response to a drug, e.g., monitoring the subject’s improvement or lack thereof over a time course after initiating the treatment. Therapy related tests are useful to select a subject for treatment who is particularly likely to benefit from the treatment or to provide an early and objective indication of treatment efficacy in an individual subject. Thus, analysis using the compositions and methods of the invention may indicate that treatment should be altered to select a more promising treatment, thereby avoiding the great expense of delaying beneficial treatment and avoiding the financial and morbidity costs of administering an ineffective drug(s).

[00189] Thus, the compositions and methods of the invention may help predict whether a subject is likely to respond to a treatment for a disease or disorder. Characterizating a phenotype includes predicting the responder / non-responder status of the subject, wherein a responder responds to a treatment for a disease and a non-responder does not respond to the treatment. Biomarkers such as microvesicles can be analyzed in the subject and compared against that of previous subjects that were known to respond or not to a treatment. If the biomarker profile in the subject more closely aligns with that of previous subjects that were known to respond to the treatment, the subject can be characterized, or predicted, as a responder to the treatment. Similarly, if the biomarker profile in the subject more closely aligns with that of previous subjects that did not respond to the treatment, the subject can be characterized, or predicted as a non- responder to the treatment. The treatment can be for any appropriate disease, disorder or other condition, including without limitation those disclosed herein.

[00190] In some embodiments, the phenotype comprises a disease or condition such as those listed in Table 1. For example, the phenotype can comprise detecting the presence of or likelihood of developing a tumor, neoplasm, or cancer, or characterizing the tumor, neoplasm, or cancer (e.g., stage, grade, aggressiveness, likelihood of metastatis or recurrence, etc). Cancers that can be detected or assessed by methods or compositions described herein include, but are not limited to, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, hyperplastic polyp, adenoma, colorectal cancer, high grade dysplasia, low grade dysplasia, prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer (such as a glioblastoma), hematological malignancy, hepatocellular carcinoma, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or gastric cancer. The colorectal cancer can be CRC Dukes B or Dukes C-D. The hematological malignancy can be B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL-germinal center-like, B-Cell Lymphoma-DLBCL-activated B-cell-like, and Burkitt's lymphoma.

[00191] The phenotype can be a premalignant condition, such as actinic keratosis, atrophic gastritis, leukoplakia, erythroplasia, Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis, preleukemia, fibrosis, cervical dysplasia, uterine cervical dysplasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, Barrett's Esophagus, colorectal polyp, or other abnormal tissue growth or lesion that is likely to develop into a malignant tumor. Transformative viral infections such as HIV and HPV also present phenotypes that can be assessed according to the invention.

[00192] A cancer characterized by the methods of the invention can comprise, without limitation, a carcinoma, a sarcoma, a lymphoma or leukemia, a germ cell tumor, a blastoma, or other cancers.

Carcinomas include without limitation epithelial neoplasms, squamous cell neoplasms squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell neoplasms basal cell carcinoma, transitional cell papillomas and carcinomas, adenomas and adenocarcinomas (glands), adenoma, adenocarcinoma, linitis plastica insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma, vipoma, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, carcinoid tumor of appendix, prolactinoma, oncocytoma, hurthle cell adenoma, renal cell carcinoma, grawitz tumor, multiple endocrine adenomas, endometrioid adenoma, adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms, mucoepidermoid neoplasms, cystic, mucinous and serous neoplasms, cystadenoma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, ductal, lobular and medullary neoplasms, acinar cell neoplasms, complex epithelial neoplasms, warthin's tumor, thymoma, specialized gonadal neoplasms, sex cord stromal tumor, thecoma, granulosa cell tumor, arrhenoblastoma, sertoli leydig cell tumor, glomus tumors, paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, glomus tumor, nevi and melanomas, melanocytic nevus, malignant melanoma, melanoma, nodular melanoma, dysplastic nevus, lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, and malignant acral lentiginous melanoma. Sarcoma includes without limitation Askin's tumor, botryodies, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant hemangio endothelioma, malignant schwannoma, osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcomas including: alveolar soft part sarcoma, angiosarcoma, cystosarcoma phyllodes, dermatofibrosarcoma, desmoid tumor, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, epithelioid sarcoma, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, extraskeletal osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, hemangiosarcoma, kaposi's sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma,

lymphangiosarcoma, lymphosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, neurofibrosarcoma,

rhabdomyosarcoma, and synovialsarcoma. Lymphoma and leukemia include without limitation chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia,

lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (such as waldenström macroglobulinemia), splenic marginal zone lymphoma, plasma cell myeloma, plasmacytoma, monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition diseases, heavy chain diseases, extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma, also called malt lymphoma, nodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (nmzl), follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphoma, intravascular large B cell lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma, burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, T cell prolymphocytic leukemia, T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, aggressive NK cell leukemia, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, enteropathy-type T cell lymphoma, hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma, blastic NK cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides / sezary syndrome, primary cutaneous CD30-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders, primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, lymphomatoid papulosis, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, classical hodgkin lymphomas (nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte-rich, lymphocyte depleted or not depleted), and nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma. Germ cell tumors include without limitation germinoma, dysgerminoma, seminoma, nongerminomatous germ cell tumor, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus turmor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma, polyembryoma, and gonadoblastoma. Blastoma includes without limitation nephroblastoma, medulloblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Other cancers include without limitation labial carcinoma, larynx carcinoma,

hypopharynx carcinoma, tongue carcinoma, salivary gland carcinoma, gastric carcinoma,

adenocarcinoma, thyroid cancer (medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma), renal carcinoma, kidney parenchyma carcinoma, cervix carcinoma, uterine corpus carcinoma, endometrium carcinoma, chorion carcinoma, testis carcinoma, urinary carcinoma, melanoma, brain tumors such as glioblastoma, astrocytoma, meningioma, medulloblastoma and peripheral neuroectodermal tumors, gall bladder carcinoma, bronchial carcinoma, multiple myeloma, basalioma, teratoma, retinoblastoma, choroidea melanoma, seminoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, craniopharyngeoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, myosarcoma, liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and plasmocytoma.

[00193] In a further embodiment, the cancer under analysis may be a lung cancer including non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer (including small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer), mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma, and combined small cell carcinoma), colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, pancreas cancer, brain cancer, kidney cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, skin cancer, bone cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, glioma, glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, papillary renal carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, or a solid tumor.

[00194] In embodiments, the cancer comprises an acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma; AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors;

cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer;

ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma;

extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma; medulloepithelioma;

melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides; myelodysplastic syndromes;

myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma;

squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer; thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The methods of the invention can be used to characterize these and other cancers. Thus, characterizing a phenotype can be providing a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of one of the cancers disclosed herein.

[00195] In some embodiments, the cancer comprises an acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma, female genital tract malignancy, gastric adenocarcinoma, gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma,

gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), glioblastoma, head and neck squamous carcinoma, leukemia, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, low grade glioma, lung bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), lung non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), lung small cell cancer (SCLC), lymphoma, male genital tract malignancy, malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (MSFT), melanoma, multiple myeloma, neuroendocrine tumor, nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, non epithelial ovarian cancer (non-EOC), ovarian surface epithelial carcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pituitary carcinomas, oligodendroglioma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, retroperitoneal or peritoneal carcinoma, retroperitoneal or peritoneal sarcoma, small intestinal malignancy, soft tissue tumor, thymic carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, or uveal melanoma. The methods of the invention can be used to characterize these and other cancers. Thus, characterizing a phenotype can be providing a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of one of the cancers disclosed herein.

[00196] The phenotype can also be an inflammatory disease, immune disease, or autoimmune disease. For example, the disease may be inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis, Type I diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriasis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis.

[00197] The phenotype can also comprise a cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, or ischemia. The cardiovascular disease or condition can be high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. [00198] The phenotype can also comprise a neurological disease, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down's syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The phenotype may also be a condition such as fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain.

[00199] The phenotype may also comprise an infectious disease, such as a bacterial, viral or yeast infection. For example, the disease or condition may be Whipple's Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. Viral proteins, such as HIV or HCV-like particles can be assessed in a vesicle, to characterize a viral condition.

[00200] The phenotype can also comprise a perinatal or pregnancy related condition (e.g. preeclampsia or preterm birth), metabolic disease or condition, such as a metabolic disease or condition associated with iron metabolism. For example, hepcidin can be assayed in a vesicle to characterize an iron deficiency. The metabolic disease or condition can also be diabetes, inflammation, or a perinatal condition.

[00201] The compositions and methods of the invention can be used to characterize these and other diseases and disorders that can be assessed via biomarkers. Thus, characterizing a phenotype can be providing a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of one of the diseases and disorders disclosed herein.

Subject

[00202] One or more phenotypes of a subject can be determined by analyzing one or more vesicles, such as vesicles, in a biological sample obtained from the subject. A subject or patient can include, but is not limited to, mammals such as bovine, avian, canine, equine, feline, ovine, porcine, or primate animals (including humans and non-human primates). A subject can also include a mammal of importance due to being endangered, such as a Siberian tiger; or economic importance, such as an animal raised on a farm for consumption by humans, or an animal of social importance to humans, such as an animal kept as a pet or in a zoo. Examples of such animals include, but are not limited to, carnivores such as cats and dogs; swine including pigs, hogs and wild boars; ruminants or ungulates such as cattle, oxen, sheep, giraffes, deer, goats, bison, camels or horses. Also included are birds that are endangered or kept in zoos, as well as fowl and more particularly domesticated fowl, i.e. poultry, such as turkeys and chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl. Also included are domesticated swine and horses (including race horses). In addition, any animal species connected to commercial activities are also included such as those animals connected to agriculture and aquaculture and other activities in which disease monitoring, diagnosis, and therapy selection are routine practice in husbandry for economic productivity and/or safety of the food chain. [00203] The subject can have a pre-existing disease or condition, such as cancer. Alternatively, the subject may not have any known pre-existing condition. The subject may also be non-responsive to an existing or past treatment, such as a treatment for cancer.

Samples

[00204] A sample used and/or assessed via the compositions and methods of the invention includes any relevant biological sample that can be used for biomarker assessment, including without limitation sections of tissues such as biopsy or tissue removed during surgical or other procedures, bodily fluids, autopsy samples, frozen sections taken for histological purposes, and cell cultures. Such samples include blood and blood fractions or products (e.g., serum, buffy coat, plasma, platelets, red blood cells, and the like), sputum, malignant effusion, cheek cells tissue, cultured cells (e.g., primary cultures, explants, and transformed cells), stool, urine, other biological or bodily fluids (e.g., prostatic fluid, gastric fluid, intestinal fluid, renal fluid, lung fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and the like), etc. The sample can comprise biological material that is a fresh frozen & formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) block, formalin- fixed paraffin embedded, or is within an RNA preservative + formalin fixative. More than one sample of more than one type can be used for each patient.

[00205] The sample used in the methods described herein can be a formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) sample. The FFPE sample can be one or more of fixed tissue, unstained slides, bone marrow core or clot, core needle biopsy, malignant fluids and fine needle aspirate (FNA). In an embodiment, the fixed tissue comprises a tumor containing formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) block from a surgery or biopsy. In another embodiment, the unstained slides comprise unstained, charged, unbaked slides from a paraffin block. In another embodiment, bone marrow core or clot comprises a decalcified core. A formalin fixed core and/or clot can be paraffin-embedded. In still another embodiment, the core needle biopsy comprises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more, e.g., 3-4, paraffin embedded biopsy samples. An 18 gauge needle biopsy can be used. The malignant fluid can comprise a sufficient volume of fresh pleural/ascitic fluid to produce a 5x5x2mm cell pellet. The fluid can be formalin fixed in a paraffin block. In an embodiment, the core needle biopsy comprises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more, e.g., 4-6, paraffin embedded aspirates.

[00206] A sample may be processed according to techniques understood by those in the art. A sample can be without limitation fresh, frozen or fixed cells or tissue. In some embodiments, a sample comprises formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, fresh tissue or fresh frozen (FF) tissue. A sample can comprise cultured cells, including primary or immortalized cell lines derived from a subject sample. A sample can also refer to an extract from a sample from a subject. For example, a sample can comprise DNA, RNA or protein extracted from a tissue or a bodily fluid. Many techniques and commercial kits are available for such purposes. The fresh sample from the individual can be treated with an agent to preserve RNA prior to further processing, e.g., cell lysis and extraction. Samples can include frozen samples collected for other purposes. Samples can be associated with relevant information such as age, gender, and clinical symptoms present in the subject; source of the sample; and methods of collection and storage of the sample. A sample is typically obtained from a subject.

[00207] A biopsy comprises the process of removing a tissue sample for diagnostic or prognostic evaluation, and to the tissue specimen itself. Any biopsy technique known in the art can be applied to the molecular profiling methods of the present invention. The biopsy technique applied can depend on the tissue type to be evaluated (e.g., colon, prostate, kidney, bladder, lymph node, liver, bone marrow, blood cell, lung, breast, etc.), the size and type of the tumor (e.g., solid or suspended, blood or ascites), among other factors. Representative biopsy techniques include, but are not limited to, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, needle biopsy, surgical biopsy, and bone marrow biopsy. An“excisional biopsy” refers to the removal of an entire tumor mass with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding it. An“incisional biopsy” refers to the removal of a wedge of tissue that includes a cross-sectional diameter of the tumor. Molecular profiling can use a“core-needle biopsy” of the tumor mass, or a "fine-needle aspiration biopsy" which generally obtains a suspension of cells from within the tumor mass. Biopsy techniques are discussed, for example, in Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, Kasper, et al., eds., 16th ed., 2005, Chapter 70, and throughout Part V.

[00208] Standard molecular biology techniques known in the art and not specifically described are generally followed as in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York (1989), and as in Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley and Sons, Baltimore, Md. (1989) and as in Perbal, A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988), and as in Watson et al., Recombinant DNA, Scientific American Books, New York and in Birren et al (eds) Genome Analysis: A Laboratory Manual Series, Vols.1-4 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York (1998) and methodology as set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,666,828; 4,683,202; 4,801,531; 5,192,659 and 5,272,057 and incorporated herein by reference.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be carried out generally as in PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990).

[00209] The biological sample assessed using the compositions and methods of the invention can be any useful bodily or biological fluid, including but not limited to peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen (including prostatic fluid), Cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities,

bronchopulmonary aspirates or other lavage fluids, cells, cell culture, or a cell culture supernatant. A biological sample may also include the blastocyl cavity, umbilical cord blood, or maternal circulation which may be of fetal or maternal origin. The biological sample may also be a cell culture, tissue sample or biopsy from which vesicles and other circulating biomarkers may be obtained. For example, cells of interest can be cultured and vesicles isolated from the culture. In various embodiments, biomarkers or more particularly biosignatures disclosed herein can be assessed directly from such biological samples (e.g., identification of presence or levels of nucleic acid or polypeptide biomarkers or functional fragments thereof) using various methods, such as extraction of nucleic acid molecules from blood, plasma, serum or any of the foregoing biological samples, use of protein or antibody arrays to identify polypeptide (or functional fragment) biomarker(s), as well as other array, sequencing, PCR and proteomic techniques known in the art for identification and assessment of nucleic acid and polypeptide molecules. In addition, one or more components present in such samples can be first isolated or enriched and further processed to assess the presence or levels of selected biomarkers, to assess a given biosignature (e.g., isolated microvesicles prior to profiling for protein and/or nucleic acid biomarkers).

[00210] Table 1 presents a non-limiting listing of diseases, conditions, or biological states and corresponding biological samples that may be used for analysis according to the methods of the invention.

Table 1: Examples of Biological Samples for Various Diseases,

Conditions, or Biological States

[00211] The methods of the invention can be used to characterize a phenotype using a blood sample or blood derivative. Blood derivatives include plasma and serum. Blood plasma is the liquid component of whole blood, and makes up approximately 55% of the total blood volume. It is composed primarily of water with small amounts of minerals, salts, ions, nutrients, and proteins in solution. In whole blood, red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets are suspended within the plasma. Blood serum refers to blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors (i.e., whole blood minus both the cells and the clotting factors).

[00212] The biological sample may be obtained through a third party, such as a party not performing the analysis of the biomarkers, whether direct assessment of a biological sample or by profiling one or more vesicles obtained from the biological sample. For example, the sample may be obtained through a clinician, physician, or other health care manager of a subject from which the sample is derived.

Alternatively, the biological sample may obtained by the same party analyzing the vesicle. In addition, biological samples be assayed, are archived (e.g., frozen) or ortherwise stored in under preservative conditions.

[00213] Furthermore, a biological sample can comprise a vesicle or cell membrane fragment that is derived from a cell of origin and available extracellularly in a subject’s biological fluid or extracellular milieu.

[00214] Methods of the invention can include assessing one or more vesicles, including assessing vesicle populations. A vesicle, as used herein, is a membrane vesicle that is shed from cells. Vesicles or membrane vesicles include without limitation: circulating microvesicles (cMVs), microvesicle, exosome, nanovesicle, dexosome, bleb, blebby, prostasome, microparticle, intralumenal vesicle, membrane fragment, intralumenal endosomal vesicle, endosomal-like vesicle, exocytosis vehicle, endosome vesicle, endosomal vesicle, apoptotic body, multivesicular body, secretory vesicle, phospholipid vesicle, liposomal vesicle, argosome, texasome, secresome, tolerosome, melanosome, oncosome, or exocytosed vehicle. Furthermore, although vesicles may be produced by different cellular processes, the methods of the invention are not limited to or reliant on any one mechanism, insofar as such vesicles are present in a biological sample and are capable of being characterized by the methods disclosed herein. Unless otherwise specified, methods that make use of a species of vesicle can be applied to other types of vesicles. Vesicles comprise spherical structures with a lipid bilayer similar to cell membranes which surrounds an inner compartment which can contain soluble components, sometimes referred to as the payload. In some embodiments, the methods of the invention make use of exosomes, which are small secreted vesicles of about 40–100 nm in diameter. For a review of membrane vesicles, including types and characterizations, see Thery et al., Nat Rev Immunol.2009 Aug;9(8):581-93. Some properties of different types of vesicles include those in Table 2:

Table 2: Vesicle Properties

Abbreviations: phosphatidylserine (PPS); electron microscopy (EM)

[00215] Vesicles include shed membrane bound particles, or“microparticles,” that are derived from either the plasma membrane or an internal membrane. Vesicles can be released into the extracellular environment from cells. Cells releasing vesicles include without limitation cells that originate from, or are derived from, the ectoderm, endoderm, or mesoderm. The cells may have undergone genetic, environmental, and/or any other variations or alterations. For example, the cell can be tumor cells. A vesicle can reflect any changes in the source cell, and thereby reflect changes in the originating cells, e.g., cells having various genetic mutations. In one mechanism, a vesicle is generated intracellularly when a segment of the cell membrane spontaneously invaginates and is ultimately exocytosed (see for example, Keller et al., Immunol. Lett.107 (2): 102–8 (2006)). Vesicles also include cell-derived structures bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane arising from both herniated evagination (blebbing) separation and sealing of portions of the plasma membrane or from the export of any intracellular membrane-bounded vesicular structure containing various membrane-associated proteins of tumor origin, including surface-bound molecules derived from the host circulation that bind selectively to the tumor-derived proteins together with molecules contained in the vesicle lumen, including but not limited to tumor-derived microRNAs or intracellular proteins. Blebs and blebbing are further described in Charras et al., Nature Reviews Molecular and Cell Biology, Vol.9, No.11, p.730-736 (2008). A vesicle shed into circulation or bodily fluids from tumor cells may be referred to as a“circulating tumor-derived vesicle.” When such vesicle is an exosome, it may be referred to as a circulating-tumor derived exosome (CTE). In some instances, a vesicle can be derived from a specific cell of origin. CTE, as with a cell-of-origin specific vesicle, typically have one or more unique biomarkers that permit isolation of the CTE or cell-of-origin specific vesicle, e.g., from a bodily fluid and sometimes in a specific manner. For example, a cell or tissue specific markers are used to identify the cell of origin. Examples of such cell or tissue specific markers are disclosed herein and can further be accessed in the Tissue-specific Gene Expression and Regulation (TiGER) Database, available at bioinfo.wilmer.jhu.edu/tiger/; Liu et al. (2008) TiGER: a database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation. BMC Bioinformatics.9:271; TissueDistributionDBs, available at genome.dkfz-heidelberg.de/menu/tissue_db/index.html.

[00216] A vesicle can have a diameter of greater than about 10 nm, 20 nm, or 30 nm. A vesicle can have a diameter of greater than 40 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, 200 nm, 500 nm, 1000 nm, 1500 nm, 2000 nm or greater than 10,000 nm. A vesicle can have a diameter of about 20-2000 nm, about 20-1500 nm, about 30-1000 nm, about 30-800 nm, about 30-200 nm, or about 30-100 nm. In some embodiments, the vesicle has a diameter of less than 10,000 nm, 2000 nm, 1500 nm, 1000 nm, 800 nm, 500 nm, 200 nm, 100 nm, 50 nm, 40 nm, 30 nm, 20 nm or less than 10 nm. As used herein the term“about” in reference to a numerical value means that variations of 10% above or below the numerical value are within the range ascribed to the specified value. Typical sizes for various types of vesicles are shown in Table 2. Vesicles can be assessed to measure the diameter of a single vesicle or any number of vesicles. For example, the range of diameters of a vesicle population or an average diameter of a vesicle population can be determined.

Vesicle diameter can be assessed using methods known in the art, e.g., imaging technologies such as electron microscopy. In an embodiment, a diameter of one or more vesicles is determined using optical particle detection. See, e.g., U.S. Patent 7,751,053, entitled“Optical Detection and Analysis of Particles” and issued July 6, 2010; and U.S. Patent 7,399,600, entitled“Optical Detection and Analysis of Particles” and issued July 15, 2010.

[00217] In some embodiments, the methods of the invention comprise assessing vesicles directly such as in a biological sample without prior isolation, purification, or concentration from the biological sample. For example, the amount of vesicles in the sample can by itself provide a biosignature that provides a diagnostic, prognostic or theranostic determination. Alternatively, the vesicle in the sample may be isolated, captured, purified, or concentrated from a sample prior to analysis. As noted, isolation, capture or purification as used herein comprises partial isolation, partial capture or partial purification apart from other components in the sample. Vesicle isolation can be performed using various techniques as described herein, e.g., chromatography, filtration, centrifugation, flow cytometry, affinity capture (e.g., to a planar surface or bead), and/or using microfluidics. FIGs.12B-C present an overview of a method of the invention for assessing microvesicles using an aptamer pool.

[00218] Vesicles such as exosomes can be assessed to provide a phenotypic characterization by comparing vesicle characteristics to a reference. In some embodiments, surface antigens on a vesicle are assessed. The surface antigens can provide an indication of the anatomical origin and/or cellular of the vesicles and other phenotypic information, e.g., tumor status. For example, wherein vesicles found in a patient sample, e.g., a bodily fluid such as blood, serum or plasma, are assessed for surface antigens indicative of colorectal origin and the presence of cancer. The surface antigens may comprise any informative biological entity that can be detected on the vesicle membrane surface, including without limitation surface proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other membrane components. For example, positive detection of colon derived vesicles expressing tumor antigens can indicate that the patient has colorectal cancer. As such, methods of the invention can be used to characterize any disease or condition associated with an anatomical or cellular origin, by assessing, for example, disease-specific and cell-specific biomarkers of one or more vesicles obtained from a subject.

[00219] In another embodiment, the methods of the invention comprise assessing one or more vesicle payload to provide a phenotypic characterization. The payload with a vesicle comprises any informative biological entity that can be detected as encapsulated within the vesicle, including without limitation proteins and nucleic acids, e.g., genomic or cDNA, mRNA, or functional fragments thereof, as well as microRNAs (miRs). In addition, methods of the invention are directed to detecting vesicle surface antigens (in addition or exclusive to vesicle payload) to provide a phenotypic characterization. For example, vesicles can be characterized by using binding agents (e.g., antibodies or aptamers) that are specific to vesicle surface antigens, and the bound vesicles can be further assessed to identify one or more payload components disclosed therein. As described herein, the levels of vesicles with surface antigens of interest or with payload of interest can be compared to a reference to characterize a phenotype. For example, overexpression in a sample of cancer-related surface antigens or vesicle payload, e.g., a tumor associated mRNA or microRNA, as compared to a reference, can indicate the presence of cancer in the sample. The biomarkers assessed can be present or absent, increased or reduced based on the selection of the desired target sample and comparison of the target sample to the desired reference sample. Non- limiting examples of target samples include: disease; treated/not-treated; different time points, such as a in a longitudinal study; and non-limiting examples of reference sample: non-disease; normal; different time points; and sensitive or resistant to candidate treatment(s).

Microvesicle Isolation and Analysis

[00220] Sample Processing

[00221] A vesicle or a population of vesicles may be isolated, purified, concentrated or otherwise enriched prior to and/or during analysis. Unless otherwise specified, the terms“purified,”“isolated,” or similar as used herein in reference to vesicles or biomarker components are intended to include partial or complete purification or isolation of such components from a cell or organism. Analysis of a vesicle can include quantitiating the amount one or more vesicle populations of a biological sample. For example, a heterogeneous population of vesicles can be quantitated, or a homogeneous population of vesicles, such as a population of vesicles with a particular biomarker profile, a particular biosignature, or derived from a particular cell type can be isolated from a heterogeneous population of vesicles and quantitated. Analysis of a vesicle can also include detecting, quantitatively or qualitatively, one or more particular biomarker profile or biosignature of a vesicle, as described herein.

[00222] A vesicle can be stored and archived, such as in a bio-fluid bank and retrieved for analysis as desired. A vesicle may also be isolated from a biological sample that has been previously harvested and stored from a living or deceased subject. In addition, a vesicle may be isolated from a biological sample which has been collected as described in King et al., Breast Cancer Res 7(5): 198-204 (2005). A vesicle can be isolated from an archived or stored sample. Alternatively, a vesicle may be isolated from a biological sample and analyzed without storing or archiving of the sample. Furthermore, a third party may obtain or store the biological sample, or obtain or store the vesicle for analysis.

[00223] An enriched population of vesicles can be obtained from a biological sample. For example, vesicles may be concentrated or isolated from a biological sample using size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, differential centrifugation, nanomembrane ultrafiltration,

immunoabsorbent capture, affinity purification, microfluidic separation, or combinations thereof.

[00224] Size exclusion chromatography, such as gel permeation columns, centrifugation or density gradient centrifugation, and filtration methods can be used. For example, a vesicle can be isolated by differential centrifugation, anion exchange and/or gel permeation chromatography (for example, as described in US Patent Nos.6,899,863 and 6,812,023), sucrose density gradients, organelle electrophoresis (for example, as described in U.S. Patent No.7,198,923), magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), or with a nanomembrane ultrafiltration concentrator. Various combinations of isolation or concentration methods can be used.

[00225] Highly abundant proteins, such as albumin and immunoglobulin in blood samples, may hinder isolation of vesicles from a biological sample. For example, a vesicle can be isolated from a biological sample using a system that uses multiple antibodies that are specific to the most abundant proteins found in a biological sample, such as blood. Such a system can remove up to several proteins at once, thus unveiling the lower abundance species such as cell-of-origin specific vesicles. This type of system can be used for isolation of vesicles from biological samples such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine. The isolation of vesicles from a biological sample may also be enhanced by high abundant protein removal methods as described in Chromy et al. J Proteome Res 2004; 3:1120-1127. In another embodiment, the isolation of vesicles from a biological sample may also be enhanced by removing serum proteins using glycopeptide capture as described in Zhang et al, Mol Cell Proteomics 2005;4:144-155. In addition, vesicles from a biological sample such as urine may be isolated by differential centrifugation followed by contact with antibodies directed to cytoplasmic or anti-cytoplasmic epitopes as described in Pisitkun et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004;101:13368-13373.

[00226] Plasma contains a large variety of proteins including albumin, immunoglobulins, and clotting proteins such as fibrinogen. About 60% of plasma protein comprises the protein albumin (e.g., human serum albumin or HSA), which contributes to osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. Globulins make up about 35% of plasma proteins and are used in the transport of ions, hormones and lipids assisting in immune function. About 4% of plasma protein comprises fibrinogen which is essential in the clotting of blood and can be converted into the insoluble protein fibrin. Other types of blood proteins include: Prealbumin, Alpha 1 antitrypsin, Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, Alpha 1 fetoprotein, Haptoglobin, Alpha 2 macroglobulin, Ceruloplasmin, Transferrin, complement proteins C3 and C4, Beta 2 microglobulin, Beta lipoprotein, Gamma globulin proteins, C- reactive protein (CRP), Lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL), other globulins (types alpha, beta and gamma), Prothrombin and Mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Any of these proteins, including classes of proteins, or derivatives thereof (such as fibrin which is derived from the cleavage of fibrinogen) can be selectively depleted from a biological sample prior to further analysis performed on the sample. Without being bound by theory, removal of such background proteins may facilitate more sensitive, accurate, or precise detection of the biomarkers of interest in the sample.

[00227] Abundant proteins in blood or blood derivatives (e.g., plasma or serum) include without limitation albumin, IgG, transferrin, fibrinogen, IgA, α 2 -Macroglobulin, IgM, α 1 -Antitrypsin, complement C3, haptoglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein A3, apolipoprotein B, α 1 -Acid Glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, complement C4, C1q, IgD, prealbumin (transthyretin), and plasminogen. Such proteins can be depleted using commercially available columns and kits. Examples of such columns comprise the Multiple Affinity Removal System from Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA). This system include various cartridges designed to deplete different protein profiles, including the following cartridges with performance characteristics according to the manufacturer: Human 14, which eliminates approximately 94% of total protein (albumin, IgG, antitrypsin, IgA, transferrin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, alpha2- macroglobulin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), IgM, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AII, complement C3 and transthyretin); Human 7, which eliminates approximately 85 - 90% of total protein (albumin, IgG, IgA, transferrin, haptoglobin, antitrypsin, and fibrinogen); Human 6, which eliminates approximately 85 - 90% of total protein (albumin, IgG, IgA, transferrin, haptoglobin, and antitrypsin); Human Albumin/IgG, which eliminates approximately 69% of total protein (albumin and IgG); and Human Albumin, which eliminates approximately 50-55% of total protein (albumin). The ProteoPrep® 20 Plasma Immunodepletion Kit from Sigma-Aldrich is intended to specifically remove the 20 most abundant proteins from human plasma or serum, which is about remove 97-98% of the total protein mass in plasma or serum (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). According to the manufacturer, the ProteoPrep® 20 removes: albumin, IgG, transferrin, fibrinogen, IgA, α 2 - Macroglobulin, IgM, α 1 - Antitrypsin, complement C3, haptoglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, A3 and B; α 1 - Acid Glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, complement C4, C1q; IgD, prealbumin, and plasminogen. Sigma-Aldrich also manufactures ProteoPrep® columns to remove albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulins (IgG). The ProteomeLab IgY-12 High Capacity Proteome Partitioning kits from Beckman Coulter (Fullerton, CA) are specifically designed to remove twelve highly abundant proteins (Albumin, IgG, Transferrin, Fibrinogen, IgA, α2-macroglobulin, IgM, α1-Antitrypsin, Haptoglobin, Orosomucoid, Apolipoprotein A-I, Apolipoprotein A-II) from the human biological fluids such as serum and plasma. Generally, such systems rely on immunodepletion to remove the target proteins, e.g., using small ligands and/or full antibodies. The PureProteome™ Human

Albumin/Immunoglobulin Depletion Kit from Millipore (EMD Millipore Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA) is a magnetic bead based kit that enables high depletion efficiency (typically >99%) of Albumin and all Immunoglobulins (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE and IgD) from human serum or plasma samples. The ProteoExtract ® Albumin/IgG Removal Kit, also from Millipore, is designed to deplete >80% of albumin and IgG from body fluid samples. Other similar protein depletion products include without limitation the following: Aurum TM Affi-Gels Blue mini kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA); Vivapure® anti-HSA/IgG kit (Sartorius Stedim Biotech, Goettingen, Germany), Qproteome albumin/IgG depletion kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany); Seppro® MIXED12-LC20 column (GenWay Biotech, San Diego, CA, USA);

Abundant Serum Protein Depletion Kit (Norgen Biotek Corp., Ontario, Canada); GBC Human

Albumin/IgG/Transferrin 3 in 1 Depletion Column/Kit (Good Biotech Corp., Taiwan). These systems and similar systems can be used to remove abundant proteins from a biological sample, thereby improving the ability to detect low abundance circulating biomarkers such as proteins and vesicles.

[00228] Thromboplastin is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin in turn acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, as well as catalyzing many other coagulation-related reactions. Thus, thromboplastin is a protein that can be used to facilitate precipitation of fibrinogen/fibrin (blood clotting factors) out of plasma. In addition to or as an alternative to immunoaffinity protein removal, a blood sample can be treated with thromboplastin to deplete fibrinogen/fibrin. Thromboplastin removal can be performed in addition to or as an alternative to immunoaffinity protein removal as described above using methods known in the art. Precipitation of other proteins and/or other sample particulate can also improve detection of circulating biomarkers such as vesicles in a sample. For example, ammonium sulfate treatment as known in the art can be used to precipitate immunoglobulins and other highly abundant proteins.

[00229] In an embodiment, the invention provides a method of detecting a presence or level of one or more circulating biomarker such as a microvesicle in a biological sample, comprising: (a) providing a biological sample comprising or suspected to comprise the one or more circulating biomarker; (b) selectively depleting one or more abundant protein from the biological sample provided in step (a); (c) performing affinity selection of the one or more circulating biomarker from the sample depleted in step (b), thereby detecting the presence or level of one or more circulating biomarker. The biological sample may comprise a bodily fluid, e.g., peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, umbilical cord blood, or a derivative of any thereof. In some embodiments, the biological sample comprises peripheral blood, serum or plasma. Illustrative protocols and results from selectively depleting one or more abundant protein from blood plasma prior to vesicle detection can be found in Example 40 of International Patent Publication No. WO/2014/082083, filed November 26, 2013, which patent publication is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[00230] An abundant protein may comprise a protein in the sample that is present in the sample at a high enough concentration to potentially interfere with downstream processing or analysis. Typically, an abundant protein is not the target of any further analysis of the sample. The abundant protein may constitute at least 10 -5 , 10 -4 , 10 -3 , 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98 or at least 99% of the total protein mass in the sample. In some

embodiments, the abundant protein is present at less than 10 -5 % of the total protein mass in the sample, e.g., in the case of a rare target of interest. As described herein, in the case of blood or a derivative thereof, the one or more abundant protein may comprise one or more of albumin, IgG, transferrin, fibrinogen, fibrin, IgA, α2-Marcroglobulin, IgM, α1-Antitrypsin, complement C3, haptoglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, A3 and B; α1-Acid Glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, complement C4, C1q, IgD, prealbumin (transthyretin), plasminogen, a derivative of any thereof, and a combination thereof. The one or more abundant protein in blood or a blood derivative may also comprise one or more of Albumin, Immunoglobulins, Fibrinogen, Prealbumin, Alpha 1 antitrypsin, Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, Alpha 1 fetoprotein, Haptoglobin, Alpha 2 macroglobulin, Ceruloplasmin, Transferrin, complement proteins C3 and C4, Beta 2 microglobulin, Beta lipoprotein, Gamma globulin proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP), Lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL), other globulins (types alpha, beta and gamma), Prothrombin, Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a derivative of any thereof, and a combination thereof.

[00231] In some embodiments, selectively depleting the one or more abundant protein comprises contacting the biological sample with thromboplastin to initiate precipitation of fibrin. The one or more abundant protein may also be depleted by immunoaffinity, precipitation, or a combination thereof. For example, the sample can be treated with thromboplastin to precipitate fibrin, and then the sample may be passed through a column to remove HSA, IgG, and other abundant proteins as desired.

[00232]“Selectively depleting” the one or more abundant protein comprises depleting the abundant protein from the sample at a higher percentage than depletion another entity in the sample, such as another protein or microvesicle, including a target of interest for downstream processing or analysis. Selectively depleting the one or more abundant protein may comprise depleting the abundant protein at a 1.1-fold, 1.2-fold, 1.3-fold, 1.4-fold, 1.5-fold, 1.6-fold, 1.7-fold, 1.8-fold, 1.9-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 6- fold, 7-fold, 8-fold, 9-fold, 10-fold, 11-fold, 12-fold, 13-fold, 14-fold, 15-fold, 16-fold, 17-fold, 18-fold, 19-fold, 20-fold, 25-fold, 30-fold, 40-fold, 50-fold, 60-fold, 70-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, 100-fold, 200-fold, 300-fold, 400-fold, 500-fold, 600-fold, 700-fold, 800-fold, 900-fold, 1000-fold, 10 4 -fold, 10 5 -fold, 10 6 - fold, 10 7 -fold, 10 8 -fold, 10 9 -fold, 10 10 -fold, 10 11 -fold, 10 12 -fold, 10 13 -fold, 10 14 -fold, 10 15 -fold, 10 16 -fold, 10 17 -fold, 10 18 -fold, 10 19 -fold, 10 20 -fold, or higher rate than another entity in the sample, such as another protein or microvesicle, including a target of interest for downstream processing or analysis. In an embodiment, there is little to no observable depletion of the target of interest as compared to the depletion of the abundant protein. In some embodiments, selectively depleting the one or more abundant protein from the biological sample comprises depleting at least 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% of the one or more abundant protein.

[00233] Removal of highly abundant proteins and other non-desired entities can further be facilitated with a non-stringent size exclusion step. For example, the sample can be processed using a high molecular weight cutoff size exclusion step to preferentially enrich high molecular weight vesicles apart from lower molecular weight proteins and other entities. In some embodiments, a sample is processed with a column (e.g., a gel filtration column) or filter having a molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 5500, 6000, 6500, 7000, 7500, 8000, 8500, 9000, 9500, 10000, or greater than 10000 kiloDaltons (kDa). In an embodiment, a 700 kDa filtration column is used. In such a step, the vesicles will be retained or flow more slowly than the column or filter than the lower molecular weight entities. Such columns and filters are known in the art.

[00234] Isolation or enrichment of a vesicle from a biological sample can also be enhanced by use of sonication (for example, by applying ultrasound), detergents, other membrane-activating agents, or any combination thereof. For example, ultrasonic energy can be applied to a potential tumor site, and without being bound by theory, release of vesicles from a tissue can be increased, allowing an enriched population of vesicles that can be analyzed or assessed from a biological sample using one or more methods disclosed herein.

[00235] With methods of detecting circulating biomarkers as described here, e.g., antibody affinity isolation, the consistency of the results can be optimized as desired using various concentration or isolation procedures. Such steps can include agitation such as shaking or vortexing, different isolation techniques such as polymer based isolation, e.g., with PEG, and concentration to different levels during filtration or other steps. It will be understood by those in the art that such treatments can be applied at various stages of testing the vesicle containing sample. In one embodiment, the sample itself, e.g., a bodily fluid such as plasma or serum, is vortexed. In some embodiments, the sample is vortexed after one or more sample treatment step, e.g., vesicle isolation, has occurred. Agitation can occur at some or all appropriate sample treatment steps as desired. Additives can be introduced at the various steps to improve the process, e.g., to control aggregation or degradation of the biomarkers of interest.

[00236] The results can also be optimized as desireable by treating the sample with various agents. Such agents include additives to control aggregation and/or additives to adjust pH or ionic strength. Additives that control aggregation include blocking agents such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), milk or

StabilGuard® (a BSA-free blocking agent; Product code SG02, Surmodics, Eden Prairie, MN), chaotropic agents such as guanidium hydro chloride, and detergents or surfactants. Useful ionic detergents include sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)), sodium laureth sulfate (SLS, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)), ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS), cetrimonium bromide, cetrimonium chloride, cetrimonium stearate, and the like. Useful non-ionic (zwitterionic) detergents include polyoxyethylene glycols, polysorbate 20 (also known as Tween 20), other polysorbates (e.g., 40, 60, 65, 80, etc), Triton-X (e.g., X100, X114), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), CHAPSO, deoxycholic acid, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, glycosides, octyl-thio-glucosides, maltosides, and the like. In some embodiments, Pluronic F-68, a surfactant shown to reduce platelet aggregation, is used to treat samples containing vesicles during isolation and/or detection. F68 can be used from a 0.1% to 10% concentration, e.g., a 1%, 2.5% or 5% concentration. The pH and/or ionic strength of the solution can be adjusted with various acids, bases, buffers or salts, including without limitation sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), tris-buffered saline (TBS), sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, potassium phosphate, sodium citrate and saline-sodium citrate (SSC) buffer. In some embodiments, NaCl is added at a concentration of 0.1% to 10%, e.g., 1%, 2.5% or 5% final concentration. In some embodiments, Tween 20 is added to 0.005 to 2% concentration, e.g., 0.05%, 0.25% or 0.5 % final concentration. Blocking agents for use with the invention comprise inert proteins, e.g., milk proteins, non- fat dry milk protein, albumin, BSA, casein, or serum such as newborn calf serum (NBCS), goat serum, rabbit serum or salmon serum. The proteins can be added at a 0.1% to 10% concentration, e.g., 1%, 2%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% or 10% concentration. In some embodiments, BSA is added to 0.1% to 10% concentration, e.g., 1%, 2%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9% or 10% concentration. In an embodiment, the sample is treated according to the methodology presented in U.S. Patent Application 11/632946, filed July 13, 2005, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Commercially available blockers may be used, such as SuperBlock, StartingBlock, Protein-Free from Pierce (a division of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Rockford, IL). In some embodiments, SSC/detergent (e.g., 20X SSC with 0.5% Tween 20 or 0.1% Triton-X 100) is added to 0.1% to 10% concentration, e.g., at 1.0% or 5.0% concentration.

[00237] The methods of detecting vesicles and other circulating biomarkers can be optimized as desired with various combinations of protocols and treatments as described herein. A detection protocol can be optimized by various combinations of agitation, isolation methods, and additives. In some embodiments, the patient sample is vortexed before and after isolation steps, and the sample is treated with blocking agents including BSA and/or F68. Such treatments may reduce the formation of large aggregates or protein or other biological debris and thus provide a more consistent detection reading.

[00238] Filtration and Ultrafiltration

[00239] A vesicle can be isolated from a biological sample by filtering a biological sample from a subject through a filtration module and collecting from the filtration module a retentate comprising the vesicle, thereby isolating the vesicle from the biological sample. The method can comprise filtering a biological sample from a subject through a filtration module comprising a filter (also referred to herein as a selection membrane); and collecting from the filtration module a retentate comprising the vesicle, thereby isolating the vesicle from the biological sample. For example, in one embodiment, the filter retains molecules greater than about 100 or 150 kiloDaltons. In such cases, microvesicles are generally found within the retentate of the filtration process whereas smaller entities such as proteins, protein complexes, nucleic acids, etc, pass through into the filtrate.

[00240] Techniques and compositions useful for filtering a biological sample to isolate microvesicles or other biomarkers are disclosed of International Patent Application Nos. PCT/US2009/62880, filed October 30, 2009; PCT/US2009/006095, filed November 12, 2009; PCT/US2011/26750, filed March 1, 2011; PCT/US2011/031479, filed April 6, 2011; PCT/US11/48327, filed August 18, 2011;

PCT/US2008/71235, filed July 25, 2008; PCT/US10/58461, filed November 30, 2010;

PCT/US2011/21160, filed January 13, 2011; PCT/US2013/030302, filed March 11, 2013;

PCT/US12/25741, filed February 17, 2012; PCT/2008/76109, filed September 12, 2008;

PCT/US12/42519, filed June 14, 2012; PCT/US12/50030, filed August 8, 2012; PCT/US12/49615, filed August 3, 2012; PCT/US12/41387, filed June 7, 2012; PCT/US2013/072019, filed November 26, 2013; PCT/US2014/039858, filed May 28, 2013; PCT/IB2013/003092, filed October 23, 2013;

PCT/US13/76611, filed December 19, 2013; PCT/US14/53306, filed August 28, 2014; and

PCT/US15/62184, filed November 23, 2015; PCT/US2016/021632, filed March 9, 2016;

PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016; and PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016; each of which applications is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. [00241] Precipitation

[00242] Vesicles can be isolated using a polymeric precipitation method. The method can be in combination with or in place of the other isolation methods described herein. In one embodiment, the sample containing the vesicles is contacted with a formulation of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The polymeric formulation is incubated with the vesicle containing sample then precipitated by centrifugation. The PEG can bind to the vesicles and can be treated to specifically capture vesicles by addition of a capture moiety, e.g., a pegylated-binding protein such as an antibody. One of skill will appreciate that other polymers in addition to PEG can be used, e.g., PEG derivatives including methoxypolyethylene glycols, poly (ethylene oxide), and various polymers of formula HO-CH 2 -(CH 2 -O-CH 2 -)n-CH 2 -OH having different molecular weights. The efficiency of isolation may depend on various factors including the length of the polymer chains and concentration of polymer used. In preferred embodiments, PEG4000 or PEG 8000 may be used at a concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, or 10%, e.g., 4% or 8%.

[00243] In some embodiments of the invention, the vesicles are concentrated from a sample using the polymer precipitation method and the isolated vesicles are further separated using another approach. The second step can be used to identify a subpopulation of vesicles, e.g., that display certain biomarkers. The second separation step can comprise size exclusion, a binding agent, an antibody capture step, microbeads, as described herein.

[00244] In an embodiment, vesicles are isolated according to the ExoQuick™ and ExoQuick-TC™ kits from System Biosciences, Mountain View, CA USA. These kits use a polymer-based precipitation method to pellet vesicles. Similarly, the vesicles can be isolated using the Total Exosome Isolation (from Serum) or Total Exosome Isolation (from Cell Culture Media) kits from Invitrogen / Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA USA). The Total Exosome Isolation reagent forces less-soluble components such as vesicles out of solution, allowing them to be collected by a short, low-speed centrifugation. The reagent is added to the biological sample, and the solution is incubated overnight at 2 °C to 8 °C. The precipitated vesicles are recovered by standard centrifugation.

[00245] Binding Agents

[00246] Binding agents (also referred to as binding reagents) include agents that are capable of binding a target biomarker. A binding agent can be specific for the target biomarker, meaning the agent is capable of binding a target biomarker. The target can be any useful biomarker disclosed herein, such as a biomarker on the vesicle surface. In some embodiments, the target is a single molecule, such as a single protein, so that the binding agent is specific to the single protein. In other embodiments, the target can be a group of molecules, such as a family or proteins having a similar epitope or moiety, so that the binding agent is specific to the family or group of proteins. The group of molecules can also be a class of molecules, such as protein, DNA or RNA. The binding agent can be a capture agent used to capture a vesicle by binding a component or biomarker of a vesicle. In some embodiments, a capture agent comprises an antibody or fragment thereof, or an aptamer, that binds to an antigen on a vesicle. The capture agent can be optionally coupled to a substrate and used to isolate a vesicle, as further described herein.

[00247] A binding agent is an agent that binds to a circulating biomarker, such as a vesicle or a component of a vesicle. The binding agent can be used as a capture agent and/or a detection agent. A capture agent can bind and capture a circulating biomarker, such as by binding a component or biomarker of a vesicle. For example, the capture agent can be a capture antibody or capture antigen that binds to an antigen on a vesicle. A detection agent can bind to a circulating biomarker thereby facilitating detection of the biomarker. For example, a capture agent comprising an antibody or aptamer that is sequestered to a substrate can be used to capture a vesicle in a sample, and a detection agent comprising an antibody or aptamer that carries a label can be used to detect the captured vesicle via detection of the detection agent’s label. In some embodiments, a vesicle is assessed using capture and detection agents that recognize the same vesicle biomarkers. For example, a vesicle population can be captured using a tetraspanin such as by using an anti-CD9 antibody bound to a substrate, and the captured vesicles can be detected using a fluorescently labeled anti-CD9 antibody to label the captured vesicles. In other embodiments, a vesicle is assessed using capture and detection agents that recognize different vesicle biomarkers. For example, a vesicle population can be captured using a cell-specific marker such as by using an anti-PCSA antibody bound to a substrate, and the captured vesicles can be detected using a fluorescently labeled anti-CD9 antibody to label the captured vesicles. Similarly, the vesicle population can be captured using a general vesicle marker such as by using an anti-CD9 antibody bound to a substate, and the captured vesicles can be detected using a fluorescently labeled antibody to a cell-specific or disease specific marker to label the captured vesicles.

[00248] The biomarkers recognized by the binding agent are sometimes referred to herein as an antigen. Unless otherwise specified, antigen as used herein is meant to encompass any entity that is capable of being bound by a binding agent, regardless of the type of binding agent or the immunogenicity of the biomarker. The antigen further encompasses a functional fragment thereof. For example, an antigen can encompass a protein biomarker capable of being bound by a binding agent, including a fragment of the protein that is capable of being bound by a binding agent.

[00249] In one embodiment, a vesicle is captured using a capture agent that binds to a biomarker on a vesicle. The capture agent can be coupled to a substrate and used to isolate a vesicle, as further described herein. In one embodiment, a capture agent is used for affinity capture or isolation of a vesicle present in a substance or sample.

[00250] A binding agent can be used after a vesicle is concentrated or isolated from a biological sample. For example, a vesicle can first be isolated from a biological sample before a vesicle with a specific biosignature is isolated or detected. The vesicle with a specific biosignature can be isolated or detected using a binding agent for the biomarker. A vesicle with the specific biomarker can be isolated or detected from a heterogeneous population of vesicles. Alternatively, a binding agent may be used on a biological sample comprising vesicles without a prior isolation or concentration step. For example, a binding agent is used to isolate or detect a vesicle with a specific biosignature directly from a biological sample.

[00251] A binding agent can be a nucleic acid, protein, or other molecule that can bind to a component of a vesicle. The binding agent can comprise DNA, RNA, monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, Fabs, Fab', single chain antibodies, synthetic antibodies, aptamers (DNA/RNA), peptoids, zDNA, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), locked nucleic acids (LNAs), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA), lectins, synthetic or naturally occurring chemical compounds (including but not limited to drugs, labeling reagents), dendrimers, or a combination thereof. For example, the binding agent can be a capture antibody. In embodiments of the invention, the binding agent comprises a membrane protein labeling agent. See, e.g., the membrane protein labeling agents disclosed in Alroy et al., US. Patent Publication US 2005/0158708. In an embodiment, vesicles are isolated or captured as described herein, and one or more membrane protein labeling agent is used to detect the vesicles.

[00252] In some instances, a single binding agent can be employed to isolate or detect a vesicle. In other instances, a combination of different binding agents may be employed to isolate or detect a vesicle. For example, at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 50, 75 or 100 different binding agents may be used to isolate or detect a vesicle from a biological sample. Furthermore, the one or more different binding agents for a vesicle can form a biosignature of a vesicle, as further described below.

[00253] Different binding agents can also be used for multiplexing. For example, isolation or detection of more than one population of vesicles can be performed by isolating or detecting each vesicle population with a different binding agent. Different binding agents can be bound to different particles, wherein the different particles are labeled. In another embodiment, an array comprising different binding agents can be used for multiplex analysis, wherein the different binding agents are differentially labeled or can be ascertained based on the location of the binding agent on the array. Multiplexing can be accomplished up to the resolution capability of the labels or detection method, such as described below. The binding agents can be used to detect the vesicles, such as for detecting cell-of-origin specific vesicles. A binding agent or multiple binding agents can themselves form a binding agent profile that provides a biosignature for a vesicle. One or more binding agents can be selected from Fig.2 of International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219, entitled“Circulating Biomarkers for Disease” and filed April 6, 2011, which application is incorporated by reference in its entirety herein. For example, if a vesicle population is detected or isolated using two, three, four or more binding agents in a differential detection or isolation of a vesicle from a heterogeneous population of vesicles, the particular binding agent profile for the vesicle population provides a biosignature for the particular vesicle population. The vesicle can be detected using any number of binding agents in a multiplex fashion. Thus, the binding agent can also be used to form a biosignature for a vesicle. The biosignature can be used to characterize a phenotype.

[00254] The binding agent can be a lectin. Lectins are proteins that bind selectively to polysaccharides and glycoproteins and are widely distributed in plants and animals. For example, lectins such as those derived from Galanthus nivalis in the form of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (“GNA”), Narcissus pseudonarcissus in the form of Narcissus pseudonarcissus agglutinin (“NPA”) and the blue green algae Nostoc ellipsosporum called "cyanovirin" (Boyd et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41(7): 15211530, 1997; Hammar et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci 724: 166169, 1994; Kaku et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 279(2): 298304, 1990) can be used to isolate a vesicle. These lectins can bind to glycoproteins having a high mannose content

(Chervenak et al. Biochemistry 34(16): 56855695, 1995). High mannose glycoprotein refers to glycoproteins having mannose-mannose linkages in the form of ^-1→3 or ^-1→6 mannose-mannose linkages.

[00255] The binding agent can be an agent that binds one or more lectins. Lectin capture can be applied to the isolation of the biomarker cathepsin D since it is a glycosylated protein capable of binding the lectins Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) and concanavalin A (ConA).

[00256] Methods and devices for using lectins to capture vesicles are described in International Patent Publications WO/2011/066589, entitled“METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR ISOLATING, STORING, AND ANALYZING VESICLES” and filed November 30, 2010; WO/2010/065765, entitled“AFFINITY CAPTURE OF CIRCULATING BIOMARKERS” and filed December 3, 2009; WO/2010/141862, entitled“METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR ISOLATING EXOSOMES” and filed June 4, 2010; and WO/2007/103572, entitled“EXTRACORPOREAL REMOVAL OF MICROVESICULAR PARTICLES” and filed March 9, 2007, each of which applications is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[00257] The binding agent can be an antibody. For example, a vesicle may be isolated using one or more antibodies specific for one or more antigens present on the vesicle. For example, a vesicle can have CD63 on its surface, and an antibody, or capture antibody, for CD63 can be used to isolate the vesicle.

Alternatively, a vesicle derived from a tumor cell can express EpCam, the vesicle can be isolated using an antibody for EpCam and CD63. Other antibodies for isolating vesicles can include an antibody, or capture antibody, to CD9, PSCA, TNFR, CD63, B7H3, MFG-E8, EpCam, Rab, CD81, STEAP, PCSA, PSMA, or 5T4. Other antibodies for isolating vesicles can include an antibody, or capture antibody, to DR3, STEAP, epha2, TMEM211, MFG-E8, Tissue Factor (TF), unc93A, A33, CD24, NGAL, EpCam, MUC17, TROP2, or TETS.

[00258] In some embodiments, the capture agent is an antibody to CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3, EpCam, PSCA, ICAM, STEAP, or EGFR. The capture agent can also be used to identify a biomarker of a vesicle. For example, a capture agent such as an antibody to CD9 would identify CD9 as a biomarker of the vesicle. In some embodiments, a plurality of capture agents can be used, such as in multiplex analysis. The plurality of captures agents can comprise binding agents to one or more of: CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3, EpCam, PSCA, ICAM, STEAP, and EGFR. In some embodiments, the plurality of capture agents comprise binding agents to CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3, MFG-E8, and/or EpCam. In yet other embodiments, the plurality of capture agents comprises binding agents to CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3, EpCam, PSCA, ICAM, STEAP, and/or EGFR. The plurality of capture agents comprises binding agents to TMEM211, MFG-E8, Tissue Factor (TF), and/or CD24.

[00259] The antibodies referenced herein can be immunoglobulin molecules or immunologically active portions of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen binding site that specifically binds an antigen and synthetic antibodies. The immunoglobulin molecules can be of any class (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD or IgA) or subclass of immunoglobulin molecule. Antibodies include, but are not limited to, polyclonal, monoclonal, bispecific, synthetic, humanized and chimeric antibodies, single chain antibodies, Fab fragments and F(ab') 2 fragments, Fv or Fv' portions, fragments produced by a Fab expression library, anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies, or epitope-binding fragments of any of the above. An antibody, or generally any molecule,“binds specifically” to an antigen (or other molecule) if the antibody binds preferentially to the antigen, and, e.g., has less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, 5% or 1% cross-reactivity with another molecule.

[00260] The binding agent can also be a polypeptide or peptide. Polypeptide is used in its broadest sense and may include a sequence of subunit amino acids, amino acid analogs, or peptidomimetics. The subunits may be linked by peptide bonds. The polypeptides may be naturally occurring, processed forms of naturally occurring polypeptides (such as by enzymatic digestion), chemically synthesized or

recombinantly expressed. The polypeptides for use in the methods of the present invention may be chemically synthesized using standard techniques. The polypeptides may comprise D-amino acids (which are resistant to L- amino acid-specific proteases), a combination of D- and L-amino acids, β amino acids, or various other designer or non-naturally occurring amino acids (e.g., β-methyl amino acids, Cα- methyl amino acids, and Nα-methyl amino acids, etc.) to convey special properties. Synthetic amino acids may include ornithine for lysine, and norleucine for leucine or isoleucine. In addition, the polypeptides can have peptidomimetic bonds, such as ester bonds, to prepare polypeptides with novel properties. For example, a polypeptide may be generated that incorporates a reduced peptide bond, i.e., R 1 -CH 2 -NH-R 2 , where R 1 and R 2 are amino acid residues or sequences. A reduced peptide bond may be introduced as a dipeptide subunit. Such a polypeptide would be resistant to protease activity, and would possess an extended half- live in vivo. Polypeptides can also include peptoids (N-substituted glycines), in which the side chains are appended to nitrogen atoms along the molecule's backbone, rather than to the α-carbons, as in amino acids. Polypeptides and peptides are intended to be used interchangeably throughout this application, i.e. where the term peptide is used, it may also include polypeptides and where the term polypeptides is used, it may also include peptides. The term“protein” is also intended to be used interchangeably throughout this application with the terms“polypeptides” and“peptides” unless otherwise specified.

[00261] A vesicle may be isolated, captured or detected using a binding agent. The binding agent can be an agent that binds a vesicle“housekeeping protein,” or general vesicle biomarker. The biomarker can be CD63, CD9, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, Rab-5b, Annexin V, MFG-E8 or other commonly observed vesicle markers include those listed in Table 3. Furthermore, any of the markers disclosed herein or in Table 3 can be selected in identifying a candidate biosignature for a disease or condition, where the one or more selected biomarkers have a direct or indirect role or function in mechanisms involved in the disease or condition.

[00262] The binding agent can also be an agent that binds to a vesicle derived from a specific cell type, such as a tumor cell (e.g. binding agent for Tissue factor, EpCam, B7H3, RAGE or CD24) or a specific cell-of-origin. The binding agent used to isolate or detect a vesicle can be a binding agent for an antigen selected from Fig.1 of International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219, entitled“Circulating Biomarkers for Disease” and filed April 6, 2011, which application is incorporated by reference in its entirety herein. The binding agent for a vesicle can also be selected from those listed in Fig.2 of

International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219. The binding agent can be for an antigen such as a tetraspanin, MFG-E8, Annexin V, 5T4, B7H3, caveolin, CD63, CD9, E-Cadherin, Tissue factor, MFG- E8, TMEM211, CD24, PSCA, PCSA, PSMA, Rab-5B, STEAP, TNFR1, CD81, EpCam, CD59, CD81, ICAM, EGFR, or CD66. A binding agent for a platelet can be a glycoprotein such as GpIa-IIa, GpIIb-IIIa, GpIIIb, GpIb, or GpIX. A binding agent can be for an antigen comprisine one or more of CD9, Erb2, Erb4, CD81, Erb3, MUC16, CD63, DLL4, HLA-Drpe, B7H3, IFNAR, 5T4, PCSA, MICB, PSMA, MFG- E8, Muc1, PSA, Muc2, Unc93a, VEGFR2, EpCAM, VEGF A, TMPRSS2, RAGE, PSCA, CD40, Muc17, IL-17-RA, and CD80. For example, the binding agent can be one or more of CD9, CD63, CD81, B7H3, PCSA, MFG-E8, MUC2, EpCam, RAGE and Muc17. One or more binding agents, such as one or more binding agents for two or more of the antigens, can be used for isolating or detecting a vesicle. The binding agent used can be selected based on the desire of isolating or detecting a vesicle derived from a particular cell type or cell-of-origin specific vesicle. The binding agent can be to one or more vesicle marker in Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017

[00263] A binding agent can also be linked directly or indirectly to a solid surface or substrate. A solid surface or substrate can be any physically separable solid to which a binding agent can be directly or indirectly attached including, but not limited to, surfaces provided by microarrays and wells, particles such as beads, columns, optical fibers, wipes, glass and modified or functionalized glass, quartz, mica, diazotized membranes (paper or nylon), polyformaldehyde, cellulose, cellulose acetate, paper, ceramics, metals, metalloids, semiconductive materials, quantum dots, coated beads or particles, other

chromatographic materials, magnetic particles; plastics (including acrylics, polystyrene, copolymers of styrene or other materials, polypropylene, polyethylene, polybutylene, polyurethanes,

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon®), etc.), polysaccharides, nylon or nitrocellulose, resins, silica or silica-based materials including silicon and modified silicon, carbon, metals, inorganic glasses, plastics, ceramics, conducting polymers (including polymers such as polypyrole and polyindole); micro or nanostructured surfaces such as nucleic acid tiling arrays, nanotube, nanowire, or nanoparticulate decorated surfaces; or porous surfaces or gels such as methacrylates, acrylamides, sugar polymers, cellulose, silicates, or other fibrous or stranded polymers. In addition, as is known the art, the substrate may be coated using passive or chemically-derivatized coatings with any number of materials, including polymers, such as dextrans, acrylamides, gelatins or agarose. Such coatings can facilitate the use of the array with a biological sample.

[00264] For example, an antibody used to isolate a vesicle can be bound to a solid substrate such as a well, such as commercially available plates (e.g. from Nunc, Milan Italy). Each well can be coated with the antibody. In some embodiments, the antibody used to isolate a vesicle is bound to a solid substrate such as an array. The array can have a predetermined spatial arrangement of molecule interactions, binding islands, biomolecules, zones, domains or spatial arrangements of binding islands or binding agents deposited within discrete boundaries. Further, the term array may be used herein to refer to multiple arrays arranged on a surface, such as would be the case where a surface bore multiple copies of an array. Such surfaces bearing multiple arrays may also be referred to as multiple arrays or repeating arrays.

[00265] Arrays typically contain addressable moieties that can detect the presense of an entity, e.g., a vesicle in the sample via a binding event. An array may be referred to as a microarray. Arrays or microarrays include without limitation DNA microarrays, such as cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide microarrays and SNP microarrays, microRNA arrays, protein microarrays, antibody microarrays, tissue microarrays, cellular microarrays (also called transfection microarrays), chemical compound microarrays, and carbohydrate arrays (glycoarrays). DNA arrays typically comprise addressable nucleotide sequences that can bind to sequences present in a sample. MicroRNA arrays, e.g., the MMChips array from the University of Louisville or commercial systems from Agilent, can be used to detect microRNAs. Protein microarrays can be used to identify protein–protein interactions, including without limitation identifying substrates of protein kinases, transcription factor protein-activation, or to identify the targets of biologically active small molecules. Protein arrays may comprise an array of different protein molecules, commonly antibodies, or nucleotide sequences that bind to proteins of interest. In a non-limiting example, a protein array can be used to detect vesicles having certain proteins on their surface. Antibody arrays comprise antibodies spotted onto the protein chip that are used as capture molecules to detect proteins or other biological materials from a sample, e.g., from cell or tissue lysate solutions. For example, antibody arrays can be used to detect vesicle-associated biomarkers from bodily fluids, e.g., serum or urine. Tissue microarrays comprise separate tissue cores assembled in array fashion to allow multiplex histological analysis. Cellular microarrays, also called transfection microarrays, comprise various capture agents, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with cells to facilitate their capture on addressable locations. Cellular arrays can also be used to capture vesicles due to the similarity between a vesicle and cellular membrane. Chemical compound microarrays comprise arrays of chemical compounds and can be used to detect protein or other biological materials that bind the compounds. Carbohydrate arrays (glycoarrays) comprise arrays of carbohydrates and can detect, e.g., protein that bind sugar moieties. One of skill will appreciate that similar technologies or improvements can be used according to the methods of the invention. [00266] A binding agent can also be bound to particles such as beads or microspheres. For example, an antibody specific for a component of a vesicle can be bound to a particle, and the antibody-bound particle is used to isolate a vesicle from a biological sample. In some embodiments, the microspheres may be magnetic or fluorescently labeled. In addition, a binding agent for isolating vesicles can be a solid substrate itself. For example, latex beads, such as aldehyde/sulfate beads (Interfacial Dynamics, Portland, OR) can be used.

[00267] A binding agent bound to a magnetic bead can also be used to isolate a vesicle. For example, a biological sample such as serum from a patient can be collected for colon cancer screening. The sample can be incubated with anti-CCSA-3 (Colon Cancer–Specific Antigen) coupled to magnetic microbeads. A low-density microcolumn can be placed in the magnetic field of a MACS Separator and the column is then washed with a buffer solution such as Tris-buffered saline. The magnetic immune complexes can then be applied to the column and unbound, non-specific material can be discarded. The CCSA-3 selected vesicle can be recovered by removing the column from the separator and placing it on a collection tube. A buffer can be added to the column and the magnetically labeled vesicle can be released by applying the plunger supplied with the column. The isolated vesicle can be diluted in IgG elution buffer and the complex can then be centrifuged to separate the microbeads from the vesicle. The pelleted isolated cell-of- origin specific vesicle can be resuspended in buffer such as phosphate-buffered saline and quantitated. Alternatively, due to the strong adhesion force between the antibody captured cell-of-origin specific vesicle and the magnetic microbeads, a proteolytic enzyme such as trypsin can be used for the release of captured vesicles without the need for centrifugation. The proteolytic enzyme can be incubated with the antibody captured cell-of-origin specific vesicles for at least a time sufficient to release the vesicles.

[00268] A binding agent, such as an antibody, for isolating vesicles is preferably contacted with the biological sample comprising the vesicles of interest for at least a time sufficient for the binding agent to bind to a component of the vesicle. For example, an antibody may be contacted with a biological sample for various intervals ranging from seconds days, including but not limited to, about 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours, 7 hours, 10 hours, 15 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days or 10 days.

[00269] A binding agent, such as an antibody specific to an antigen listed in Fig.1 of International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219, entitled“Circulating Biomarkers for Disease” and filed April 6, 2011, which application is incorporated by reference in its entirety herein, or a binding agent listed in Fig.2 of International Patent Publication No. WO/2011/127219, can be labeled to facilitate detection. Appropriate labels include without limitation a magnetic label, a fluorescent moiety, an enzyme, a chemiluminescent probe, a metal particle, a non-metal colloidal particle, a polymeric dye particle, a pigment molecule, a pigment particle, an electrochemically active species, semiconductor nanocrystal or other nanoparticles including quantum dots or gold particles, fluorophores, quantum dots, or radioactive labels. Various protein, radioactive, fluorescent, enzymatic, and other labels are described further above. [00270] A binding agent can be directly or indirectly labeled, e.g., the label is attached to the antibody through biotin-streptavidin. Alternatively, an antibody is not labeled, but is later contacted with a second antibody that is labeled after the first antibody is bound to an antigen of interest.

[00271] Depending on the method of isolation or detection used, the binding agent may be linked to a solid surface or substrate, such as arrays, particles, wells and other substrates described above. Methods for direct chemical coupling of antibodies, to the cell surface are known in the art, and may include, for example, coupling using glutaraldehyde or maleimide activated antibodies. Methods for chemical coupling using multiple step procedures include biotinylation, coupling of trinitrophenol (TNP) or digoxigenin using for example succinimide esters of these compounds. Biotinylation can be accomplished by, for example, the use of D-biotinyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide. Succinimide groups react effectively with amino groups at pH values above 7, and preferentially between about pH 8.0 and about pH 8.5.

Biotinylation can be accomplished by, for example, treating the cells with dithiothreitol followed by the addition of biotin maleimide.

[00272] Particle-based Assays

[00273] As an alternative to planar arrays, assays using particles or microspheres, such as bead based assays, are capable of use with a binding agent. For example, antibodies or aptamers are easily conjugated with commercially available beads. See, e.g., Fan et al., Illumina universal bead arrays. Methods

Enzymol.2006410:57-73; Srinivas et al. Anal. Chem.2011 Oct.21, Aptamer functionalized Microgel Particles for Protein Detection; See also, review article on aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents, Brody and Gold, Rev. Mol. Biotech.2000, 74:5-13.

[00274] Multiparametric assays or other high throughput detection assays using bead coatings with cognate ligands and reporter molecules with specific activities consistent with high sensitivity automation can be used. In a bead based assay system, a binding agent for a biomarker or vesicle, such as a capture agent (e.g. capture antibody), can be immobilized on an addressable microsphere. Each binding agent for each individual binding assay can be coupled to a distinct type of microsphere (i.e., microbead) and the assay reaction takes place on the surface of the microsphere, such as depicted in FIG.2B. A binding agent for a vesicle can be a capture antibody or aptamer coupled to a bead. Dyed microspheres with discrete fluorescence intensities are loaded separately with their appropriate binding agent or capture probes. The different bead sets carrying different binding agents can be pooled as desired to generate custom bead arrays. Bead arrays are then incubated with the sample in a single reaction vessel to perform the assay.

[00275] Various particle/bead substrates and systems useful for the methods of the invention are described further above.

[00276] Flow Cytometry

[00277] In various embodiments of the invention, flow cytometry, which is described in further detail above, is used to assess a microvesicle population in a biological sample. If desired, the microvesicle population can be sorted from other particles (e.g., cell debris, protein aggregates, etc) in a sample by labeling the vesicles using one or more general vesicle marker. The general vesicle marker can be a marker in Table 3. Commonly used vesicle markers include tetraspanins such as CD9, CD63 and/or CD81. Vesicles comprising one or more tetraspanin are sometimes refered to as“Tet+” herein to indicate that the vesicles are tetraspanin-positive. The sorted microvesicles can be further assessed using methodology described herein. E.g., surface antigens on the sorted microvesicles can be detected using flow or other methods. In some embodiments, payload within the sorted microvesicles is assessed. As an illustrative example, a population of microvesicles is contacted with a labeled binding agent to a surface antigen of interest, the contacted microvesicles are sorted using flow cytometry, and payload with the microvesicles is assessed. The payload may be polypeptides, nucleic acids (e.g., mRNA or microRNA) or other biological entities as desired. Such assessment is used to characterize a phenotype as described herein, e.g., to diagnose, prognose or theranose a cancer.

[00278] In an embodiment, flow sorting is used to distinguish microvesicle populations from other biological complexes. In a non-limiting example, Ago2+/Tet+ and Ago2+/Tet- particles are detected using flow methodology to separate Ago2+ vesicles from vesicle-free Ago2+ complexes, respectively.

[00279] Multiplexing

[00280] Multiplex experiments comprise experiments that can simultaneously measure multiple analytes in a single assay. Vesicles and associated biomarkers can be assessed in a multiplex fashion. Different binding agents can be used for multiplexing different circulating biomarkers, e.g., microRNA, protein, or vesicle populations. Different biomarkers, e.g., different vesicle populations, can be isolated or detected using different binding agents. Each population in a biological sample can be labeled with a different signaling label, such as a fluorophore, quantum dot, or radioactive label, such as described above. The label can be directly conjugated to a binding agent or indirectly used to detect a binding agent that binds a vesicle. The number of populations detected in a multiplexing assay is dependent on the resolution capability of the labels and the summation of signals, as more than two differentially labeled vesicle populations that bind two or more affinity elements can produce summed signals.

[00281] Multiplexing of at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 50, 75 or 100 different circulating biomarkers may be performed. For example, one population of vesicles specific to a cell-of-origin can be assayed along with a second population of vesicles specific to a different cell-of- origin, where each population is labeled with a different label. Alternatively, a population of vesicles with a particular biomarker or biosignature can be assayed along with a second population of vesicles with a different biomarker or biosignature. In some cases, hundreds or thousands of vesicles are assessed in a single assay.

[00282] In one embodiment, multiplex analysis is performed by applying a plurality of vesicles comprising more than one population of vesicles to a plurality of substrates, such as beads. Each bead is coupled to one or more capture agents. The plurality of beads is divided into subsets, where beads with the same capture agent or combination of capture agents form a subset of beads, such that each subset of beads has a different capture agent or combination of capture agents than another subset of beads. The beads can then be used to capture vesicles that comprise a component that binds to the capture agent. The different subsets can be used to capture different populations of vesicles. The captured vesicles can then be analyzed by detecting one or more biomarkers.

[00283] Flow cytometry can be used in combination with a particle-based or bead based assay.

Multiparametric immunoassays or other high throughput detection assays using bead coatings with cognate ligands and reporter molecules with specific activities consistent with high sensitivity automation can be used. For example, beads in each subset can be differentially labeled from another subset. In a particle based assay system, a binding agent or capture agent for a vesicle, such as a capture antibody, can be immobilized on addressable beads or microspheres. Each binding agent for each individual binding assay (such as an immunoassay when the binding agent is an antibody) can be coupled to a distinct type of microsphere (i.e., microbead) and the binding assay reaction takes place on the surface of the

microspheres. Microspheres can be distinguished by different labels, for example, a microsphere with a specific capture agent would have a different signaling label as compared to another microsphere with a different capture agent. For example, microspheres can be dyed with discrete fluorescence intensities such that the fluorescence intensity of a microsphere with a specific binding agent is different than that of another microsphere with a different binding agent. Biomarkers bound by different capture agents can be differentially detected using different labels.

[00284] A microsphere can be labeled or dyed with at least 2 different labels or dyes. In some

embodiments, the microsphere is labeled with at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 different labels. Different microspheres in a plurality of microspheres can have more than one label or dye, wherein various subsets of the microspheres have various ratios and combinations of the labels or dyes permitting detection of different microspheres with different binding agents. For example, the various ratios and combinations of labels and dyes can permit different fluorescent intensities. Alternatively, the various ratios and combinations maybe used to generate different detection patters to identify the binding agent. The microspheres can be labeled or dyed externally or may have intrinsic fluorescence or signaling labels. Beads can be loaded separately with their appropriate binding agents and thus, different vesicle populations can be isolated based on the different binding agents on the differentially labeled

microspheres to which the different binding agents are coupled.

[00285] In another embodiment, multiplex analysis can be performed using a planar substrate, wherein the substrate comprises a plurality of capture agents. The plurality of capture agents can capture one or more populations of vesicles, and one or more biomarkers of the captured vesicles detected. The planar substrate can be a microarray or other substrate as further described herein.

[00286] Binding Agents

[00287] A vesicle may be isolated or detected using a binding agent for a novel component of a vesicle, such as an antibody for a novel antigen specific to a vesicle of interest. Novel antigens that are specific to a vesicle of interest may be isolated or identified using different test compounds of known composition bound to a substrate, such as an array or a plurality of particles, which can allow a large amount of chemical/structural space to be adequately sampled using only a small fraction of the space. The novel antigen identified can also serve as a biomarker for the vesicle. For example, a novel antigen identified for a cell-of-origin specific vesicle can be a useful biomarker.

[00288] The term“agent” or“reagent” as used in respect to contacting a sample can mean any entity designed to bind, hybridize, associate with or otherwise detect or facilitate detection of a target molecule, including target polypeptides, peptides, nucleic acid molecules, leptins, lipids, or any other biological entity that can be detected as described herein or as known in the art. Examples of such agents/reagents are well known in the art, and include but are not limited to universal or specific nucleic acid primers, nucleic acid probes, antibodies, aptamers, peptoid, peptide nucleic acid, locked nucleic acid, lectin, dendrimer, chemical compound, or other entities described herein or known in the art.

[00289] A binding agent can be identified by screening either a homogeneous or heterogeneous vesicle population against test compounds. Since the composition of each test compound on the substrate surface is known, this constitutes a screen for affinity elements. For example, a test compound array comprises test compounds at specific locations on the substrate addressable locations, and can be used to identify one or more binding agents for a vesicle. The test compounds can all be unrelated or related based on minor variations of a core sequence or structure. The different test compounds may include variants of a given test compound (such as polypeptide isoforms), test compounds that are structurally or

compositionally unrelated, or a combination thereof.

[00290] A test compound can be a peptoid, polysaccharide, organic compound, inorganic compound, polymer, lipids, nucleic acid, polypeptide, antibody, protein, polysaccharide, or other compound. The test compound can be natural or synthetic. The test compound can comprise or consist of linear or branched heteropolymeric compounds based on any of a number of linkages or combinations of linkages (e.g., amide, ester, ether, thiol, radical additions, metal coordination, etc.), dendritic structures, circular structures, cavity structures or other structures with multiple nearby sites of attachment that serve as scaffolds upon which specific additions are made. Thes test compound can be spotted on a substrate or synthesized in situ, using standard methods in the art. In addition, the test compound can be spotted or synthesized in situ in combinations in order to detect useful interactions, such as cooperative binding.

[00291] The test compound can be a polypeptide with known amino acid sequence, thus, detection of a test compound binding with a vesicle can lead to identification of a polypeptide of known amino sequence that can be used as a binding agent. For example, a homogenous population of vesicles can be applied to a spotted array on a slide containing between a few and 1,000,000 test polypeptides having a length of variable amino acids. The polypeptides can be attached to the surface through the C-terminus. The sequence of the polypeptides can be generated randomly from 19 amino acids, excluding cysteine. The binding reaction can include a non-specific competitor, such as excess bacterial proteins labeled with another dye such that the specificity ratio for each polypeptide binding target can be determined. The polypeptides with the highest specificity and binding can be selected. The identity of the polypeptide on each spot is known, and thus can be readily identified. Once the novel antigens specific to the homogeneous vesicle population, such as a cell-of-origin specific vesicle is identified, such cell-of-origin specific vesicles may subsequently be isolated using such antigens in methods described hereafter.

[00292] An array can also be used for identifying an antibody as a binding agent for a vesicle. Test antibodies can be attached to an array and screened against a heterogeneous population of vesicles to identify antibodies that can be used to isolate or identify a vesicle. A homogeneous population of vesicles such as cell-of-origin specific vesicles can also be screened with an antibody array. Other than identifying antibodies to isolate or detect a homogeneous population of vesicles, one or more protein biomarkers specific to the homogenous population can be identified. Commercially available platforms with test antibodies pre-selected or custom selection of test antibodies attached to the array can be used. For example, an antibody array from Full Moon Biosystems can be screened using prostate cancer cell derived vesicles identifying antibodies to Bcl-XL, ERCC1, Keratin 15, CD81/TAPA-1, CD9, Epithelial Specific Antigen (ESA), and Mast Cell Chymase as binding agents, and the proteins identified can be used as biomarkers for the vesicles. The biomarker can be present or absent, underexpressed or overexpressed, mutated, or modified in or on a vesicle and used in characterizing a condition.

[00293] An antibody or synthetic antibody to be used as a binding agent can also be identified through a peptide array. Another method is the use of synthetic antibody generation through antibody phage display. M13 bacteriophage libraries of antibodies (e.g. Fabs) are displayed on the surfaces of phage particles as fusions to a coat protein. Each phage particle displays a unique antibody and also encapsulates a vector that contains the encoding DNA. Highly diverse libraries can be constructed and represented as phage pools, which can be used in antibody selection for binding to immobilized antigens. Antigen-binding phages are retained by the immobilized antigen, and the nonbinding phages are removed by washing. The retained phage pool can be amplified by infection of an Escherichia coli host and the amplified pool can be used for additional rounds of selection to eventually obtain a population that is dominated by antigen- binding clones. At this stage, individual phase clones can be isolated and subjected to DNA sequencing to decode the sequences of the displayed antibodies. Through the use of phase display and other methods known in the art, high affinity designer antibodies for vesicles can be generated.

[00294] Bead-based assays can also be used to identify novel binding agents to isolate or detect a vesicle. A test antibody or peptide can be conjugated to a particle. For example, a bead can be conjugated to an antibody or peptide and used to detect and quantify the proteins expressed on the surface of a population of vesicles in order to discover and specifically select for novel antibodies that can target vesicles from specific tissue or tumor types. Any molecule of organic origin can be successfully conjugated to a polystyrene bead through use of a commercially available kit according to manufacturer’s instructions. Each bead set can be colored a certain detectable wavelength and each can be linked to a known antibody or peptide which can be used to specifically measure which beads are linked to exosomal proteins matching the epitope of previously conjugated antibodies or peptides. The beads can be dyed with discrete fluorescence intensities such that each bead with a different intensity has a different binding agent as described above. [00295] For example, a purified vesicle preparation can be diluted in assay buffer to an appropriate concentration according to empirically determined dynamic range of assay. A sufficient volume of coupled beads can be prepared and approximately 1 μl of the antibody-coupled beads can be aliqouted into a well and adjusted to a final volume of approximately 50 μl. Once the antibody-conjugated beads have been added to a vacuum compatible plate, the beads can be washed to ensure proper binding conditions. An appropriate volume of vesicle preparation can then be added to each well being tested and the mixture incubated, such as for 15-18 hours. A sufficient volume of detection antibodies using detection antibody diluent solution can be prepared and incubated with the mixture for 1 hour or more. The beads can then be washed before the addition of detection antibody (biotin expressing) mixture composed of streptavidin phycoereythin. The beads can then be washed and vacuum aspirated several times before analysis on a suspension array system using software provided with an instrument. The identity of antigens that can be used to selectively extract the vesicles can then be elucidated from the analysis.

[00296] Assays using imaging systems can be used to detect and quantify proteins expressed on the surface of a vesicle in order to discover and specifically select for and enrich vesicles from specific tissue, cell or tumor types. Antibodies, peptides or cells conjugated to multiple well multiplex carbon coated plates can be used. Simultaneous measurement of many analytes in a well can be achieved through the use of capture antibodies arrayed on the patterned carbon working surface. Analytes can then be detected with antibodies labeled with reagents in electrode wells with an enhanced electro-chemiluminescent plate. Any molecule of organic origin can be successfully conjugated to the carbon coated plate. Proteins expressed on the surface of vesicles can be identified from this assay and can be used as targets to specifically select for and enrich vesicles from specific tissue or tumor types.

[00297] The binding agent can also be an aptamer to a specific target. The term“specific” as used herein in regards to a binding agent can mean that an agent has a greater affinity for its target than other targets, typically with a much great affinity, but does not require that the binding agent is absolutely specific for its target.

[00298] Microfluidics

[00299] The methods for isolating or identifying vesicles can be used in combination with microfluidic devices. The methods of isolating or detecting a vesicle, such as described herien, can be performed using a microfluidic device. Microfluidic devices, which may also be referred to as "lab-on-a-chip" systems, biomedical micro-electro-mechanical systems (bioMEMs), or multicomponent integrated systems, can be used for isolating and analyzing a vesicle. Such systems miniaturize and compartmentalize processes that allow for binding of vesicles, detection of biosignatures, and other processes.

[00300] A microfluidic device can also be used for isolation of a vesicle through size differential or affinity selection. For example, a microfluidic device can use one more channels for isolating a vesicle from a biological sample based on size or by using one or more binding agents for isolating a vesicle from a biological sample. A biological sample can be introduced into one or more microfluidic channels, which selectively allows the passage of a vesicle. The selection can be based on a property of the vesicle, such as the size, shape, deformability, or biosignature of the vesicle.

[00301] In one embodiment, a heterogeneous population of vesicles can be introduced into a microfluidic device, and one or more different homogeneous populations of vesicles can be obtained. For example, different channels can have different size selections or binding agents to select for different vesicle populations. Thus, a microfluidic device can isolate a plurality of vesicles wherein at least a subset of the plurality of vesicles comprises a different biosignature from another subset of the plurality of vesicles. For example, the microfluidic device can isolate at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 different subsets of vesicles, wherein each subset of vesicles comprises a different biosignature.

[00302] In some embodiments, the microfluidic device can comprise one or more channels that permit further enrichment or selection of a vesicle. A population of vesicles that has been enriched after passage through a first channel can be introduced into a second channel, which allows the passage of the desired vesicle or vesicle population to be further enriched, such as through one or more binding agents present in the second channel.

[00303] Array-based assays and bead-based assays can be used with microfluidic device. For example, the binding agent can be coupled to beads and the binding reaction between the beads and vesicle can be performed in a microfluidic device. Multiplexing can also be performed using a microfluidic device. Different compartments can comprise different binding agents for different populations of vesicles, where each population is of a different cell-of-origin specific vesicle population. In one embodiment, each population has a different biosignature. The hybridization reaction between the microsphere and vesicle can be performed in a microfluidic device and the reaction mixture can be delivered to a detection device. The detection device, such as a dual or multiple laser detection system can be part of the microfluidic system and can use a laser to identify each bead or microsphere by its color-coding, and another laser can detect the hybridization signal associated with each bead.

[00304] Various microfluidic devices and methods are described above.

[00305] Combined Isolation Methodology

[00306] One of skill will appreciate that various methods of sample treatment and isolating and concentrating circulating biomarkers such as vesicles can be combined as desired. For example, a biological sample can be treated to prevent aggregation, remove undesired particulate and/or deplete highly abundant proteins. The steps used can be chosen to optimize downstream analysis steps. Next, biomarkers such as vesicles can be isolated, e.g., by chromotography, centrifugation, density gradient, filtration, precipitation, or affinity techniques. Any number of the later steps can be combined, e.g., a sample could be subjected to one or more of chromotography, centrifugation, density gradient, filtration and precipitation in order to isolate or concentrate all or most microvesicles. In a subsequent step, affinity techniques, e.g., using binding agents to one or more target of interest, can be used to isolate or identify microvesicles carrying desired biomarker profiles. Microfluidic systems can be employed to perform some or all of these steps.

[00307] An exemplary yet non-limiting isolation scheme for isolating and analysis of microvesicles includes the following: Plasma or serum collection -> highly abundant protein removal -> ultrafiltration - > nanomembrane concentration -> flow cytometry or particle-based assay.

[00308] Using the methods disclosed herein or known in the art, circulating biomarkers such as vesicles can be isolated or concentrated by at least about 2-fold, 3-fold, 1-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, 5-fold, 6- fold, 7-fold, 8-fold, 9-fold, 10-fold, 12-fold, 15-fold, 20-fold, 25-fold, 30-fold, 35-fold, 40-fold, 45-fold, 50-fold, 55-fold, 60-fold, 65-fold, 70-fold, 75-fold, 80-fold, 90-fold, 95-fold, 100-fold, 110-fold, 120-fold, 125-fold, 130-fold, 140-fold, 150-fold, 160-fold, 170-fold, 175-fold, 180-fold, 190-fold, 200-fold, 205- fold, 250-fold, 275-fold, 300-fold, 325-fold, 350-fold, 375-fold, 400-fold, 425-fold, 450-fold, 475-fold, 500-fold, 525-fold, 550-fold, 575-fold, 600-fold, 625-fold, 650-fold, 675-fold, 700-fold, 725-fold, 750- fold, 775-fold, 800-fold, 825-fold, 850-fold, 875-fold, 900-fold, 925-fold, 950-fold, 975-fold, 1000-fold, 1500-fold, 2000-fold, 2500-fold, 3000-fold, 4000-fold, 5000-fold, 6000-fold, 7000-fold, 8000-fold, 9000- fold, or at least 10,000-fold. In some embodiments, the vesicles are isolated or concentrated concentrated by at least 1 order of magnitude, 2 orders of magnitude, 3 orders of magnitude, 4 orders of magnitude, 5 orders of magnitude, 6 orders of magnitude, 7 orders of magnitude, 8 orders of magnitude, 9 orders of magnitude, or 10 orders of magnitude or more.

[00309] Once concentrated or isolated, the circulating biomarkers can be assessed, e.g., in order to characterize a phenotype as described herein. In some embodiments, the concentration or isolation steps themselves shed light on the phenotype of interest. For example, affinity methods can detect the presence or level of specific biomarkers of interest.

[00310] The various isolation and detection systems described herein can be used to isolate or detect circulating biomarkers such as vesicles that are informative for diagnosis, prognosis, disease stratification, theranosis, prediction of responder / non-responder status, disease monitoring, treatment monitoring and the like as related to such diseases and disorders. Combinations of the isolation techniques are within the scope of the invention. In a non-limiting example, a sample can be run through a chromatography column to isolate vesicles based on a property such as size of electrophoretic motility, and the vesicles can then be passed through a microfluidic device. Binding agents can be used before, during or after these steps.

[00311] The methods and compositions of the invention can be used with microvesicles isolated or detected using such methods as described herein. In various non-limiting examples: an aptamer provided by the methods of the invention can be used as a capture and/or detector agent for a biomarker such as a protein or microvesicle; a sample such as a bodily fluid can be contacted with an oligonucleotide probe library of the invention before microvesicles in the sample are isolated using one or more technique described herein (e.g., chromatography, centrifugation, flow cytometry, filtration, affinity isolation, polymer precipitation, etc); microvesicles in a sample are isolated using one or more technique described herein (e.g., chromatography, centrifugation, flow cytometry, filtration, affinity isolation, polymer precipitation, etc) before contacting the microvesicles with an aptamer or oligonucleotide probe library of the invention. Contaminants such as highly abundant proteins can be removed in whole or in part at any appropriate step in such processes. These and various other useful iterations of such techniques for assessment of microvesicles and other biomarkers are contemplated by the invention.

Biomarkers

[00312] As described herein, the methods and compositions of the invention can be used in assays to detect the presence or level of one or more biomarker of interest. The biomarker can be any useful biomarker disclosed herein or known to those of skill in the art. In an embodiment, the biomarker comprises a protein or polypeptide. As used herein,“protein,”“polypeptide” and“peptide” are used interchangeably unless stated otherwise. The biomarker can be a nucleic acid, including DNA, RNA, and various subspecies of any thereof as disclosed herein or known in the art. The biomarker can comprise a lipid. The biomarker can comprise a carbohydrate. The biomarker can also be a complex, e.g., a complex comprising protein, nucleic acids, lipids and/or carbohydrates. In some embodiments, the biomarker comprises a microvesicle. In an embodiment, the invention provides a method wherein a pool of aptamers is used to assess the presence and/or level of a population of microvesicles of interest without knowing the precise microvesicle antigen targeted by each member of the pool. See, e.g., FIGs.12B-C. In other cases, biomarkers associated with microvesicles are assessed according to the methods of the invention. See, e.g., FIGs.2A-F; FIG.12A.

[00313] A biosignature comprising more than one biomarker can comprise one type of biomarker or multiple types of biomarkers. As a non-limiting example, a biosignature can comprise multiple proteins, multiple nucleic acids, multiple lipids, multiple carbohydrates, multiple biomarker complexes, multiple microvesicles, or a combination of any thereof. For example, the biosignature may comprise one or more microvesicle, one or more protein, and one or more microRNA, wherein the one or more protein and/or one or more microRNA is optionally in association with the microvesicle as a surface antigen and/or payload, as appropriate.

[00314] In some embodiments, vesicles are detected using vesicle surface antigens. A commonly expressed vesicle surface antigen can be referred to as a“housekeeping protein,” or general vesicle biomarker. The biomarker can be CD63, CD9, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, Rab-5b, Annexin V or MFG- E8. Tetraspanins, a family of membrane proteins with four transmembrane domains, can be used as general vesicle biomarkers. The tetraspanins include CD151, CD53, CD37, CD82, CD81, CD9 and CD63. There have been over 30 tetraspanins identified in mammals, including the TSPAN1 (TSP-1), TSPAN2 (TSP-2), TSPAN3 (TSP-3), TSPAN4 (TSP-4, NAG-2), TSPAN5 (TSP-5), TSPAN6 (TSP-6), TSPAN7 (CD231, TALLA-1, A15), TSPAN8 (CO-029), TSPAN9 (NET-5), TSPAN10 (Oculospanin), TSPAN11 (CD151-like), TSPAN12 (NET-2), TSPAN13 (NET-6), TSPAN14, TSPAN15 (NET-7), TSPAN16 (TM4-B), TSPAN17, TSPAN18, TSPAN19, TSPAN20 (UP1b, UPK1B), TSPAN21 (UP1a, UPK1A), TSPAN22 (RDS, PRPH2), TSPAN23 (ROM1), TSPAN24 (CD151), TSPAN25 (CD53), TSPAN26 (CD37), TSPAN27 (CD82), TSPAN28 (CD81), TSPAN29 (CD9), TSPAN30 (CD63), TSPAN31 (SAS), TSPAN32 (TSSC6), TSPAN33, and TSPAN34. Other commonly observed vesicle markers include those listed in Table 3. One or more of these proteins can be useful biomarkers for the characterizing a phenotype using the subject methods and compositions.

Table 3: Proteins Observed in Vesicles from Multiple Cell Types

[00315] Any of the types of biomarkers or specific biomarkers described herein can be used and/or assessed via the subject methods and compositions, e.g., to identify a useful biosignature. Exemplary biomarkers include without limitation those in Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017, and PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016; which applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. The markers can be detected as protein, RNA or DNA as appropriate, which can be circulating freely or in a complex with other biological molecules. As appropriate, the markers can also be used for capture and/or detection of vesicles for characterizing phenotypes as disclosed herein. In some cases, multiple capture and/or detectors are used to enhance the characterization. The markers can be detected as protein or as mRNA, which can be circulating freely or in a complex with other biological molecules. See, e.g., FIGs.2D-E. The markers can be detected as vesicle surface antigens and/or vesicle payload. The “Illustrative Class” indicates indications for which the markers are known markers. Those of skill will appreciate that the markers can also be used in alternate settings in certain instances. For example, a marker which can be used to characterize one type disease may also be used to characterize another disease as appropriate. Consider a non-limiting example of a tumor marker which can be used as a biomarker for tumors from various lineages. The biomarker references in Table 3 are those commonly used in the art. Gene aliases and descriptions can be found using a variety of online databases, including GeneCards® (www.genecards.org), HUGO Gene Nomenclature (www.genenames.org), Entrez Gene (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene), UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot (www.uniprot.org),

UniProtKB/TrEMBL (www.uniprot.org), OMIM (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=OMIM), GeneLoc (genecards.weizmann.ac.il/geneloc/), and Ensembl (www.ensembl.org). Generally, gene symbols and names below correspond to those approved by HUGO, and protein names are those recommended by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Common alternatives are provided as well. Where a protein name indicates a precursor, the mature protein is also implied. Throughout the application, gene and protein symbols may be used interchangeably and the meaning can be derived from context as necessary. Examples of additional biomarkers that can be incorporated into the methods and compositions of the invention include without limitation those disclosed in International Patent Application Nos.

PCT/US2012/042519 (WO 2012/174282), filed June 14, 2012 and PCT/US2012/050030 (WO

2013/022995), filed August 8, 2012.

[00316] In various embodiments of the invention, the biomarkers or biosignature used to detect or assess any of the conditions or diseases disclosed herein can comprise one or more biomarkers in one of several different categories of markers, wherein the categories include without limitation one or more of: 1) disease specific biomarkers; 2) cell- or tissue-specific biomarkers; 3) vesicle-specific markers (e.g., general vesicle biomarkers); 4. angiogenesis-specific biomarkers; and 5) immunomodulatory biomarkers. Examples of all such markers are disclosed herein and known to a person having ordinary skill in the art. Furthermore, a biomarker known in the art that is characterized to have a role in a particular disease or condition can be adapted for use as a target in compositions and methods of the invention. In further embodiments, such biomarkers that are associated with vesicles can be all vesicle surface markers, or a combination of vesicle surface markers and vesicle payload markers (i.e., molecules enclosed by a vesicle). The biomarkers assessed can be from a combination of sources. For example, a disease or disorder may be detected or characterized by assessing a combination of proteins, nucleic acids, vesicles, circulating biomarkers, biomarkers from a tissue sample, and the like. In addition, as noted herein, the biological sample assessed can be any biological fluid, or can comprise individual components present within such biological fluid (e.g., vesicles, nucleic acids, proteins, or complexes thereof).

[00317] EpCAM is a pan-epithelial differentiation antigen that is expressed on many tumor cells. It is intricately linked with the Cadherin-Catenin pathway and hence the fundamental WNT pathway responsible for intracellular signalling and polarity. It has been used as an immunotherapeutic target in the treatment of gastrointestinal, urological and other carcinomas. (Chaudry MA, Sales K, Ruf P, Lindhofer H, Winslet MC (April 2007). Br. J. Cancer 96 (7): 1013–9.). It is expressed in undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. EpCAM is a member of a family that includes at least two type I membrane proteins and functions as a homotypic calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule. Mutations in this gene result in congenital tufting enteropathy. EpCAM has been observed on the surface of microvesicles derived from cancer cell of various lineages. EpCAM is used as an exemplary surface antigen in various examples herein. One of skill will appreciate that various embodiments and examples using EpCAM can be applied to other microvesicle surface antigens as well.

Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

[00318] Nucleic acid sequences fold into secondary and tertiary motifs particular to their nucleotide sequence. These motifs position the positive and negative charges on the nucleic acid sequences in locations that enable the sequences to bind to specific locations on target molecules, e.g., proteins and other amino acid sequences. These binding sequences are known in the field as aptamers. Due to the trillions of possible unique nucleotide sequences in even a relatively short stretch of nucleotides (e.g., 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40 nucleotides), a large variety of motifs can be generated, resulting in aptamers for almost any desired protein or other target.

[00319] Aptamers are created by randomly generating oligonucleotides of a specific length, typically 20- 80 base pairs long, e.g., 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 or 80 base pairs. These random oligonucleotides are then incubated with the protein target of interest. After several wash steps, the oligonucleotides that bind to the target are collected and amplified. The amplified aptamers are then added to the target and the process is repeated, often 15-20 times. A common version of this process known to those of skill in the art as the SELEX method.

[00320] The end result comprises one or more aptamer with high affinity to the target. The invention provides further processing of such resulting aptamers that can be use to provide desirable characteristics: 1) competitive binding assays to identify aptamers to a desired epitope; 2) motif analysis to identify high affinity binding aptamers in silico; and 3) microvesicle-based aptamer selection assays to identify aptamers that can be used to detect a particular disease. The methods are described in more detail below and further in the Examples.

[00321] The invention further contemplates aptamer sequences that are highly homologous to the sequences that are discovered by the methods of the invention.“High homology” typically refers to a homology of 40% or higher, preferably 60% or higher, more preferably 80% or higher, even more preferably 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or higher between a polynucleotide sequence sequence and a reference sequence. In an embodiment, the reference sequence comprises the sequence of one or more aptamer provided herein. Percent homologies (also referred to as percent identity) are typically carried out between two optimally aligned sequences. Methods of alignment of sequences for comparison are well-known in the art. Optimal alignment of sequences and comparison can be conducted, e.g., using the algorithm in“Wilbur and Lipman, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 726-30 (1983)”. Homology calculations can also be performed using BLAST, which can be found on the NCBI server at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/ (Altschul S F, et al, Nucleic Acids Res.1997; 25(17):3389- 402; Altschul S F, et al, J Mol. Biol.1990; 215(3):403-10). In the case of an isolated polynucleotide which is longer than or equivalent in length to the reference sequence, e.g., a sequence identified by the methods herein, the comparison is made with the full length of the reference sequence. Where the isolated polynucleotide is shorter than the reference sequence, e.g., shorter than a sequence identified by the methods herein, the comparison is made to a segment of the reference sequence of the same length (excluding any loop required by the homology calculation).

[00322] The invention further contemplates aptamer sequences that are functional fragments of the sequences that are discovered by the methods of the invention. In the context of an aptamer sequence, a “functional fragment” of the aptamer sequence may comprise a subsequence that binds to the same target as the full length sequence. In some instances, a candidate aptamer sequence is from a member of a library that contains a 5’ leader sequences and/or a 3’ tail sequence. Such leader sequences or tail sequences may serve to facilitate primer binding for amplification or capture, etc. In these embodiments, the functional fragment of the full length sequence may comprise the subsequence of the candidate aptamer sequence absent the leader and/or tail sequences.

[00323] Competitive Antibody Addition

[00324] Known aptamer production methods may involve eluting all bound aptamers from the target sequence. In some cases, this is not sufficient to identify the desired aptamer sequence. For example, when trying to replace an antibody in an assay, it may be desirable to only collect aptamers that bind to the specific epitope of the antibody being replaced. The invention provides a method comprising addition of an antibody that is to be replaced to the aptamer/target reaction in order to allow for the selective collection of aptamers which bind to the antibody epitope. In an embodiment, the method comprises incubating a reaction mixture comprising randomly generated oligonucleotides with a target of interest, removing unbound aptamers from the reaction mixture that do not bind the target, adding an antibody to the reaction mixture that binds to that epitope of interest, and collecting the aptamers that are displaced by the antibody. The target can be a protein. See, e.g., FIG.1, which illustrates the method for identifying an aptamer to a specific epitope of EpCam.

[00325] Motif Analysis

[00326] In most aptamer experiments, multiple aptamer sequences are identified that bind to the target. These aptamers will have various binding affinities. It can be time consuming and laborious to generate quantities of these many aptamers sufficient to assess the affinities of each. To identify large numbers of aptamers with the highest affinities without physically screening large subsets, the invention provides a method comprising the analysis of the two dimensional structure of one or more high affinity aptamers to the target of interest. In an embodiment, the method comprises screening the database for aptamers that have similar two-dimensional structures, or motifs, but not necessarily similar primary sequences. In an embodiment, the method comprises identifying a high affinity aptamer using traditional methods such as disclosed herein or known in the art (e.g. surface plasmon resonance binding assay, see FIG.5), approximating the two-dimensional structure of the high affinity aptamer, and identifying aptamers from a pool of sequences that are predicted to have a similar two-dimensional structure to the high affinity aptamer. The method thereby provides a pool of candidates that also bind the target of interest. The two- dimensional structure of an oligo can be predicting using methods known in the art, e.g., via free energy (ΔG) calculations performed using a commercially available software program such as Vienna or mFold, for example as described in Mathews, D., Sabina, J., Zucker, M. & Turner, H. Expanded sequence dependence of thermodynamic parameters provides robust prediction of RNA secondary structure. J. Mol. Biol.288, 911-940 (1999); Hofacker et al., Monatshefte f. Chemie 125: 167-188 (1994); and Hofacker, I. L. Vienna RNA secondary structure server. Nucleic Acids Res.31, 3429-3431 (2003), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. See FIGs.3A-3B.The pool of sequences can be sequenced from a pool of randomly generated aptamer candidates using a high-throughput sequencing platform, such as the Ion Torrent platform from Life Technologies. Identifying aptamers from a pool of sequences that are predicted to have a similar two-dimensional structure to the high affinity aptamer may comprise loading the resulting sequences into the software program of choice to identify members of the pool of sequences with similar two-dimensional structures as the high affinity aptamer. The affinities of the pool of sequences can then be determined in situ, e.g., surface plasmon resonance binding assay or the like.

[00327] Aptamer Subtraction Methods

[00328] In order to develop an assay to detect a disease, for example, cancer, one typically screens a large population of known biomarkers from normal and diseased patients in order to identify markers that correlate with disease. This process only works if discriminating markers are already described. In order to address this problem, the invention provides a method comprising subtracting out non-discriminating aptamers from a large pool of aptamers by incubating them initially with non-target microvesicles or cells. The non-target cells can be normal cells or microvesicles shed therefrom. The aptamers that did not bind to the normal microvesicles or cells are then incubated with diseased microvesicles or cells. The aptamers that bind to the diseased microvesicles or cells but that did not bind to the normal cells are then possible candidates for an assay to detect the disease. This process is independent of knowing the existence of a particular marker in the diseased sample.

[00329] Subtraction methods can be used to identify aptamers that preferentially recognize a desired population of targets. In an embodiment, the subtraction method is used to identify aptamers that preferentially recognize target from a diseased target population over a control (e.g., normal or non- diseased) population. The diseased target population may be a population of vesicles from a diseased individual or individuals, whereas the control population comprises vesicles from a non-diseased individual or individuals. The disease can be a cancer or other disease disclosed herein or known in the art. Accordingly, the method provides aptamers that preferentially identify disease targets versus control targets.

[00330] Circulating microvesicles can be isolated from control samples, e.g., plasma from“normal” individuals that are absent a disease of interest, such as an absence of cancer. Vesicles in the sample are isolated using a method disclosed herein or as known in the art. For example, vesicles can be isolated from the plasma by one of the following methods: filtration, ultrafiltration, nanomembrane ultrafiltration, the ExoQuick reagent (System Biosciences, Inc., Mountain View, CA), centrifugation, ultracentrifugation, using a molecular crowding reagent (e.g., TEXIS from Life Technologies), polymer precipitation (e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG)), affinity isolation, affinity selection, immunoprecipitation, chromatography, size exclusion, or a combination of any of these methods. The microvesicles isolated in each case will be a mixture of vesicle types and will be various sizes although ultracentrifugation methods may have more tendencies to produce exosomal-sized vesicles. Randomly generated oligonucleotide libraries (e.g., produced as described in the Examples herein) are incubated with the isolated normal vesicles. The aptamers that do not bind to these vesicles are isolated, e.g., by spinning down the vesicles and collecting the supernatant containing the non-binding aptamers. These non-binding aptamers are then contacted with vesicles isolated from diseased patients (e.g., using the same methods as described above) to allow the aptamers to recognize the disease vesicles. Next, aptamers that are bound to the diseased vesicles are collected. In an embodiment, the vesicles are isolated then lysed using a chaotropic agent (e.g., SDS or a similar detergent), and the aptamers are then captured by running the lysis mixture over an affinity column. The affinity column may comprise streptavidin beads in the case of biotin conjugated aptamer pools. The isolated aptamers are the amplified. The process can then then repeated, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 or more times.

[00331] In one aspect of the invention, an aptamer profile is identified that can be used to characterize a biological sample of interest. In an embodiment, a pool of randomly generated oligonucleotides, e.g., at least 10, 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 , 10 10 , 10 11 , 10 12 , 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 , 10 16 , 10 17 , 10 18 , 10 19 or at least 10 20 oligonucleotides, is contacted with a biological component or target of interest from a control population. The oligonucleotides that do not bind the biological component or target of interest from the control population are isolated and then contacted with a biological component or target of interest from a test population. The oligonucleotides that bind the biological component or target of interest from the test population are retained. The retained oligonucleotides can be used to repeat the process by contacting the retained oligonucleotides with the biological component or target of interest from the control population, isolating the retained oligonucleotides that do not bind the biological component or target of interest from the control population, and again contacting these isolated oligonucleotides with the biological component or target of interest from the test population and isolating the binding oligonucleotides. The“component” or“target” can be anything that is present in sample to which the oligonucleotides are capable of binding (e.g., polypeptides, peptide, nucleic acid molecules, carbodyhrates, lipids, etc.). The process can be repeated any number of desired iterations, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 or more times. The resulting oligonucleotides comprise aptamers that can differentially detect the test population versus the control. These aptamers provide an aptamer profile, which comprises a biosignature that is determined using one or more aptamer, e.g., a biosignature comprising a presense or level of the component or target which is detected using the one or more aptamer.

[00332] An exemplary process is illustrated in FIG.4, which demonstrates the method to identify aptamer that preferentially recognize cancer vesicles using vesicles from normal (non-cancer) individuals as a control. In the figure, exosomes are exemplified but one of skill will appreciate that other microvesicles can be used in the same manner. The resulting aptamers can provide a profile that can differentially detect the cancer vesicles from the normal vesicles. One of skill will appreciate that the same steps can be used to derive an aptamer profile to characterize any disease or condition of interest.

[00333] In an embodiment, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide that encodes a polypeptide, or a fragment thereof, identified by the methods above. The invention further provides an isolated polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence that is at least 60% identical to the nucleotide sequence identified by the methods above. More preferably, the isolated nucleic acid molecule is at least 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more, identical to the nucleotide sequence identified by the methods above. In the case of an isolated polynucleotide which is longer than or equivalent in length to the reference sequence, e.g., a sequence identified by the methods above, the comparison is made with the full length of the reference sequence. Where the isolated polynucleotide is shorter than the reference sequence, e.g., shorter than a sequence identified by the methods above, the comparison is made to a segment of the reference sequence of the same length (excluding any loop required by the homology calculation).

[00334] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of characterizing a biological phenotype using an aptamer profile. The aptamer profile can be determined using the method above. The aptamer profile can be determined for a test sample and compared to a control aptamer profile. The phenotype may be a disease or disorder such as a cancer. Characterizing the phenotype can include without limitation providing a diagnosis, prognosis, or theranosis. Thus, the aptamer profile can provide a diagnostic, prognostic and/or theranostic readout for the subject from whom the test sample is obtained. [00335] In another embodiment, an aptamer profile is determined for a test sample by contacting a pool of aptamer molecules to the test sample, contacting the same pool of aptamers to a control sample, and identifying one or more aptamer molecules that differentially bind a component or target in the test sample but not in the control sample (or vice versa). A“component” or“target” as used in the context of the biological test sample or control sample can be anything that is present in sample to which the aptamers are capable of binding (e.g., polypeptides, peptide, nucleic acid molecules, carbodyhrates, lipids, etc.). For example, if a sample is a plasma or serum sample, the aptamer molecules may bind a polypeptide biomarker that is solely expressed or differentially expressed (over- or underexpressed) in a disease state as compared to a non-diseased subject. Comparison of the aptamer profile in the test sample as compared to the control sample may be based on qualitative and quantitative measure of aptamer binding (e.g., binding versus no binding, or level of binding in test sample versus different level of binding in the reference control sample).

[00336] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of identifying a target-specific aptamer profile, comprising contacting a biological test sample with a pool of aptamer molecules, contacting the pool to a control biological sample, identifying one or more aptamers that bind to a component in said test sample but not to the control sample, thereby identifying an aptamer profile for said biological test sample. In an embodiment, a pool of aptamers is selected against a disease sample and compared to a reference sample, the aptamers in a subset that bind to a component(s) in the disease sample but not in the reference sample can be sequenced using conventional sequencing techniques to identify the subset that bind, thereby identifying an aptamer profile for the particular disease sample. In this way, the aptamer profile provides an individualized platform for detecting disease in other samples that are screened. Furthermore, by selecting an appropriate reference or control sample, the aptamer profile can provide a diagnostic, prognostic and/or theranostic readout for the subject from whom the test sample is obtained.

[00337] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of selecting a pool of aptamers, comprising: (a) contacting a biological control sample with a pool of oligonucleotides; (b) isolating a first subset of the pool of oligonucleotides that do not bind the biological control sample; (c) contacting the biological test sample with the first subset of the pool of oligonucleotides; and (d) isolating a second subset of the pool of oligonucleotides that bind the biological test sample, thereby selecting the pool of aptamers. The pool of oligonucleotides may comprise any number of desired sequences, e.g., at least 10, 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 , 10 10 , 10 11 , 10 12 , 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 , 10 16 , 10 17 , 10 18 , 10 19 or at least 10 20 oligonucleotides may be present in the starting pool. Steps (a)-(d) may be repeated to further hone the pool of aptamers. In an embodiment, these steps are repeated at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or at least 20 times.

[00338] As described herein, the biological test sample and biological control sample may comprise microvesicles. In an embodiment, the biological test sample and optionally biological control sample comprise a bodily fluid. The bodily fluid may comprise without limitation peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, Cowper’s fluid, pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, malignant fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates or other lavage fluids. Tthe biological test sample and optionally biological control may also comprise a tumor sample, e.g., cells from a tumor or tumor tissue. In other embodiments, the biological test sample and optionally biological control sample comprise a cell culture medium. In embodiments, the biological test sample comprises a diseased sample and the biological control sample comprises a non-diseased sample. Accordingly, the pool of aptamers may be used to provide a diagnostic, prognostic and/or theranostic readout a disease.

[00339] As noted, the invention can be used to assess microvesicles. Microvesicles are powerful biomarkers because the vesicles provide one biological entity that comprises multiple pieces of information. For example as described, a vesicle can have multiple surface antigens, each of which provides complementary information. Consider a cancer marker and a tissue specific marker. If both markers are individually present in a sample, e.g., both are circulating proteins or nucleic acids, it may not be ascertainable whether the cancer marker and the tissue specific marker are derived from the same anatomical locale. However, if both the cancer marker and the tissue specific marker are surface antigens on a single microvesicle, the vesicle itself links the two markers and provides an indication of a disease (via the cancer marker) and origin of the disease (via the tissue specific marker). Furthermore, the vesicle can have any number of surface antigens and also payload that can be assessed. Accordingly, the invention provides a method for identifying binding agents comprising contacting a plurality of extracellular microvesicles with a randomly generated library of binding agents, identifying a subset of the library of binding agents that have an affinity to one or more components of the extracellular microvesicles. The binding agents may comprise aptamers, antibodies, and/or any other useful type of binding agent disclosed herein or known in the art.

[00340] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method for identifying a plurality of target ligands comprising, (a) contacting a reference microvesicle population with a plurality of ligands that are capable of binding one or more microvesicle surface markers, (b) isolating a plurality of reference ligands, wherein the plurality of reference ligands comprise a subset of the plurality of ligands that do not have an affinity for the reference microvesicle population; (c) contacting one or more test microvesicle with the plurality of reference ligands; and (d) identifying a subset of ligands from the plurality of reference ligands that form complexes with a surface marker on the one or more test microvesicle, thereby identifying the plurality of target ligands. The term“ligand” can refer a molecule, or a molecular group, that binds to another chemical entity to form a larger complex. Accordingly, a binding agent comprises a ligand. The plurality of ligands may comprise aptamers, antibodies and/or other useful binding agents described herein or known in the art. [00341] The invention further provides kits comprising one or more reagent to carry out the methods above. In an embodiment, the one or more reagent comprises a library of potential binding agents that comprises one or more of an aptamer, antibody, and other useful binding agents described herein or known in the art.

[00342] Negative and Positive Aptamer Selection

[00343] Aptamers can be used in various biological assays, including numerous types of assays which rely on a binding agent. For example, aptamers can be used instead of or along side antibodies in immune- based assays. The invention provides an aptamer screening method that identifies aptamers that do not bind to any surfaces (substrates, tubes, filters, beads, other antigens, etc.) throughout the assay steps and bind specifically to an antigen of interest. The assay relies on negative selection to remove aptamers that bind non-target antigen components of the final assay. The negative selection is followed by positive selection to identify aptamers that bind the desired antigen.

[00344] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of identifying an aptamer specific to a target of interest, comprising (a) contacting a pool of candidate aptamers with one or more assay components, wherein the assay components do not comprise the target of interest; (b) recovering the members of the pool of candidate aptamers that do not bind to the one or more assay components in (a); (c) contacting the members of the pool of candidate aptamers recovered in (b) with the target of interest in the presence of one or more confounding target; and (d) recovering a candidate aptamer that binds to the target of interest in step (c), thereby identifying the aptamer specific to the target of interest. In the method, steps (a) and (b) provide negative selection to remove aptamers that bind non-target entities. Conversely, steps (c) and (d) provide positive selection by identifying aptamers that bind the target of interest but not other confounding targets, e.g., other antigens that may be present in a biological sample which comprises the target of interest. The pool of candidate aptamers may comprise at least 10, 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 , 10 10 , 10 11 , 10 12 , 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 , 10 16 , 10 17 , 10 18 , 10 19 or at least 10 20 nucleic acid sequences. One illustrative approach for performing the method is provided in Example 7 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016 and incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[00345] In some embodiments, steps (a)-(b) are optional. In other embodiments, steps (a)-(b) are repeated at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or at least 20 times before positive selection in step (c) is performed. The positive selection can also be performed in multiple rounds. Steps (c)-(d) can be repeated at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or at least 20 times before identifying the aptamer specific to the target of interest. Multiple rounds may provide improved stringency of selection.

[00346] In some embodiments, the one or more assay components contacted with the aptamer pool during negative selection comprise one or more of a substrate, a bead, a planar array, a column, a tube, a well, or a filter. One of skill will appreciate that the assay components can include any substance that may be part of a biological assay. [00347] The target of interest can be any appropriate entity that can be detected when recognized by an aptamer. In an embodiment, the target of interest comprises a protein or polypeptide. As used herein, “protein,”“polypeptide” and“peptide” are used interchangeably unless stated otherwise. The target of interest can be a nucleic acid, including DNA, RNA, and various subspecies of any thereof as disclosed herein or known in the art. The target of interest can comprise a lipid. The target of interest can comprise a carbohydrate. The target of interest can also be a complex, e.g., a complex comprising protein, nucleic acids, lipids and/or carbohydrates. In some embodiments, the target of interest comprises a microvesicle. In such cases, the aptamer can be a binding agent to a microvesicle surface antigen, e.g., a protein.

General microvesicle surface antigens include tetraspanin, CD9, CD63, CD81, CD63, CD9, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, Rab-5b, Annexin V, and MFG-E8. Additional general microvesicle surface antigens are provided in Table 3 herein.

[00348] The microvesicle surface antigen can also be a biomarker of a disease or disorder. In such cases, the aptamer may be used to provide a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of the disease or disorder. For example, the one or more protein may comprise one or more of PSMA, PCSA, B7H3, EpCam, ADAM- 10, BCNP, EGFR, IL1B, KLK2, MMP7, p53, PBP, SERPINB3, SPDEF, SSX2, and SSX4. These markers can be used detect a prostate cancer. Additional microvesicle surface antigens are provided in Table 3 herein and Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017.

[00349] The one or more confounding target can be an antigen other than the target of interest. For example, a confounding target can be another entity that may be present in a sample to be assayed. As a non-limiting example, consider that the sample to be assessed is a plasma sample from an individual. The target of interest may be a protein, e.g., a microvesicle surface antigen, which is present in the sample. In this case, a confounding target could be selected from any other antigen that is likely to be present in the plasma sample. Accordingly, the positive selection should provide candidate aptamers that recognize the target of interest but have minimal, if any, interactions with the confounding targets. In some

embodiments, the target of interest and the one or more confounding target comprise the same type of biological entity, e.g., all protein, all nucleic acid, all carbohydrate, or all lipids. As a non-limiting example, the target of interest can be a protein selected from the group consisting of SSX4, SSX2, PBP, KLK2, SPDEF, and EpCAM, and the one or more confounding target comprises the other members of this group. In other embodiments, the target of interest and the one or more confounding target comprise different types of biological entities, e.g., any combination of protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipids. The one or more confounding targets may also comprise different types of biological entities, e.g., any combination of protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipids.

[00350] In an embodiment, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide, or a fragment thereof, identified by the methods above. The invention further provides an isolated polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence that is at least 60% identical to the nucleotide sequence identified by the methods above. More preferably, the isolated nucleic acid molecule is at least 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more, identical to the nucleotide sequence identified by the methods above. In the case of an isolated polynucleotide which is longer than or equivalent in length to the reference sequence, e.g., a sequence identified by the methods above, the comparison is made with the full length of the reference sequence. Where the isolated polynucleotide is shorter than the reference sequence, e.g., shorter than a sequence identified by the methods above, the comparison is made to a segment of the reference sequence of the same length (excluding any loop required by the homology calculation).

[00351] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of selecting a group of aptamers, comprising: (a) contacting a pool of aptamers to a population of microvesicles from a first sample; (b) enriching a subpool of aptamers that show affinity to the population of microvesicles from the first sample; (c) contacting the subpool to a second population of microvesicles from a second sample; and (d) depleting a second subpool of aptamers that show affinity to the second population of microvesicles from the second sample, thereby selecting the group of aptamers that have preferential affinity for the population of microvesicles from the first sample.

[00352] The first sample and/or second sample may comprise a biological fluid such as disclosed herein. For example, the biological fluid may include without limitation blood, a blood derivative, plasma, serum or urine. The first sample and/or second sample may also be derived from a cell culture.

[00353] In an embodiment, the first sample comprises a cancer sample and the second sample comprises a control sample, such as a non-cancer sample. The first sample and/or and the second sample may each comprise a pooled sample. For example, the first sample and/or second sample can comprise bodily fluid from 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 or more than 100 individuals. In such cases, the members of a pool may be chosen to represent a desired phenotype. In a non-limiting example, the members of the first sample pool may be from patients with a cancer and the members of the second sample pool may be from non-cancer controls.

[00354] Steps (a)-(d) can be repeated a desired number of times in order to further enrich the pool in aptamers that have preferential affinity for the population of microvesicles from the first sample. For example, steps (a)-(d) can be repeated 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more than 20 times. The output from step (d) can be used as the input to repeated step (a). In embodiment, the first sample and/or second sample are replaced with a different sample before repeating steps (a)-(d). In a non-limiting example, members of a first sample pool may be from patients with a cancer and members of a second sample pool may be from non-cancer controls. During subsequent repetitions of steps (a)-(d), the first sample pool may comprise samples from different cancer patients than in the prior round/s. Similarly, the second sample pool may comprise samples from different controls than in the prior round/s.

[00355] In still another related aspect, the invention provides a method of enriching a plurality of oligonucleotides, comprising: (a) contacting a first microvesicle population with the plurality of oligonucleotides; (b) fractionating the first microvesicle population contacted in step (a) and recovering members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that fractionated with the first microvesicle population; (c) contacting the recovering members of the plurality of oligonucleotides from step (b) with a second microvesicle population; (d) fractionating the second microvesicle population contacted in step (c) and recovering members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that did not fractionate with the second microvesicle population; (e) contacting the recovering members of the plurality of oligonucleotides from step (d) with a third microvesicle population; and (f) fractionating the third microvesicle population contacted in step (a) and recovering members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that fractionated with the third microvesicle population; thereby enriching the plurality of oligonucleotides. The first and third microvesicle populations may have a first phenotype while the second microvesicle population has a second phenotype. Thus, positive selection occurs for the microvesicle populations associated with the first phenotype and negative selection occurs for the microvesicle populations associated with the second phenotype. An example of such selection schemes is described in Example 18 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016, wherein the first phenotype comprises biopsy-positive breast cancer and the second phenotype comprises non-breast cancer (biopsy-negative or healthy).

[00356] In some embodiments, the first phenotype comprises a medical condition, disease or disorder and the second phenotype comprises a healthy state or a different state of the medical condition, disease or disorder. The first phenotype can be a healthy state and the second phenotype comprises a medical condition, disease or disorder. The medical condition, disease or disorder can be any detectable medical condition, disease or disorder, including without limitation a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. Various types of such conditions are disclosed herein. See, e.g., Section“Phenotypes” herein.

[00357] Any useful method to isolate microvesicles in whole or in part can be used to fractionate the samples. See, e.g., Section“Microvesicle Isolation and Analysis” herein. In an embodiment, the fractionating comprises ultracentrifugation in step (b) and polymer precipitation in steps (d) and (f). The polymer can be polyethylene glycol (PEG). Any appropriate form of PEG may be used. For example, the PEG may be PEG 8000. The PEG may be used at any appropriate concentration. For example, the PEG can be used at a concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14% or 15% to isolate the microvesicles. In some embodiments, the PEG is used at a concentration of 6%.

[00358] The contacting can be performed in the presence of a competitor, which may reduce non-specific binding events. Any useful competitor can be used. In an embodiment, the competitor comprises at least one of salmon sperm DNA, tRNA, dextran sulfate and carboxymethyl dextran. As desired, different competitors or competitor concentrations can be used at different contacting steps.

[00359] The method can be repeated to achieve a desired enrichment. In an embodiment, steps (a)-(f) are repeated at least once. These steps can be repeated 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, or more than 20 times as desired. At the same time, each of the contacting steps can be repeated as desired. In some embodiments, the method further comprises: (i) repeating steps (a)-(b) at least once prior to step (c), wherein the recovered members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that fractionated with the first microvesicle population in step (b) are used as the input plurality of oligonucleotides for the repetition of step (a); (ii) repeating steps (c)-(d) at least once prior to step (e), wherein the recovered members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that did not fractionate with the second microvesicle population in step (d) are used as the input plurality of oligonucleotides for the repetition of step (c); and/or (iii) repeating steps (e)-(f) at least once, wherein the recovered members of the plurality of oligonucleotides that fractionated with the third microvesicle population in step (f) are used as the input plurality of oligonucleotides for the repetition of step (e). Repetitions (i)-(iii) can be repeated any desired number of times, e.g., (i)-(iii) can be repeated 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more than 20 times. In an embodiment, (i)-(iii) each comprise three repetitions.

[00360] The method may further comprise identifying the members of the selected group of aptamers or oligonucleotides, e.g., by DNA sequencing. The sequencing may be performed by Next Generation sequencing as desired and after or before any desired step in the method.

[00361] The method may also comprise identifying the targets of the selected group of

aptamers/oligonucleotides. Methods to identify such targets are disclosed herein.

[00362] Oligonucleotide Probe Target Identification

[00363] The methods and kits above can be used to identify binding agents that differentiate between two biomarker populations. The invention further provides methods of identifying the targets of binding agent. For example, the methods may further comprise identifying a surface marker of a target microvesicle that is recognized by the binding agent.

[00364] In an embodiment, the invention provides a method of identifying a target of a binding agent comprising: (a) contacting the binding agent with the target to bind the target with the binding agent, wherein the target comprises a surface antigen of a microvesicle; (b) disrupting the microvesicle under conditions which do not disrupt the binding of the target with the binding agent; (c) isolating the complex between the target and the binding agent; and (d) identifying the target bound by the binding agent. The binding agent can be a binding agent identified by the methods above, e.g., an aptamer, ligand, antibody, or other useful binding agent that can differentiate between two populations of biomarkers.

[00365] An illustrative schematic for carrying on the method is shown in FIG.7. The figure shows a binding agent 702, here an oligonucleotide probe or aptamer for purposes of illustration, tethered to a substrate 701. The binding agent 702 can be covalently attached to substrate 701. The binding agent 702 may also be non-covalently attached. For example, binding agent 702 can comprise a label which can be attracted to the substrate, such as a biotin group which can form a complex with an avidin/streptavidin molecule that is covalently attached to the substrate. This can allow a complex to be formed between the aptamer and the microvesicle while in solution, followed by capture of the aptamer using the biotin label. The binding agent 702 binds to a surface antigen 703 of microvesicle 704. In the step signified by arrow (i), the microvesicle is disrupted while leaving the complex between the binding agent 702 and surface antigen 703 intact. Disrupted microvesicle 705 is removed, e.g., via washing or buffer exchange, in the step signified by arrow (ii). In the step signified by arrow (iii), the surface antigen 703 is released from the binding agent 702. The surface antigen 703 can be analyzed to determine its identity using methods disclosed herein and/or known in the art. The target of the method can be any useful biological entity associated with a microvesicle. For example, the target may comprise a protein, nucleic acid, lipid or carbohydrate, or other biological entity disclosed herein or known in the art.

[00366] In some embodiments of the method, the target is cross-linked to the binding agent prior disrupting the microvesicle. Without being bound by theory, this step may assist in maintaining the complex between the binding agent and the target while the vesicle is disrupted. Any useful method of crosslinking disclosed herein or known in the art can be used. In embodiments, the cross-linking comprises photocrosslinking, an imidoester crosslinker, dimethyl suberimidate, an N- Hydroxysuccinimide-ester crosslinker, bissulfosuccinimidyl suberate (BS3), an aldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, a carbodiimide crosslinker, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DDC), N,N'- diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC), 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC or EDAC), Succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), a Sulfosuccinimidyl- 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC), a Sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-2-(6- [biotinamido]-2-(p-azido benzamido)-hexanoamido) ethyl-1,3'-dithioproprionate (Sulfo-SBED), 2-[N2-(4- Azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyl)-N6-(6-biotin-amidocaproyl) -L-lysinyl]ethyl methanethiosulfonate (Mts-Atf-Biotin; available from Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc, Rockford IL.), 2-{N2-[N6-(4-Azido- 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyl-6-amino-caproyl)-N6-(6-biotinamid ocaproyl)-L-lysinylamido]}ethyl methanethiosultonate (Mts-Atf-LC-Biotin; available from Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc), a photoreactive amino acid (e.g., L-Photo-Leucine and L-Photo-Methionine, see, e.g., Suchanek, M., et al. (2005). Photo- leucine and photo-methionine allow identification of protein-protein interactions. Nat. Methods 2:261- 267), an N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) crosslinker, an NHS-Azide reagent (e.g., NHS-Azide, NHS- PEG4-Azide, NHS-PEG12-Azide; each available from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), an NHS- Phosphine reagent (e.g., NHS-Phosphine, Sulfo-NHS-Phosphine; each available from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.), or any combination or modification thereof.

[00367] A variety of methods can be used to disrupt the microvesicle. For example, the vesicle membrane can be disrupted using mechanical forces, chemical agents, or a combination thereof. In embodiments, disrupting the microvesicle comprises use of one or more of a detergent, a surfactant, a solvent, an enzyme, or any useful combination thereof. The enzyme may comprise one or more of lysozyme, lysostaphin, zymolase, cellulase, mutanolysin, a glycanase, a protease, and mannase. The detergent or surfactant may comprise one or more of a octylthioglucoside (OTG), octyl beta-glucoside (OG), a nonionic detergent, Triton X, Tween 20, a fatty alcohol, a cetyl alcohol, a stearyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol, an oleyl alcohol, a polyoxyethylene glycol alkyl ether (Brij), octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, a polyoxypropylene glycol alkyl ether, a glucoside alkyl ether, decyl glucoside, lauryl glucoside, octyl glucoside, a polyoxyethylene glycol octylphenol ethers, a polyoxyethylene glycol alkylphenol ether, nonoxynol-9, a glycerol alkyl ester, glyceryl laurate, a polyoxyethylene glycol sorbitan alkyl esters, polysorbate, a sorbitan alkyl ester, cocamide MEA, cocamide DEA, dodecyldimethylamine oxide, a block copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, poloxamers, polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA), a zwitterionic detergent, 3-[(3- cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), a alkyl phenol ethoxylate (APE), cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, a betaine, cocamidopropyl betaine, lecithin, an ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), octenidine dihydrochloride, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), 5-Bromo-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane,

dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride, dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), sodium deoxycholate, nonyl phenoxypolyethoxylethanol (Tergitol-type NP-40; NP-40), ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)), sodium myreth sulfate, an alkyl carboxylate, sodium stearate, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, a carboxylate-based fluorosurfactant, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA or PFO), and a biosurfactant. Mechanical methods of disruption that can be used comprise without limitation mechanical shear, bead milling, homogenation, microfluidization, sonication, French Press, impingement, a colloid mill, decompression, osmotic shock, thermolysis, freeze- thaw, desiccation, or any combination thereof.

[00368] As shown in FIG.7, the binding agent may be tethered to a substrate. The binding agent can be tethered before or after the complex between the binding agent and target is formed. The substrate can be any useful substrate such as disclosed herein or known in the art. In an embodiment, the substrate comprises a microsphere. In another embodiment, the substrate comprises a planar substrate. The binding agent can also be labeled. Isolating the complex between the target and the binding agent may comprise capturing the binding agent via the label. For example, the label can be a biotin label. In such cases, the binding agent can be attached to the substrate via a biotin-avidin binding event.

[00369] Methods of identifying the target after release from the binding agent will depend on the type of target of interest. For example, when the target comprises a protein, identifying the target may comprise use of mass spectrometry (MS), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF; protein fingerprinting), sequencing, N- terminal amino acid analysis, C-terminal amino acid analysis, Edman degradation, chromatography, electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D gel), antibody array, and immunoassay. Nucleic acids can be identified by sequencing.

[00370] One of skill will appreciate that the method can be used to identify any appropriate target, including those not associated with a vesicle. For example, with respect to the FIG.7, all steps except for the step signified by arrow (i) (i.e., disrupting the microvesicle), could be performed for a circulating target such as a protein, nucleic acid, lipid, carbohydrate, or combination thereof. The target can be any useful target, including without limitation a cell, an organelle, a protein complex, a lipoprotein, a carbohydrate, a microvesicle, a virus, a membrane fragment, a small molecule, a heavy metal, a toxin, a drug, a nucleic acid, mRNA, microRNA, a protein-nucleic acid complex, and various combinations, fragments and/or complexes of any of these.

[00371] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of identifying at least one protein associated with at least one microvesicle in a biological sample, comprising: a) contacting the at least one microvesicle with an oligonucleotide probe library, b) isolating at least one protein bound by at least one member of the oligonucleotide probe library in step a); and c) identifying the at least one protein isolated in step b). The isolating can be performed using any useful method such as disclosed herein, e.g., by immunopreciption or capture to a substrate. Similarly, the identifying can be performed using any useful method such as disclosed herein, including without limitation use of mass spectrometry, 2-D gel electrophoresis or an antibody array. Examples of such methodology are presented herein in Examples 15-17.

[00372] The targets identified by the methods of the invention can be detected, e.g., using the

oligonucleotide probes of the invention, for various purposes as desired. For example, an identified microvesicle surface antigen can then be used to detect a microvesicle. In an aspect, the invention provides a method of detecting at least one microvesicle in a biological sample comprising contacting the biological sample with at least one binding agent to at least one microvesicle surface antigen and detecting the at least one microvesicle recognized by the binding agent to the at least one protein. In an

embodiment, the at least one microvesicle surface antigen is selected from Table 3 herein and Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as

WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017. The at least one microvesicle surface antigen can be a protein in any of Tables 10-17. See Example 15. The at least one binding agent may comprise any useful binding agent, including without limitation a nucleic acid, DNA molecule, RNA molecule, antibody, antibody fragment, aptamer, peptoid, zDNA, peptide nucleic acid (PNA), locked nucleic acid (LNA), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA), lectin, peptide, dendrimer, membrane protein labeling agent, chemical compound, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the at least one binding agent comprises at least one oligonucleotide, such as an oligonucleotide probe as provided herein.

[00373] The at least one binding agent can be used to capture and/or detect the at least one microvesicle. Methods of detecting biomarkers and microvesicle using binding agents are provided herein. See, e.g., FIGs.2A-B, which figures describe sandwich assay formats. In some embodiments, the at least one binding agent used to capture the at least one microvesicle is bound to a substrate. Any useful substrate can be used, including without limitation a planar array, a column matrix, or a microbead. See, e.g., FIGs. 2A-B. In some embodiments, the at least one binding agent used to detect the at least one microvesicle is labeled. Various useful labels are provided herein or known in the art, including without limitation a magnetic label, a fluorescent moiety, an enzyme, a chemiluminescent probe, a metal particle, a non-metal colloidal particle, a polymeric dye particle, a pigment molecule, a pigment particle, an electrochemically active species, a semiconductor nanocrystal, a nanoparticle, a quantum dot, a gold particle, a fluorophore, or a radioactive label. [00374] In an embodiment, the detecting is used to characterize a phenotype. The phenotype can be any appropriate phenotype of interest. In some embodiments, the phenotype is a disease or disorder. The characterizing may comprise providing diagnostic, prognostic and/or theranostic information for the disease or disorder. The characterizing may be performed by comparing a presence or level of the at least one microvesicle to a reference. The reference can be selected per the characterizing to be performed. For example, when the phenotype comprises a disease or disorder, the reference may comprise a presence or level of the at least one microvesicle in a sample from an individual or group of individuals without the disease or disorder. The comparing can be determining whether the presence or level of the microvesicle differs from that of the reference. In some embodiments, the detected at least one microvesicle is found at higher levels in a healthy sample as compared to a diseased sample. In another embodiment, the detected at least one microvesicle is found at higher levels in a diseased sample as compared to a healthy sample. When multiplex assays are performed, e.g., using a plurality of binding agents to different biomarkers, some microvesicle antigens may be observed at a higher level in the biological samples as compared to the reference whereas other microvesicle antigens may be observed at a lower level in the biological samples as compared to the reference.

[00375] The method can be used to detect the at least one microvesicle in any appropriate biological sample. For example, the biological sample may comprise a bodily fluid, tissue sample or cell culture. The bodily fluid or tissue sample can be from a subject having or suspected of having a medical condition, a disease or a disorder. Thus, the method can be used to provide a diagnostic, prognostic, or theranostic read out for the subject. Any appropriate bodily fluid can be used, including without limitation peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair oil, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, or umbilical cord blood.

[00376] The method of the invention can be used to detect or characterize any appropriate disease or disorder of interest, including without limitation Breast Cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bronchial asthma, Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, Giant cellular osteoblastoclastoma, Brain Tumor, Colorectal adenocarcinoma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) / acute heart failure, Chron’s Disease, diabetes mellitus type II, Esophageal carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, Acute and chronic leukemia of the bone marrow, Lung carcinoma, Malignant lymphoma, Multiple Sclerosis, Ovarian carcinoma, Parkinson disease, Prostate adenocarcinoma, psoriasis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, Adenocarcinoma of the stomach, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, Testicular cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Uterine adenocarcinoma. [00377] In some embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. The cancer can include without limitation one of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma;

AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma,

medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors;

cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer;

ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma;

extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma;

medulloepithelioma; melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides;

myelodysplastic syndromes; myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors;

ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma;

rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma; squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer; thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The premalignant condition can include without limitation Barrett’s Esophagus. The autoimmune disease can include without limitation one of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. The cardiovascular disease can include without limitation one of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, ischemia, high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. The neurological disease can include without limitation one of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down’s syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The pain can include without limitation one of fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. The infectious disease can include without limitation one of a bacterial infection, viral infection, yeast infection, Whipple’s Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, HCV, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. One of skill will appreciate that oligonucleotide probes or plurality of oligonucleotides or methods of the invention can be used to assess any number of these or other related diseases and disorders.

[00378] In a related aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the methods herein. In still another related aspect, the invention provides for use of a reagent for carrying out the methods. The reagent may comprise at least one binding agent to the at least one protein. The binding agent may be an oligonucleotide probe as provided herein.

[00379] Sample Characterization

[00380] The aptamers of the invention can be used to characterize a biological sample. For example, an aptamer can be used to bind a biomarker in the sample. The presence or level of the bound biomarker can indicate a characteristic of the example, such as a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of a disease or disorder associated with the sample.

[00381] In an aspect, the invention provides an aptamer comprising a nucleic acid sequence that is at least about 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous to sequences disclosed herein or a functional variation or fragment of any such sequence. A functional variation or fragment includes a sequence comprising modifications that is still capable of binding a target molecule, wherein the modifications comprise without limitation at least one of a deletion, insertion, point mutation, truncation or chemical modification. In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of characterizing a disease or disorder, comprising: (a) contacting a biological test sample with one or more aptamer of the invention, e.g., any of those in this paragraph or modifications thereof; (b) detecting a presence or level of a complex between the one or more aptamer and the target bound by the one or more aptamer in the biological test sample formed in step (a); (c) contacting a biological control sample with the one or more aptamer; (d) detecting a presence or level of a complex between the one or more aptamer and the target bound by the one or more aptamer in the biological control sample formed in step (c); and (e) comparing the presence or level detected in steps (b) and (d), thereby characterizing the disease or disorder.

[00382] The biological test sample and biological control sample can each comprise a tissue sample, a cell culture, or a biological fluid. In some embodiments, the biological test sample and biological control sample comprise the same sample type, e.g., both are tissue samples or both are fluid samples. In other embodiments, different sample types may be used for the test and control samples. For example, the control sample may comprise an engineered or otherwise artificial sample.

[00383] The biological fluid may comprise a bodily fluid. The bodily fluid may include without limitation one or more of peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, or umbilical cord blood. In some embodiments, the bodily fluid comprises blood, serum or plasma.

[00384] The biological fluid may comprise microvesicles. For example, the biological fluid can be a tissue, cell culture, or bodily fluid which comprises microvesicles released from cells in the sample. The microvesicles can be circulating microvesicles.

[00385] The one or more aptamer can bind a target biomarker, e.g., a biomarker useful in characterizing the sample. The biomarker may comprise a polypeptide or fragment thereof, or other useful biomarker described herein or known in the art (lipid, carbohydrate, complex, nucleic acid, etc). In embodiments, the polypeptide or fragment thereof is soluble or membrane bound. Membrane bound polypeptides may comprise a cellular surface antigen or a microvesicle surface antigen. The biomarker can be a biomarker selected from Table 3 herein and Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017.

[00386] The characterizing can comprises a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of the disease or disorder. Various diseases and disorders can be characterized using the compositions and methods of the invention, including without limitation a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, a neurological disease or disorder, an infectious disease, and/or pain. See, e.g., section herein“Phenotypes” for further details. In embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a proliferative or neoplastic disease or disorder. For example, the disease or disorder can be a cancer. In some embodiments, the cancer comprises a breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, or brain cancer.

[00387] FIG.12A is a schematic 1200 showing an assay configuration that can be used to detect and/or quantify a target of interest using one or more aptamer of the invention. Capture aptamer 1202 is attached to substrate 1201. The substrate can be a planar substrate, well, microbead, or other useful substrate as disclosed herein or known in the art. Target of interest 1203 is bound by capture aptamer 1202. The target of interest can be any appropriate entity that can be detected when recognized by an aptamer or other binding agent. The target of interest may comprise a protein or polypeptide, a nucleic acid, including DNA, RNA, and various subspecies thereof, a lipid, a carbohydrate, a complex, e.g., a complex comprising protein, nucleic acids, lipids and/or carbohydrates. In some embodiments, the target of interest comprises a microvesicle. The target of interest can be a microvesicle surface antigen. The target of interest may be a biomarker, including a vesicle associated biomarker, in Table 3 herein and Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as

WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017. The microvesicle input can be isolated from a sample using various techniques as described herein, e.g., chromatography, filtration, centrifugation, flow cytometry, affinity capture (e.g., to a planar surface, column or bead), and/or using microfluidics. Detection aptamer 1204 is also bound to target of interest 1203. Detection aptamer 1204 carries label 1205 which can be detected to identify target captured to substrate 1201 via capture aptamer 1202. The label can be a fluorescent, radiolabel, enzyme, or other detectable label as disclosed herein. Either capture aptamer 1202 or detection aptamer 1204 can be substituted with another binding agent, e.g., an antibody. For example, the target may be captured with an antibody and detected with an aptamer, or vice versa. When the target of interest comprises a complex, the capture and detection agents (aptamer, antibody, etc) can recognize the same or different targets. For example, when the target is a microvesicle, the capture agent may recognize one microvesicle surface antigen while the detection agent recognizes another microvesicle surface antigen. Alternately, the capture and detection agents can recognize the same surface antigen.

[00388] The aptamers of the invention may be identified and/or used for various purposes in the form of DNA or RNA. Unless otherwise specified, one of skill in the art will appreciate that an aptamer may generally be synthesized in various forms of nucleic acid. The aptamers may also carry various chemical modifications and remain within the scope of the invention.

[00389] In some embodiments, an aptamer of the invention is modified to comprise at least one chemical modification. The modification may include without limitation a chemical substitution at a sugar position; a chemical substitution at a phosphate position; and a chemical substitution at a base position of the nucleic acid. In some embodiments, the modification is selected from the group consisting of:

biotinylation, incorporation of a fluorescent label, incorporation of a modified nucleotide, a 2'-modified pyrimidine, 3' capping, conjugation to an amine linker, conjugation to a high molecular weight, non- immunogenic compound, conjugation to a lipophilic compound, conjugation to a drug, conjugation to a cytotoxic moiety, and labeling with a radioisotope, or other modification as disclosed herein. The position of the modification can be varied as desired. For example, the biotinylation, fluorescent label, or cytotoxic moiety can be conjugated to the 5' end of the aptamer. The biotinylation, fluorescent label, or cytotoxic moiety can also be conjugated to the 3' end of the aptamer.

[00390] In some embodiments, the cytotoxic moiety is encapsulated in a nanoparticle. The nanoparticle can be selected from the group consisting of: liposomes, dendrimers, and comb polymers. In other embodiments, the cytotoxic moiety comprises a small molecule cytotoxic moiety. The small molecule cytotoxic moiety can include without limtation vinblastine hydrazide, calicheamicin, vinca alkaloid, a cryptophycin, a tubulysin, dolastatin-10, dolastatin-15, auristatin E, rhizoxin, epothilone B, epithilone D, taxoids, maytansinoids and any variants and derivatives thereof. In still other embodiments, the cytotoxic moiety comprises a protein toxin. For example, the protein toxin can be selected from the group consisting of diphtheria toxin, ricin, abrin, gelonin, and Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Non-immunogenic, high molecular weight compounds for use with the invention include polyalkylene glycols, e.g., polyethylene glycol. Appropriate radioisotopes include yttrium-90, indium-111, iodine-131, lutetium-177, copper-67, rhenium-186, rhenium-188, bismuth-212, bismuth-213, astatine-211, and actinium-225. The aptamer may be labeled with a gamma-emitting radioisotope.

[00391] In some embodiments of the invention, an active agent is conjugated to the aptamer. For example, the active agent may be a therapeutic agent or a diagnostic agent. The therapeutic agent may be selected from the group consisting of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, biologically active agents, biological molecules, radionuclides, adriamycin, ansamycin antibiotics, asparaginase, bleomycin, busulphan, cisplatin, carboplatin, carmustine, capecotabine, chlorambucil, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, dacarbazine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, dexrazoxane, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, epothilones, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, gemcitabine, hydroxyurea, idarubicin, ifosfamide, irinotecan, lomustine, mechlorethamine, mercaptopurine, melphalan, methotrexate, rapamycin (sirolimus), mitomycin, mitotane, mitoxantrone, nitrosurea, paclitaxel, pamidronate, pentostatin, plicamycin, procarbazine, rituximab, streptozocin, teniposide, thioguanine, thiotepa, taxanes, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine, taxol, combretastatins, discodermolides, transplatinum, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compounds (“anti-VEGFs”), anti-epidermal growth factor receptor compounds (“anti-EGFRs”), 5- fluorouracil and derivatives, radionuclides, polypeptide toxins, apoptosis inducers, therapy sensitizers, enzyme or active fragment thereof, and combinations thereof.

[00392] Oligonucleotide Pools to Characterize a Sample

[00393] The complexity and heterogeneity present in biology challenges the understanding of biological systems and disease. Diversity exists at various levels, e.g., within and between cells, tissues, individuals and disease states. See, e.g., FIG.13A. FIG.13B overviews various biological entities that can be assessed to characterize such samples. As shown in the Figure, as one moves from assessing DNA, to RNA, to protein, and finally to protein complexes, the amount of diversity and complexity increases dramatically. The oligonucleotide probe library method of the invention can be used characterize complex biological sources, e.g., tissue samples, cells, circulating tumor cells, microvesicles, and complexes such as protein and proteolipid complexes.

[00394] Current methods to characterize biological samples may not adequately address such complexity and diversity. As shown in FIG.13C, such current methods often have a trade off between measuring diversity and complexity. As an example, consider high throughput sequencing technology. Next generation approaches may query many 1000s of molecular targets in a single assay. However, such approaches only probe individual DNA and/or RNA molecules, and thus miss out on the great diversity of proteins and biological complexes. On the other hand, flow cytometry can probe biological complexes, but are limited to a small number of pre-defined ligands. For example, a single assay can probe a handful of differentially labeled antibodies to pre-defined targets.

[00395] The oligonucleotide probe library of the invention address the above challenges with current biological detection technologies. The size of the starting library can be adjusted to measure as many different entities as there are library members. In this Example, the initial untrained oligonucleotide library has the potential to measure 10 12 or more biological features. A larger and/or different library can be constructed as desired. The technology is adapted to find differences between samples without assumptions about what“should be different.” For example, the probe library may distinguish based on individual proteins, protein modifications, protein complexes, lipids, nucleic acids, different folds or conformations, or whatever is there that distinguishes a sample of interest. Thus, the method provides an unbiased approach to identify differences in biological samples that can be used to identify different populations of interest.

[00396] In the context herein, the use of the oligonucleotide library probe to assess a sample may be referred to as Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting, or ADAPT™ (previously referred to as Topological Oligonucleotide Profiling: TOP™). Although as noted the terms aptamer and

oligonucleotides are typically used interchangeable herein, some differences between“classic” individual aptamers and ADAPT probes are as follows. Individual aptamers may comprise individual

oligonucleotides selected to bind to a known specific target in an antibody-like“key-in-lock” binding mode. They may be evaluated individually based on specificity and binding affinity to the intended target. However, ADAPT probes may comprise a library of oligonucleotides intended to produce multi-probe signatures. The ADAPT probes comprise numerous potential binding modalities (electrostatic, hydrophobic, Watson-Crick, multi-oligo complexes, etc.). The ADAPT probe signatures have the potential to identify heterogeneous patient subpopulations. For example, a single ADAPT probe library can be assembled to differentiate multiple disease states, as demonstrated herein. Unlike classic single aptamers, the binding targets may or may not be isolated or identified. It will be understood that screening methods that identify individual aptamers, e.g., SELEX, can also be used to enrich a naive library of oligonucleotides to identify a ADAPT probe library.

[00397] The general method of the invention is outlined in FIG.13D. One input to the method comprises a randomized oligonucleotide library with the potential to measure 10 12 or more biological features. As outlined in the figure, the method identifies a desired number (e.g., ~10 5 -10 6 ) that are different between two input sample types. The randomized oligonucleotide library is contacted with a first and a second sample type, and oligonucleotides that bind to each sample are identified. The bound oligonucleotide populations are compared and oligonucleotides that specifically bind to one or the other biological input sample are retained for the oligonucleotide probe library, whereas oligonucleotides that bind both biological input samples are discarded. This trained oligonucleotide probe library can then be contacted with a new test sample and the identities of oligonucleotides that bind the test sample are determined. The test sample is characterized based on the profile of oligonucleotides that bound. See, e.g., FIG.13H.

[00398] Extracellular vesicles provide an attractive vehicle to profile the biological complexity and diversity driven by many inter-related sources. There can be a great deal of heterogeneity between patient- to-patient microvesicle populations, or even in microvesicle populations from a single patient under different conditions (e.g., stress, diet, exercise, rest, disease, etc). Diversity of molecular phenotypes within microvesicle populations in various disease states, even after microvesicle isolation and sorting by vesicle biomarkers, can present challenges identifying surface binding ligands. This situation is further complicated by vesicle surface-membrane protein complexes. The oligonucleotide probe library can be used to address such challenges and allow for characterization of biological phenotypes. The approach combines the power of diverse oligonucleotide libraries and high throuput (next-generation) sequencing technologies to probe the complexity of extracellular microvesicles. See FIG.13E.

[00399] ADAPT™ profiling may provide quantitative measurements of dynamic events in addition to detection of presence/absence of various biomarkers in a sample. For example, the binding probes may detect protein complexes or other post-translation modifications, allowing for differentiation of samples with the same proteins but in different biological configurations. Such configurations are illustrated in FIGs.13F-G. In FIG.13F, microvesicles with various surface markers are shown from an example microvesicle sample population: Sample Population A. The indicated Bound Probing Oligonucleotides 1301 are contacted to two surface markers 1302 and 1303 in a given special relationship. Here, probes unique to these functional complexes and spatial relationships may be retained. In contrast, in

microvesicle Sample Population B shown in FIG.13F, the two surface markers 1302 and 1303 are found in disparate spacial relationship. Here, probes 1301 are not bound due to absence of the spatial relationship of the interacting components 1302 and 1303.

[00400] An illustrative approach 1310 for using ADAPT profiling to assess a sample is shown in FIG. 13H. The probing library 1311 is mixed with sample 1312. The sample can be as described herein, e.g., a bodily fluid from a subject having or suspected of having a disease. The probes are allowed to bind the sample 1320 and the microvesicles are pelleted 1315. The supernatant 1314 comprising unbound oligonucleotides is discarded. Oligonucleotide probes bound to the pellet 1315 are eluted 1316 and sequenced 1317. The profile 1318 generated by the bound oligonucleotide probes as determined by the sequening 1317 is used to characterize the sample 1312. For example, the profile 1318 can be compared to a reference, e.g., to determine if the profile is similar or different from a reference profile indicative of a disease or healthy state, or other phenotypic characterization of interest. The comparison may indicate the presence of a disease, provide a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis, or otherwise characterize a phenotype associated with the sample 1312. FIG.13I illustrates another schematic for using TOP™ profiling to characterize a phenotype. A patient sample such as a bodily fluid disclosed herein is collected 1321. The sample is contacted with the ADAPT™ library pool 1322. Microvesicles (MVs) are isolated from the contacted sample 1323, e.g., using ultracentrifugation, filtration, polymer precipitation or other appropriate technique or combination of techniques disclosed herein. Oligonucleotides that bound the isolated microvesicles are collected and identity is determined 1324. The identity of the bound oligonucleotides can be determined by any useful technique such as sequencing, high throughput sequencing (e.g., NGS), amplification including without limitation qPCR, or hybridization such as to a planar or particle based array. The identity of the bound oligonucleotides is used to characterize the sample, e.g., as containing disease related microvesicles.

[00401] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of characterizing a sample by contacting the sample with a pool of different oligonucleotides (e.g., an aptamer pool), and determining the frequency at which various oligonucleotides in the pool bind the sample. For example, a pool of oligonucleotides is identified that preferentially bind to microvesicles from cancer patients as compared to non-cancer patients. A test sample, e.g., from a patient suspected of having the cancer, is collected and contacted with the pool of oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotides that bind the test sample are eluted from the test sample, collected and identified, and the composition of the bound oligonucleotides is compared to those known to bind cancer samples. Various sequencing, amplification and hybridization techinques can be used to identify the eluted oligonucleotides. For example, when a large pool of oligonucleotides is used, oligonucleotide identification can be performed by high throughput methods such as next generation sequencing or via hybridization. If the test sample is bound by the oligonucleotide pool in a similar manner (e.g., as determined by bioinformatics classification methods) to the microvesicles from cancer patients, then the test sample is indicative of cancer as well. Using this method, a pool of oligonucleotides that bind one or more microvesicle antigen can be used to characterize the sample without necessarily knowing the precise target of each member of the pool of oligonucleotides. Examples 18-19 and others herein illustrate embodiments of the invention.

[00402] In an aspect, the invention provides a method for characterizing a condition for a test sample comprising: contacting a microvesicle sample with a plurality of oligonucleotide capable of binding one or more target(s) present in said microvesicle sample, identifying a set of oligonucleotides that form a complex with the sample wherein the set is predetermined to characterize a condition for the sample, thereby characterizing a condition for a sample.

[00403] In an related aspect, the invention provides a method for identifying a set of oligonucleotides associated with a test sample, comprising: (a) contacting a microvesicle sample with a plurality of oligonucleotides, isolating a set of oligonucleotides that form a complex with the microvesicle sample, (b) determining sequence and/or copy number for each of the oligonucleotides, thereby identifying a set of oligonucleotides associated with the test sample.

[00404] In still another related aspect, the invention provides a method of diagnosing a sample as cancerous or predisposed to be cancerous, comprising contacting a microvesicle sample with a plurality of oligonucleotides that are predetermined to preferentially form a complex with microvesicles from a cancer sample as compared to microvesicles from a non-cancer sample.

[00405] The oligonucleotides can be identified by sequencing, e.g., by dye termination (Sanger) sequencing or high throughput methods. High throughput methods can comprise techiques to rapidly sequence a large number of nucleic acids, including next generation techniques such as Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS; Polony sequencing; 454 pyrosequencing; Illumina (Solexa) sequencing; SOLiD sequencing; Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing; DNA nanoball sequencing; Heliscope single molecule sequencing; Single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing, or other methods such as Nanopore DNA sequencing; Tunnelling currents DNA sequencing; Sequencing by hybridization; Sequencing with mass spectrometry; Microfluidic Sanger sequencing; Microscopy-based techniques; RNAP sequencing; In vitro virus high-throughput sequencing. The oligonucleotides may also be identified by hybridization techniques. For example, a microarray having addressable locals to hybridize and thereby detect the various members of the pool can be used. Alternately, detection can be based on one or more

differentially labelled oligonucleotides that hybridize with various members of the oligonucleotide pool. The detectable signal of the label can be associated with a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes with a stretch of nucleic acids present in various oligonucleotides. The stretch can be the same or different as to one or more oligonucleotides in a library. The detectable signal can comprise fluorescence agents, including color-coded barcodes which are known, such as in U.S. Patent Application Pub. No.

20140371088, 2013017837, and 20120258870. Other detectable labels (metals, radioisotopes, etc) can be used as desired.

[00406] The plurality or pool of oligonucleotides can comprise any desired number of oligonucleotides to allow characterization of the sample. In various embodiments, the pool comprises at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, or at least 10000 different oligonucleotide members.

[00407] The plurality of oligonucleotides can be pre-selected through one or more steps of positive or negative selection, wherein positive selection comprises selection of oligonucleotides against a sample having substantially similar characteristics compared to the test sample, and wherein negative selection comprises selection of oligonucleotides against a sample having substantially different characteristics compared to the test sample. Substantially similar characteristics mean that the samples used for positive selection are representative of the test sample in one or more characteristic of interest. For example, the samples used for positive selection can be from cancer patients or cell lines and the test sample can be a sample from a patient having or suspected to have a cancer. Substantially different characteristics mean that the samples used for negative selection differ from the test sample in one or more characteristic of interest. For example, the samples used for negative selection can be from individuals or cell lines that do not have cancer (e.g.,“normal” or otherwise“control” samples) and the test sample can be a sample from a patient having or suspected to have a cancer. The cancer can be a breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, brain cancer, or other cancer.

[00408] By selecting samples representative of the desired phenotypes to detect and/or distinguish, the characterizing can comprise a diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis for any number of diseases or disorders. Various diseases and disorders can be characterized using the compositions and methods of the invention, including without limitation a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, a neurological disease or disorder, an infectious disease, and/or pain. See, e.g., section herein“Phenotypes” for further details. In embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a proliferative or neoplastic disease or disorder. For example, the disease or disorder can be a cancer. In some embodiments, the cancer comprises a breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, or brain cancer.

[00409] FIG.12B is a schematic 1210 showing use of an oligonucleotide pool to characterize a phenotype of a sample, such as those listed above. A pool of oligonucleotides to a target of interst is provided 1211. For example, the pool of oligonucleotides can be enriched to target one or more microvesicle. The members of the pool may bind different targets (e.g., a microvesicle surface antigen) or different epitopes of the same target present on the one or more microvesicle. The pool is contacted with a test sample to be characterized 1212. For example, the test sample may be a biological sample from an individual having or suspected of having a given disease or disorder. The mixture is washed to remove unbound

oligonucleotides. The remaining oligonucleotides are eluted or otherwise disassociated from the sample and collected 1213. The collected oligonucleotides are identified, e.g., by sequencing or hybridization 1214. The presence and/or copy number of the identified is used to characterize the phenotype 1215. For example, the pool of oligonucleotides may be chosen as oligonucleotides that preferentially recognize microvesicles shed from cancer cells. The method can be employed to detect whether the sample retains oligonucleotides that bind the cancer-related microvesicles, thereby allowing the sample to be characterized as cancerous or not.

[00410] FIG.12C is a schematic 1220 showing an implementation of the method in FIG.12B. A pool of oligonucleotides identified as binding a microvesicle population is provided 1219. The input sample comprises a test sample comprising microvesicles 1222. For example, the test sample may be a biological sample from an individual having or suspected of having a given disease or disorder. The pool is contacted with the isolated microvesicles to be characterized 1223. The microvesicle population can be isolated before or after the contacting 1223 from the sample using various techniques as described herein, e.g., chromatography, filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation, flow cytometry, affinity capture (e.g., to a planar surface, column or bead), polymer precipitation, and/or using microfluidics. The mixture is washed to remove unbound oligonucleotides and the remaining oligonucleotides are eluted or otherwise disassociated from the sample and collected 1224. The collected oligonucleotides are identified 1225 and the presence and/or copy number of the retained oligonucleotides is used to characterize the phenotype 1226 as above.

[00411] As noted, in embodiment of FIG.12C, the pool of oligonucleotides 1219 is directly contacted with a biological sample that comprises or is expected to comprise microvesicles. Microvesicles are thereafter isolated from the sample and the mixture is washed to remove unbound oligonucleotides and the remaining oligonucleotides are disassociated and collected 1224. The following steps are performed as above. As an example of this alternate configuration, a biological sample, e.g., a blood, serum or plasma sample, is directly contacted with the pool of oligonucleotides. Microvesicles are then isolated by various techniques disclosed herein, including without limitation ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, flow cytometry, affinity isolation, polymer precipitation, chromatography, various combinations thereof, or the like. Remaining oligonucleotides are then identified, e.g., by sequencing, hybridization or amplification.

[00412] In a related aspect, the invention provides a composition of matter comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides that can be used to carry out the methods comprising use of an oligonucleotide pool to characterize a phenotype. The plurality of oligonucleotides can comprise any of those described herein.

[00413] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of performing high-throughput sequencing comprising: performing at least one (i) negative selection or (ii) one positive selection of a plurality of oligonucleotides with a microvesicle sample; obtaining a set of oliognucleotides to provide a negative binder subset or positive binder subset of the plurality of oligonucleotides, wherein the negative binder subset of the plurality of oligonucleotides does not bind the microvesicle sample and wherein the positive binder subset of the plurality of oligonucleotides does bind the microvesicle sample; contacting the negative binder subset or positive binder subset with a test sample; eluting oligonucleotides that bound to the test sample to provide a plurality of eluate oligonucleotides; and performing high-throughput sequencing of the plurality of eluate oligonucleotides to identify sequence and/or copy number of the members of the plurality of eluate oligonucleotides. Negative and positive selection of the plurality of oligonucleotides using microvesicle sample can be performed as disclosed herein. The oligonucleotide profile revealed by the sequence and/or copy number of the members of the plurality of eluate oligonucleotides can be used to characterize a phenotype of the test sample as described herein.

[00414] In a similar aspect, the invention provides a method for identifying oligonucleotides specific for a test sample. The method comprises: (a) enriching a plurality of oligonucleotides for a sample to provide a set of oligonucleotides predetermined to form a complex with a target sample; (b) contacting the plurality in (a) with a test sample to allow formation of complexes of oligonucleotides with test sample; (c) recovering oligonucleotides that formed complexes in (b) to provide a recovered subset of

oligonucleotides; and (d) profiling the recovered subset of oligonucleotides by high-throughput sequencing or hybridization, thereby identifying oligonucleotides specific for a test sample. The test sample may comprise a plurality of microvesicles. The oligonucleotides may comprise RNA, DNA or both. In some embodiment, the method further comprises performing informatics analysis to identify a subset of oligonucleotides comprising sequence identity of at least 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or at least 99% to the oligonucleotides predetermined to form a complex with the target sample.

[00415] One of skill will appreciate that the method can be used to identify any appropriate target, including those not associated with a microvesicle. The target can be any useful target, including without limitation a cell, an organelle, a protein complex, a lipoprotein, a carbohydrate, a microvesicle, a virus, a membrane fragment, a small molecule, a heavy metal, a toxin, a drug, a nucleic acid (including without limitation microRNA (miR) and messenger RNA (mRNA)), a protein-nucleic acid complex, and various combinations, fragments and/or complexes of any of these. The target can, e.g., comprise a mixture of microvesicles and non-microvesicle entities.

[00416] In an aspect, the invention also provides a method comprising contacting an oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides with a sample and detecting the presence or level of binding of the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides to a target in the sample, wherein the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be those provided by the invention above. The sample may comprise a biological sample, an organic sample, an inorganic sample, a tissue, a cell culture, a bodily fluid, blood, serum, a cell, a microvesicle, a protein complex, a lipid complex, a carbohydrate, or any combination, fraction or variation thereof. The target may comprise a cell, an organelle, a protein complex, a lipoprotein, a carbohydrate, a microvesicle, a membrane fragment, a small molecule, a heavy metal, a toxin, or a drug.

[00417] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method comprising: a) contacting a biological sample comprising microvesicles with an oligonucleotide probe library, wherein optionally the oligonucleotide probe library comprises an oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides those provided by the invention above; b) identifying oligonucleotides bound to at least a portion of the microvesicles; and c) characterizing the sample based on a profile of the identified oligonucleotides.

[00418] In another aspect, the invention provides a method comprising: a) contacting a sample with an oligonucleotide probe library comprising at least 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 , 10 10 , 10 11 , 10 12 , 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 , 10 16 , 10 17 , or at least 10 18 different oligonucleotide sequences oligonucleotides to form a mixture in solution, wherein the oligonucleotides are capable of binding a plurality of entities in the sample to form complexes, wherein optionally the oligonucleotide probe library comprises an oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides as provided by the invention above; b) partitioning the complexes formed in step (a) from the mixture; and c) detecting oligonucleotides present in the complexes partitioned in step (b) to identify an oligonucleotide profile for the sample. In an embodiment, the detecting step comprises performing sequencing of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes, amplification of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes, and/or hybridization of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes to an array. The array can be any useful array, such as a planar or particle-based array.

[00419] In still another aspect, the invention provides a method for generating an enriched oligonucleotide probe library comprising: a) contacting a first oligonucleotide library with a biological test sample and a biological control sample, wherein complexes are formed between biological entities present in the biological samples and a plurality of oligonucleotides present in the first oligonucleotide library; b) partitioning the complexes formed in step (a) and isolating the oligonucleotides in the complexes to produce a subset of oligonucleotides for each of the biological test sample and biological control sample; c) contacting the subsets of oligonucleotides in (b) with the biological test sample and biological control sample wherein complexes are formed between biological entities present in the biological samples and a second plurality of oligonucleotides present in the subsets of oligonucleotides to generate a second subset group of oligonucleotides; and d) optionally repeating steps b)-c), one, two, three or more times to produce a respective third, fourth, fifth or more subset group of oligonucleotides, thereby producing the enriched oligonucleotide probe library. In a related aspect, the invention provides a plurality of oligonucleotides comprising at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, 10000, 20000, 30000, 40000, 50000, 60000, 70000, 80000, 90000, 100000, 200000, 300000, 400000, or 500000 different oligonucleotide sequences, wherein the plurality results from the method in this paragraph, wherein the library is capable of distinguishing a first phenotype from a second phenotype. In some embodiments, the first phenotype comprises a disease or disorder and the second phenotype comprises a healthy state; or wherein the first phenotype comprises a disease or disorder and the second phenotype comprises a different disease or disorder; or wherein the first phenotype comprises a stage or progression of a disease or disorder and the second phenotype comprises a different stage or progression of the same disease or disorder; or wherein the first phenotype comprises a positive response to a therapy and the second phenotype comprises a negative response to the same therapy.

[00420] In yet another aspect, the invention provides a method of characterizing a disease or disorder, comprising: a) contacting a biological test sample with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention; b) detecting a presence or level of complexes formed in step (a) between the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention and a target in the biological test sample; and c) comparing the presence or level detected in step (b) to a reference level from a biological control sample, thereby characterizing the disease or disorder. The step of detecting may comprise performing sequencing of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes, amplification of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes, and/or hybridization of all or some of the oligonucleotides in the complexes to an array. The sequencing may be high-throughput or next generation sequencing.

[00421] In the methods of the invention, the biological test sample and biological control sample may each comprise a tissue sample, a cell culture, or a biological fluid. In some embodiments, the biological fluid comprises a bodily fluid. Useful bodily fluids within the method of the invention comprise peripheral blood, sera, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper’s fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, female ejaculate, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, or umbilical cord blood. In some preferred embodiments, the bodily fluid comprises blood, serum or plasma. The biological fluid may comprise microvesicles. In such case, the complexes may be formed between the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides and at least one of the microvesicles.

[00422] The biological test sample and biological control sample may further comprise isolated microvesicles, wherein optionally the microvesicles are isolated using at least one of chromatography, filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation, flow cytometry, affinity capture (e.g., to a planar surface, column or bead), polymer precipitation, and using microfluidics. The vesicles can also be isolated after contact with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides.

[00423] In various embodiments of the methods of the invention, the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides binds a polypeptide or fragment thereof. The polypeptide or fragment thereof can be soluble or membrane bound, wherein optionally the membrane comprises a microvesicle membrane. The membrane could also be from a cell or a fragment of a cell of vesicle. In some embodiments, the polypeptide or fragment thereof comprises a biomarker in Table 3, Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, filed June 29, 2016, and published as WO2017004243 on January 5, 2017, or any one of Tables 10-17 or . For example, the polypeptide or fragment thereof could be a general vesicle marker such as in Table 3 or a tissue-related or disease-related marker such as in Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157, or a vesicle associated biomarker provided in any one of Tables 10-17. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides may bind a microvesicle surface antigen in the biological sample. For example, the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be enriched from a naïve library against microvesicles.

[00424] As noted above, the microvesicles may be isolated in whole or in part using polymer precipitation. In an embodiment, the polymer comprises polyethylene glycol (PEG). Any appropriate form of PEG may be used. For example, the PEG may be PEG 8000. The PEG may be used at any appropriate concentration. For example, the PEG can be used at a concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, 13%, 14% or 15% to isolate the microvesicles. In some embodiments, the PEG is used at a concentration of 6%.

[00425] The invention provides oligonucleotide probes that can be used to carry out the methods herein. See, e.g., Examples 18-21. In an aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NOs 137-969 and 1072-4150. In a related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of the SEQ ID NOs in Table 19. In another related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of the SEQ ID NOs in the row“2000v1” in Table 22. In still another related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of the SEQ ID NOs in the row “2000v2” in Table 22. In yet another related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of the SEQ ID NOs in the row“Common” in Table 22.

[00426] The oligonucleotides of the invention can comprise flanking regions for various purposes, including without limitation amplification, capture, conjugation or spacing. For example, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence according to any one of the SEQ ID NOs above and further having a 5’ region with sequence 5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131) and/or a 3’ region with sequence 5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132).

[00427] The invention further provides oligonucleotides homologous to the SEQ ID NOs above. For example, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence or a portion thereof that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous to an oligonucleotide sequence of any one of the SEQ ID NOs above. The homologous sequences may comprise similar properties to the listed sequences, such as similar binding properties.

[00428] In an aspect, the invention provides a plurality of oligonucleotides comprising at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, or at least 10000 different oligonucleotide sequences as described in the paragraphs above. For example, the invention provides a plurality of oligonucleotides comprising member sequences having at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, or all variable regions according to SEQ ID NOs 137-969 and 1072-4150.

[00429] The plurality of oligonucleotides can comprise at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, or all SEQ ID NOs listed in Table 19. In an embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least the first 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, or SEQ ID NOs listed in Table 19.

[00430] The plurality of oligonucleotides can also comprise at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, or all SEQ ID NOs listed in row“2000v1” of Table 22. In an embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least the first 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, or all SEQ ID NOs listed in row“2000v1” of Table 22.

[00431] The plurality of oligonucleotides can comprise at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145 or all SEQ ID NOs listed in row“2000v2” of Table 22. In an embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least the first 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145 or all SEQ ID NOs listed in row“2000v2” of Table 22. [00432] The plurality of oligonucleotides can also comprise at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 or all variable regions listed in row“Common” of Table 22. In an embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least the first 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 or all SEQ ID NOs listed in row“Common” of Table 22.

[00433] The oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides can have least one functional modification selected from the group consisting of DNA, RNA, biotinylation, a non-naturally occurring nucleotides, a deletion, an insertion, an addition, and a chemical modification. Such modifications may provide additional or altered functions to the oligonucleotides, including without limitation capture, detection, stability, or binding properties.

[00434] Such oligonucleotides and plurality of oligonucleotides (pools) can be used to characterize a phenotype as described herein. In an aspect, the invention provides a method of characterizing a phenotype in a sample comprising: (a) contacting the sample with at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention (see above); and (b) identifying a presence or level of a complex formed between the at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides and the sample, wherein the presence or level is used to characterize the phenotype. Any useful technique for identifying can be used according to the invention. In various embodiments, the identifying comprises sequencing, amplification, hybridization, gel electrophoresis or chromatography. In an embodiment, identifying by hybridization comprises contacting the sample with at least one labeled probe that is configured to hybridize with at least one oligonucleotide. The at least one labeled probe can be directly or indirectly attached to a label. Any useful label can be used, including without limitation a fluorescent or magnetic label. In another embodiment, identifying by sequencing comprises next generation sequencing, dye termination sequencing, and/or pyrosequencing.

[00435] In the methods of the invention, the complex formed between the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides and the sample can be a complex formed between a microvesicle population in the sample and the at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides. The microvesicle population can be isolated in whole or in part from other constituents in the sample before of after the contacting. In embodiments, the isolating uses affinity purification, filtration, polymer precipitation, PEG precipitation, ultracentrifugation, a molecular crowding reagent, affinity isolation, affinity selection, or any combination thereof.

[00436] In the methods of the invention, the phenotype can be any detectable phenotype. In some embodiments, the phenotype comprises a disease or disorder. In such cases, the characterizing can be a diagnosis, prognosis and/or theranosis for the disease or disorder. The theranosis can be any type of therapy-related such as described herein. The theranosis includes without limitation predicting a treatment efficacy or lack thereof, or monitoring a treatment efficacy.

[00437] The characterizing step of the methods of the invention may entail comparing the presence or level to a reference. Any useful reference can be used. In an embodiment wherein the phenotype comprises a disease or disorder, the reference can be the presence or level determined in a sample from an individual without a disease or disorder, or from an individual with a different state of the disease or disorder. In some embodiments, the comparison to the reference of at least one oligonucleotide comprising a sequence having a SEQ ID NO provided above indicates that the sample comprises a cancer sample or a non-cancer/normal sample.

[00438] The disease or disorder detected by the oligonucleotide, plurality of oligonucleotides, or methods provided here may comprise any appropriate disease or disorder of interest, including without limitation Breast Cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bronchial asthma, Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, Giant cellular osteoblastoclastoma, Brain Tumor, Colorectal adenocarcinoma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) / acute heart failure, Chron’s Disease, diabetes mellitus type II, Esophageal carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, Acute and chronic leukemia of the bone marrow, Lung carcinoma, Malignant lymphoma, Multiple Sclerosis, Ovarian carcinoma, Parkinson disease, Prostate adenocarcinoma, psoriasis,

Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, Adenocarcinoma of the stomach, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, Testicular cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Uterine adenocarcinoma.

[00439] In some embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. The cancer can include without limitation one of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma;

AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma,

medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors;

cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer;

ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma;

extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma;

medulloepithelioma; melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides;

myelodysplastic syndromes; myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma;

rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma; squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer;

thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The premalignant condition can include without limitation Barrett’s Esophagus. The autoimmune disease can include without limitation one of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. The cardiovascular disease can include without limitation one of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, ischemia, high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. The neurological disease can include without limitation one of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down’s syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The pain can include without limitation one of fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. The infectious disease can include without limitation one of a bacterial infection, viral infection, yeast infection, Whipple’s Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, HCV, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza. One of skill will appreciate that the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides or methods of the invention can be used to assess any number of these or other related diseases and disorders.

[00440] In some embodiments of the invention, the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides and methods of use thereof are useful for characterizing certain diseases or disease states. As desired, a pool of oligonucleotides useful for characterizing various diseases is assembled to create a master pool that can be used to probe useful for characterizing the various diseases. One of skill will also appreciate that pools of oligonucleotides useful for characterizing specific diseases or disorders can be created as well. The sequences provided herein can also be modified as desired so long as the functional aspects are still maintained (e.g., binding to various targets or ability to characterize a phenotype). For example, the oligonucleotides may comprise DNA or RNA, incorporate various non-natural nucleotides, incorporate other chemical modifications, or comprise various deletions or insertions. Such modifications may facilitate synthesis, stability, delivery, labeling, etc, or may have little to no effect in practice. In some cases, some nucleotides in an oligonucleotide may be substituted while maintaining functional aspects of the oligonucleotide. Similarly, 5’ and 3’ flanking regions may be substituted. In still other cases, only a portion of an oligonucleotide may be determined to direct its functionality such that other portions can be deleted or substituted. Numerous techniques to synthesize and modify nucleotides and polynucleotides are disclosed herein or are known in the art.

[00441] In an aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the methods of the invention provided herein. In a similar aspect, the invention contemplates use of a reagent for carrying out the methods of the invention provided herein. In embodiments, the reagent comprises an oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be those provided herein. The reagent may comprise various other useful components including without limitation microRNA (miR) and messenger RNA (mRNA)), a protein-nucleic acid complex, and various combinations, fragments and/or complexes of any of these. Theone or more of: a) a reagent configured to isolate a microvesicle, optionally wherein the at least one reagent configured to isolate a microvesicle comprises a binding agent to a microvesicle antigen, a column, a substrate, a filtration unit, a polymer, polyethylene glycol, PEG4000, PEG8000, a particle or a bead; b) at least one oligonucleotide configured to act as a primer or probe in order to amplify, sequence, hybridize or detect the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides; and c) a reagent configured to remove one or more abundant protein from a sample, wherein optionally the one or more abundant protein comprises at least one of albumin, immunoglobulin, fibrinogen and fibrin.

[00442] Recovery of oligonucleotide probes post-probing

[00443] As described herein, the oligonucleotide probes of the invention can be used to probe a sample in order to characterize a phenotype. The methods may entail recovering the oligonucleotide probes that bound various biological entities in the sample in order to identify the bound probes. In an aspect, the invention provides a method of detecting at least one oligonucleotide in a sample, comprising: (a) providing the at least one oligonucleotide comprising a capture moiety; (b) contacting the sample with the at least one oligonucleotide provided in (a); (c) capturing the at least one oligonucleotide that formed a complex with a component in the sample in (b); and (d) identifying a presence or level of the at least one oligonucleotide captured in (c), wherein optionally the presence or level is used to characterize a phenotype. See, e.g., Example 33 and FIGs.17A-E of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016. The at least one oligonucleotide may be captured to a substrate, including without limitation a bead or planar substrate. The capture moiety can be any useful capture moiety, including without limitation a biotin moiety. The capture moiety can be cleavable, e.g., photocleavable or chemically cleavable. In an embodiment, the at least one oligonucleotide is captured to a substrate coupled to avidin or streptavidin. Such configuration is particularly useful when the capture moiety comprises a biotin moiety. In some embodiments, the captured at least one oligonucleotide is released from the substrate by irradiation prior to the identifying. Any useful irradiation, e.g., ultra violet (UV) light may be used. Any useful technique for identifying can be used according to the invention. In various embodiments, the identifying comprises sequencing, amplification, hybridization, gel electrophoresis or chromatography. In an embodiment, identifying by hybridization comprises contacting the sample with at least one labeled probe that is configured to hybridize with at least one oligonucleotide. The at least one labeled probe can be directly or indirectly attached to a label. Any useful label can be used, including without limitation a fluorescent or magnetic label. In another embodiment, identifying by sequencing comprises next generation sequencing, dye termination sequencing, and/or pyrosequencing. The at least one oligonucleotide can be an oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention. See e.g., the oligonucleotides and plurality of oligonucleotides described above.

[00444] Single strand DNA (ssDNA) library preparation

[00445] In an embodiment, the invention provides a nucleic acid molecule comprising a 5’ leader region which is 5’ of a variable region, which is 5’ of a tail region, wherein the leader region comprises a lengthener region, a terminator region and a forward primer region, and the tail region comprises a reverse primer region. The nucleic acid molecule may be used for asymmetric or unequal length PCR applications as desired, e.g., to recover ssDNA. See, e.g., Example 34 and FIGs.18A-C of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016. The lengthener region can be any desired length. In some embodiments, the lengthener region comprises at least 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides. The lengthener region may comprise a poly-A sequence. Similarly, the terminator region can be any desired length. In some embodiments, the terminator region comprises at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides. The terminator region may comprise a non-nucleotide terminator. For example, the non-nucleotide terminator can be a polymer such as triethylene glycol or the like. The forward primer region can be any desired length. In some embodiments, the forward primer region comprises at least 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides. The variable region can be any desired length. In some embodiments, the variable region comprises at least 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides. In some embodiments, the variable region binds a target molecule or complex through non-Watson-Crick base pairing. For example, the variable region may act as an aptamer and bind proteins or other entities. Finally, the reverse primer region can be any desired length. In some embodiments, the reverse primer region comprises at least 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides.

[00446] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of generating a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule comprising: a) providing a mixture comprising a nucleic acid molecule as described in the paragraph above, and forward and reverse primers configured to amplify the nucleic acid molecule from the forward primer region and reverse primer region, respectively; and b) performing asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the mixture in a) to favorably amplify the reverse strand of the nucleic acid molecule, wherein the forward and reverse primers in the mixture are at a ratio of at least about 1:5 (F/R) in favor of the reverse primers; thereby generating the ssDNA molecule. In an embodiment, the ratio is between about 1:20-1:50 (F/R) in favor of the reverse primers. For example, the ratio can be between about 1:37.5 (F/R) in favor of the reverse primers. The method may further comprise isolating the amplified reverse strand of the nucleic acid molecule on a native gel. The method may also further comprise: c) denaturing the amplified nucleic acid molecules from b); and d) isolating the denatured reverse strand of the nucleic acid molecules from c). In an embodiment, the denatured reverse strand of the nucleic acid molecules is isolated on a denaturing gel. The mixture in a) can comprise additional components as desired. For example, the mixture may further comprise at least one of an enrichment buffer, non-target molecules, proteins, microvesicles, and polyethyleve glycol.

[00447] In a related aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the methods herein. In still another related aspect, the invention provides for use of a reagent for carrying out the methods. In various embodiements, the reagent comprises at least one of a buffer, a nucleic acid molecule described above, and forward and/or reverse primers configured to amplify the nucleic acid molecule.

[00448] Detecting Watson-Crick base pairing with an oligonucleotide probe

[00449] The oligonucleotide probes provided by the invention can bind via non-Watson Crick base pairing. However, in some cases, the oligonucleotide probes provided by the invention can bind via Watson Crick base pairing. The oligonucleotide probe libraries of the invention, e.g., as described above, can query both types of binding events simultaneously. For example, some oligonucleotide probes may bind the microvesicle protein antigens in the classical aptamer sense, whereas other oligonucleotide probes may bind microvesicles via nucleic acids associated with the microvesicles, e.g., nucleic acid (including without limitation microRNA and mRNA) on the surface of the microvesicles or as payload. Such surface bound nucleic acids can be associated with proteins. For example, they may comprise Argonaute-microRNA complexes. The argonaute protein can be Ago1, Ago2, Ago3 and/or Ago4. [00450] In addition to the oligonucleotide probe library approach described herein which relies on determining a sequence of the oligonucleotides (e.g., via sequencing, hybridization or amplification), assays can also be designed to detect Watson Crick base pairing. In some embodiments, these approaches rely on Ago2-mediated cleavage wherein an Ago2-microRNA complex can be used to detected using oligonucleotide probes. These approaches can use oligonucleotide probes to detect Ago2-microRNA complexes, which may or may not be associated with microvesicles. The detection can be used to characterize a phenotype as described herein. Such detection can be used along side the sequencing identification methods described herein (e.g., via sequencing, hybridization or amplification).For further details, see PCT/US15/62184, filed November 23, 2015, which application is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Therapeutics

[00451] As used herein“therapeutically effective amount” refers to an amount of a composition that relieves (to some extent, as judged by a skilled medical practitioner) one or more symptoms of the disease or condition in a mammal. Additionally, by“therapeutically effective amount” of a composition is meant an amount that returns to normal, either partially or completely, physiological or biochemical parameters associated with or causative of a disease or condition. A clinician skilled in the art can determine the therapeutically effective amount of a composition in order to treat or prevent a particular disease condition, or disorder when it is administered, such as intravenously, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, orally, or through inhalation. The precise amount of the composition required to be therapeutically effective will depend upon numerous factors, e.g., such as the specific activity of the active agent, the delivery device employed, physical characteristics of the agent, purpose for the administration, in addition to many patient specific considerations. But a determination of a therapeutically effective amount is within the skill of an ordinarily skilled clinician upon the appreciation of the disclosure set forth herein.

[00452] The terms“treating,”“treatment,”“therapy,” and“therapeutic treatment” as used herein refer to curative therapy, prophylactic therapy, or preventative therapy. An example of“preventative therapy” is the prevention or lessening the chance of a targeted disease (e.g., cancer or other proliferative disease) or related condition thereto. Those in need of treatment include those already with the disease or condition as well as those prone to have the disease or condition to be prevented. The terms“treating,”“treatment,” “therapy,” and“therapeutic treatment” as used herein also describe the management and care of a mammal for the purpose of combating a disease, or related condition, and includes the administration of a composition to alleviate the symptoms, side effects, or other complications of the disease, condition. Therapeutic treatment for cancer includes, but is not limited to, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, gene therapy, and immunotherapy.

[00453] As used herein, the term“agent” or“drug” or“therapeutic agent” refers to a chemical compound, a mixture of chemical compounds, a biological macromolecule, or an extract made from biological materials such as bacteria, plants, fungi, or animal (particularly mammalian) cells or tissues that are suspected of having therapeutic properties. The agent or drug can be purified, substantially purified or partially purified. An“agent” according to the present invention, also includes a radiation therapy agent or a“chemotherapuetic agent.”

[00454] As used herein, the term“diagnostic agent” refers to any chemical used in the imaging of diseased tissue, such as, e.g., a tumor.

[00455] As used herein, the term“chemotherapuetic agent” refers to an agent with activity against cancer, neoplastic, and/or proliferative diseases, or that has ability to kill cancerous cells directly.

[00456] As used herein,“pharmaceutical formulations” include formulations for human and veterinary use with no significant adverse toxicological effect.“Pharmaceutically acceptable formulation” as used herein refers to a composition or formulation that allows for the effective distribution of the nucleic acid molecules of the instant invention in the physical location most suitable for their desired activity.

[00457] As used herein the term“pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” is intended to include any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like, compatible with pharmaceutical administration. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is well known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active compound, use thereof in the compositions is contemplated.

[00458] Aptamer-Toxin Conjugates as a Cancer Therapeutic

[00459] Previous work has developed the concept of antibody-toxin conjugates (“immunoconjugates”) as potential therapies for a range of indications, mostly directed at the treatment of cancer with a primary focus on hematological tumors. A variety of different payloads for targeted delivery have been tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies, including protein toxins, high potency small molecule cytotoxics, radioisotopes, and liposome-encapsulated drugs. While these efforts have successfully yielded three FDA- approved therapies for hematological tumors, immunoconjugates as a class (especially for solid tumors) have historically yielded disappointing results that have been attributable to multiple different properties of antibodies, including tendencies to develop neutralizing antibody responses to non-humanized antibodies, limited penetration in solid tumors, loss of target binding affinity as a result of toxin conjugation, and imbalances between antibody half-life and toxin conjugate half-life that limit the overall therapeutic index (reviewed by Reff and Heard, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 40 (2001):25- 35).

[00460] Aptamers are functionally similar to antibodies, except their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (“ADME”) properties are intrinsically different and they generally lack many of the immune effector functions generally associated with antibodies (e.g., antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity). In comparing many of the properties of aptamers and antibodies previously described, several factors suggest that toxin-delivery via aptamers offers several concrete advantages over delivery with antibodies, ultimately affording them better potential as therapeutics. Several examples of the advantages of toxin-delivery via aptamers over antibodies are as follows: [00461] 1) Aptamer-toxin conjugates are entirely chemically synthesized. Chemical synthesis provides more control over the nature of the conjugate. For example, the stoichiometry (ratio of toxins per aptamer) and site of attachment can be precisely defined. Different linker chemistries can be readily tested. The reversibility of aptamer folding means that loss of activity during conjugation is unlikely and provides more flexibility in adjusting conjugation conditions to maximize yields.

[00462] 2) Smaller size allows better tumor penetration. Poor penetration of antibodies into solid tumors is often cited as a factor limiting the efficacy of conjugate approaches. See Colcher, D., Goel, A.,

Pavlinkova, G., Beresford, G., Booth, B., Batra, S. K. (1999)“Effects of genetic engineering on the pharmacokinetics of antibodies,” Q. J. Nucl. Med., 43: 132-139. Studies comparing the properties of unPEGylated anti-tenascin C aptamers with corresponding antibodies demonstrate efficient uptake into tumors (as defined by the tumor:blood ratio) and evidence that aptamer localized to the tumor is unexpectedly long-lived (t 1/2 >12 hours) (Hicke, B. J., Stephens, A. W., "Escort aptamers: a delivery service for diagnosis and therapy", J. Clin. Invest., 106:923-928 (2000)).

[00463] 3) Tunable PK. Aptamer half-life/metabolism can be easily tuned to match properties of payload, optimizing the ability to deliver toxin to the tumor while minimizing systemic exposure. Appropriate modifications to the aptamer backbone and addition of high molecular weight PEGs should make it possible to match the half-life of the aptamer to the intrinsic half-life of the conjugated toxin/linker, minimizing systemic exposure to non-functional toxin-bearing metabolites (expected if

t 1/2 (aptamer)<<t 1/2 (toxin)) and reducing the likelihood that persisting unconjugated aptamer will functionally block uptake of conjugated aptamer (expected if t 1/2 (aptamer)>>t 1/2 (toxin)).

[00464] 4) Relatively low material requirements. It is likely that dosing levels will be limited by toxicity intrinsic to the cytotoxic payload. As such, a single course of treatment will likely entail relatively small (<100 mg) quantities of aptamer, reducing the likelihood that the cost of oligonucleotide synthesis will be a barrier for aptamer-based therapies.

[00465] 5) Parenteral administration is preferred for this indication. There will be no special need to develop alternative formulations to drive patient/physician acceptance.

[00466] The invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of an aptamer provided by the invention or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. The invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the aptamer or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. Relatedly, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition to a subject in need thereof. Administering a

therapeutically effective amount of the composition to the subject may result in: (a) an enhancement of the delivery of the active agent to a disease site relative to delivery of the active agent alone; or (b) an enhancement of microvesicles clearance resulting in a decrease of at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% in a blood level of microvesicles targeted by the aptamer; or (c) an decrease in biological activity of microvesicles targeted by the aptamer of at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90%. In an embodiment, the biological activity of microvesicles comprises immune suppression or transfer of genetic information. The disease or disorder can include without limitation those disclosed herein. For example, the disease or disorder may comprise a neoplastic, proliferative, or inflammatory, metabolic, cardiovascular, or neurological disease or disorder. See, e.g., section “Phenotypes.”

[00467] Anti-target and multivalent oligonucleotides

[00468] As noted above, the target of oligonucleotide probes can be identified. For example, when the target comprises a protein or protein complex (e.g., a nucleoprotein or lipoprotein), identifying the target may comprise use of mass spectrometry (MS), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF; protein fingerprinting), sequencing, N-terminal amino acid analysis, C-terminal amino acid analysis, Edman degradation, chromatography, electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D gel), antibody array, or immunoassay. Such approaches can be applied to identify a number of targets recognized by an oligonucleotide probe library. For example, an oligonucleotide probe library can be incubated with a sample of interest, bound members of the library captured, and the targets bound to the captured members identified. See Example 15 herein for an example of such target identification using mass spectrometry.

[00469] The oligonucleotide aptamers to the various targets can be used for multiple purposes. In some embodiments, the aptamers are used as therapeutic agents. Immunotherapeutic approaches using antibodies that recognize foreign/misfolded antigens (e,g., anti-CD20, anti-CD30, anti-CD33, anti-CD52, anti-EGFR, anti-nucleolin, anti-nucleophosmin, etc.) can selectively kill target cells via linked therapeutic agents or by stimulating the immune system through activation of cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Aptamers or oligonucleotides are an attractive immunotherapeutic alternative for various reasons such as low cost, small size, ease and speed of synthesis, stability and low immunogenicity. In an embodiment, immunotherapeutic agents are conjugated to disease specific target oligonucleotide or antibody (Ab) for targeted cell killing via recruitment of complement proteins and the downstream membrane attack complex. See, e.g., Zhou and Rossi, Cell-type-specific, Aptamer-functionalized Agents for Targeted Disease Therapy, Mol Ther Nucleic Acids.2014 Jun 17;3:e169. doi: 10.1038/mtna.2014.21; Pei et al., Clinical applications of nucleic acid aptamers in cancer, Mol Clin Oncol.2014 May;2(3):341-348. Epub 2014 Feb 10. This approach can be applied to target diseased host cells such as cancer cells, gram negative bacteria, viral and/or parasitic infections, and the like.

[00470] In some embodiments, the invention provides a multipartite construct comprising a binding agent specific to a biological target with another binding agent specific to immunomodulatory entity. Examples of such constructs are shown in FIG.16A. In Design 1 in the figure, the horizontal line indicates an oligonucleotide construct, which construct comprises a 5’ primer 1601 (Primer 1), a variable region 1602 that can be an aptamer to a target of interest, a 3’ primer 1603 (Primer 2), and an immunomodulatory domain region (“IMD”) 1604. The complete Design 1 construct can be used to bring a target of interest in proximity with an immunomodulatory agent. The primers can be designed for any desired purpose, e.g., amplification, capture, modification, direct or indirect labeling, and the like. In some embodiments, the target of the variable region is a disease marker and thus the construct is targeted to a disease cell or microvesicle. The immunomodulatory domain region can act as an immune stimulator or suppressor. Any appropriate immune stimulator or suppressor can be used, e.g., a small molecule, antibody or an aptamer. Thus, the construct can modulate the immune response at a target of interest, e.g., at a cell or microvesicle carrying the target. The basic construct can be modified as desired. For example, Design 2 in FIG.16A shows the construct carrying a linker 1605 between Primer 21603 and the IMD 1604. Such linkers are explained further below and can be inserted between any components of the construct as desired. Linkers can provide a desired space between the regions of the construct and can be manipulated to influence other properties such as stability. Design 3 in FIG.16A shows another example wherein the IMD 1604 is an oligonucleotide and the variable region 1602 and IMD 1604 lie between the primers 1601 and 1603. One of skill will appreciate that one or more linker, such as 1605 of Design 2, can also be inserted into Design 3, e.g., between the variable region 1602 and IMD 1604. One of skill will further appreciate that the ordering of the oligonucleotide segments from 5’ to 3’ can be modified, e.g., reversed. As a concrete example which will be described further below, FIG.16B illustrates Design 1 and Design 2 from FIG. 16A wherein the variable region comprises an anti-CD20 oligonucleotide 1611 and the IMD comprises an anti-C1q oligonucleotide 1612, e.g., an oligonucleotide provided herein. See, e.g., Example 22. This constructs of FIG.16B can be used used to target a CD20+ cell population and stimulate C1q mediated cell killing.

[00471] As noted, the multipartite constructs may be synthesized and/or modified as desired. In some embodiments of the invention, the multipartite oligonucleotide construct is synthesized directly with or without a linker in between the oligonucleotide segments. See, e.g., FIG.16A Design 3, which can be generated directly via amplification by Primer 11601 and Primer 21603. One or more linker can act as a spacer to create a desired spacing between the target of the variable region segment 1602 and the target of the IMD segment 1604. The spacing can be determined via computer modeling or via experimentation due to steric hindrance or other considerations. Following the example of FIG.16B, the type and size of the linker may be dependent upon steric hindrance between the CD20 target protein and the C1q protein/MAC complex.

[00472] The multipartite constructs can be generated against any appropriate target. The targets can include without limitation diseased cells, cancer cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), immune cells (e.g., B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, dendritic cells), microvesicles, bacteria, viruses or other parasites. The target can be large biological complexes, e.g., protein complexes, ribonucleoprotein complexes, lipid complexes, or a combination thereof. It will be understood that the specific target of the multipartite constructs can be a certain member of the foregoing macromolecular targets. For example, consider that the desired target of the multipartite construct is a cell or microvesicle. In such case, the multipartite construct can be directed to a specific biomarker, e.g., a surface antigen, of the cell or microvesicle. As a non-limiting example, the target of interest can be B-cells and the specifc target of the variable region of the multipartite construct can be CD20. CD20 is a cellular marker of B-cells targeted by the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) rituximab, obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, ibritumomab tiuxetan, and tositumomab, which are used as agents in the treatment of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. As another non-limiting example, the target of interest can be cancer cells and the specifc target of the variable region of the multipartite construct can be c-MET. MET is a membrane receptor that is essential for embryonic development and wound healing. Abnormal MET activation in cancer correlates with poor prognosis, where aberrantly active MET triggers tumor growth, formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and cancer spread to other organs (metastasis). MET has been observed to be deregulated in many types of human

malignancies, including cancers of kidney, liver, stomach, breast, and brain. See FIG.16D for illustration (discussed further below). Other biomarkers can be used as the specifc target as desired. For example, the biomarker can be selected from any of Tables 3, 10-17, 24, 29, 31, 32, 39- 41 or 46-49 herein, or Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157. See FIG.16C, which illustrates a construct of the invention 1631 having a segment that recognizes a biomarker 1632 (“Marker of Interest”) on a cell or vesicle surface 1633 (“Membrane”), and another segment 1634 that attracts an immune response

(“Complement”). The construct 1631 can be such as in FIGs.16A-B or any other desired configuration. Binding of such a construct to a target can cause a complement cascade and induce apoptosis.

[00473] In some embodiments of the invention, the target biomarker is selected from the group consisting of CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22 (also known as LL2), CDIM, and Lym-1. The target biomarker can be a membrane associated protein. In embodiments, the membrane associated protein is selected from the group consisting of CD4, CD19, DC-SIGN/CD209, HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, CCR5,

EGFR/ErbB1, EGFR2/ErbB2/HER2, EGFR3/ErbB3, EGFR4/ErbB4, EGFRvIII, Transferrin Receptor, PSMA, VEGF, VEGF-2, CD25, CD11a, CD33, CD20, CD3, CD52, CEA, TAG-72, LDL receptor, insulin receptor, megalin receptor, LRP, mannose receptor, P63/CKAP4 receptor, arrestin, ASGP, CCK-B, HGFR, RON receptor, FGFR, ILR, AFP, CA125/MUC16, PDGFR, stem cell factor receptor, colony stimulating factor-1 receptor, integrins, TLR, BCR and BAFF-R. The target biomarker can also be a cellular receptor selected from the group consisting of: nucleolin, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), CD20, a transferrin receptor, an asialoglycoprotein receptor, a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor, CD3, the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, a growth hormone receptor, an insulin receptor, an acetylcholine receptor, an adrenergic receptor, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, a protein channel, cadherin, a desmosome, and a viral receptor. In various embodiments, the target biomarker is a cell surface molecule selected from the group consisting of IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, IgE, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD24, CD40, CD72, CD79a, CD79b, CD1d, CD5, CD9, CD10, CD1d, CD23, CD27, CD38, CD48, CD80, CD86, CD138, CD148, and combinations thereof. The target biomarker can be a lymphocyte-directing target such as one or moreT- cell receptor motifs, T-cell α chains, T-cell β chains, T-cell γ chains, T-cell Δ chains, CCR7, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD11b, CD11c, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD28, CD34, CD35, CD40, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD52, CD56, CD62L, CD68, CD80, CD95, CD117, CD127, CD133, CD137 (4-1 BB), CD163, F4/80, IL-4Ra, Sca-1, CTLA-4, GITR, GARP, LAP, granzyme B, LFA-1, or transferrin receptor.

[00474] In some embodiments, the target biomarker comprises a growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TGF, TGFβ, PDGF, IGF, FGF, cytokine, lymphokine, hematopoietic factor, M- CSR, GM-CSF, TNF, interleukin, IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17, IL18, IFN, TNF0, TNF1, TNF2, G-CSF, Meg-CSF, GM-CSF, thrombopoietin, stem cell factor, erythropoietin, hepatocyte growth factor/NK1, angiogenic factor, angiopoietin, Ang-1, Ang-2, Ang-4, Ang-Y, human angiopoietin-like polypeptide, angiogenin, morphogenic protein-1, bone morphogenic protein receptor, bone morphogenic protein receptor IA, bone morphogenic protein receptor IB, neurotrophic factor, chemotactic factor, CD proteins, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD20, erythropoietin, osteoinductive factors, immunotoxin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), interferon, interferon-alpha, interferon-beta, interferon-gamma, colony stimulating factor (CSF), M-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF, superoxide dismutase, T-cell receptor; surface membrane protein, decay accelerating factor, viral antigen, portion of the AIDS envelope, transport protein, homing receptor, addressin, regulatory protein, integrin, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, ICAM, VLA-4, VCAM, tumor associated antigen, HER2, HER3, HER4, nucleophosmin, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), fibrillarin; or fragments or variants thereof.

[00475] In still other embodiments, the target biomarker is selected from the group consisting of epidermal growth factor receptor, transferrin receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, Erb-B2, CD 19, CD20, CD45, CD52, Ep-CAM, alpha ([alpha])-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen peptide-1, caspase-8, CDC27, CDK4, carcino-embryonic antigen, calcium-activated chloride channel-2, cyclophilin B, differentiation antigen melanoma, elongation factor 2, Ephrin type-A receptor 2, 3, Fibroblast growth factor-5, fibronectin, glycoprotein 250, G antigen, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V, glycoprotein 100 kD, helicase antigen, human epidermal receptor-2/neurological, heat shock protein 70-2 mutated, human signet ring tumor-2, human telomerase reverse transcriptase, intestinal carboxyl esterase, interleukin 13 receptor [alpha]2 chain, [beta]-D-galactosidase 2-[alpha]-L-fucosyltransferase, melanoma antigen, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1/Melanoma antigen A, melanocortin 1 receptor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, mucin 1, 2, melanoma ubiquitous mutated 1, 2, 3, New York-esophageous 1, ocular albinism type 1 protein, O-linked N-acetyl glucosamine transferase gene, protein 15, promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor [alpha], prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen, receptor-type protein-tyrosinephosphatase kappa, renal antigen, renal ubiquitous 1, 2, sarcoma antigen, squamous antigen rejecting tumor 1, 2, 3, synovial sarcoma, Survivin-2B, synaptotagmin I/synovial sarcoma, X fusion protein, translocation Ets-family leukemia/acute myeloid leukemia 1, transforming growth factor [beta] receptor 2, triosephosphate isomerase, taxol resistant associated protein 3, testin- related gene, tyrosinase related protein 1, and tyrosinase related protein 2.

[00476] The target biomarker can be a cancer-associated or tumor associated antigen. The cancer- associated antigen may include without limitation one or more of human Her2/neu, Her1/EGF receptor (EGFR), HER2 (ERBB2), Her3, Her4, A33 antigen, B7H3, CD5, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23 (IgE Receptor), C242 antigen, 5T4, IL-6, IL-13, vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF (e.g., VEGF-A), VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, CD30, CD33, CD37, CD40, CD44, CD51, CD52, CD56, CD74, CD80, CD152, CD200, CD221, CCR4, HLA-DR, CTLA-4, N PC-1C, tenascin, vimentin, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), alpha-fetoprotein, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA- IX), carcinoem bryonic antigen (CEA), integrin ανβ3, integrin α5βι, folate receptor 1, transmembrane glycoprotein NMB, fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP), glypican 1, glypican 3, glycoprotein 75, TAG-72, MUC1, MUC16 (also known as CA-125), phosphatidylserine, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PMSA), NR-LU-13 antigen, TRAIL-R1, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10B or TRAIL-R2), SLAM family member 7 (SLAM F7), EGP40 pancarcinoma antigen, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), platelet- derived growth factor receptor, glycoprotein EpCAM (17-1A), Programmed Death-1 (PD1), Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, Lewis-Y antigen, GD2 (a disialoganglioside expressed on tumors of neuroectodermal origin), or mesothelin. For example, the target can be one or more of human Her2/neu, Herl/EGFR, TNF-a, B7H3 antigen, CD20, VEGF, CD52, CD33, CTLA-4, tenascin, alpha-4 (α4) integrin, IL-23, amyloid-β, Huntingtin, CD25, nerve growth factor (NGF), TrkA, and α-synuclein. In some embodiments, the target biomarker is a tumor antigen selected from the group consisting of PSMA, BRCA1, BRCA2, alpha-actinin-4, BCR-ABL fusion protein (b3a2), CASP-8, β-catenin, Cdc27, CDK4, dek-can fusion protein, Elongation factor 2, ETV6-AML1 fusion protein, LDLR-fucosyltransferase AS fusion protein, hsp70-2, KIAAO205, MART2, MUM-1f, MUM-2, MUM-3, neo-PAP, Myosin class I, OS-9g, pml-RAR alpha fusion protein, PTPRK, K-ras, N-ras, CEA, gp100/Pmel17, Kallikrein 4, mammaglobin-A, Melan-A/MART-1, PSA, TRP-1/gp75, TRP-2, tyrosinase, CPSF, EphA3, G250/MN/CAIX, HER-2/neu, Intestinal carboxyl esterase, alpha-fetoprotein, M-CSF, MUC1, p53, PRAME, RAGE-1, RU2AS, survivin, Telomerase, WT1, or CA125. In still other embodiments, the target biomarker is a tumor antigen selected from the group consisting of 4-1BB, 5T4, AGS-5, AGS-16, Angiopoietin 2, B7.1, B7.2, B7DC, B7H1, B7H2, B7H3, BT-062, BTLA, CAIX, Carcinoembryonic antigen, CTLA4, Cripto, ED-B, ErbBl, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, EGFL7, EpCAM, EphA2, EphA3, EphB2, EphB3, FAP, Fibronectin, Folate Receptor, Ganglioside GM3, GD2, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), gp100, gpA33, GPNMB, ICOS, IGFIR, Integrin av, Integrin ανβ, KIR, LAG-3, Lewis Y, Mesothelin, c-MET, MN Carbonic anhydrase IX, MUC1, MUC16, Nectin-4, NKGD2, NOTCH, OX40, OX40L, PD-1, PDL1, PSCA, PSMA, RANKL, RORl, ROR2, SLC44A4, Syndecan-1, TACI, TAG-72, Tenascin, TIM3, TRAILRl, TRAILR2,VEGFR- 1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and variants thereof. In still other embodiments, the target biomarker is a tumor- associated antigen selected from the group consisting of Lewis Y, Muc-1, erbB-2,-3 and-4, Ep-CAM, EGF-receptor (e.g., EGFR type I or EGFR type II), EGFR deletion neoepitope, CA19-9, Muc-1, LeY, TF- , Tn-and sTn-antigen, TAG-72, PSMA, STEAP, Cora antigen, CD7, CD19 and CD20, CD22, CD25, Ig-α and Ig-β, A33 and G250, CD30, MCSP and gp100, CD44-v6, MT-MMPs, (MIS) receptor type II, carboanhydrase 9, F19-antigen, Ly6, desmoglein 4, PSCA, Wue-1, GD2 and GD3 as well as TM4SF- antigens (CD63, L6, CO-29, SAS) and the alpha and/or gamma subunit of the fetal type

acetylcholinreceptor (AChR). The target biomarker can be a cancer antigen selected from A33, BAGE, Bcl-2, β-catenin, CA125, CA19-9, CD5, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD33, CD37, CD45, CD123, CEA, c-Met, CS-1, cyclin B1, DAGE, EBNA, EGFR, ephrinB2, estrogen receptor, FAP, ferritin, folate-binding protein, GAGE, G250, GD-2, GM2, gp75, gp100 (Pmel 17), HER-2/neu, HPV E6, HPV E7, Ki-67, LRP, mesothelin, p53, PRAME, progesterone receptor, PSA, PSMA, MAGE, MART, mesothelin, MUC, MUM-1 -B, myc, NYESO-1, ras, RORI, survivin, tenascin, TSTA tyrosinase, VEGF, and WT1. The target biomarker can also be a tumor antigen selected from carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha- fetoprotein (AFP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), CA- 125 (epithelial ovarian cancer), soluble Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, RAGE-1, tyrosinase, MAGE-1, MAGE- 2, NY-ESO-1, Melan- A/MART- 1, glycoprotein (gp) 75, gp100, beta-catenin, PRAME, MUM-1, ZFP161, Ubiquilin-1, HOX-B6, YB-1, Osteonectin, ILF3, or IGF-1. In some embodiments, the cancer- related antigen is one or more of CD2, CD4, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD30, CD33, CD37, CD40, CD44v6, CD52, CD56, CD70, CD74, CD79a, CD80, CD98, CD138, EGFR (Epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor), VEGFRI (Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor I), PDGFR (Platelet-derived growth factor receptor), RANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), GPNMB (Transmembrane glycoprotein Neuromedin B), EphA 2 (Ephrin type-A receptor 2), PSMA (Prostate-specific membrane antigen), Cripto (Cryptic family protein 1B), EpCAM (Epithelial cell adhesion molecule), CTLA 4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4), IGF- IR (Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor), GP3 (M13 bacteriophage), GP9 (Glycoprotein IX (platelet), CD42a, GP 40 (Glycoprotein 40kDa), GPC3 (glypican-3), GPC1 (glypican-1), TRAILR1 (Tumor necrosis factor- related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1), TRAILRII (Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis- inducing ligand receptor II), FAS (Type II transmembrane protein), PS (phosphatidyl serine) lipid, Gal GalNac Gal N-linked, Muc1 (Mucin 1, cell surface associated, PEM), Muc18, CD146, A5B1 integrin (α5β1), α4β1 integrin, αv integrin (Vitronectin Receptor), Chondrolectin, CAIX (Carbonic anhydrase IX, gene G250/MN-encoded transmembrane protein), GD2 gangloside, GD3 gangloside, GM1 gangloside, Lewis Y, Mesothelin, HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth factor 2), HER3, HER4, FN14 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Inducible 14), CS1 (Cell surface glycoprotein, CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7, CD319), 41BB CD137, SIP (Siah-1 Interacting Protein), CTGF (Connective tissue growth factor), HLADR (MHC class II cell surface receptor), PD-1 (Programmed Death 1, Type I membrane protein, PD-L1

(Programmed Death Ligand 1), PD-L2 (Programmed Death Ligand 2), IL-2 (Interleukin-2), IL-8

(Interleukin-8), IL-13 (Interleukin-13), PIGF (Phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class F protein), NRP1 (Neuropilin-1), ICAM1, CD54, GC182 (Claudin 18.2), Claudin, HGF (Hepatocyte growth factor), CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen), LTβR (lymphotoxin β receptor), Kappa Myeloma, Folate Receptor alpha, GRP78 (BIP, 78 kDa Glucose-regulated protein), A33 antigen, PSA (Prostate-specific antigen), CA 125 (Cancer antigen 125 or carbohydrate antigen 125), CA19.9, CA15.3, CA242, leptin, prolactin, osteopontin, IGF- II (Insulin-like growth factor 2), fascin, sPIgR (secreted chain of polymorphic immunoglobulin receptor), 14-3-3 protein eta, 5T4 oncofetal protein, ETA (epithelial tumor antigen), MAGE (Melanoma-associated antigen), MAPG (Melanoma-associated proteoglycan, NG2), vimentin, EPCA-1 (Early prostate cancer antigen-2), TAG-72 (Tumor-associated glycoprotein 72), factor VIII, Neprilysin (Membrane metallo-endopeptidase) and 17-1 A (Epithelial cell surface antigen 17-1A). The cancer antigen can be selected from the group consisting of carbonic anhydrase IX, alpha-fetoprotein, A3, antigen specific for A33 antibody, Ba 733, BrE3-antigen, CA125, CD1, CD1a, CD3, CD5, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD33, CD38, CD45, CD74, CD79a, CD80, CD138, colon-specific antigen-p (CSAp), CEA (CEACAM5), CEACAM6, CSAp, EGFR, EGP-1, EGP-2, Ep- CAM, Flt-1, Flt-3, folate receptor, HLA-DR, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and its subunits, HER2/neu, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1), Ia, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), KC4- antigen, KS-1-antigen, KS1-4, Le-Y, macrophage inhibition factor (MIF), MAGE, MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC16, NCA66, NCA95, NCA90, antigen specific for PAM-4 antibody, placental growth factor, p53, prostatic acid phosphatase, PSA, PSMA, RS5, S100, TAC, TAG-72, tenascin, TRAIL receptors, Tn antigen, Thomson-Friedenreich antigens, tumor necrosis antigens, VEGF, ED-B fibronectin, 17-1A-antigen, an angiogenesis marker, an oncogene marker and an oncogene product.

[00477] The tumor marker can be a generic tumor marker or be associated with certain tumor types, such as those originating from different anatomical origins. In an embodiment, the tumor marker can be chosen to correspond to a certain tumor type. For example, exexmplary tumor markers and associated tumor types include without limitation the following, listed as antigen (optional name) (cancer types): Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (germ cell tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma); CA15-3 (breast cancer); CA27-29 (breast cancer); CA19-9 (mainly pancreatic cancer, but also colorectal cancer and other types of gastrointestinal cancer); CA-125 (ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer); Calcitonin (medullary thyroid carcinoma); Calretinin (mesothelioma, sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour, adrenocortical carcinoma, synovial sarcoma); Carcinoembryonic antigen (gastrointestinal cancer, cervix cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, urinary tract cancer); CD34 (hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor, pleomorphic lipoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans); CD99 (MIC2) (Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor, synovial sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour); CD117 (gastrointestinal stromal tumor, mastocytosis, seminoma); Chromogranin (neuroendocrine tumor); Chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and 9p21 (bladder cancer); Cytokeratin (various types) (various carcinoma, some types of sarcoma); Desmin (smooth muscle sarcoma, skeletal muscle sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma); Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (many types of carcinoma, meningioma, some types of sarcoma); Factor VIII (CD31, FL1) (vascular sarcoma); Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (glioma (astrocytoma, ependymoma)); Gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) (breast cancer, ovarian cancer, salivary gland cancer); HMB-45 (melanoma, PEComa (for example angiomyolipoma), clear cell carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma); Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (gestational trophoblastic disease, germ cell tumor, choriocarcinoma); Immunoglobulin (lymphoma, leukemia); Inhibin (sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour, adrenocortical carcinoma, hemangioblastoma); keratin (various types) (carcinoma, some types of sarcoma); lymphocyte marker (various types, lymphoma, leukemia); MART-1 (Melan-A) (melanoma, steroid-producing tumors (adrenocortical carcinoma, gonadal tumor)); Myo D1 (rhabdomyosarcoma, small, round, blue cell tumour); muscle- specific actin (MSA) (myosarcoma (leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma); neurofilament

(neuroendocrine tumor, small-cell carcinoma of the lung); neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (neuroendocrine tumor, small-cell carcinoma of the lung, breast cancer); placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)

(seminoma, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma); prostate-specific antigen (prostate); PTPRC (CD45) (lymphoma, leukemia, histiocytic tumor); S100 protein (melanoma, sarcoma (neurosarcoma, lipoma, chondrosarcoma), astrocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, salivary gland cancer, some types of adenocarcinoma, histiocytic tumor (dendritic cell, macrophage)); smooth muscle actin (SMA)

(gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma, PEComa); synaptophysin (neuroendocrine tumor); thyroglobulin (thyroid cancer but not typically medullary thyroid cancer); thyroid transcription factor-1 (all types of thyroid cancer, lung cancer); Tumor M2-PK (colorectal cancer, Breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, Lung cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Ovarian Cancer); Vimentin (sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, lung carcinoma, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma). Additional tumor types and associated biomarkers comprise the following, listed as tumor type (markers): Colorectal (M2-PK, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125); Breast (CEA, CA 15-3, Cyfra 21-1); Ovary (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, AFP, BHCG); Uterine (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, Cyfra 21-1, SCC); Prostate (PSA); Testicle (AFP, BHCG); Pancreas/Stomach (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4); Liver (CEA, AFP); Oesophagus (CEA, Cyfra 21-1); Thyroid (CEA, NSE); Lung (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, NSE, Cyfra 21-1); Bladder (CEA, Cyfra 21-1, TPA). One or more of these markers can be used as the target biomarker recognized by the variable region of the multipartite construct of the invention.

[00478] In some embodiments of the invention, the target biomarker recognized by the variable region comprises one or more of PDGF, IgE, IgE Fcε R1, PSMA, CD22, TNF-alpha, CTLA4, PD-1, PD-L1, PD- L2, FcRIIB, BTLA, TIM-3, CD11c, BAFF, B7-X, CD19, CD20, CD25, and CD33. The target biomarker can also be a protein comprising one or more of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), IGF2R, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), mesenchymal epithelial transition factor receptor (c-met), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2, ErbB3, epidermal growth factor (EGF), heregulin, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), folate receptor (FOLR), folate, transferrin receptor (TfR), mesothelia, Fc receptor, c-kit receptor, c-kit, a4 integrin, P-selectin, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR), hyaluronate receptor, leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1), CD4, CD11, CD18, CD20, CD25, CD27, CD52, CD70, CD80, CD85, CD95 (Fas receptor), CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1)), CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)), CD 178 (Fas ligand), CD253 (TNF-related apoptosis- inducing ligand (TRAIL)), inducible costimulator (ICOS) ligand, CCR2, CXCR3, CCR5, CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)), interleukin 1 (IL-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), MART-1, gp100, MAGE-1, ephrin (Eph) receptor, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1

(MAdCAM-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), LewisY, MUC-1, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), TAG-72 antigen, and fragments thereof. In various embodiments, the target biomarker comprises one or more of PSMA, PSCA, e selectin, an ephrin, ephB2, cripto-1, TENB2 (TEMFF2), ERBB2 receptor (HER2), MUC1, CD44v6, CD6, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD33, CD56, IL-2 receptor, HLA-DR10 B subunit, EGFR, CA9, caveolin-1 and nucleolin.

[00479] The target biomarker can be a microvesicle antigen, such as a microvesicle antigen herein or Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157. For example, the target biomarker can be one or more microvesicle antigen selected from CD9, EphA2, EGFR, B7H3, PSMA, PCSA, CD63, STEAP, CD81, B7H3, STEAP1, ICAM1 (CD54), A33, DR3, CD66e, MFG-e8, Hepsin, TMEM211, TROP-2, EGFR, Mammoglobin, Hepsin, NPGP/NPFF2, PSCA, 5T4, NGAL, NK-2, EpCam, NK-1R, 5T4, PAI-1, and CD45. The target biomarker can be one or more microvesicle antigen selected from SPB, SPC, NSE, PGP9.5, CD9, P2RX7, NDUFB7, NSE, Gal3, Osteopontin, CHI3L1, EGFR, B7H3, iC3b, MUC1, Mesothelin, SPA, TPA, PCSA, CD63, AQP5, DLL4, CD81, DR3, PSMA, GPCR 110 (GPRl 10), EPHA2, CEACAM, PTP, CABYR, TMEM211, ADAM28, UNC93a, A33, CD24, CD10, NGAL, EpCam, MUC17, TROP2 and MUC2. In some embodiments, the target biomarker comprises one or more microvesicle antigen selected from CD9, CD63, CD81, B7H3, PRO GRP, CYTO 18, FTH1, TGM2, CENPH, ANNEXIN I, ANNEXIN V, ERBB2, EGFR, CRP, VEGF, CYTO 19, CCL2, Osteopontin (OST19), Osteopontin (OST22), BTUB, CD45, TIMP, NACC1, MMP9, BRCAl, P27, NSE, M2PK, HCG, MUCl, CEA, CEACAM, CYTO 7, EPCAM, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC2, PGP9, SPA, SPA, SPD, P53, GPCR (GPR110), SFTPC, UNCR2, NSE, INGA3, INTO b4, MMP1, PNT, RACK1, NAP2, HLA, BMP2, PTH1R, PAN ADH, NCAM, CD151, CKS1, FSHR, HIF, KRAS, LAMP2, SNAIL, TRIM29, TSPAN1, TWIST1, ASPH and AURKB. In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, PSMA, PCSA, CD63, CD81, B7H3, IL 6, OPG-13, IL6R, PA2G4, EZH2, RUNX2, SERPINB3, and EpCam. In another embodiment, a target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of A33, a33 n15, AFP, ALA, ALIX, ALP, AnnexinV, APC, ASCA, ASPH (246-260), ASPH (666-680), ASPH (A-10), ASPH (D01P), ASPH (D03), ASPH (G-20), ASPH (H-300), AURKA, AURKB, B7H3, B7H4, BCA-225, BCNP1, BDNF, BRCA, CA125 (MUC16), CA-19- 9, C-Bir, CD1.1, CD10, CD174 (Lewis y), CD24, CD44, CD46, CD59 (MEM-43), CD63, CD66e CEA, CD73, CD81, CD9, CDA, CDAC11a2, CEA, C-Erb2, C-erbB2, CRMP-2, CRP, CXCL12, CYFRA21-1, DLL4, DR3, EGFR, Epcam, EphA2, EphA2 (H-77), ER, ErbB4, EZH2, FASL, FRT, FRT c.f23, GDF15, GPCR, GPR30, Gro-alpha, HAP, HBD 1, HBD2, HER 3 (ErbB3), HSP, HSP70, hVEGFR2, iC3b, IL 6 Unc, IL-1B, IL6 Unc, IL6R, IL8, IL-8, INSIG-2, KLK2, L1CAM, LAMN, LDH, MACC-1, MAPK4, MART-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MFG-E8, MIC1, MIF, MIS RII, MMG, MMP26, MMP7, MMP9, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC1 seq1, MUC1 seq11A, MUC17, MUC2, Ncam, NGAL, NPGP/NPFF2, OPG, OPN, p53, p53, PA2G4, PBP, PCSA, PDGFRB, PGP9.5, PIM1, PR (B), PRL, PSA, PSMA, PSME3, PTEN, R5- CD9 Tube 1, Reg IV, RUNX2, SCRN1, seprase, SERPINB3, SPARC, SPB, SPDEF, SRVN, STAT 3, STEAP1, TF (FL-295), TFF3, TGM2, TIMP-1, TIMP1, TIMP2, TMEM211, TMPRSS2, TNF-alpha, Trail-R2, Trail-R4, TrKB, TROP2, Tsg 101, TWEAK, UNC93A, VEGF A, and YPSMA-1. The target biomarker can be selected from the group of proteins consisting of 5T4, A33, ACTG1, ADAM10, ADAM15, AFP, ALA, ALDOA, ALIX, ALP, ALX4, ANCA, Annexin V, ANXA2, ANXA6, APC, APOA1, ASCA, ASPH, ATP1A1, AURKA, AURKB, B7H3, B7H4, BANK1, BASP1, BCA-225, BCNP1, BDNF, BRCA, C1orf58, C20orf114, C8B, CA125 (MUC16), CA-19-9, CAPZA1, CAV1, C-Bir, CCSA-2, CCSA-3&4, CD1.1, CD10, CD151, CD174 (Lewis y), CD24, CD2AP, CD37, CD44, CD46, CD53, CD59, CD63, CD66 CEA, CD73, CD81, CD82, CD9, CDA, CDAC11a2, CEA, C-Erbb2, CFL1, CFP, CHMP4B, CLTC, COTL1, CRMP-2, CRP, CRTN, CTNND1, CTSB, CTSZ, CXCL12, CYCS, CYFRA21-1, DcR3, DLL4, DPP4, DR3, EEF1A1, EGFR, EHD1, ENO1, EpCAM, EphA2, ER, ErbB4, EZH2, F11R, F2, F5, FAM125A, FASL, Ferritin, FNBP1L, FOLH1, FRT, GAL3, GAPDH, GDF15, GLB1, GPCR (GPR110), GPR30, GPX3, GRO-1, Gro-alpha, HAP, HBD 1, HBD2, HER 3 (ErbB3), HIST1H1C, HIST1H2AB, HNP1-3, HSP, HSP70, HSP90AB1, HSPA1B, HSPA8, hVEGFR2, iC3b, ICAM, IGSF8, IL 6, IL-1B, IL6R, IL8, IMP3, INSIG-2, ITGB1, ITIH3, JUP, KLK2, L1CAM, LAMN, LDH, LDHA, LDHB, LUM, LYZ, MACC-1, MAPK4, MART-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MFGE8, MGAM, MGC20553, MIC1, MIF, MIS RII, MMG, MMP26, MMP7, MMP9, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC17, MUC2, MYH2, MYL6B, Ncam, NGAL, NME1, NME2, NNMT, NPGP/NPFF2, OPG, OPG-13, OPN, p53, PA2G4, PABPC1, PABPC4, PACSIN2, PBP, PCBP2, PCSA, PDCD6IP, PDGFRB, PGP9.5, PIM1, PR (B), PRDX2, PRL, PSA, PSCA, PSMA, PSMA1, PSMA2, PSMA4, PSMA6, PSMA7, PSMB1, PSMB2, PSMB3, PSMB4, PSMB5, PSMB6, PSMB8, PSME3, PTEN, PTGFRN, Rab-5b, Reg IV, RPS27A, RUNX2, SCRN1, SDCBP, seprase, Sept-9, SERINC5, SERPINB3, SERPINB3, SH3GL1, SLC3A2, SMPDL3B, SNX9, SPARC, SPB, SPDEF, SPON2, SPR, SRVN, SSX2, SSX4, STAT 3, STEAP, STEAP1, TACSTD1, TCN2, tetraspanin, TF (FL-295), TFF3, TGM2, THBS1, TIMP, TIMP1, TIMP2, TMEM211, TMPRSS2, TNF-alpha, TPA, TPI1, TPS, Trail-R2, Trail-R4, TrKB, TROP2, TROP2, Tsg 101, TUBB, TWEAK, UNC93A, VDAC2, VEGF A, VPS37B, YPSMA-1, YWHAG, YWHAQ, and YWHAZ. In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of 5T4, ACTG1, ADAM10, ADAM15, ALDOA, ANXA2, ANXA6, APOA1, ATP1A1, BASP1, C1orf58, C20orf114, C8B, CAPZA1, CAV1, CD151, CD2AP, CD59, CD9, CD9, CFL1, CFP, CHMP4B, CLTC, COTL1, CTNND1, CTSB, CTSZ, CYCS, DPP4, EEF1A1, EHD1, ENO1, F11R, F2, F5, FAM125A, FNBP1L, FOLH1, GAPDH, GLB1, GPX3, HIST1H1C, HIST1H2AB, HSP90AB1,

HSPA1B, HSPA8, IGSF8, ITGB1, ITIH3, JUP, LDHA, LDHB, LUM, LYZ, MFGE8, MGAM, MMP9, MYH2, MYL6B, NME1, NME2, PABPC1, PABPC4, PACSIN2, PCBP2, PDCD6IP, PRDX2, PSA, PSMA, PSMA1, PSMA2, PSMA4, PSMA6, PSMA7, PSMB1, PSMB2, PSMB3, PSMB4, PSMB5, PSMB6, PSMB8, PTGFRN, RPS27A, SDCBP, SERINC5, SH3GL1, SLC3A2, SMPDL3B, SNX9, TACSTD1, TCN2, THBS1, TPI1, TSG101, TUBB, VDAC2, VPS37B, YWHAG, YWHAQ, and YWHAZ. In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3 and EpCam. In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of a tetraspanin, CD9, CD63, CD81, CD63, CD9, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, Rab-5b, Annexin V, MFG-E8, Muc1, GPCR 110, TMEM211 and CD24 In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of A33, AFP, ALIX, ALX4, ANCA, APC, ASCA, AURKA, AURKB, B7H3, BANK1, BCNP1, BDNF, CA-19-9, CCSA-2, CCSA-3&4, CD10, CD24, CD44, CD63, CD66 CEA, CD66e CEA, CD81, CD9, CDA, C-Erb2, CRMP- 2, CRP, CRTN, CXCL12, CYFRA21-1, DcR3, DLL4, DR3, EGFR, Epcam, EphA2, FASL, FRT, GAL3, GDF15, GPCR (GPR110), GPR30, GRO-1, HBD 1, HBD2, HNP1-3, IL-1B, IL8, IMP3, L1CAM, LAMN, MACC-1, MGC20553, MCP-1, M-CSF, MIC1, MIF, MMP7, MMP9, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC17, MUC2, Ncam, NGAL, NNMT, OPN, p53, PCSA, PDGFRB, PRL, PSMA, PSME3, Reg IV, SCRN1, Sept-9, SPARC, SPON2, SPR, SRVN, TFF3, TGM2, TIMP-1, TMEM211, TNF-alpha, TPA, TPS, Trail- R2, Trail-R4, TrKB, TROP2, Tsg 101, TWEAK, UNC93A, and VEGFA. In another embodiment, the target biomarker is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, EGFR, NGAL, CD81, STEAP, CD24, A33, CD66E, EPHA2, Ferritin, GPR30, GPR110, MMP9, OPN, p53, TMEM211, TROP2, TGM2, TIMP, EGFR, DR3, UNC93A, MUC17, EpCAM, MUC1, MUC2, TSG101, CD63, B7H3, CD24, and a tetraspanin. The target biomarker can be selected from the group of proteins consisting of 5HT2B, 5T4 (trophoblast), ACO2, ACSL3, ACTN4, ADAM10, AGR2, AGR3, ALCAM, ALDH6A1, ANGPTL4, ANO9, AP1G1, APC, APEX1, APLP2, APP (Amyloid precursor protein), ARCN1, ARHGAP35, ARL3, ASAH1, ASPH (A-10), ATP1B1, ATP1B3, ATP5I, ATP5O, ATXN1, B7H3, BACE1, BAI3, BAIAP2, BCA-200, BDNF, BigH3, BIRC2, BLVRB, BRCA, BST2, C1GALT1, C1GALT1C1, C20orf3, CA125, CACYBP, Calmodulin, CAPN1, CAPNS1, CCDC64B, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCT3, CD10(BD), CD127 (IL7R), CD174, CD24, CD44, CD80, CD86, CDH1, CDH5, CEA, CFL2, CHCHD3, CHMP3, CHRDL2, CIB1, CKAP4, COPA, COX5B, CRABP2, CRIP1, CRISPLD1, CRMP-2, CRTAP, CTLA4, CUL3, CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR6, CYB5B, CYB5R1, CYCS, CYFRA 21, DBI, DDX23, DDX39B, derlin 1, DHCR7, DHX9, DLD, DLL4, DNAJB1, DPP6, DSTN, eCadherin, EEF1D, EEF2, EFTUD2, EIF4A2, EIF4A3, EpCaM, EphA2, ER(1) (ESR1), ER(2) (ESR2), Erb B4, Erbb2, erbb3 (Erb-B3), ERLIN2, ESD, FARSA, FASN, FEN1, FKBP5, FLNB, FOXP3, FUS, Gal3, GCDPF-15, GCNT2, GNA12, GNG5, GNPTG, GPC1, GPC2, GPC3, GPC4, GPC5, GPC6, GPD2, GPER (GPR30), GSPT1, H3F3B, H3F3C, HADH, HAP1, HER3, HIST1H1C, HIST1H2AB, HIST1H3A, HIST1H3C, HIST1H3D, HIST1H3E, HIST1H3F, HIST1H3G, HIST1H3H, HIST1H3I, HIST1H3J, HIST2H2BF, HIST2H3A, HIST2H3C, HIST2H3D, HIST3H3, HMGB1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPAB, HNRNPC, HNRNPD, HNRNPH2, HNRNPK, HNRNPL, HNRNPM, HNRNPU, HPS3, HSP-27, HSP70, HSP90B1, HSPA1A, HSPA2, HSPA9, HSPE1, IC3b, IDE, IDH3B, IDO1, IFI30, IL1RL2, IL7, IL8, ILF2, ILF3, IQCG, ISOC2, IST1, ITGA7, ITGB7, junction plakoglobin, Keratin 15, KRAS, KRT19, KRT2, KRT7, KRT8, KRT9, KTN1, LAMP1, LMNA, LMNB1, LNPEP, LRPPRC, LRRC57, Mammaglobin, MAN1A1, MAN1A2, MART1, MATR3, MBD5, MCT2, MDH2, MFGE8, MFGE8, MGP, MMP9, MRP8, MUC1, MUC17, MUC2, MYO5B, MYOF, NAPA, NCAM, NCL, NG2 (CSPG4), Ngal, NHE-3, NME2, NONO, NPM1, NQO1, NT5E (CD73), ODC1, OPG, OPN (SC), OS9, p53, PACSIN3, PAICS, PARK7, PARVA, PC, PCNA, PCSA, PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2, PGP9.5, PHB, PHB2, PIK3C2B, PKP3, PPL, PR(B), PRDX2, PRKCB, PRKCD, PRKDC, PSA, PSAP, PSMA, PSMB7, PSMD2, PSME3, PYCARD, RAB1A, RAB3D, RAB7A, RAGE, RBL2, RNPEP, RPL14, RPL27, RPL36, RPS25, RPS4X, RPS4Y1, RPS4Y2, RUVBL2, SET, SHMT2, SLAIN1, SLC39A14, SLC9A3R2, SMARCA4, SNRPD2, SNRPD3, SNX33, SNX9, SPEN, SPR, SQSTM1, SSBP1, ST3GAL1, STXBP4, SUB1, SUCLG2, Survivin, SYT9, TFF3 (secreted), TGOLN2, THBS1, TIMP1, TIMP2, TMED10, TMED4, TMED9, TMEM211, TOM1, TRAF4

(scaffolding), TRAIL-R2, TRAP1, TrkB, Tsg 101, TXNDC16, U2AF2, UEVLD, UFC1, UNC93a, USP14, VASP, VCP, VDAC1, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VPS37C, WIZ, XRCC5, XRCC6, YB-1, YWHAZ, or any combination thereof. In other embodiments, the target biomarker is selected from the group consisting of p53, p63, p73, mdm-2, procathepsin-D, B23, C23, PLAP, CA125, MUC-1, HER2, NY-ESO-1, SCP1, SSX-1, SSX-2, SSX-4, HSP27, HSP60, HSP90, GRP78, TAG72, HoxA7, HoxB7, EpCAM, ras, mesothelin, survivin, EGFK, MUC-1, or c-myc. The microvesicle antigen can be from any herein, or Table 4 of International Patent Application PCT/US2016/040157.

[00480] One of skill will appreciate that the above biomarker listings are not intended to be mutually exclusive. For example, a single target biomarker can have one or more of the following attributes:

cancer/tumor antigen, cell antigen, microvesicle antigen, membrane antigen, and any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the target biomarker will have all of these attributes.

[00481] As noted above, the IDM domain can be constructed to illicit a complement mediated immune response that can induce apoptosis. Such IDM can include but are not limited to C1q, C1r, C1s, C1, C3a, C3b, C3d, C5a, C2, C4, and cytokines. The IDM region may comprise an oligonucleotide sequence including without limitation Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) agonists like CpG sequences which are immunostimulatory and/or polyG sequences which can be anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic. The moiety can be vaccine like moiety or antigen that stimulates an immune response. In an embodiment, the immune stimulating moiety comprises a superantigen. In some embodiments, the superantigen can be selected from the group consisting of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), a Streptococcus pyogenes exotoxin (SPE), a Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock-syndrome toxin (TSST-1), a streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin (SME), a streptococcal superantigen (SSA), a hepatitis surface antigen, or a combination thereof. Other bacterial antigens that can be used with the invention comprise bacterial antigens such as Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, monophosphoryl-lipid A/trehalose dicorynomycolate (Ribi’s adjuvant), BCG (Calmette-Guerin Bacillus; Mycobacterium bovis), and Corynebacterium parvum. The immune stimulating moiety can also be a non-specific immunostimulant, such as an adjuvant or other non-specific immunostimulator. Useful adjuvants comprise without limitation aluminium salts, alum, aluminium phosphate, aluminium hydroxide, squalene, oils, MF59, and AS03 (“Adjuvant System 03”). The adjuvant can be selected from the group consisting of Cationic liposome-DNA complex JVRS-100, aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvant, aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvant, aluminum potassium sulfate adjuvant, Alhydrogel, ISCOM(s)™, Freund’s Complete Adjuvant, Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant, CpG DNA Vaccine Adjuvant, Cholera toxin, Cholera toxin B subunit, Liposomes, Saponin Vaccine Adjuvant, DDA Adjuvant, Squalene-based Adjuvants, Etx B subunit Adjuvant, IL-12 Vaccine Adjuvant, LTK63 Vaccine Mutant Adjuvant, TiterMax Gold Adjuvant, Ribi Vaccine Adjuvant, Montanide ISA 720 Adjuvant, Corynebacterium-derived P40 Vaccine Adjuvant, MPL™ Adjuvant, AS04, AS02,

Lipopolysaccharide Vaccine Adjuvant, Muramyl Dipeptide Adjuvant, CRL1005, Killed Corynebacterium parvum Vaccine Adjuvant, Montanide ISA 51, Bordetella pertussis component Vaccine Adjuvant, Cationic Liposomal Vaccine Adjuvant, Adamantylamide Dipeptide Vaccine Adjuvant, Arlacel A, VSA-3 Adjuvant, Aluminum vaccine adjuvant, Polygen Vaccine Adjuvant, Adjumer™, Algal Glucan, Bay R1005, Theramide®, Stearyl Tyrosine, Specol, Algammulin, Avridine®, Calcium Phosphate Gel, CTA1- DD gene fusion protein, DOC/Alum Complex, Gamma Inulin, Gerbu Adjuvant, GM-CSF, GMDP, Recombinant hIFN-gamma/Interferon-g, Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-2, Interleukin-7, Sclavo peptide, Rehydragel LV, Rehydragel HPA, Loxoribine, MF59, MTP-PE Liposomes, Murametide, Murapalmitine, D-Murapalmitine, NAGO, Non-Ionic Surfactant Vesicles, PMMA, Protein Cochleates, QS-21, SPT (Antigen Formulation), nanoemulsion vaccine adjuvant, AS03, Quil-A vaccine adjuvant, RC529 vaccine adjuvant, LTR192G Vaccine Adjuvant, E. coli heat-labile toxin, LT, amorphous aluminum

hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant, Calcium phosphate vaccine adjuvant, Montanide Incomplete Seppic Adjuvant, Imiquimod, Resiquimod, AF03, Flagellin, Poly(I:C), ISCOMATRIX®, Abisco-100 vaccine adjuvant, Albumin-heparin microparticles vaccine adjuvant, AS-2 vaccine adjuvant, B7-2 vaccine adjuvant, DHEA vaccine adjuvant, Immunoliposomes Containing Antibodies to Costimulatory Molecules, SAF-1, Sendai Proteoliposomes, Sendai-containing Lipid Matrices, Threonyl muramyl dipeptide

(TMDP), Ty Particles vaccine adjuvant, Bupivacaine vaccine adjuvant, DL-PGL (Polyester poly (DL- lactide-co-glycolide)) vaccine adjuvant, IL-15 vaccine adjuvant, LTK72 vaccine adjuvant, MPL-SE vaccine adjuvant, non-toxic mutant E112K of Cholera Toxin mCT-E112K, and Matrix-S. Additional adjuvants that can be used with the multipartite constructs of the invention can be identified using the Vaxjo database. See Sayers S, Ulysse G, Xiang Z, and He Y. Vaxjo: a web-based vaccine adjuvant database and its application for analysis of vaccine adjuvants and their uses in vaccine development. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology.2012;2012:831486. Epub 2012 Mar 13. PMID: 22505817; www.violinet.org/vaxjo/. Other useful non-specific immunostimulators comprise histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1, female sex hormones, prolactin, growth hormone vitamin D, deoxycholic acid (DCA), tetrachlorodecaoxide (TCDO), and imiquimod or resiquimod, which are drugs that activate immune cells through the toll-like receptor 7. A multipartite construct can be created that comprises more than one immunomodulating moiety, e.g., using segments that span CpG sequences which are immunostimulatory with complement directed segments that can stimulate apoptosis. [00482] Personalized multipartite constructs

[00483] The oligonucleotide probe libraries of the invention can be used to construct personalized multipartite constructs. As an example, an oligonucleotide probe library can be used to probe a sample from a patient. The biomarker targets are identified for library members that preferentially recognize diseased cells, e.g., cancer cells, from the individual. Such methodology is described herein. See, e.g., Example 15. The variable region of one or more oligonucleotide probe to the patient’s diseased cells is used to synthesize a multipartite construct of the invention. Such construct can be used as a personalized treatment for the patient. FIG.16E illustrates a flow chart of this approach. An oligonucleotide probe library 1651 is contacted with patient sample 1652. The sample can be any useful patient sample, including without limitation tissue such as biopsy or tissue removed during surgical or other procedures, bodily fluids, frozen sections taken for histological purposes, cell cultures, and various embodiments, fractions, and components of any thereof as described herein. See, e.g., section entitled“Samples” above. Oligonucleotide probes that bind the patient sample are identified 1653. Methodology for identifying oligonucleotide probe members that bind a biological sample is described herein, and includes without limitation sequence analysis such as next generation sequencing, amplification and/or hybridization approaches. In an embodiment, flow sorting is used to separate diseased cells from the contacted patient sample and sorted and bound oligonucleotides are identified 1653. In an optional step, the biomarkers recognized by the oligonucleotide probe binders are identified 1654. This step can be optional as the target biomarker of a disease-specific oligonucleotide probe may not be necessary to synthesize a multipartite construct specific for the patient’s disease. However, the identification of the target may assist in design of the multipartite construct. For example, identification of the target may allow computer modeling of the construct’s in vivo interactions or help to select the most promising probe from multiple candidates, e.g., by avoiding toxicity associated with non-disease specific targets. The oligonucleotide probe binders are used to create a multipartite construct of the invention 1655. The multipartite construct can be as shown in FIG.16A or variants thereof. In an embodiment, the variable region of an

oligonucleotide probe binder is used as the variable region as shown in FIG.16A. The multipartite construct can be administered to the patient 1656, thereby providing a personalized therapy for the patient. Further as noted in the figure, constructs comprising the variable region of an oligonucleotide probe binder can be used for other purposes, such as disease monitoring 1657. As an example of such methodology, the oligonucleotide probe binder can be used to detect the presence or absence of disease markers in the patient over time such as in an immunoassay format.

[00484] Anti-C1q oligonucleotides

[00485] The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism. It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual’s lifetime. However, it can be recruited and brought into action by the adaptive immune system.

Complement activation or fixation can stimulate phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, induce inflammation to attract additional phagocytes, and activate the cell-killing membrane attack complex. The“classical” complement pathway is triggered by activation of the C1-complex, which occurs when C1q binds to IgM or IgG complexed with antigens. The C1-complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr 2 s 2 . Such immunoglobulin-mediated binding of the complement uses the ability of the immunoglobulin system to detect and bind to non-self antigens. C1q can also directly identify various structures and ligands on microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells, and binds additional self proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), HIV-1, phosphatidylserine (PS), HTLV- 1, and others. Because the complement system has the potential to be extremely damaging to host tissues, its activation must be tightly regulated. The classical pathway is inhibited by C1-inhibitor, which binds to C1 to prevent its activation. C1q also performs a number of non-complement functions, including without limitation such diverse functions as clearance of bacterial pathogens, induction of angiogenesis during wound healing, tolerance induction, anti-inflammatory responses and inhibiting T cell response. As a result of these diverse functions, complement and C1q play a role in diverse diseases and disorders, including without limitation autoimmune settings, pregnancy disorders, pathogen infection, aggregated proteins leading to neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Deficiencies have been associated with autoimmune disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus), pathogen infection and cancer. However, the tumor microenvironment may also hijack C1q to promote cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. See, e.g., Kouser et al., Emerging and Novel Functions of Complement Protein C1q, Front Immunol.2015; 6: 317. Published online 2015 Jun 29; Son et al., Fundamental role of C1q in

autoimmunity and inflammation, Immunol Res.2015 Dec; 63(1-3): 101–106; Ghebrehiwet et al., The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions, Front Immunol.2012; 3: 52; Nayak et al., Complement and non-complement activating functions of C1q: a prototypical innate immune molecule. Innate Immun.2012 Apr;18(2):350-63.

[00486] C1q is a Ca2+ dependent hexameric complex comprised of 18 polypeptide chains, 6 of three different subunits (C1q A chain (P02745), C1q B chain (P02746), and C1q C chain (P02747)), that binds C1r and C1s to form the C1 complex, the first component in classical pathway of complement. C1q globular heads form a pattern recognition complex that binds to various targets, including without limitation clustered antigen-antibody Fc immune complexes (e.g., IgG, IgM), C-reactive protein (CRP), abnormal proteins (e.g., prion and beta-amyloid), apoptotic and secondary necrotic cells,

phosphatidylserine and the surface of a subpopulation of microparticles in human plasma. Recognition of IgG and IgM on a cell surface can induce a complement cascade and lead to apoptosis. See, e.g., Kishore et al., C1q and tumor necrosis factor superfamily: modularity and versatility, TRENDS in Immunology 25 (2004) 551-561; Nayak et al., Complement and non-complement activating functions of C1q: a prototypical innate immune molecule, Innate Immunity 18 (2012) 350-363. Aptamer-biotin-C1q protein conjugates have been used to induce complement mediated cell death. See, e.g., Bruno, Aptamer–biotin– streptavidin–C1q complexes can trigger the classical complement pathway to kill cancer cells, In Vitro Cell Dev Biol—Animal (2010) 46:107–113. [00487] C1q globular heads has been shown to bind DNA and recognize apoptotic cells. See, e.g., Païdassi et al., The lectin-like activity of human C1q and its implication in DNA and apoptotic cell recognition, FEBS Letters 582 (2008) 3111-3116; Navratil et al., The globular heads of C1q specifically recognize surface blebs of apoptotic vascular endothelial cells, J Immunol 166 (2001) 3231-3239. DNA binds C1qA and activates the complement cascade without interfering with the ability of C1q to bind antibody Fc regions. See, e.g., Jiang et al., DNA binds and activates complement via residues 14-26 of the human C1q A chain, J Biol Chem 267 (1992) 25597-25601; Garlatti, et al. Cutting edge: C1q binds deoxyribose and heparan sulfate through neighboring sites of its recognition domain, J Immunol 185 (2010) 808-812.

[00488] C1q protein quantification has been used for disease monitoring and monoclonal antibody (mAb) production. For example, C1q mAb is used to coat ELISA plates to capture and quantitate immune complexes in clinical samples. Various companies sell diagnostic kits for immune complex detection and quantitation which are based on the ability of C1q to bind well to immune complexes, but to not bind significantly to monomeric immunoglobulins. Because the DNA recognition domain of C1q does not overlap with the Fc-recognition domain, a DNA based ELISA may further allow a more accurate quantitation of immune complex detection.

[00489] Example 22 herein presents identification of an anti-C1q oligonucleotide aptamers and describes various uses thereof. The aptamers to C1q were identified via oligonucleotide probe analysis of plasma microvesicles followed by identification of oligonucleotide probe targets using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis.

[00490] Anti-C1q aptamers of the invention can be used for multiple purposes. As described above, the invention provides a multipartite construct having a disease specific target oligonucleotide or antibody (Ab) that can recognize a target of interest and an immunomodulatory region. In an embodiment of the invention, the immunomodulatory region comprises the C1q aptamer. Such construct can act as an immunotherapeutic agent for targeted cell killing via recruitment of complement proteins and the downstream membrane attack complex (MAC). By linking the C1q aptamer segment to another segment that specifically binds to a target of interest (e.g., a biomarker present on a cell or microvesicle of interest), the construct can bring C1q into proximity of a target. See FIG.16C, which illustrates a construct 1631 having a segment that recognizes a Marker of Interest 1632 on a Membrane 1633, and another segment that attracts the Complement system 1634. Such binding can cause a complement cascade and induce complement mediated cell killing. This approach can be applied in multiple setting, e.g., to recognize cancer cells, gram negative bacteria, and/or viral and/or parasitic infections. For example, an anti-CD20 specific oligonucleotide can be linked with an anti-C1q specific oligonucleotide. The linkage to create the oligonucleotide - oligonucleotide construct can include but is not limited to direct synthesis with a spacer between the two oligonucleotide recognition sites. Different biomarkers can be used as the target of interest, thereby directing the complement cascade to the various targets as desired. The spacer type and size can be configured based on steric hindrance between the target protein and the C1q protein/MAC complex. As noted above, the target specific oligonucleotides/Abs can be chosen to specically recognize various targets of interest, including but not limited to cancer cells, circulating tumor cells, immune cells (e.g., B-cells, T-cells, neutrophils, macrophage, dendritic cells) microvesicles, bacteria, viruses or parasites. In addition to C1q, the target of the complement specific oligonucleotide segment can include without limitation C1r, C1s, C1, C3a, C3b, C3d, C5a, C2, C4, and cytokines.

[00491] The multipartite construct of the invention can comprise a linear molecule, a circular molecule, and/or adopt various secondary structures. FIG.16D illustrates a construct 1640 having a C1q recruiting domain 1641 (nucleotides 37-77) and a C-met targeting domain 1642 (nucleotides 1-36). As desired, the C1q recruiting domain 1641 can comprise an anti-C1q oligonucleotide sequence of the invention. See e.g., Example 22. As shown in the illustration, the C1q recruiting domain 1641 comprises a single stranded hairpin and a complementary base pairing region, and the C-met targeting domain 1642 comprises a complementary base pairing region and a region having a more complex secondary structure. Such structures can be estimated using available software programs such as Vienna or mfold (available at mfold.rit.albany.edu). Such structural estimates can also be used to design derivatives of the sequences, e.g., by substituting, adding or deleting nucleotides in order to increase or decrease melting temperature, facilitate additions of non-natural nucleotide analogs, direct chemical modification, and/or manipulate structure or other parameters.

[00492] The invention further provides a method of molecular profiling of patient specific autoantigens by identifying autoantigens bound to complement 1 (C1) in plasma. The invention also provides

immunoassays that detect levels of C1q protein. Such assays can be any applicable immunoassay format using the anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention, including without limitation an oligonucleotide based ELISA, Western analysis, flow cytometry, or affinity isolation. The immunoassay can be applied to various settings, including without limitation: 1) monitor cancer patient specific immune responses before, during and after administration of immunosuppressing drugs for optimal treatment with chemotherapeutic agents; 2) monitor immune responses in patients with autoimmune disorders in response to administration of immunosuppressing drugs such as TNF blockers; 3) detect levels of C1q and/or anti-C1q

autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); 4) quantitatative C1q assay for mAb biosimilar production to satisfy the EMA biosimilar antibody guidance measures; 5) a WHO secondary test as a companion test to mAb based ELISAs; 6) as a marker for apoptosis/secondary necrosis; and 7) a C1q test for research purposes.

[00493] The anti-C1q oligonucleotides of the invention can undergo various modifications such as described herein or known in the art. For example, modifications can be made to alter desired

characteristics, including without limitation in vivo stability, specificity, affinity, avidity or nuclease susceptibility. Alterations to the half life may improve stability in vivo or may reduce stability to limit in vivo toxicity. Such alterations can include mutations, truncations or extensions. The 5’ and/or 3’ ends of the multipartite oligonucleotide constructs can be protected or deprotected to modulate stability as well. Modifications to improve in vivo stability, specificity, affinity, avidity or nuclease susceptibility or alter the half life to influence in vivo toxicity may be at the 5’ or 3’ end and include but are not limited to the following: locked nucleic acid (LNA) incorporation, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) incorporation, phosphorothioate backbone instead of phosphodiester backbone, amino modifiers (i.e. C6-dT), dye conjugates (Cy dues, Fluorophores, etc), Biotinylation, PEG linkers, Click chemistry linkers,

dideoxynucleotide end blockers, inverted end bases, cholesterol TEG or other lipid based labels. See, e.g., Campbell, MA and Wengel, J (2011). Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals. Chem Soc Rev 40: 5680–5689; and Wahlestedt, C, Salmi, P, Good, L, Kela, J, Johnsson, T, Hökfelt, T et al. (2000). Potent and nontoxic antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 5633–5638; which publications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[00494] Aptamer C10.36

[00495] We reported that aptamer C10.36 (5’-CTAACCCCGGGTGTGGTGGGTGGGCAGGGGGGTTAG; SEQ ID NO.4357) forms a G-quadruplex structure and is taken up by Burkitt’s Lymphoma (Ramos) cells via a clathrin-mediated endocytotic pathway and that this aptamer is taken up by Ramos cells to a greater extent than other lymphoma derived cell lines (e.g., Jurkat, Raji, or P12). Opazo F, et al. (2015). Modular Assembly of Cell-targeting Devices Based on an Uncommon G-quadruplex Aptamer Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids 4, e251. Aptamer C10.36 comprises a central G rich region surrounded by flanking complementary strands. See Opazo et al. Aptamer C10.36 may be referred to as C10.36, aptamer C10.36, C10.36, or the like herein.

[00496] In an aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357-4368 or 4372-4407. In a preferred embodiment, the oligonucleotide comprises a sequence according to SEQ ID NO.4357, i.e., the sequence of aptamer C10.36. The invention further provides an oligonucleotide having a substitution in aptamer C10.36 such as in SEQ ID NOs.4372-4407. The sequence can comprise the central G rich region of C10.36 (i.e., nucleotides 9-25 of SEQ ID NO. 4357) surrounded by complementary flanking regions. The flanking regions can be any useful length, e.g., at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or at least 10 nucleotides in length. See, e.g., Opazo et al. The aptamer sequence may also comprise additions and deletions. For example, at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or at least 10 nucleotides may be inserted between the G rich region and the flanking regions as desired. Alternately, nucleotides may be deleted between the G rich region and the flanking regions as desired. Substitutions, additions and deletions in the sequence can be chosen such that the aptamer retains or improves upon desired such as stability, target recognition and G quadruplex structure. In a related aspect, the invention provides an oligonucleotide comprising a sequence selected from any one of SEQ ID NOs.4357-4368 or 4372-4407, and a 5’ region with sequence 5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131), a 3’ region with sequence 5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132), or both.

[00497] The oligonucleotide of the invention can be capable of binding to a target in any of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39-41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59, or a complex comprising such target therein. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide is capable of regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or both. For example, the MYC function can be expression, downstream signaling, transcription regulation, histone acetylation, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, or any combination thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to various cells, including without limitation to Ramos cells, Ramos 2G6.C10, MEC-1, SU-DHL-1 or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). See, e.g., FIGs.23H, FIG.30. Furthermore, the oligonucleotide may be capable of killing certain cells, e.g., Ramos cells or SU-DHL-1 cells. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of PARP1, HIST1H1B, HIST1H1D, NCL, FBL, SFPQ, RPL12, ACTB, HIST1H4A, SSBP1, NONO, H2AFJ, and DDX21, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to a complex comprising a protein selected from the group consisting of Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2;

splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2-like protein 1;

heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. In some embodiments, the

oligonucleotide is capable of binding to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to a protein, or a complex comprising such protein, selected from the group consisting of 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin P2; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; and

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRP U), or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2-like protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Nucleolin; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; Prohibitin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; rRNA 2’-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; RNA-binding protein 14; 78 kDa glucose-regulared protein; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; Actin, cytoplasmic 2;

Nucleophosmin; Heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; Histone H3.3, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be capable of binding to cells comprising cell surface Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1 (P60709), Nucleolin, Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2, splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich, histone H4, Histone H1.5, NHP2-like protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1, rRNA 2'-O- methyltransferase fibrillarin, ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial, Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21, 60S ribosomal protein L30, 60S ribosomal protein L26, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface Calcyphosin-2;

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1; Polyubiquitin-B; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; Keratin, type 1 cytoskeletal 19, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; Histone H2B type F-S; Isoform 2 of Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB- like 1; Isoform 2 of ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Prohibitin; Prohibitin-2, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. The oligonucleotide can be binding to cells comprising cell surface

Nucleolin; histone H4; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; Histone H2B type F-S;

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1; Histone H1.5; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2; Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Ig mu chain C region; Isoform 4 of Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3; RNA-binding motif protein, X chromosome; RNA- binding protein 14; Isoform 1 of RNA-binding protein Raly; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein sm d3; NHP2-like protein 1; 60S ribosomal protein L12; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase;

Polyubiquitin-B; RNA-binding protein EWS; Signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein; Poly [ADP- ribose] polymerase 1; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B; Polyadenylate-binding protein 1; RNA-binding protein FUS; Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein;

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U; Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; Isoform 2 of

Elongation factor 1-delta; RuvB-like 1; 60S ribosomal protein L22; Heterogeneous nuclear

ribonucleoprotein M; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; Polymerase delta- interacting protein 3; Histone H1.4; Histone H1.5; Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm D2; histone H2A type 1; Histone H2A type 2-B; Pre-mRNA-processing factor 19; Isoform 2 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0; Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, mitochondrial; 40S ribosomal protein S3; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein r; 60S ribosomal protein L23a; Calcyphosin-2; Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, or a complex, subunit or fragment thereof. In some embodiment, the

oligonucleotide is capable of binding to cells comprising any of these proteins on their surface, including without limitation hnRNP U.

[00498] In a related aspect the invention provides an oligonucleotide aptamer that binds a target protein on the surface of a cell, wherein the binding to the cell results in alternative splicing patterns in the cell, cellular death, or both. In some embodiments, the target protein is part of a ribonucleoprotein or spliceosomal complex. In some embodiments, the target protein is heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U). In some embodiments, the target protein is selected from the proteins in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such protein therein.

[00499] The invention further provides an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence or a portion thereof that is at least 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 86, 86, 88, 89, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 or 100 percent homologous to an oligonucleotide sequence described above.

[00500] In another aspect, the invention provides a plurality of oligonucleotides comprising at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, or at least 10000 different oligonucleotide sequences described above.

[00501] The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention may comprise a DNA, RNA, 2’-O-methyl or phosphorothioate backbone, or any combination thereof. The oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides may comprise at least one of DNA, RNA, PNA, LNA, UNA, and any combination thereof.

[00502] In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides comprises at least one functional modification selected from the group consisting of biotinylation, a non-naturally occurring nucleotide, a deletion, an insertion, an addition, and a chemical modification. The chemical modification can be chosen to modulate desired properties such as stability, capture, detection, or binding efficiency. In some embodiments, the chemical modification comprises at least one of C18, polyethylene glycol (PEG), PEG4, PEG6, PEG8, PEG12, and an SM(PEG)n crosslinker (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, lL USA). The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be labeled. The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be attached to a nanoparticle, liposome, gold, magnetic label, fluorescent label, light emitting particle, or radioactive label. The liposome or particle can incorporate desired entities such as chemotherapeutic agents or detectable labels. Other useful modifications are disclosed herein.

[00503] In an aspect, the invention provides an isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides having a sequence as described above. In a related aspect, the invention provides a composition comprising such isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides.

[00504] In some embodiments, the isolated oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides is capable of binding to Ramos cells, binding to SUDHL1 cells, binding to Ramos 2G6C10 cells, binding to MEC1 cells, killing Ramos cells, killing SUDHL1 cells, killing Ramos 2G6C10, binding to a target in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a complex comprising such target therein, binding Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, modulating cell proliferation, regulating cellular expression of a gene in any one of Tables 50-53, regulating splicing of a gene in Table 55, regulating MYC function, MALAT1 function, or any combination thereof. Other capabilities of the oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides of the invention are disclosed in the Examples herein. In some embodiments, the isolated oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides is capable of binding to a cell surface splicing complex or cell surface ribonucleoprotein complex.

[00505] The oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides can be capable of modulating cell proliferation. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides is capable of inducing apoptosis. The cell proliferation can be neoplastic or dysplastic growth. The cell proliferation can be that of cancer cells such as disclosed herein, including without limitation that of lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer. In certain embodiments, the cell proliferation is that of leukemia, lymphoma or renal carcinoma cells. Other appropriate types of cancers are disclosed herein.

[00506] In an aspect, the invention provides a method comprising synthesizing the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided above. Techniques for synthesizing oligonucleotides are disclosed herein or are known in the art.

[00507] In another aspect, the invention provides a method comprising contacting a biological sample with the at least one oligonucleotide, the plurality of oligonucleotides, or composition as described above. The method can further comprise detecting a presence or level of at least one protein in any of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59 in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. In some embodiments, the method further comprises detecting a presence or level of a hnRNP U protein or complex thereof in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. As used herein,“a complex thereof” indicates that the protein can be found within the complex. For example, hnRNP U may be found with a ribonucleoprotein complex. Relatedly, the method may further comprise detecting a presence or level of a cell population in the biological sample that is bound by the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. For example, the cells may display a protein in any of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57- 59 on their surface. The cell population can be any desired population, including without limitation cells having or indicative of a disease or disorder, e.g., neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. In some embodiments, the cell population comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer cells, or other cancer cells such as described herein.

[00508] The detecting step of the method may comprise detecting the at least one oligonucleotide or at least one member of the plurality of oligonucleotides. The presence or level of oligonucleotide serves as a proxy for the level of oligonucleotide’s target. The oligonucleotides can be detecting using any desired technique such as described herein or known in the art, including without limitation at least one of sequencing, amplification, hybridization, gel electrophoresis, chromatography, and any combination thereof. Any useful sequencing method can be employed, including without limitation at least one of next generation sequencing, dye termination sequencing, pyrosequencing, and any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the detecting comprises transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of immunogold labeled oligonucleotides. In some embodiments, the detecting comprises confocal microscopy of fluor labeled oligonucleotides.

[00509] The detecting step of the method may comprise detecting the protein or cell using techniques described herein or known in the art for detecting proteins, including without limitation at least one of an immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme- linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA), affinity isolation, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, gel electrophoresis, microscopy or flow cytometry.

[00510] In some embodiments of the method, the detected protein is associated with a microvesicle population. The method may further comprise isolating the microvesicle population prior to the contacting with the oligonucleotides, after the contacting, or both. The isolating may be in whole or in part. For example, the microvesicle population may be partially isolated from other components in the sample before or after contacting the sample with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides. The invention may use any appropriate techniques to isolate microvesicles. Various techniques of isolating microvesicles are disclosed herein or known in the art, including without limitation affinity purification, filtration, concentration, polymer precipitation, PEG precipitation, ultracentrifugation, a molecular crowding reagent, affinity selection, chromatography, or any combination thereof.

[00511] Any desired biological sample can be contacted with the oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides according to the invention. In various embodiments, the biological sample comprises a bodily fluid, tissue sample or cell culture. Any desired tissue or cell culture sample can be contacted. In some embodiments, the tissue or cell culture sample comprises lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells. Similarly, any appropriate bodily fluid can be contacted, such as those disclosed herein. In certain preferred embodiments, the bodily fluid comprises whole blood or a derivative or fraction thereof, such as sera or plasma. The bodily fluid may comprise cancer cells, including without limitation lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer cells.

[00512] The biological sample may be spiked with a purified or recombinant protein (or both). In some embodiments, such protein is selected from of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39-41, Tables 46- 49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59, or complexes, subunits or fragments thereof. For example, the spiking can be used as a control in an assay.

[00513] As desired, the method of detecting the presence or level of the at least one oligonucleotide, the plurality of oligonucleotides, or composition bound to a target can be used to characterize a phenotype. The phenotype can be any appropriate phenotype, including without limitation a disease or disorder. In such cases, the characterizing may include providing, or assisting in providing, at least one of diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic information for the disease or disorder. Characterizing the phenotype may comprise comparing the presence or level to a reference. Any appropriate reference level can be used. For example, the reference can be the presence or level determined in a sample from at least one individual without the phenotype or from at least one individual with a different phenotype. As a further example, if the phenotype is a disease or disorder, the reference level may be the presence or level determined in a sample from at least one individual without the disease or disorder, or with a different state of the disease or disorder (e.g., in remission, different stage or grade, different prognosis, metastatic versus local, etc).

[00514] As noted, the sample can be from a subject suspected of having or being predisposed to a disease or disorder. The disease or disorder can be any disease or disorder that can be assessed by the subject method. For example, the disease or disorder may be a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. In certain embodiments, the cancer is a cancer disclosed herein (see, e.g., Section“Phenotypes”), including without limitation lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, or non-small cell lung cancer.

[00515] As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the method. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent can be the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides, one or more primer for amplification or sequencing of such oligonucleotides, at least one binding agent to at least one protein, a binding buffer with or without MgCl 2 , a sample processing reagent, a microvesicle isolation reagent, a cell isolation reagent, a detection reagent, a secondary detection reagent, a wash buffer, an elution buffer, a solid support, and any combination thereof. The microvesicle isolation reagent may comprise at least one of a concentrator unit, a filtration unit, a polymer, PEG, a size exclusion column, a binding agent to a microvesicle antigen, and any combination thereof; and/or the detection or secondary detection agent comprises streptavidin-horse radish peroxide (HRP), a streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore, a streptavidin-conjugated quantum dot, and any combination thereof.

[00516] The G quadruplex aptamer AS1411 has been shown to decrease viability of a variety of cancer cell types and has undergone phase II clinical trials. See, e.g., Bates, P et al. (2009). Discovery and development of the G-rich oligonucleotide AS1411 as a novel treatment for cancer. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 86:151–164; Rosenberg J, et al. (2014). A phase II trial of the nucleolin-targeted DNA aptamer AS1411 in metastatic refractory renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 32:178-187, which references are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. AS1411 is believed to bind the protein nucleolin, a nucleolar phosphoprotein which is overexpressed on the surface of certain cancer cells. AS1411 bound to surface nucleolin may be internalized and prevent nuclear nuclelin from stabilizing BCL2 mRNA. Reduced levels of BCL2 may then lead to apoptosis. AS1411 has been used to create nucleolin targeted liposomes and nanoparticles for drug delivery to cancer cells. See, e.g., Wu et al. Nucleolin Targeting AS1411 Modified Protein Nanoparticle for Antitumor Drugs Delivery, Mol.

Pharmaceutics, 2013, 10 (10), pp 3555–3563; Li et al., Nucleolin-targeting liposomes guided by aptamer AS1411 for the delivery of siRNA for the treatment of malignant melanomas, Biomaterials 35: 3840– 3850 (2014); Ai et al., Multifunctional AS1411-functionalized fluorescent gold nanoparticles for targeted cancer cell imaging and efficient photodynamic therapy, Talanta 118:54-60 (2014); Zhang et al. Nucleolin targeting AS1411 aptamer modified pH-sensitive micelles for enhanced delivery and antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel. Nano Research 20158, 201-218. AS1411 has also been used as an imaging agent. See, e.g., Li et al., Aptamer imaging with Cu-64 labeled AS1411: Preliminary assessment in lung cancer, Nuc Med Biol, 41:179-185 (2014).

[00517] In an aspect, the invention provides a method of imaging a cell or tissue, comprising contacting the cell or tissue with at least one oligonucleotide or plurality of oligonucleotides as described above, e.g., aptamer C10.36, and detecting the oligonucleotides in contact with at least one cell or tissue. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides are labeled, e.g., in order to facilitate detection or medical imaging. The oligonucleotides can be attached to a nanoparticle, liposome, gold, magnetic label, fluorescent label, light emitting particle, radioactive label, or other useful label such as disclosed herein or known in the art. The oligonucleotides can be administered to a subject prior to the detecting. The cell or tissue can comprise cells displaying hnRNP U or another protein from of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39- 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, or Tables 57-59 on their surface. In some embodiments, the cell or tissue comprises neoplastic, malignant, tumor, hyperplastic, or dysplastic cells. For example, the cell or tissue may comprise lymphoma, leukemia, renal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, melanoma, abdominal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or other cancer cells such as described herein.

[00518] In an aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the C10.36 oligonucleotide aptamers, or a salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides are attached to a desired payload, e.g., a small molecule, drug, toxin, chemotherapeutic agent, or other agent useful for treating a disease or disorder. In some embodiments, the oligonucleotides are attached to a liposome or nanoparticle. The liposome or nanoparticle may comprise a desired payload, e.g., a small molecule, drug, toxin, chemotherapeutic agent, or other agent useful for treating a disease or disorder. In such embodiments, the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides are used for targeted delivery of the desired payload.

[00519] In a related aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering such pharmaceutical composition to the subject. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering such pharmaceutical to the subject. The pharmaceutical composition can be administered in any useful format. In various embodiments, the administering comprises at least one of intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, topical administration, or any combination thereof. The carrier or diluent can be any useful carrier or diluent, as described herein or known in the art. As desired, the pharmaceutical composition can be administered in combination with additional known drugs, immunotherapies, antibodies, or chemotherapeutic agents such as described herein or known in the art, e.g., cyclophosphamide, etoposide, doxorubicin, methotrexate, vincristine, procabazine, prednisone, dexamethasone, tamoxifen citrate, carboplatin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, 5- fluorouracil, camptothecin, zoledronic acid, Ibandronate or mytomicin. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the

pharmaceutical composition above to the subject based on the comparison. In some embodiments, the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39-41, Tables 46- 55, or Tables 57-59. The administering can be through any useful methods such as described herein.

[00520] In an aspect, the invention provides nanoparticle conjugated to the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of oligonucleotides provided by the invention. In some embodiments, the nanoparticle comprises a useful payload, including without limitation a small molecule, drug, toxin or

chemotherapeutic agent. The nanoparticle can be selected for desired properties. For example, if internalization inside a cell is desired, it may be preferred that the nanoparticle is≤ 100 nm in diameter, e.g.,≤ 10 nm,≤ 20 nm,≤ 30 nm,≤ 40 nm,≤ 50 nm,≤ 60 nm,≤ 70 nm,≤ 80 nm,≤ 90 nm, or≤ 100 nm in diameter. In other embodiments, the nanoparticle is≥ 100 nm in diameter. In a related aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the conjugated nanoparticle, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or both. In still another related aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering the pharmaceutical composition to the subject. The invention further provides a method of inducing cytotoxicity in a subject, comprising administering the

pharmaceutical composition to the subject. In another related aspect, the invention provides a method comprising detecting a transcript or protein in a biological sample from a subject, comparing a presence or level of the transcript to a reference, and administering the pharmaceutical composition to the subject based on the comparison. In some embodiments, the transcript or protein is selected from any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39-41, Tables 46-55, or Tables 57-59. The administering can be through any useful methods such as described herein.

[00521] In still another aspect, the invention provides a method of immune therapy comprising using a protein in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Tables 39-41, Tables 46-54 or Tables 57-59 as a target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. The invention also provides a method of immune therapy comprising identifying a target of an oligonucleotide probe, and using the target for CAR-T therapy of a disease or disorder. The invention also provides method comprising identifying an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide. The identifying can be performed with MHC complexes on cells or using an in vitro system. The invention also provides a method comprising using an oligonucleotide probe against an MHC loaded with a peptide to detect or target the loaded MHC. As further described herein, the invention provides a kit comprising a reagent for carrying out the method. Similarly, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the method. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent may comprise one or more oligonucleotide probe, isolated MHC constructs, peptides of interest, and various buffers and the like for performing the method.

[00522] As further described herein, the invention provides reagents and kits for carrying out the methods described herein. For example, the invention provides for the use of a reagent for carrying out the analysis, detection, characterization, imaging, administering, monitoring, and treatments described above. The reagent can be any useful reagent for carrying out the method. For example, the reagent may comprise the pharmaceutical composition and/or items needed for the desired administration route. In some embodiments, the reagent comprises the at least one oligonucleotide or the plurality of

oligonucleotides, one or more primer for amplification or sequencing of such oligonucleotides, at least one binding agent to at least one protein, a binding buffer with or without MgCl 2 , a sample processing reagent, a microvesicle isolation reagent, a detection reagent, a secondary detection reagent, a wash buffer, an elution buffer, a solid support, and any combination thereof. The invention contemplates addition of additional useful reagents as desired.

[00523] As described above, the invention provides methods and compositions useful for analysis, detection, characterization, imaging, administering, monitoring, and treatment of various diseases and disorders. In various embodiments, the disease or disorder comprises a cancer, a premalignant condition, an inflammatory disease, an immune disease, an autoimmune disease or disorder, a cardiovascular disease or disorder, neurological disease or disorder, infectious disease or pain. The cancer can include without limitation one of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia; adrenocortical carcinoma;

AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma,

medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors;

cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer;

ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma; extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma;

medulloepithelioma; melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides;

myelodysplastic syndromes; myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer; oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma;

rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma; squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer;

thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The premalignant condition can include without limitation Barrett’s Esophagus. The autoimmune disease can include without limitation one of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), pelvic inflammation, vasculitis, psoriasis, diabetes, autoimmune hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Grave's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis Sjogrens Disease, CREST syndrome, Scleroderma, Rheumatic Disease, organ rejection, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, or sepsis. The cardiovascular disease can include without limitation one of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, vulnerable plaque, stroke, ischemia, high blood pressure, stenosis, vessel occlusion or a thrombotic event. The neurological disease can include without limitation one of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, autism, Prion Disease, Pick's disease, dementia, Huntington disease (HD), Down’s syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, Rasmussen's encephalitis, viral meningitis, neurospsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, ischemic reperfusion damage (e.g. stroke), brain trauma, microbial infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome. The pain can include without limitation one of fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, or peripheral neuropathic pain. The infectious disease can include without limitation one of a bacterial infection, viral infection, yeast infection, Whipple’s Disease, Prion Disease, cirrhosis, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein Barr virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis, syphilis, meningitis, malaria, tuberculosis, or influenza.

[00524] Modifications

[00525] Modifications to the one or more oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, or any combination thereof, can be made to alter desired characteristics, including without limitation in vivo stability, specificity, affinity, avidity or nuclease susceptibility. Alterations to the half life may improve stability in vivo or may reduce stability to limit in vivo toxicity. Such alterations can include mutations, truncations or extensions. The 5’ and/or 3’ ends of the multipartite oligonucleotide constructs can be protected or deprotected to modulate stability as well. Modifications to improve in vivo stability, specificity, affinity, avidity or nuclease susceptibility or alter the half life to influence in vivo toxicity may be at the 5’ or 3’ end and include but are not limited to the following: locked nucleic acid (LNA) incorporation, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) incorporation, phosphorothioate backbone instead of phosphodiester backbone, amino modifiers (i.e. C6-dT), dye conjugates (Cy dues, Fluorophores, etc), Biotinylation, PEG linkers, Click chemistry linkers,

dideoxynucleotide end blockers, inverted end bases, cholesterol TEG or other lipid based labels.

[00526] Linkage options for segments of the oligonucleotide of the invention can be on the 5’ or 3’ end of an oligonucleotide or to a primary amine, sulfhydryl or carboxyl group of an antibody and include but are not limited to the following: Biotin-target oligonucleotide /Ab, streptavidin-complement oligonucleotide or vice versa, amino modified-target Ab/ oligonucleotide, thiol/carboxy-complement oligonucleotide or vice versa, Click chemistry-target Ab/ oligonucleotide, corresponding Click chemistry partner- complement oligonucleotide or vice versa. The linkages may be covalent or non-covalent and may include but are not limited to monovalent, multivalent (i.e. bi, tri or tetra-valent) assembly, to a DNA scaffold (i.e. DNA origami structure), drug/chemotherapeutic agent, nanoparticle, microparticle or a micelle or liposome.

[00527] A linker region can comprise a spacer with homo- or multifunctional reactive groups that can vary in length and type. These include but are not limited to the following: spacer C18, PEG4, PEG6, PEG8, and PEG12.

[00528] The multipartite oligonucleotide of the invention can further comprise additional elements to add desired biological effects. For example, the oligonucleotide of the invention may comprise a membrane disruptive moiety. The oligonucleotide of the invention may also be conjugated to one or more chemical moiety that provides such effects. For example, the oligonucleotide of the invention may be conjugated to a detergent-like moiety to disrupt the membrane of a target cell or microvesicle. Useful ionic detergents include sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)), sodium laureth sulfate (SLS, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)), ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS), cetrimonium bromide, cetrimonium chloride, cetrimonium stearate, and the like. Useful non-ionic (zwitterionic) detergents include polyoxyethylene glycols, polysorbate 20 (also known as Tween 20), other polysorbates (e.g., 40, 60, 65, 80, etc), Triton-X (e.g., X100, X114), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), CHAPSO, deoxycholic acid, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, glycosides, octyl-thio-glucosides, maltosides, and the like. One of skill will appreciate that functional fragments, such as membrance disruptive moieties, can be covalently or non-covalently attached to the oligonucleotide of the invention.

[00529] Oligonucleotide segments, including those of a multipartite construct, can include any desireable base modification known in the art. In certain embodiments, oligonucleotide segments are 10 to 50 nucleotides in length. One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that this embodies

oligonucleotides of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or 50 nucleotides in length, or any range derivable there within.

[00530] In certain embodiments, a multipartite construct comprises a chimeric oligonucleotide that contains two or more chemically distinct regions, each made up of at least one nucleotide. Such chimeras can be referred to using terms such as multipartite, multivalent, or the like. The oligonucleotides portions may contain at least one region of modified nucleotides that confers one or more beneficial properties, e.g., increased nuclease resistance, bioavailability, increased binding affinity for the target. Chimeric nucleic acids of the invention may be formed as composite structures of two or more oligonucleotides, two or more types of oligonucleotides (e.g., both DNA and RNA segments), modified oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides and/or oligonucleotide mimetics. Such compounds have also been referred to in the art as hybrids. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such hybrid structures comprise, but are not limited to, US patent nos: 5,013,830; 5,149,797; 5, 220,007; 5,256,775; 5,366,878; 5,403,711; 5,491,133; 5,565,350; 5,623,065; 5,652,355; 5,652,356; and 5,700,922, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00531] In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide of the invention comprises at least one nucleotide modified at the 2’ position of the sugar, including without limitation a 2’-0-alkyl, 2’-0-alkyl-0-alkyl or 2’- fluoro-modified nucleotide. In other embodiments, RNA modifications include 2’- fluoro, 2’-amino and 2’ O-methyl modifications on the ribose of pyrimidines, a basic residue or an inverted base at the 3’ end of the RNA. Such modifications are routinely incorporated into oligonucleotides and these

oligonucleotides have been shown to have higher target binding affinity in some cases than 2’- deoxyoligonucleotides against a given target.

[00532] A number of nucleotide and nucleoside modifications have been shown to make an

oligonucleotide more resistant to nuclease digestion, thereby prolonging in vivo half- life. Specific examples of modified oligonucleotides include those comprising backbones comprising, for example, phosphorothioates, phosphotriesters, methyl phosphonates, short chain alkyl or cycloalkyl intersugar linkages or short chain heteroatomic or heterocyclic intersugar linkages. The constructs of the invention can comprise oligonucleotides with phosphorothioate backbones and/or heteroatom backbones, e.g., CH2 -NH-0-CH2, CH,~N(CH3)~0~CH2 (known as a methylene(methylimino) or MMI backbone], CH2 -O-N (CH3)-CH2, CH2 -N (CH3)-N (CH3)-CH2 and O-N (CH3)- CH2 -CH2 backbones, wherein the native phosphodiester backbone is represented as O- P— O- CH,); amide backbones (De Mesmaeker et ah, 1995); morpholino backbone structures (Summerton and Weller, U.S. Pat. No.5,034,506); peptide nucleic acid (PNA) backbone (wherein the phosphodiester backbone of the oligonucleotide is replaced with a polyamide backbone, the nucleotides being bound directly or indirectly to the aza nitrogen atoms of the polyamide backbone (Nielsen, et al., 1991), each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Phosphorus- containing linkages include, but are not limited to, phosphorothioates, chiral phosphorothioates, phosphorodithioates, phosphotriesters, aminoalkylphosphotriesters, methyl and other alkyl phosphonates comprising 3’alkylene phosphonates and chiral phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphoramidates comprising 3‘-amino phosphoramidate and aminoalkylphosphoramidates,

thionophosphoramidates, thionoalkylphosphonates, thionoalkylphosphotriesters, and boranophosphates having normal 3‘-5’ linkages, 2’-5’ linked analogs of these, and those having inverted polarity wherein the adjacent pairs of nucleoside units are linked 3*-5* to 5*-3* or 2*-5* to 5*-2*; see U.S. Patent Nos. 3,687,808; 4,469,863; 4,476,301; 5,023,243; 5, 177,196; 5,188,897; 5,264,423; 5,276,019; 5,278,302; 5,286,717; 5,321, 131; 5,399,676; 5,405,939; 5,453,496; 5,455, 233; 5,466,677; 5,476,925; 5,519,126; 5,536,821; 5,541,306; 5,550,111; 5,563, 253; 5,571,799; 5,587,361; and 5,625,050, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Morpholino-based oligomeric compounds are known in the art described in Braasch & Corey, Biochemistry vol.41, no.14, 2002, pages 4503 - 4510; Genesis vol. 30, 2001, page 3; Heasman, J. Dev. Biol. vol.243, 2002, pages 209 - 214; Nasevicius et al. Nat. Genet. vol.26, 2000, pages 216 - 220; Lacerra et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol.97, 2000, pages 9591 - 9596 and U.S. Pat. No.5,034,506, issued Jul.23, 1991, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Cyclohexenyl nucleic acid oligonucleotide mimetics are described in Wang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. Vol.122, 2000, pages 8595 - 8602, the contents of which is incorporated herein in its entirety. An oligonucleotide of the invention can comprise at least such modification as desired.

[00533] Modified oligonucleotide backbones that do not include a phosphorus atom therein have backbones that can be formed by short chain alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, mixed heteroatom and alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, or one or more short chain heteroatomic or heterocyclic internucleoside linkages. These comprise those having morpholino linkages (formed in part from the sugar portion of a nucleoside); siloxane backbones; sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfone backbones; formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; methylene formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; alkene containing backbones; sulfamate backbones; methyleneimino and methylenehydrazino backbones;

sulfonate and sulfonamide backbones; amide backbones; and others having mixed N, O, S and CH2 component parts; see U.S. Patent Nos.5,034,506; 5,166,315; 5,185,444; 5,214,134; 5,216, 141;

5,235,033; 5,264,562; 5,264,564; 5,405,938; 5,434,257; 5,466,677; 5,470,967; 5,489,677; 5,541,307; 5,561,225; 5,596, 086; 5,602,240; 5,610,289; 5,602,240; 5,608,046; 5,610,289; 5,618,704; 5,623,070; 5,663,312; 5,633,360; 5,677,437; and 5,677,439, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. An oligonucleotide of the invention can comprise at least such modification as desired.

[00534] In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide of the invention comprises one or more substituted sugar moieties, e.g., one of the following at the 2’ position: OH, SH, SCH 3 , F, OCN, OCH 3 OCH 3 , OCH 3 O(CH 2 )n CH 3 , O(CH 2 )n NH 2 or O(CH 2 )n CH 3 where n is from 1 to about 10; Ci to CIO lower alkyl, alkoxyalkoxy, substituted lower alkyl, alkaryl or aralkyl; CI; Br; CN; CF 3 ; OCF 3 ; O-, S-, or N-alkyl; O-, S-, or N-alkenyl; SOCH 3 ; SO 2 CH 3 ; ONO 2 ; N O 2 ; N 3 ; NH 2 ; heterocycloalkyl; heterocycloalkaryl;

aminoalkylamino; polyalkylamino; substituted silyl; an RNA cleaving group; a reporter group; an intercalator; a group for improving the pharmacokinetic properties of an oligonucleotide; or a group for improving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of an oligonucleotide and other substituents having similar properties. A preferred modification includes 2’-methoxyethoxy [2’-0- CH2CH2OCH3, also known as 2’-0-(2-methoxyethyl)]. Other preferred modifications include 2*-methoxy (2*-0-CH3), 2*-propoxy (2*-OCH2 CH2CH3) and 2*-fiuoro (2*-F). Similar modifications may also be made at other positions on the oligonucleotide, e.g., the 3’ position of the sugar on the 3’ terminal nucleotide and the 5’ position of 5’ terminal nucleotide. Oligonucleotides may also have sugar mimetics such as cyclobutyls in place of the pentofuranosyl group.

[00535] In certain embodiments, an oligonucleotide of the invention comprises one or more base modifications and/or substitutions. As used herein,“unmodified” or“natural” bases include adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and uracil (U). Modified bases include, without limitation, bases found only infrequently or transiently in natural nucleic acids, e.g., hypoxanthine, 6-methyladenine, 5 -Me pyrimidines, particularly 5-methylcytosine (also referred to as 5-methyl-2’ deoxy cytosine and often referred to in the art as 5-Me-C), 5- hydroxymethylcytosine (HMC), glycosyl HMC and gentobiosyl HMC, as well as synthetic bases, e.g., 2-aminoadenine, 2-(methylamino)adenine, 2- (imidazolylalkyl)adenine, 2- (aminoalklyamino)adenine or other heterosubstituted alkyladenines, 2- thiouracil, 2- thiothymine, 5-bromouracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, 8-azaguanine, 7-deazaguanine, N6 (6- aminohexyl)adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine (Kornberg, 1980; Gebeyehu, et ah, 1987). A“universal” base known in the art, e.g., inosine, can also be included.5-Me-C substitutions can also be included. These have been shown to increase nucleic acid duplex stability by 0.6- 1.20C. See, e.g., Sanghvi et al., ‘Antisense Research & Applications’, 1993, CRC PRESS pages 276 - 278. Further suitable modified bases are described in U.S. Patent Nos.3,687,808, as well as 4,845,205; 5,130,302; 5,134,066; 5,175, 273; 5, 367,066; 5,432,272; 5,457,187; 5,459,255; 5,484,908; 5,502,177; 5,525,711; 5,552,540; 5,587,469; 5,596,091; 5,614,617; 5,750,692, and 5,681,941, each of which is herein incorporated by reference.

[00536] It is not necessary for all positions in a given oligonucleotide to be uniformly modified, and in fact more than one of the aforementioned modifications may be incorporated in a single oligonucleotide or even at within a single nucleoside within an oligonucleotide.

[00537] In certain embodiments, both a sugar and an internucleoside linkage, i.e., the backbone, of one or more nucleotide units within an oligonucleotide of the invention are replaced with novel groups. The base can be maintained for hybridization with an appropriate nucleic acid target compound. One such oligomeric compound, an oligonucleotide mimetic that has been shown to retain hybridization properties, is referred to as a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). In PNA compounds, the sugar-backbone of an

oligonucleotide is replaced with an amide containing backbone, for example, an aminoethylglycine backbone. The nucleobases are retained and are bound directly or indirectly to aza nitrogen atoms of the amide portion of the backbone. Representative patents that teach the preparation of PNA compounds comprise, but are not limited to, U.S. Patent Nos.5,539,082; 5,714,331; and 5,719,262, each of which is herein incorporated by reference. Further teaching of PNA compounds can be found in Nielsen et al. Science vol.254, 1991, page 1497, which is herein incorporated by reference.

[00538] In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide of the invention is linked (covalently or non- covalently) to one or more moieties or conjugates that enhance activity, cellular distribution, or localization. Such moieties include, without limitation, lipid moieties such as a cholesterol moiety (Letsinger et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa. vol.86, 1989, pages 6553 - 6556), cholic acid (Manoharan et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let. vol.4, 1994, pages 1053 - 1060), a thioether, e.g., hexyl-S- tritylthiol (Manoharan et al. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol.660, 1992, pages 306 - 309; Manoharan et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let. vol.3, 1993, pages 2765 - 2770), a thiocholesterol (Oberhauser et al. Nucl. Acids Res. vol.20, 1992, pages 533 - 538), an aliphatic chain, e.g., dodecandiol or undecyl residues (Kabanov et al. Febs Lett. vol.259, 1990, pages 327 - 330; Svinarchuk et al. Biochimie. vol.75, 1993, pages 49 - 54), a phospholipid, e.g., di-hexadecyl-rac-glycerol or triethylammonium 1 ,2-di-O-hexadecyl- rac- glycero-3- H-phosphonate (Manoharan et al. Tetrahedron Lett. vol.36, 1995, pages 3651 - 3654; Shea et al. Nucl. Acids Res. vol.18, 1990, pages 3777 - 3783), a polyamine or a polyethylene glycol chain (Mancharan et al. Nucleosides & Nucleotides vol.14, 1995, pages 969 - 973), or adamantane acetic acid (Manoharan et al. Tetrahedron Lett. vol.36, 1995, pages 3651 - 3654), a palmityl moiety (Mishra et al. Biochim.

Biophys. Acta vol.1264, 1995, pages 229 - 237), or an octadecylamine or hexylamino- carbonyl-t oxycholesterol moiety (Crooke et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. vol.277, 1996, pages 923 - 937), each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. See also U.S. Patent Nos.4,828,979; 4,948,882; 5,218,105; 5,525,465; 5,541,313; 5,545,730; 5,552,538; 5,578,717; 5,580,731; 5,580,731; 5,591,584; 5,109,124; 5,118,802; 5,138,045; 5,414,077; 5,486,603; 5,512,439; 5,578,718; 5,608,046; 4,587,044; 4,605,735; 4,667,025; 4,762,779; 4,789,737; 4,824,941; 4,835,263; 4,876,335; 4,904,582; 4,958,013; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,245,022; 5,254,469; 5,258,506; 5,262,536; 5,272,250; 5,292,873; 5,317,098; 5,371,241,5,391,723; 5,416,203,5,451,463; 5,510,475; 5,512,667; 5,514,785; 5,565,552; 5,567,810; 5,574,142; 5,585,481; 5,587,371; 5,595,726; 5,597,696; 5,599,923; 5,599,928 and 5,688,941, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[00539] The oligonucleotide of the invention can be modified to incorporate a wide variety of modified nucleotides as desired. For example, the construct may be synthesized entirely of modified nucleotides or with a subset of modified nucleotides. The modifications can be the same or different. Some or all nucleotides may be modified, and those that are modified may contain the same modification. For example, all nucleotides containing the same base may have one type of modification, while nucleotides containing other bases may have different types of modification. All purine nucleotides may have one type of modification (or are unmodified), while all pyrimidine nucleotides have another, different type of modification (or are unmodified). Thus, the construct may comprise any combination of desired modifications, including for example, ribonucleotides (2’-OH), deoxyribonucleotides (2’-deoxy), 2’- amino nucleotides (2’-NH2), 2’- fluoro nucleotides (2’-F) and 2’-0-methyl (2’-OMe) nucleotides.

[00540] In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide of the invention is synthesized using a transcription mixture containing modified nucleotides in order to generate a modified construct. For example, a transcription mixture may contain only 2’-OMe A, G, C and U and/or T triphosphates (2’-OMe ATP, 2’- OMe UTP and/or 2*-OMe TTP, 2*-OMe CTP and 2*-OMe GTP), referred to as an MNA or mRmY mixture. Oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as MNA oligonucleotides or mRmY oligonucleotides and contain only 2’-0-methyl nucleotides. A transcription mixture containing all 2’-OH nucleotides is referred to as an“rN” mixture, and oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as “rN”,“rRrY” or RNA oligonucleotides. A transcription mixture containing all deoxy nucleotides is referred to as a“dN” mixture, and oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as“dN”,“dRdY” or DNA oligonucleotides. Aternatively, a subset of nucleotides (e.g., C, U and /or T) may comprise a first modified nucleotides (e.g, 2’-OMe) nucleotides and the remainder (e.g., A and G) comprise a second modified nucleotide (e.g., 2’-OH or 2’-F). For example, a transcription mixture containing 2’-F U and 2’- OMe A, G and C is referred to as a“fUmV” mixture, and oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as“fUmV” oligonucleotides. A transcription mixture containing 2’-F A and G, and 2’-OMe C and U and/or T is referred to as an“fRmY” mixture, and oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as“fRmY” oligonucleotides. A transcription mixture containing 2’-F A and 2’-OMe C, G and U and/or T is referred to as“fAmB” mixture, and oligonucleotides generated therefrom are referred to as “fAmB” oligonucleotides.

[00541] One of skill in the art can improve pre-identified aptamer segments (e.g., variable regions or immunomodulatory regions that comprise an aptamer to a biomarker target or other entity) using various process modifications. Examples of such process modifications include, but are not limited to, truncation, deletion, substitution, or modification of a sugar or base or internucleotide linkage, capping, and

PEGylation. In addition, the sequence requirements of an aptamer may be explored through doped reselections or aptamer medicinal chemistry. Doped reselections are carried out using a synthetic, degenerate pool that has been designed based on the aptamer of interest. The level of degeneracy usually varies from about 70-85% from the aptamer of interest. In general, sequences with neutral mutations are identified through the doped reselection process. Aptamer medicinal chemistry is an aptamer improvement technique in which sets of variant aptamers are chemically synthesized. These variants are then compared to each other and to the parent aptamer. Aptamer medicinal chemistry is used to explore the local, rather than global, introduction of substituents. For example, the following modifications may be introduced: modifications at a sugar, base, and/or internucleotide linkage, such as 2’-deoxy, 2’-ribo, or 2’-0-methyl purines or pyrimidines, phosphorothioate linkages may be introduced between nucleotides, a cap may be introduced at the 5’ or 3’ end of the aptamer (such as 3’ inverted dT cap) to block degradation by exonucleases, or a polyethylene glycol (PEG) element may be added to the aptamer to increase the half-life of the aptamer in the subject.

[00542] Additional compositions comprising an oligonucleotide of the invention and uses thereof are further described below.

[00543] Pharmaceutical Compositions

[00544] In an aspect, the invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof. The invention further provides methods of administering such compositions.

[00545] The term“condition,” as used herein means an interruption, cessation, or disorder of a bodily function, system, or organ. Representative conditions include, but are not limited to, diseases such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and organ failure.

[00546] The phrase“treating,”“treatment of,” and the like include the amelioration or cessation of a specified condition.

[00547] The phrase“preventing,”“prevention of,” and the like include the avoidance of the onset of a condition.

[00548] The term“salt,” as used herein, means two compounds that are not covalently bound but are chemically bound by ionic interactions.

[00549] The term“pharmaceutically acceptable,” as used herein, when referring to a component of a pharmaceutical composition means that the component, when administered to an animal, does not have undue adverse effects such as excessive toxicity, irritation, or allergic response commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Accordingly, the term“pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent,” as used herein, means an organic solvent that when administered to an animal does not have undue adverse effects such as excessive toxicity, irritation, or allergic response commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Preferably, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a solvent that is generally recognized as safe (“GRAS”) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). Similarly, the term“pharmaceutically acceptable organic base,” as used herein, means an organic base that when administered to an animal does not have undue adverse effects such as excessive toxicity, irritation, or allergic response commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[00550] The phrase“injectable” or“injectable composition,” as used herein, means a composition that can be drawn into a syringe and injected subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or intramuscularly into an animal without causing adverse effects due to the presence of solid material in the composition. Solid materials include, but are not limited to, crystals, gummy masses, and gels. Typically, a formulation or composition is considered to be injectable when no more than about 15%, preferably no more than about 10%, more preferably no more than about 5%, even more preferably no more than about 2%, and most preferably no more than about 1% of the formulation is retained on a 0.22 μm filter when the formulation is filtered through the filter at 98° F. There are, however, some compositions of the invention, which are gels, that can be easily dispensed from a syringe but will be retained on a 0.22 μm filter. In one embodiment, the term“injectable,” as used herein, includes these gel compositions. In one embodiment, the term “injectable,” as used herein, further includes compositions that when warmed to a temperature of up to about 40° C. and then filtered through a 0.22 μm filter, no more than about 15%, preferably no more than about 10%, more preferably no more than about 5%, even more preferably no more than about 2%, and most preferably no more than about 1% of the formulation is retained on the filter. In one embodiment, an example of an injectable pharmaceutical composition is a solution of a pharmaceutically active compound (for example, one or more oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof) in a pharmaceutically acceptable solvent. One of skill will appreciate that injectable solutions have inherent properties, e.g., sterility, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and free of harmful measures of pyrogens or similar contaminants.

[00551] The term“solution,” as used herein, means a uniformly dispersed mixture at the molecular or ionic level of one or more substances (solute), in one or more other substances (solvent), typically a liquid.

[00552] The term“suspension,” as used herein, means solid particles that are evenly dispersed in a solvent, which can be aqueous or non-aqueous.

[00553] The term“animal,” as used herein, includes, but is not limited to, humans, canines, felines, equines, bovines, ovines, porcines, amphibians, reptiles, and avians. Representative animals include, but are not limited to a cow, a horse, a sheep, a pig, an ungulate, a chimpanzee, a monkey, a baboon, a chicken, a turkey, a mouse, a rabbit, a rat, a guinea pig, a dog, a cat, and a human. In one embodiment, the animal is a mammal. In one embodiment, the animal is a human. In one embodiment, the animal is a non- human. In one embodiment, the animal is a canine, a feline, an equine, a bovine, an ovine, or a porcine.

[00554] The phrase“drug depot,” as used herein means a precipitate, which includes one or more oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof, formed within the body of a treated animal that releases the oligonucleotide over time to provide a pharmaceutically effective amount of the oligonucleotide.

[00555] The phrase“substantially free of,” as used herein, means less than about 2 percent by weight. For example, the phrase“a pharmaceutical composition substantially free of water” means that the amount of water in the pharmaceutical composition is less than about 2 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition.

[00556] The term“effective amount,” as used herein, means an amount sufficient to treat or prevent a condition in an animal. [00557] The nucleotides that make up the oligonucleotide of the invention can be modified to, for example, improve their stability, i.e., improve their in vivo half-life, and/or to reduce their rate of excretion when administered to an animal. The term“modified” encompasses nucleotides with a covalently modified base and/or sugar. For example, modified nucleotides include nucleotides having sugars which are covalently attached to low molecular weight organic groups other than a hydroxyl group at the 3′ position and other than a phosphate group at the 5′ position. Modified nucleotides may also include 2′ substituted sugars such as 2′-O-methyl-; 2′-O-alkyl; 2′-O-allyl; 2′-S-alkyl; 2′-S-allyl; 2′-fluoro-; 2′-halo or 2′-azido-ribose; carbocyclic sugar analogues; α-anomeric sugars; and epimeric sugars such as arabinose, xyloses or lyxoses, pyranose sugars, furanose sugars, and sedoheptulose.

[00558] Modified nucleotides are known in the art and include, but are not limited to, alkylated purines and/or pyrimidines; acylated purines and/or pyrimidines; or other heterocycles. These classes of pyrimidines and purines are known in the art and include, pseudoisocytosine; N4,N4-ethanocytosine; 8- hydroxy-N6-methyladenine; 4-acetylcytosine, 5-(carboxyhydroxylmethyl) uracil; 5-fluorouracil; 5- bromouracil; 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouracil; 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl uracil;

dihydrouracil; inosine; N6-isopentyl-adenine; 1-methyladenine; 1-methylpseudouracil; 1-methylguanine; 2,2-dimethylguanine; 2-methyladenine; 2-methylguanine; 3-methylcytosine; 5-methylcytosine; N6- methyladenine; 7-methylguanine; 5-methylaminomethyl uracil; 5-methoxy amino methyl-2-thiouracil; β- D-mannosylqueosine; 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluracil; 5-methoxyuracil; 2 methylthio-N6- isopentenyladenine; uracil-5-oxyacetic acid methyl ester; psueouracil; 2-thiocytosine; 5-methyl-2 thiouracil, 2-thiouracil; 4-thiouracil; 5-methyluracil; N-uracil-5-oxyacetic acid methylester; uracil 5- oxyacetic acid; queosine; 2-thiocytosine; 5-propyluracil; 5-propylcytosine; 5-ethyluracil; 5-ethylcytosine; 5-butyluracil; 5-pentyluracil; 5-pentylcytosine; and 2,6,-diaminopurine; methylpsuedouracil; 1- methylguanine; and 1-methylcytosine.

[00559] An oligonucleotide of the invention can also be modified by replacing one or more

phosphodiester linkages with alternative linking groups. Alternative linking groups include, but are not limited to embodiments wherein P(O)O is replaced by P(O)S, P(S)S, P(O)NR2, P(O)R, P(O)OR′, CO, or CH2, wherein each R or R′ is independently H or a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl. A preferred set of R substitutions for the P(O)NR2 group are hydrogen and methoxyethyl. Linking groups are typically attached to each adjacent nucleotide through an—O— bond, but may be modified to include— N— or—S— bonds. Not all linkages in an oligomer need to be identical.

[00560] The oligonucleotide of the invention can also be modified by conjugation to a polymer, for example, to reduce the rate of excretion when administered to an animal. For example, the oligonucleotide can be“PEGylated,” i.e., conjugated to polyethylene glycol (“PEG”). In one embodiment, the PEG has an average molecular weight ranging from about 20 kD to 80 kD. Methods to conjugate an oligonucleotide with a polymer, such PEG, are known to those skilled in the art (See, e.g., Greg T. Hermanson,

Bioconjugate Techniques, Academic Press, 1966). [00561] The oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof, can be used in the

pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein or known in the art.

[00562] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises a solvent.

[00563] In one embodiment, the solvent comprises water.

[00564] In one embodiment, the solvent comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent. Any useful and pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvents can be used in the compositions of the invention.

[00565] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is a solution of the salt in the

pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent.

[00566] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent and further comprises a phospholipid, a sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline facilitates formation of a precipitate when the pharmaceutical composition is injected into water and can also facilitate controlled release of the oligonucleotide from the resulting precipitate. Typically, the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline is present in an amount ranging from greater than 0 to 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline is present in an amount ranging from about 0.1 to 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline is present in an amount ranging from about 1 to 7.5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline is present in an amount ranging from about 1.5 to 5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the phospholipid, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidyl choline is present in an amount ranging from about 2 to 4 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition.

[00567] The pharmaceutical compositions can optionally comprise one or more additional excipients or additives to provide a dosage form suitable for administration to an animal. When administered to an animal, the oligonucleotide containing pharmaceutical compositions are typically administered as a component of a composition that comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient so as to provide the form for proper administration to the animal. Suitable pharmaceutical excipients are described in Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences 1447-1676 (Alfonso R. Gennaro ed., 19th ed.1995), incorporated herein by reference. The pharmaceutical compositions can take the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsion, tablets, pills, pellets, capsules, capsules containing liquids, powders, suppositories, emulsions, aerosols, sprays, suspensions, or any other form suitable for use.

[00568] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated for intravenous or parenteral administration. Typically, compositions for intravenous or parenteral administration comprise a suitable sterile solvent, which may be an isotonic aqueous buffer or pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent. Where necessary, the compositions can also include a solubilizing agent. Compositions for intravenous administration can optionally include a local anesthetic such as lidocaine to lessen pain at the site of the injection. Generally, the ingredients are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where oligonucleotide-containing pharmaceutical compositions are to be administered by infusion, they can be dispensed, for example, with an infusion bottle containing, for example, sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the pharmaceutical compositions are administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection, saline, or other solvent such as a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent can be provided so that the ingredients can be mixed prior to administration.

[00569] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated in accordance with routine procedures as a composition adapted for oral administration. Compositions for oral delivery can be in the form of tablets, lozenges, aqueous or oily suspensions, granules, powders, emulsions, capsules, syrups, or elixirs, for example. Oral compositions can include standard excipients such as mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharin, cellulose, and magnesium carbonate. Typically, the excipients are of pharmaceutical grade. Orally administered compositions can also contain one or more agents, for example, sweetening agents such as fructose, aspartame or saccharin; flavoring agents such as peppermint, oil of wintergreen, or cherry; coloring agents; and preserving agents, to provide a pharmaceutically palatable preparation. Moreover, when in tablet or pill form, the compositions can be coated to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract thereby providing a sustained action over an extended period of time. Selectively permeable membranes surrounding an osmotically active driving compound are also suitable for orally administered compositions. A time-delay material such as glycerol monostearate or glycerol stearate can also be used.

[00570] The pharmaceutical compositions further comprising a solvent can optionally comprise a suitable amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable preservative, if desired, so as to provide additional protection against microbial growth. Examples of preservatives useful in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, potassium sorbate, methylparaben, propylparaben, benzoic acid and its salts, other esters of parahydroxybenzoic acid such as butylparaben, alcohols such as ethyl or benzyl alcohol, phenolic compounds such as phenol, or quaternary compounds such as benzalkonium chlorides (e.g., benzethonium chloride).

[00571] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention optionally contain a suitable amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable polymer. The polymer can increase the viscosity of the pharmaceutical composition. Suitable polymers for use in the compositions and methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydoxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), chitosan, polyacrylic acid, and polymethacrylic acid.

[00572] Typically, the polymer is present in an amount ranging from greater than 0 to 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the polymer is present in an amount ranging from about 0.1 to 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the polymer is present in an amount ranging from about 1 to 7.5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the polymer is present in an amount ranging from about 1.5 to 5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the polymer is present in an amount ranging from about 2 to 4 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are substantially free of polymers.

[00573] In one embodiment, any additional components added to the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are designated as GRAS by the FDA for use or consumption by animals. In one embodiment, any additional components added to the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are designated as GRAS by the FDA for use or consumption by humans.

[00574] The components of the pharmaceutical composition (the solvents and any other optional components) are preferably biocompatible and non-toxic and, over time, are simply absorbed and/or metabolized by the body.

[00575] As described above, the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention can further comprise a solvent.

[00576] In one embodiment, the solvent comprises water.

[00577] In one embodiment, the solvent comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent.

[00578] In an embodiment, the oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof, are available as the salt of a metal cation, for example, as the potassium or sodium salt. These salts, however, may have low solubility in aqueous solvents and/or organic solvents, typically, less than about 25 mg/mL. The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention comprising (i) an amino acid ester or amino acid amide and (ii) a protonated oligonucleotide, however, may be significantly more soluble in aqueous solvents and/or organic solvents. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the amino acid ester or amino acid amide and the protonated oligonucleotide form a salt, such as illustrated above, and the salt is soluble in aqueous and/or organic solvents.

[00579] Similarly, without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the pharmaceutical compositions comprising (i) an oligonucleotide of the invention; (ii) a divalent metal cation; and (iii) optionally a carboxylate, a phospholipid, a phosphatidyl choline, or a sphingomyelin form a salt, such as illustrated above, and the salt is soluble in aqueous and/or organic solvents.

[00580] In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide of the invention in the solvent is greater than about 2 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide of the invention in the solvent is greater than about 5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is greater than about 7.5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is greater than about 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is greater than about 12 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is greater than about 15 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is ranges from about 2 percent to 5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is ranges from about 2 percent to 7.5 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent ranges from about 2 percent to 10 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is ranges from about 2 percent to 12 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is ranges from about 2 percent to 15 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the concentration of the oligonucleotide in the solvent is ranges from about 2 percent to 20 percent by weight of the pharmaceutical composition.

[00581] Any pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent can be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. Representative, pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvents include, but are not limited to, pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol (i.e., 1,3-propylene glycol), glycerol formal, isosorbid dimethyl ether, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, tetraglycol,

tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, triacetin, propylene carbonate, dimethyl acetamide, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and combinations thereof.

[00582] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a water soluble solvent. A representative pharmaceutically acceptable water soluble organic solvents is triacetin.

[00583] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a water miscible solvent. Representative pharmaceutically acceptable water miscible organic solvents include, but are not limited to, glycerol formal, polyethylene glycol, and propylene glycol.

[00584] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises pyrrolidone. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is pyrrolidone substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00585] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00586] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises polyethylene glycol. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is polyethylene glycol substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00587] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises propylene glycol. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is propylene glycol substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00588] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises glycerol formal. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is glycerol formal substantially free of another organic solvent. [00589] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises isosorbid dimethyl ether. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is isosorbid dimethyl ether substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00590] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises ethanol. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is ethanol substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00591] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises dimethyl sulfoxide. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is dimethyl sulfoxide substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00592] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises tetraglycol. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is tetraglycol substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00593] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00594] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises triacetin. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is triacetin substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00595] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises propylene carbonate. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is propylene carbonate substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00596] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises dimethyl acetamide. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is dimethyl acetamide substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00597] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises dimethyl formamide. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is dimethyl formamide substantially free of another organic solvent.

[00598] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises at least two pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvents.

[00599] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone and glycerol formal. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and glycerol formal. In one embodiment, the ratio of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to glycerol formal ranges from about 90:10 to 10:90.

[00600] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent comprises propylene glycol and glycerol formal. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is propylene glycol and glycerol formal. In one embodiment, the ratio of propylene glycol to glycerol formal ranges from about 90:10 to 10:90. [00601] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a solvent that is recognized as GRAS by the FDA for administration or consumption by animals. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a solvent that is recognized as GRAS by the FDA for administration or consumption by humans.

[00602] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is substantially free of water. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent contains less than about 1 percent by weight of water. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent contains less about 0.5 percent by weight of water. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent contains less about 0.2 percent by weight of water. Pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvents that are substantially free of water are advantageous since they are not conducive to bacterial growth.

Accordingly, it is typically not necessary to include a preservative in pharmaceutical compositions that are substantially free of water. Another advantage of pharmaceutical compositions that use a

pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, preferably substantially free of water, as the solvent is that hydrolysis of the oligonucleotide is minimized. Typically, the more water present in the solvent the more readily the oligonucleotide can be hydrolyzed. Accordingly, oligonucleotide containing pharmaceutical compositions that use a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent as the solvent can be more stable than oligonucleotide containing pharmaceutical compositions that use water as the solvent.

[00603] In one embodiment, comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, the

pharmaceutical composition is injectable.

[00604] In one embodiment, the injectable pharmaceutical compositions are of sufficiently low viscosity that they can be easily drawn into a 20 gauge and needle and then easily expelled from the 20 gauge needle. Typically, the viscosity of the injectable pharmaceutical compositions are less than about 1,200 cps. In one embodiment, the viscosity of the injectable pharmaceutical compositions are less than about 1,000 cps. In one embodiment, the viscosity of the injectable pharmaceutical compositions are less than about 800 cps. In one embodiment, the viscosity of the injectable pharmaceutical compositions are less than about 500 cps. Injectable pharmaceutical compositions having a viscosity greater than about 1,200 cps and even greater than about 2,000 cps (for example gels) are also within the scope of the invention provided that the compositions can be expelled through an 18 to 24 gauge needle.

[00605] In one embodiment, comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, the

pharmaceutical composition is injectable and does not form a precipitate when injected into water.

[00606] In one embodiment, comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, the

pharmaceutical composition is injectable and forms a precipitate when injected into water. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed, for pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a protonated oligonucleotide and an amino acid ester or amide, that the α-amino group of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide is protonated by the oligonucleotide to form a salt, such as illustrated above, which is soluble in the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent but insoluble in water. Similarly, when the pharmaceutical composition comprises (i) an oligonucleotide; (ii) a divalent metal cation; and (iii) optionally a carboxylate, a phospholipid, a phosphatidyl choline, or a sphingomyelin, it is believed that the components of the composition form a salt, such as illustrated above, which is soluble in the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent but insoluble in water. Accordingly, when the

pharmaceutical compositions are injected into an animal, at least a portion of the pharmaceutical composition precipitates at the injection site to provide a drug depot. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that when the pharmaceutically compositions are injected into an animal, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent diffuses away from the injection site and aqueous bodily fluids diffuse towards the injection site, resulting in an increase in concentration of water at the injection site, that causes at least a portion of the composition to precipitate and form a drug depot. The precipitate can take the form of a solid, a crystal, a gummy mass, or a gel. The precipitate, however, provides a depot of the oligonucleotide at the injection site that releases the oligonucleotide over time. The components of the pharmaceutical composition, i.e., the amino acid ester or amino acid amide, the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, and any other components are biocompatible and non-toxic and, over time, are simply absorbed and/or metabolized by the body.

[00607] In one embodiment, comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent, the

pharmaceutical composition is injectable and forms liposomal or micellar structures when injected into water (typically about 500 μL are injected into about 4 mL of water). The formation of liposomal or micellar structures are most often formed when the pharmaceutical composition includes a phospholipid. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the oligonucleotide in the form of a salt, which can be a salt formed with an amino acid ester or amide or can be a salt with a divalent metal cation and optionally a carboxylate, a phospholipid, a phosphatidyl choline, or a sphingomyelin, that is trapped within the liposomal or micellar structure. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that when these pharmaceutically compositions are injected into an animal, the liposomal or micellar structures release the oligonucleotide over time.

[00608] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent is a suspension of solid particles in the pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the solid particles comprise a salt formed between the amino acid ester or amino acid amide and the protonated oligonucleotide wherein the acidic phosphate groups of the oligonucleotide protonates the amino group of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide, such as illustrated above, or comprises a salt formed between the oligonucleotide; divalent metal cation; and optional carboxylate, phospholipid, phosphatidyl choline, or sphingomyelin, as illustrated above. Pharmaceutical compositions that are suspensions can also form drug depots when injected into an animal.

[00609] By varying the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide it is possible to vary the properties of pharmaceutical compositions that include these components and further comprise an organic solvent. The lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide can be varied by varying the amino acid and/or the alcohol (or amine) used to form the amino acid ester (or amino acid amide). For example, the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester can be varied by varying the R1 hydrocarbon group of the amino acid ester. Typically, increasing the molecular weight of R1 increase the lipophilicity of the amino acid ester. Similarly, the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid amide can be varied by varying the R3 or R4 groups of the amino acid amide.

[00610] For example, by varying the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide it is possible to vary the solubility of the oligonucleotide of the invention in water, to vary the solubility of the oligonucleotide in the organic solvent, vary the viscosity of the pharmaceutical composition comprising a solvent, and vary the ease at which the pharmaceutical composition can be drawn into a 20 gauge needle and then expelled from the 20 gauge needle.

[00611] Furthermore, by varying the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide (i.e., by varying R1 of the amino acid ester or R3 and R4 of the amino acid amide) it is possible to control whether the pharmaceutical composition that further comprises an organic solvent will form a precipitate when injected into water. Although different oligonucleotides exhibit different solubility and behavior, generally the higher the molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide, the more likely it is that the salt of the protonated oligonucleotide and the amino acid ester of the amide will form a precipitate when injected into water. Typically, when R1 of the amino acid ester is a hydrocarbon of about C16 or higher the pharmaceutical composition will form a precipitate when injected into water and when R1 of the amino acid ester is a hydrocarbon of about C12 or less the pharmaceutical composition will not form a precipitate when injected into water. Indeed, with amino acid esters wherein R1 is a hydrocarbon of about C12 or less, the salt of the protonated oligonucleotide and the amino acid ester is, in many cases, soluble in water. Similarly, with amino acid amides, if the combined number of carbons in R3 and R4 is 16 or more the pharmaceutical composition will typically form a precipitate when injected into water and if the combined number of carbons in R3 and R4 is 12 or less the pharmaceutical composition will not form a precipitate when injected into water. Whether or not a pharmaceutical composition that further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent will form a precipitate when injected into water can readily be determined by injecting about 0.05 mL of the pharmaceutical composition into about 4 mL of water at about 98° F. and determining how much material is retained on a 0.22 μm filter after the composition is mixed with water and filtered. Typically, a formulation or composition is considered to be injectable when no more than 10% of the formulation is retained on the filter. In one embodiment, no more than 5% of the formulation is retained on the filter. In one embodiment, no more than 2% of the formulation is retained on the filter. In one embodiment, no more than 1% of the formulation is retained on the filter.

[00612] Similarly, in pharmaceutical compositions that comprise a protonated oligonucleotide and a diester or diamide of aspartic or glutamic acid, it is possible to vary the properties of pharmaceutical compositions by varying the amount and/or lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the diester or diamide of aspartic or glutamic acid. Similarly, in pharmaceutical compositions that comprise an oligonucleotide; a divalent metal cation; and a carboxylate, a phospholipid, a phosphatidyl choline, or a sphingomyelin, it is possible to vary the properties of pharmaceutical compositions by varying the amount and/or lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the carboxylate, phospholipid, phosphatidyl choline, or sphingomyelin.

[00613] Further, when the pharmaceutical compositions that further comprises an organic solvent form a depot when administered to an animal, it is also possible to vary the rate at which the oligonucleotide is released from the drug depot by varying the lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the amino acid ester or amino acid amide. Generally, the more lipophilic the amino acid ester or amino acid amide, the more slowly the oligonucleotide is released from the depot. Similarly, when the pharmaceutical compositions that further comprises an organic solvent and also further comprise a carboxylate, phospholipid, phosphatidyl choline, sphingomyelin, or a diester or diamide of aspartic or glutamic acid and form a depot when administered to an animal, it is possible to vary the rate at which the oligonucleotide is released from the drug depot by varying the amount and/or lipophilicity and/or molecular weight of the carboxylate, phospholipid, phosphatidyl choline, sphingomyelin, or the diester or diamide of aspartic or glutamic acid.

[00614] Release rates from a precipitate can be measured injecting about 50 μL of the pharmaceutical composition into about 4 mL of deionized water in a centrifuge tube. The time that the pharmaceutical composition is injected into the water is recorded as T=0. After a specified amount of time, T, the sample is cooled to about−9° C. and spun on a centrifuge at about 13,000 rpm for about 20 min. The resulting supernatant is then analyzed by HPLC to determine the amount of oligonucleotide present in the aqueous solution. The amount of oligonucleotide in the pellet resulting from the centrifugation can also be determined by collecting the pellet, dissolving the pellet in about 10 μL of methanol, and analyzing the methanol solution by HPLC to determine the amount of oligonucleotide in the precipitate. The amount of oligonucleotide in the aqueous solution and the amount of oligonucleotide in the precipitate are determined by comparing the peak area for the HPLC peak corresponding to the oligonucleotide against a standard curve of oligonucleotide peak area against concentration of oligonucleotide. Suitable HPLC conditions can be readily determined by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[00615] Methods of Treatment

[00616] The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are useful in human medicine and veterinary medicine. Accordingly, the invention further relates to a method of treating or preventing a condition in an animal comprising administering to the animal an effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

[00617] In one embodiment, the invention relates to methods of treating a condition in an animal comprising administering to an animal in need thereof an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition of the invention. [00618] In one embodiment, the invention relates to methods of preventing a condition in an animal comprising administering to an animal in need thereof an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

[00619] Methods of administration include, but are not limited to, intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, oral, sublingual, intracerebral, intravaginal, transdermal, rectal, by inhalation, or topical. The mode of administration is left to the discretion of the practitioner. In some embodiments, administration will result in the release of the oligonucleotide of the invention, e.g., a multipartite construct, an anti-C1Q oligonucleotide, a C10.36 oligonucleotide, as described above, or any combination thereof, into the bloodstream.

[00620] In one embodiment, the method of treating or preventing a condition in an animal comprises administering to the animal in need thereof an effective amount of an oligonucleotide by parenterally administering the pharmaceutical composition of the invention. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered by infusion or bolus injection. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered subcutaneously.

[00621] In one embodiment, the method of treating or preventing a condition in an animal comprises administering to the animal in need thereof an effective amount of an oligonucleotide by orally administering the pharmaceutical composition of the invention. In one embodiment, the composition is in the form of a capsule or tablet.

[00622] The pharmaceutical compositions can also be administered by any other convenient route, for example, topically, by absorption through epithelial or mucocutaneous linings (e.g., oral, rectal, and intestinal mucosa, etc.).

[00623] The pharmaceutical compositions can be administered systemically or locally.

[00624] The pharmaceutical compositions can be administered together with another biologically active agent.

[00625] In one embodiment, the animal is a mammal.

[00626] In one embodiment the animal is a human.

[00627] In one embodiment, the animal is a non-human animal.

[00628] In one embodiment, the animal is a canine, a feline, an equine, a bovine, an ovine, or a porcine.

[00629] The effective amount administered to the animal depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to the type of animal being treated, the condition being treated, the severity of the condition, and the specific multipartite construct being administered. A treating physician can determine an effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition to treat a condition in an animal.

[00630] In one embodiment, the multipartite construct comprises an anti-EpCAM aptamer segment. For example, the target of interest comprises EpCAM. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of a EGFR, PBP, EpCAM, and KLK2. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of a tetraspanin, EpCam, CD9, PCSA, CD63, CD81, PSMA, B7H3, PSCA, ICAM, STEAP, KLK2, SSX2, SSX4, PBP, SPDEF, and EGFR. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, PSMA, PCSA, CD63, CD81, B7H3, IL 6, OPG-13, IL6R, PA2G4, EZH2, RUNX2, SERPINB3, and EpCam. In another embodiment, a target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of A33, a33 n15, AFP, ALA, ALIX, ALP, AnnexinV, APC, ASCA, ASPH (246-260), ASPH (666-680), ASPH (A-10), ASPH (D01P), ASPH (D03), ASPH (G-20), ASPH (H-300), AURKA, AURKB, B7H3, B7H4, BCA-225, BCNP1, BDNF, BRCA, CA125 (MUC16), CA-19-9, C-Bir, CD1.1, CD10, CD174 (Lewis y), CD24, CD44, CD46, CD59 (MEM-43), CD63, CD66e CEA, CD73, CD81, CD9, CDA, CDAC11a2, CEA, C-Erb2, C- erbB2, CRMP-2, CRP, CXCL12, CYFRA21-1, DLL4, DR3, EGFR, Epcam, EphA2, EphA2 (H-77), ER, ErbB4, EZH2, FASL, FRT, FRT c.f23, GDF15, GPCR, GPR30, Gro-alpha, HAP, HBD 1, HBD2, HER 3 (ErbB3), HSP, HSP70, hVEGFR2, iC3b, IL 6 Unc, IL-1B, IL6 Unc, IL6R, IL8, IL-8, INSIG-2, KLK2, L1CAM, LAMN, LDH, MACC-1, MAPK4, MART-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MFG-E8, MIC1, MIF, MIS RII, MMG, MMP26, MMP7, MMP9, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC1 seq1, MUC1 seq11A, MUC17, MUC2, Ncam, NGAL, NPGP/NPFF2, OPG, OPN, p53, p53, PA2G4, PBP, PCSA, PDGFRB, PGP9.5, PIM1, PR (B), PRL, PSA, PSMA, PSME3, PTEN, R5-CD9 Tube 1, Reg IV, RUNX2, SCRN1, seprase, SERPINB3, SPARC, SPB, SPDEF, SRVN, STAT 3, STEAP1, TF (FL-295), TFF3, TGM2, TIMP-1, TIMP1, TIMP2, TMEM211, TMPRSS2, TNF-alpha, Trail-R2, Trail-R4, TrKB, TROP2, Tsg 101, TWEAK, UNC93A, VEGF A, and YPSMA-1. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of 5T4, ACTG1, ADAM10, ADAM15, ALDOA, ANXA2, ANXA6, APOA1, ATP1A1, BASP1, C1orf58, C20orf114, C8B, CAPZA1, CAV1, CD151, CD2AP, CD59, CD9, CD9, CFL1, CFP, CHMP4B, CLTC, COTL1, CTNND1, CTSB, CTSZ, CYCS, DPP4, EEF1A1, EHD1, ENO1, F11R, F2, F5, FAM125A, FNBP1L, FOLH1, GAPDH, GLB1, GPX3, HIST1H1C, HIST1H2AB, HSP90AB1, HSPA1B, HSPA8, IGSF8, ITGB1, ITIH3, JUP, LDHA, LDHB, LUM, LYZ, MFGE8, MGAM, MMP9, MYH2, MYL6B, NME1, NME2, PABPC1, PABPC4, PACSIN2, PCBP2, PDCD6IP, PRDX2, PSA, PSMA, PSMA1, PSMA2, PSMA4, PSMA6, PSMA7, PSMB1, PSMB2, PSMB3, PSMB4, PSMB5, PSMB6, PSMB8, PTGFRN, RPS27A, SDCBP, SERINC5, SH3GL1, SLC3A2, SMPDL3B, SNX9, TACSTD1, TCN2, THBS1, TPI1, TSG101, TUBB, VDAC2, VPS37B, YWHAG, YWHAQ, and YWHAZ. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3 and EpCam. CD9, CD63, CD81, PSMA, PCSA, B7H3 and EpCam. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of a tetraspanin, CD9, CD63, CD81, CD63, CD9, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, Rab-5b, Annexin V, MFG-E8,. Muc1, GPCR 110, TMEM211 and CD24 In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of A33, AFP, ALIX, ALX4, ANCA, APC, ASCA, AURKA, AURKB, B7H3, BANK1, BCNP1, BDNF, CA-19-9, CCSA-2, CCSA-3&4, CD10, CD24, CD44, CD63, CD66 CEA, CD66e CEA, CD81, CD9, CDA, C-Erb2, CRMP-2, CRP, CRTN, CXCL12, CYFRA21-1, DcR3, DLL4, DR3, EGFR, Epcam, EphA2, FASL, FRT, GAL3, GDF15, GPCR (GPR110), GPR30, GRO-1, HBD 1, HBD2, HNP1- 3, IL-1B, IL8, IMP3, L1CAM, LAMN, MACC-1, MGC20553, MCP-1, M-CSF, MIC1, MIF, MMP7, MMP9, MS4A1, MUC1, MUC17, MUC2, Ncam, NGAL, NNMT, OPN, p53, PCSA, PDGFRB, PRL, PSMA, PSME3, Reg IV, SCRN1, Sept-9, SPARC, SPON2, SPR, SRVN, TFF3, TGM2, TIMP-1, TMEM211, TNF-alpha, TPA, TPS, Trail-R2, Trail-R4, TrKB, TROP2, Tsg 101, TWEAK, UNC93A, and VEGFA. In another embodiment, the target is selected from the group of proteins consisting of CD9, EGFR, NGAL, CD81, STEAP, CD24, A33, CD66E, EPHA2, Ferritin, GPR30, GPR110, MMP9, OPN, p53, TMEM211, TROP2, TGM2, TIMP, EGFR, DR3, UNC93A, MUC17, EpCAM, MUC1, MUC2, TSG101, CD63, B7H3, CD24, and a tetraspanin.

[00631] The immunosuppressive target can be a tumor-derived protein found on cMVs and/or cancer cells, including without limitation TGF-β, CD39, CD73, IL10, FasL or TRAIL.

[00632] In one embodiment, the multipartite construct can inhibit angiogenesis. In one embodiment, the multipartite construct can inhibit angiogenesis and the disease being treated is cancer. In one embodiment, the aptamer can inhibit angiogenesis and the disease being treated is a solid tumor.

The multipartite construct can be a multipartite construct that inhibits a neoplastic growth or a cancer. In embodiments, the cancer comprises an acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloid leukemia;

adrenocortical carcinoma; AIDS-related cancers; AIDS-related lymphoma; anal cancer; appendix cancer; astrocytomas; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; basal cell carcinoma; bladder cancer; brain stem glioma; brain tumor (including brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, astrocytomas, craniopharyngioma, ependymoblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors and pineoblastoma); breast cancer; bronchial tumors; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer of unknown primary site; carcinoid tumor; carcinoma of unknown primary site; central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor; central nervous system embryonal tumors;

cervical cancer; childhood cancers; chordoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; craniopharyngioma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; endocrine pancreas islet cell tumors; endometrial cancer;

ependymoblastoma; ependymoma; esophageal cancer; esthesioneuroblastoma; Ewing sarcoma;

extracranial germ cell tumor; extragonadal germ cell tumor; extrahepatic bile duct cancer; gallbladder cancer; gastric (stomach) cancer; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor; gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor; gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST); gestational trophoblastic tumor; glioma; hairy cell leukemia; head and neck cancer; heart cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma; hypopharyngeal cancer; intraocular melanoma; islet cell tumors; Kaposi sarcoma; kidney cancer; Langerhans cell histiocytosis; laryngeal cancer; lip cancer; liver cancer; malignant fibrous histiocytoma bone cancer; medulloblastoma; medulloepithelioma;

melanoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Merkel cell skin carcinoma; mesothelioma; metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary; mouth cancer; multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes; multiple myeloma; multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm; mycosis fungoides; myelodysplastic syndromes;

myeloproliferative neoplasms; nasal cavity cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; neuroblastoma; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; non-small cell lung cancer; oral cancer; oral cavity cancer;

oropharyngeal cancer; osteosarcoma; other brain and spinal cord tumors; ovarian cancer; ovarian epithelial cancer; ovarian germ cell tumor; ovarian low malignant potential tumor; pancreatic cancer; papillomatosis; paranasal sinus cancer; parathyroid cancer; pelvic cancer; penile cancer; pharyngeal cancer; pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation; pineoblastoma; pituitary tumor; plasma cell neoplasm/multiple myeloma; pleuropulmonary blastoma; primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma; primary hepatocellular liver cancer; prostate cancer; rectal cancer; renal cancer; renal cell (kidney) cancer; renal cell cancer; respiratory tract cancer; retinoblastoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; salivary gland cancer; Sézary syndrome; small cell lung cancer; small intestine cancer; soft tissue sarcoma;

squamous cell carcinoma; squamous neck cancer; stomach (gastric) cancer; supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors; T-cell lymphoma; testicular cancer; throat cancer; thymic carcinoma; thymoma; thyroid cancer; transitional cell cancer; transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter; trophoblastic tumor; ureter cancer; urethral cancer; uterine cancer; uterine sarcoma; vaginal cancer; vulvar cancer; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; or Wilm’s tumor. The compositions and methods of the invention can be used to treat these and other cancers.

Kits

[00633] The invention also provides a kit comprising one or more reagent to carry out the methods of the invention. For example, the one or more reagent can be the one or more aptamer, a buffer, blocker, enzyme, or combination thereof. The one or more reagent may comprise any useful reagents for carrying out the subject methods, including without limitation aptamer libraries, substrates such as microbeads or planar arrays or wells, reagents for biomarker and/or microvesicle isolation (e.g., via chromatography, filtration, ultrafiltration, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation, flow cytometry, affinity capture (e.g., to a planar surface, column or bead), polymer precipitation, and/or using microfluidics), aptamers directed to specific targets, aptamer pools that facilitate detection of a biomarker/microvesicle population, reagents such as primers for nucleic acid sequencing or amplification, arrays for nucleic acid hybridization, detectable labels, solvents or buffers and the like, various linkers, various assay components, blockers, and the like. The one or more reagent may also comprise various compositions provided by the invention. In an embodiment, the one or more reagent comprises one or more aptamer of the invention. The one or more reagent can comprise a substrate, such as a planar substate, column or bead. The kit can contain instructions to carry out various assays using the one or more reagent.

[00634] In an embodiment, the kit comprises an oligonucleotide probe or composition provided herein. The kit can be configured to carry out the methods provided herein. For example, the kit can include an aptamer of the invention, a substrate, or both an aptamer of the invention and a substrate.

[00635] In an embodiment, the kit is configured to carry out an assay. For example, the kit can contain one or more reagent and instructions for detecting the presence or level of a biological entity in a biological sample. In such cases, the kit can include one or more binding agent to a biological entity of interest. The one or more binding agent can be bound to a substrate.

[00636] In an embodiment, the kit comprises a set of oligonucleotides that provide a particular oligonucleotide profile for a biological sample. An oligonucleotide profile can include, without limitation, a profile that can be used to characterize a particular disease or disorder. For example, the disease or disorder can be a proliferative disease or disorder, including without limitation a cancer. In some embodiments, the cancer comprises a breast cancer. EXAMPLES

Example 1: Identification of DNA oligonucleotides that bind a target

[00637] The target is affixed to a solid substrate, such as a glass slide or a magnetic bead. For a magnetic bead preparation, beads are incubated with a concentration of target protein ranging from 0.1 to 1 mg/ml. The target protein is conjugated to the beads according to a chemistry provided by the particular bead manufacturer. Typically, this involves coupling via an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) functional group process. Unoccupied NHS groups are rendered inactive following conjugation with the target.

[00638] Randomly generated oligonucleotides (oligos) of a certain length, such as 32 base pairs long, are added to a container holding the stabilized target. Each oligo contains 6 thymine nucleotides (a“thymine tail”) at either the 5 or 3 prime end, along with a single molecule of biotin conjugated to the thymine tail. Additional molecules of biotin could be added. Each oligo is also manufactured with a short stretch of nucleotides on each end (5-10 base pairs long) corresponding to amplification primers for PCR (“primer tails”). The sequences are shown absent the thymine tails or primer tails.

[00639] The oligonucleotides are incubated with the target at a specified temperature and time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees Celsius in 500 microliter reaction volume.

[00640] The target/oligo combination is washed 1-10 times with buffer to remove unbound oligo. The number of washes increases with each repetition of the process (as noted below).

[00641] The oligos bound to the target are eluted using a buffer containing a chaotropic agent such as 7 M urea or 1% SDS and collected using the biotin tag. The oligos are amplified using the polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to 5’ and 3’ sequences added to the randomized region of the oligos. The amplified oligos are added to the target again for another round of selection. This process is repeated as desired to observe binding enrichment.

Example 2: Competitive assay

[00642] The process is performed as in Example 1 above, except that a known ligand to the target, such as an antibody, is used to elute the bound oligo species (as opposed to or in addition to the chaotropic agent). In this case, anti-EpCAM antibody from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. was used to elute the aptamers from the target EpCAM.

Example 3: Screening and Affinity Analysis

[00643] All aptamers generated from the binding assays described above are sequenced using a high- throughput sequencing platform, such as the Ion Torrent from Life Technologies:

[00644] Library Preparation - Aptamers were pooled after ligating barcodes and adapter sequences (Life Technologies) according to manufacturer protocols. In brief, equimolar pools of the aptamers were made using the following steps: Analyzed an aliquot of each library with a Bioanalyzer™ instrument and Agilent DNA 1000 Kit or Agilent High Sensitivity Kit, as appropriate for the final library concentration. The molar concentration (nmol/L) of each amplicon library was detetrmined using the commercially available software (Agilent).

[00645] An equimolar pool of the library was prepared at the highest possible concentration.

[00646] The combined concentration of the pooled library stock was calculated.

[00647] The template dilution factor of the library pool was determined using the following equation: Template Dilution Factor = (Library pool concentration [pM])/26 pM).

[00648] Template Preparation– Using a freshly diluted library, the aptamer pool resulting from binding assays provided above were sequenced using conventional sequencing protocols. High throughput (NextGen) sequencing methods can be used as desired.

[00649] Twenty aptamers were selected based on direct or competitive assays assessing binding to EpCAM (as described above).

[00650] Affinity Measurements– These twenty aptamers were then tested for binding affinity using an in vitro binding platform. SPR can be used for this step, e.g., a Biacore SPR machine using the T200 control software, as follows:

[00651] Dilute the antigen to a concentration of 32 nM.

[00652] Prepare necessary dilutions for kinetics, starting at 32nM prepare two-fold dilutions of antigen down to 0.5nM.

[00653] The Biacore 200 control software is programmed with the following conditions: Solution: HBS- EP+ Buffer; Number of cycles: 3; Contact time: 120s; Flow rate: 30µl/min; Dissociation time: 300s; Solution: Glycine-HCl pH 2.5; Contact time: 120s; Flow rate: 20µl/min; Stabilization period: 0s.The binding affinities of these aptamers are then measured using the SPR assay above, or an alternate in vitro assay assessing the aptamer for a desired function.

[00654] FIG.5 shows the SPR data for aptamer BTX176881 (SEQ ID NO: 3). The figure comprises an association and dissociation graph of 1:1 fitting model of the biotinylated aptamers to EpCAM protein at the indicated concentrations (nM). Table 4 shows the calculated K d values from the SPR measurements that are illustrated in FIG.5. In addition, Table 4 shows the SPR data and calculated K d values for BTX187269 (SEQ ID NO: 6) and Aptamer 4 (SEQ ID NO.1).

Table 4: Calculated K D values from SPR measurements

[ 55] K d , R an va ues y o a tt ng or s ng e re erence met o . Example 4: Motif analysis

[00656] The process of Example 3 is followed to identity a high affinity aptamer to a target of interest. Once a high affinity aptamer is identified, its sequence is then analyzed using a software program to estimate its two-dimensional folding structure. Well-known sequence alignment programs and algorithms for motif identification can be used to identify sequence motifs and reduce the dimensionality of even large data sets of sequences. Further, software programs such as Vienna and mfold are well-known to those skilled in the art of aptamer selection and can be used to further group sequences based on secondary structure motifs (shared shapes). See FIG.3A and FIG.3B for example structure predictions. Shared secondary structure of course, does not guarantee identical three-dimensional structure. Therefore “wet-lab” validation of aptamers is still useful as no one set of in silico tools has yet been able to fully predict the optimal aptamer among a set of aptamer candidates.

Example 5: Microvesicle-based aptamer subtraction assay

[00657] Circulating microvesicles are isolated from normal plasma (e.g., from individuals without cancer) using one of the following methods: 1) Isolation using the ExoQuick reagent according to manufacturer’s protocol; 2) Ultracentrifugation comprising spin at 50,000 to 150,000g for 1 to 20 hours then

resuspending the pellet in PBS; 3) Isolation using the TEXIS reagent from Life Technologies according to manufacturer’s protocol; and 4) filtration methodology. The filtration method is described in more detail as follows:

[00658] Place syringe and filter (1.2 µm Acrodisc Syringe Filter Versapor Membrane Non-Pyrogenic Ref: 4190, Pall Life Sciences) on open 7 ml 150K MWCO column (Pierce concentrators, 150K MWCO (molecular weight cut off) 7 ml. Part number: 89922). Fill open end of syringe with 5.2 ml of filtered 1X PBS prepared in sterile molecular grade water.

[00659] Pipette patient plasma (900-1000 µl) into the PBS in the syringe, pipette mix twice

[00660] Filter the plasma into the 7 ml 150K MWCO column.

[00661] Centrifuge 7 ml 150K MWCO columns at 2000 x g at 20ºC (16°C to 24°C) for 1 hour.

[00662] After 1 hour spin, pour the flow-through into 10% bleach to be discarded.

[00663] Visually inspect sample volume. If plasma concentrate is above the 8.5 ml graduation on the concentrator tube, continue to spin plasma sample at 10 minute increments at 2000 x g at 20ºC (16°C to 24°C) checking volume after each spin until plasma concentrate is between 8.0 and 8.5 mls.

[00664] Pipette mix slowly on the column a minimum of 6 times and adjust pipette to determine plasma concentrate volume. If volume is between 100 µl and Target Volume, transfer plasma concentrate to previously labeled co-polymer 1.5 ml tube. If volume is still greater than Target Volume, repeat the above centrifugation step.

[00665] Pour ~45 mls of filtered 1X PBS prepared in sterile molecular grade water into 50 ml conical tube for use in the next step.

[00666] Add the appropriate amount of filtered 1X PBS to reconstitute the sample to the Target Volume. [00667] The microvesicles produced using any of the isolation methods will comprise a mixture of vesicle types and will be various sizes with the possible exception of ultracentrifugation methods, which may favor isolating exosome size particles.

[00668] Randomly generated oligonucleotides (produced as described in Example 1 above) are incubated with the isolated normal vesicles in PBS overnight at room temperature or at 4 degrees Celsius.

[00669] The aptamers that do not bind to these vesicles are isolated by spinning down the vesicles at 50,000 to 150,000 X g for 1 to 20 hours and collecting the supernatant.

[00670] The aptamer oligonucleotides are collected from the supernatant by running the mixture over a column containing streptavidin-coated beads. These aptamers are then added to vesicles isolated from diseased patients (using the same methods as above) and incubated overnight in PBS at room temperature or 4 degrees Celsius.

[00671] The vesicles are then spun at 50,000 to 150,000 X g for 1 to 20 hours and the supernatant is discarded. The vesicles are resuspended in PBS and lysed using SDS or some similar detergent.

[00672] The aptamers are then captured by running the lysis mixture over a column of streptavidin-coated beads. The isolated aptamers are then subjected to a round of PCR to amplify the products.

[00673] The process is then repeated for a set number of times, e.g., 5 times. The remaining aptamer pool has been depleted of aptamers that recognize microvesicles found in“normal” plasma. Accordingly, this method can be used to enrich the pool in aptamers that recognize cancer vesicles. See FIG.4.

Example 6: Detection of Microvesicles using anti-EpCAM aptamers

[00674] Aptamers can be used as binding agents to detect a biomarker. In this Example, aptamers are used as binding agents to detect EpCAM protein associated with microvesicles.

[00675] FIGs.6A-D illustrate the use of an anti-EpCAM aptamer (Aptamer 4; SEQ ID NO.1) to detect a microvesicle population in plasma samples. Plasma samples were obtained from three men with prostate cancer and three men without prostate cancer (referred to as controls or normals). Antibodies to the following microvesicle surface protein antigens of interest were conjugated to microbeads (Luminex Corp, Austin, TX): FIG.6A) EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor); FIG.6B) PBP (prostatic binding protein; also known as PEBP1 (phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1)); FIG.6C) EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule); and FIG.6D) KLK2 (kallikrein-related peptidase 2). Microvesicles in the plasma samples were captured using the bead-conjugated antibodies. Fluorescently labeled Aptamer 4 was used as a detector in the microbead assay. FIGs.6A-D show the average median fluorescence values (MFI values) detected for the bead-captured and Aptamer 4 detected microvesicles. Each plot individually shows the three cancer (C1-C3) and three normal samples (N1-N3). These data show that, on average, the prostate cancer samples have higher levels of microvesicles containing the target proteins than the normals.

Example 7: Aptamer Target Identification

[00676] In this Example, aptamers conjugated to microspheres are used to assist in determining the target of two aptamers identified by library screening methods as described above. The general approach is shown in FIG.7. The approach is used to verify the targets of CAR003, an aptamer identified by library screening to recognize EpCAM. See decription above for CAR003. In this approach, the sequence of CAR003 is randomly rearranged before linkage to the microspheres. The microspheres are used as controls to bind to targets that are similar but not identical to the intended target molecule.

[00677] The protocol used is as follows:

[00678] 1) The candidate aptamers (here, CAR003) and negative control aptamers (here, randomly arranged CAR003) are synthesized with modifications to allow capture (here, the aptamers are biotinylated) and crosslinking (here, using the Sulfo-SBED Biotin Label Transfer Reagent and Kit, Catalog Number 33073 from Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Rockford, IL, to allow photocrosslinking).

[00679] 2) Each of the aptamers is individually mixed with microvesicles having the target of interest (here, BrCa cell line microvesicles).

[00680] 3) After incubation to allow the aptamers to bind target, ultraviolet light is applied to the mixtures to trigger crosslinking of the aptamers with the microvesicle targets.

[00681] 4) The microvesicles are lysed, thereby releasing the crosslinked aptamer-target complex into solution.

[00682] 5) The crosslinked aptamer-target complexes are captured from solution using a streptavidin coated substrate.

[00683] 6) The crosslinked aptamer-target complexes for each aptamer are run individually on SDS- PAGE gel electrophoresis. The captured protein targets are visualized with Coomasie Blue staining.

[00684] 7) The crosslinking and binding steps may be promiscuous so that multiple bands including the intended target but also random proteins will appear on each of the gels. The intended target will be found in a band that appears on the gel with the candidate aptamer (here, CAR003) but not the related negative control aptamers (here, randomly arranged CAR003). The bands corresponding to the target are excised from the gel.

[00685] 8) Mass spectrometry (MS) is used to identify the aptamer target from the excised bands.

Example 8: Disease Diagnosis

[00686] This example illustrates the use of oligonucleotide probes of the present invention to diagnose a proliferative disease.

[00687] A suitable quantity of an oligonucleotide or pool of oligonucleotides that bind a BrCa-derived population of microvesicles, such as identified herein, is synthesized via chemical means known in the art. The oligonucleotides are conjugated to a diagnostic agent suitable for detection, such as a fluorescent moiety, using a conjugation method known in the art.

[00688] The composition is applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from a test cohort of patients suffering from a proliferative disease associated with the overexpression of microvesicles, e.g. breast cancer. The composition is likewise applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from a negative control cohort, not suffering from a proliferative disease. [00689] The use of appropriate detection techniques (e.g., microbead assay or flow cytometry) on the test cohort samples indicates the presence of disease, while the same techniques applied to the control cohort samples indicate the absence of disease.

[00690] The results show that the oligonucleotides of the present invention are useful in diagnosing proliferative diseases.

Example 9: Theranostics

[00691] This example illustrates the use of oligonucleotide probes of the present invention to provide a theranosis for a drug for treating a proliferative disease.

[00692] A suitable quantity of an oligonucleotide or pool of oligonucleotides that bind a BrCa-derived population of microvesicles, such as identified herein, is synthesized via chemical means known in the art. The probes are conjugated to an agent suitable for detection, such as a fluorescent moiety, using a method known in the art such as conjugation. The oligonucleotide probe or panel of oligonucleotide probes are within a suitable composition, such as a buffered solution.

[00693] Treatment selection. The composition is applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from a test cohort of patients suffering from a proliferative disease, e.g. breast cancer, that responded to a certain treatment, e.g., trautuzamab. The composition is likewise applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from a control cohort consisting of patients suffering from the same proliferative disease that did not respond to the treatment. The use of appropriate detection techniques (e.g., microbead assay or flow cytometry) on the test cohort samples indicates that probes which bind the samples are useful for identifying patients that will respond to the treatment, while the same techniques applied to the control cohort samples identifies probes useful for identifying patients that will not respond to the treatment.

[00694] Treatment monitoring. In another setting, the composition is applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from a test cohort of patients suffering from a proliferative disease, e.g. breast cancer, prior to or during a course of treatment, such as surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. The composition is then applied to microvesicles isolated from blood samples taken from the patients over a time course. The use of appropriate detection techniques (e.g., microbead assay or flow cytometry) on the test cohort samples indicates whether the detected population of disease-related microvesicles increases, decreases, or remains steady in concentration over time during the course of treatment. An increase in the population of disease-related microvesicles post-treatment may indicate that the treatment is ineffective whereas a dcrease in the population of disease-related microvesicles post-treatment may indicate that the treatment has a beneficial effect.

[00695] The results show that the oligonucleotide probes of the present invention are useful in theranosing proliferative diseases.

Example 10: Therapeutic Oligonucleotide Probes

[00696] This example illustrates the use of oligonucleotide probes of the present invention to treat a proliferative disease. [00697] A suitable quantity of an oligonucleotide or pool of oligonucleotides that bind a BrCa-derived population of microvesicles, such as identified herein, is synthesized via chemical means known in the art. The oligonucleotides are conjugated to a chemotherapeutic agent, such as Doxil, using a conjugation method known in the art. The conjugate is formulated in an aqueous composition.

[00698] The composition is administered intravenously, in one or more doses, to a test cohort of mice suffering from a proliferative disease associated with the overexpression of the microvesicles, e.g. a breast cancer model. A control cohort, not suffering from a proliferative disease is administered the identical composition intravenously, according to a corresponding dosage regimen.

[00699] Pathological analysis of tumor samples and/or mouse survival indicates that mortality and/or morbidity are improved in the test cohort over the control cohort.

[00700] The results show that the oligonucleotides of the present invention are useful in treating proliferative diseases.

[00701] Useful oligonucleotides can be used to treat proliferative diseases in other organisms, e.g., a human.

Example 11: Oligonucleotide– Sequencing Detection Method

[00702] This example illustrates the use of an oligonucleotide pool to detect microvesicles that are indicative of a phenotype of interest. The method makes use of a pool of oligonucleotides that have been enriched against a target of interest that is indicative of a phenotype of interest. The method in this Example allows efficient use of a library of oligonucleotides to preferentially recognize a target entity.

[00703] For purposes of illustration, the method is described in the Example with a microvesicle target from a bodily fluid sample. One of skill will appreciate that the method can be extended to other types of target entity (e.g., cells, proteins, various other biological complexes), sample (e.g., tissue, cell culture, biopsy, other bodily fluids) and other phenotypes (other cancers, other diseases, etc) by enriching an aptamer library against the desired input samples.

[00704] General workflow:

[00705] 1) Obtain sample (plasma, serum, urine or any other biological sample) of patients with unknown medical etymology and pre-treating them accordingly to ensure availability of the target of interest (see below). Where the target of interest is a microvesicle population, the microvesicles can be isolated and optionally tethered to a solid support such as a microbead.

[00706] 2) Expose pre-treated sample to an oligonucleotide pool carrying certain specificity against target of interest. As described herein, an oligonucleotide pool carrying certain specificity against the target of interest can be enriched using various selection schemes, e.g., using non-cancer microvesicles for negative selection and cancer microvesicles for positive selection as described above. DNA or RNA

oligonucleotides can be used as desired.

[00707] 3) Contact oligonucleotide library with the sample.

[00708] 4) Elute any oligonucleotides bound to the target.

[00709] 5) Sequence the eluted oligonucleotides. Next generation sequencing methods can be used. [00710] 6) Analyze oligonucleotide profile from the sequencing. A profile of oligonucleotides known to bind the target of interest indicates the presence of the target within the input sample. The profile can be used to characterize the sample, e.g., as cancer or non-cancer.

[00711] Protocol variations:

[00712] Various configurations of the assay can be performed. Four exemplary protocols are presented for the purposes of the oligonucleotide-sequencing assay. Samples can be any appropriate biological sample. The protocols can be modified as desired. For example, the microvesicles can be isolated using alternate techniques instead or or in addition to ultracentrifugation. Such techniques can be disclosed herein, e.g., polymer precipitation (e.g., PEG), column chromatography, and/or affinity isolation.

[00713] Protocol 1:

[00714] Ultracentrifugation of 1-5 ml bodily fluid samples (e.g., plasma/serum/urine) (120K x g, no sucrose) with two washes of the precipitate to isolate microvesicles.

[00715] Measure total protein concentration of recovered sample containing the isolated microvesicles.

[00716] Conjugate the isolated microvesicles to magnetic beads (for example MagPlex beads (Luminex Corp. Austin TX)).

[00717] Incubate conjugated microvesicles with oligonucleotide pool of interest.

[00718] Wash unbound oligonucleotides by retaining beads using magnet.

[00719] Elute oligonucleotides bound to the microvesicles.

[00720] Amplify and purify the eluted oligonucleotides.

[00721] Oligonucleotide sequencing (for example, Next generation methods; Ion Torrent: fusion PCR, emulsion PCR, sequencing).

[00722] Assess oligonucleotide profile.

[00723] Protocol 2:

[00724] This alternate protocol does not include a microvesicle isolation step, microvesicles conjugation to the beads, or separate partitioning step. This may present non-specific binding of the oligonucleotides against the input sample.

[00725] Remove cells/debris from bodily fluid sample and dilute sample with PBS containing MgCl 2 (2mM).

[00726] Pre-mix sample prepared above with oligonucleotide library.

[00727] Ultracentrifugation of oligonucleotide/sample mixture (120K x g, no sucrose). Wash precipitated microvesicles.

[00728] Recover precipitate and elute oligonucleotides bound to microvesicles.

[00729] Amplify and purify the eluted oligonucleotides.

[00730] Oligonucleotide sequencing (for example, Next generation methods; Ion Torrent: fusion PCR, emulsion PCR, sequencing).

[00731] Assess oligonucleotide profile.

[00732] Protocol 3: [00733] This protocol uses filtration instead of ultracentrifugation and should require less time and sample volume.

[00734] Remove cells/debris from bodily fluid sample and dilute it with PBS containing MgCl 2 (2mM).

[00735] Pre-mix sample prepared above with oligonucleotide library.

[00736] Load sample into filter (i.e., 150K or 300K MWCO filter or any other that can eliminate unbound or unwanted oligonucleotides). Centrifuge sample to concentrate. Concentrated sample should contain microvesicles.

[00737] Wash concentrate. Variant 1: Dilute concentrate with buffer specified above to the original volume and repeat centrifugation. Variant 2: Dilute concentrate with buffer specified above to the original volume and transfer concentrate to new filter unit and centrifuge. Repeat twice.

[00738] Recover concentrate and elute oligonucleotides bound to microvesicles.

[00739] Amplify and purify the eluted oligonucleotides.

[00740] Oligonucleotide sequencing (for example, Next generation methods; Ion Torrent: fusion PCR, emulsion PCR, sequencing).

[00741] Assess oligonucleotide profile.

[00742] Protocol 4:

[00743] Ultracentrifugation of 1-5 ml bodily fluid sample (120K x g, no sucrose) with 2 washes of the precipitate to isolate microvesicles.

[00744] Pre-mix microvesicles with oligonucleotide pool.

[00745] Load sample into 300K MWCO filter unite and centrifuge (2000xg). Concentration rate is ~3x.

[00746] Wash concentrate. Variant 1: Dilute concentrate with buffer specified above to the original volume and centrifuge. Repeat twice. Variant 2: Dilute concentrate with buffer specified above to the original volume and transfer concentrate to new filter unit and centrifuge. Repeat twice

[00747] Recover concentrate and elute oligonucleotides bound to microvesicles.

[00748] Amplify and purify the eluted oligonucleotides.

[00749] Oligonucleotide sequencing (for example, Next generation methods; Ion Torrent: fusion PCR, emulsion PCR, sequencing).

[00750] Assess oligonucleotide profile.

[00751] In alterations of the above protocols, polymer precipitation is used to isolate microvesicles from the patient samples. For example, the oligonucleotides are added to the sample and then PEG4000 or PEG8000 at 4% or 8% concentration is used to precipitate and thereby isolate microvesicles. Elution, recovery and sequence analysis continues as above.

Example 12: Plasma/Serum probing with an Oligonucleotide Probe Library

[00752] The following protocol is used to probe a plasma or serum sample using an oligonucleotide probe library.

[00753] Input oligonucleotide library:

[00754] Use 2 ng input of oligonucleotide library per sample. [00755] Input oligonucleotide library is a mixture of two libraries, cancer and non-cancer enriched, concentration is 16.3 ng/ul.

[00756] Dilute to 0.2ng/ul working stock using Aptamer Buffer (3mM MgCl 2 in 1X PBS)

[00757] Add 10ul from working stock (equal to 2 ng library) to each optiseal tube

[00758] Materials:

[00759] PBS, Hyclone SH30256.01, LN: AYG165629, bottle# 8237, exp.7/2015

[00760] Round Bottom Centrifuge Tubes, Beckman 326820, LN:P91207

[00761] OptiSeal Centrifuge tubes and plugs, polyallomer Konical, Beckman 361621, lot# Z10804SCA

[00762] Ultracentrifuge rotor: 50.4 TI

[00763] Ultracentrifuge rotor: 50.4 TI, Beckman Caris ID# 0478

[00764] Protocol:

[00765] 1 Pre-chill tabletop centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, buckets, and rotor at 4°C.

[00766] 2 Thaw plasma or serum samples

[00767] 3 Dilute 1ml of samples with 1:2 with Aptamer Buffer (3mM MgCl 2 in 1X PBS)

[00768] 4 Spin at 2000xg, 30 min, 4°C to remove debris (tabletop centrifuge)

[00769] 5 Transfer supernatants for all samples to a round bottom conical

[00770] 6 Spin at 12,000xg, 45 min, 4°C in ultracentrifuge to remove additional debris.

[00771] 7 Transfer supernatant about 1.8ml for all samples into new OptiSeal bell top tubes (uniquely marked).

[00772] 8 Add 2ng (in 10 ul) of DNA Probing library to each optiseal tube

[00773] 9 QS to 4.5 ml with Aptamer Buffer

[00774] 10 Fix caps onto the OptiSeal bell top tubes

[00775] 11 Apply Parafilm around caps to prevent leakage

[00776] 12 Incubate plasma and oligonucleotide probe library for 1 hour at room temperature with rotation

[00777] 13 Remove parafilm (but not caps)

[00778] 14 Place correct spacer on top of each plugged tube

[00779] 15 Mark pellet area on the tubes, insure this marking is facing outwards from center.

[00780] 16 Spin tubes at 120,000 x g, 2hr, 4°C (inner row, 33,400 rpm) to pellet microvesicles.

[00781] 17 Check marking is still pointed away from center.

[00782] 18 Completely remove supernatant from pellet, by collecting liquid from opposite side of pellet marker and using a 10 ml syringe barrel and 21G2 needle

[00783] 19 Discard supernatant in appropriate biohazard waste container

[00784] 20 Add 1 ml of 3 mM MgCl2 diluted with 1X PBS

[00785] 21 Gentle vortex, 1600rpm for 5 sec and incubate 5 min at RT.

[00786] 22 QS to ~4.5 mL with 3 mM Mg Cl2 diluted with 1X PBS

[00787] 23 Fix caps onto the OptiSeal bell top tubes.

[00788] 24 Place correct spacer on top of each plugged tube. [00789] 25 Mark pellet area on the tubes, insure this marking is facing outwards from center.

[00790] 26 Spin tubes at 120,000 x g, 70 min, 4°C (inner row 33,400 rpm) to pellet microvesicles

[00791] 27 Check marking in still pointed away from center.

[00792] 28 Completely remove supernatant from pellet, by collecting liquid from opposite side of pellet marker and using a 10 ml syringe barrel and 21G2 needle

[00793] 29 Discard supernatant in appropriate biohazard waste container

[00794] 30 Add 1 ml of 3 mM MgCl2 diluted with 1X PBS

[00795] 31 Gentle vortex, 1600rpm for 5 sec and incubate 5 min at RT.

[00796] 32 QS to ~4.5 mL with 3 mM Mg Cl2 diluted with 1X PBS

[00797] 33 Fix caps onto the OptiSeal bell top tubes.

[00798] 34 Place correct spacer on top of each plugged tube.

[00799] 35 Mark pellet area on the tubes, insure this marking is facing outwards from center.

[00800] 36 Spin tubes at 120,000 x g, 70 min, 4°C (inner row 33,400 rpm) to pellet microvesicles

[00801] 37 Check marking is still pointed away from center.

[00802] 38 Save an aliquot of the supernatant (100ul into a 1.5ml tube)

[00803] 39 Completely remove supernatant from pellet, by collecting liquid from opposite side of pellet marker and using a 10 ml syringe barrel and 21G2 needle

[00804] 40 Add 50 ul of Rnase-free water to the side of the pellet

[00805] 41 Leave for 15min incubation on bench top

[00806] 42 Cut top off tubes using clean scissors.

[00807] 43 Resuspend pellet, pipette up and down on the pellet side

[00808] 44 Measure the volume, make a note on the volume in order to normalize all samples

[00809] 45 Transfer the measured resuspended eluted microvesicles with bound oligonucleotides to a Rnase free 1.5ml Eppendorf tube

[00810] 46 Normalize all samples to 100ul to keep it even across samples and between experiments.

[00811] Next Generation Sequencing Sample Preparation:

[00812] I) Use 50 ul of sample from above, resuspended in 100 ul H2O and containing microvesicle/oligo complexes, as template in Transposon PCR, 14 cycles.

[00813] II) AMPure transposon PCR product, use entire recovery for indexing PCR, 10 cycles.

[00814] III) Check indexing PCR product on gel, proceed with AMPure if band is visible. Add 3 cylces if band is invisible, check on gel. After purification quantify product with QuBit and proceed with denaturing and dilting for loading on HiSeq flow cell (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA).

[00815] IV) 5 samples will be multiplexed per one flow cell.10 samples per HiSeq.

Example 13: Oligonucleotide probe library

[00816] This Example presents development of an oligonucleotide probe library to detect biological entities. In this Example, steps were taken to reduce the presence of double stranded oligonucleotides (dsDNA) when probing the patient samples. The data were also generated comparing the effects of 8% and 6% PEG used to precipitate microvesicles (and potentially other biological entities) from the patient samples.

[00817] Protocol:

[00818] 1) Pre-chill tabletop centrifuge at 4°C.

[00819] 2) Protease inhibition: dissolve 2 tablets of“cOmplete ULTRA MINI EDTA-free EASYpack” protease inhibitor in 1100 ul of H 2 O (20x stock of protease inhibitor).

[00820] 3) Add 50 ul of protease inhibitor to the sample (on top of frozen plasma) and start thawing: 1 ml total ea.

[00821] 4) To remove cells/debris, spin samples at 10,000 x g, 20 min, 4°C. Collect 1 ml supernatant (SN).

[00822] 5) Mix 1 ml supernatant from step 4 with 1ml of 2xPBS 6 mM MgCl 3 , collect 400 ul into 3 tubes (replicates A, B, C) and use it in step 6.

[00823] 6) Add competitor per Table 5: make dilutions in 1xPBS, 3mM MgCl 2 , mix well, pour into trough, pipet using multichannel.

Table 5: Competitors

[00824] 7) Incubate for 10 min, RT, end-over-end rotation

[00825] . The screened library comprised a 5’ region (5' CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT 3' (SEQ ID NO. 131)) followed by the random naïve aptamer sequences and a 3’ region (5'

CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)). Pool of 6-3S and 8-3S

oligonucleotide probing libraries is ready: 2.76 ng/ul (~185 ng). Save pool stock and dilutions. New pool can be made by mixing 171.2ul (500ng) of library 6-3S (2.92 ng/ul) with 190.8ul (500ng) of library 8-3S (2.62 ng/ul). Aliquot pooled library into 30 ul and store at -80C.

[00826] Add ssDNA oligonucleotide probing library to the final concentration 2.5 pg/ul for binding. Make dilutions in 1xPBS, 3mM MgCl 2 .

Table 6: Probe library calculations [00827] 8) Binding: Incubate for 1h at RT with rotation.

[00828] 9) Prepare polymer solution: 20% PEG8000 in 1x PBS 3mM MgCl2 (dilute 40% PEG8000 with 2xPBS with 6mM MgCl2). Add 20% PEG8000 to sample to the final concentration 6%. Invert few times to mix, incubate for 15 min at 4C

Table 7: PEG calculations

[00829] 10) Spin at 10,000 x g for 5 min, RT.

[00830] 11) Remove SN, add 1ml 1xPBS, 3 mM MgCl2 and wash pellet by gentle invertion with 1ml aptamer buffer.

[00831] 12) Remove buffer, Re-suspend pellets in 100 ul H2O: incubate at RT for 10 min on mixmate 900rpm to re-suspend.

[00832] 13) Make sure each sample is re-suspended by pipeting after step 13. Make notes on hardly re- suspendable samples.

[00833] 14) 50 ul of re-suspended sample to indexing PCR -> next generation sequencing (NGS).

[00834] 15) Keep leftover at 4C

[00835] Technical Validation:

[00836] The current protocol was tested versus a protocol using 8% PEG8000 to precipitate microvesicles. The current protocol further comprises steps to reduce dsDNA in the oligonucleotide probing libraries.

[00837] FIG.8A shows the within sample variance (black) between binding replicates and the between sample variance (grey). Black is on top of grey, thus any observable grey oligo is informative about differences in the biology of two paitent samples. This evaluation of Sources of Variance shows that the technical variances is significantly smaller than the biological variance.

[00838] FIG.8B shows the impact of using a higher proportion of single stranded DNA and PEG 6% isolation (white bars) compared to when there is a higher amount of double stranded DNA and 8% PEG (grey). This data indicates that the protocol in this Example improves biological separation between patients.

[00839] The plots in FIG.8C show the difference between an earlier protocol (PEG 8% with increased dsDNA) and a modified protocol of the Example (PEG 6% no dsDNA). The black is the scatter between replicates (independent binding events) and the grey is the difference between patients. This data shows that the signal to noise increased significantly using the newer protocol.

[00840] Patient testing:

[00841] The protocol above was used to test patient samples having the following characteristics:

Table 8: Patient characteristics

[00842] Microvesicle s (and poten tially other biological en tities) were precipitated in blood (pl asma) samples from the ab ove patients using polym er precipitat ion with PE G as indicate d above. Th e protocol was used to probe th e samples w ith the oligo nucleotide p robe librarie s. Sequences that bound the PEG precipita ted samples were identif ied using ne xt generatio n sequencing (NGS).

[00843] FIG.8D sho ws scatter p lots of a sele ction of resu lts from tes ting the 40 p atients listed previously. The spre ad in the da ta indicates t hat large num bers of olig os were det ected that di ffered betwe en samples. The num ber of signi ficant oligos found is mu ch greater th an would be expected ra ndomly as s hown in Table 9. The table sh ows the num ber of oligo nucleotides sorted by co py number detected and p-value. The d-# indicates the number cop ies of a sequ ence observ ed for the d ata in the row s.

Tab le 9: Expec ted versus o bserved seq uences

[00844] As a control , the cancer and non-can cer samples were random ly divided i nto two grou ps. Such randomi zation of the samples sig nificantly re duced the nu mber of oli gos found th at differentia te between sample g roups. Inde ed, there was a 50-fold in crease in in formative ol igos between the cancer/ non-cancer grouping versus rand om groupin g. FIG.8E s hows data a s in Table 9 and indicate s the numbe r of observed informativ e oligos betw een the indi cated sampl e groups. [00845] FIG.8F shows distinct groups of oligos that differentiate between cancer and non-cancer samples. The figure shows a heatmap of the 40 samples tested with oligos selected that had more than 500 copies and p-value less than 0.005. There are clear subpopulations emerging with a distinct non-cancer cohort at the top. The non-cancer samples have boxes around them on the left axis. FIG.8G is similar and shows results with an additional 20 cancer and 20 non-cancer samples. As shown, analysis with the 80 samples provides the emergence of more distinct and larger clusters.

[00846] The data for the additional 80 samples was also used to compare the consistency of informative oligos identified in different screening experiments. Of the 315 informative oligos identified using the first set of 40 patients, 86% of them showed fold-change in a consistent manner when tested on the independent set of 40 patients.

Example 14: Enrichment of Oligonucleotide probes using a balanced library design

[00847] In this Example, a naïve ADAPT oligonucleotide library was screened to enrich oligonucleotides that identify microvesicles circulating in the blood of breast cancer patients and microvesicles circulating in the blood of healthy, control individuals (i.e., without breast cancer). The input library was the naïve F- TRin-35n-B 8-3s library, which comprises a 5’ region (5' CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO. 131)) followed by the random naïve aptamer sequences of 35 nucleotides and a 3’ region (5'

CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)). The“balanced” design is described in Example 23 of Int’l Patent Publication WO/2015/031694 (Appl. No. PCT/US2014/053306, filed August 28, 2014). The working library comprised approximately 2 x 10 13 synthetic oligonucleotide sequences. The naïve library may be referred to as the“L0 Library” herein.

[00848] The L0 Library was enriched against fractionated plasma samples from breast cancer patients and from healthy (non-breast cancer) controls using the protocol shown in FIG.14A. In Step 1, an aliquot of approximately 10 11 sequences of PCR-amplified L0 was incubated with pooled blood-plasma from 59 breast cancer patients with positive biopsy (represented by“Source A” in FIG.14A). In parallel, another aliquot of 10 11 sequences was incubated with pooled blood-plasma from 30 patients with suspected breast cancer who proved negative on biopsy and 30 self declared healthy women (represented by“Source B” in FIG.14A). In Step 2, microvesicles (extracellular vesicles,“EV”) were precipitated using

ultracentrifugation (UC) from both L0-samples. The EV-associated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were recovered from the respective pellets. In Step 3, a counter-selection step (Step 3) was carried out by incubation of each enriched library with plasma from the different cohorts to drive the selection pressure towards enrichment of ODNs specifically associated with each sample cohort. In this step, sequences contained in the EV pellets were discarded. In Step 4, a second positive selection was performed. In this step, the sequences contained in the respective supernatants (sn) from Step 3 were mixed with plasma from another aliquot of each positive control sample-population, and EVs were again isolated. EV- associated ODNs were recovered, representing two single-round libraries called library L1 for positive enrichment of cancer (positive biopsy) patients, and library L2 for the positive enrichment against control patients. In a final step, L1 and L2 were amplified by PCR, reverted to single stranded DNA (ssDNA), and mixed to yield library L3.

[00849] This enrichment scheme was iterated two times more using L3 as the input to further reduce the complexity of the profiling library to approximately 10 6 different sequences. In Step 2, UC was used for partitioning of microvesicles, which may increase the specificity for the EV fraction. In Steps 3 and 4, partitioning was performed using PEG-precipitation. This procedure enriches for ODNs specific for each biological source. Library L3 contains those ODNs that are associated with targets characteristic for EV- populations from both sources, i.e. ODNs acting as aptamers that bind to molecules preferentially expressed in each source. A total of biopsy-positive (n = 59), biopsy-negative (n = 30), and self-declared normal (n = 30) were used in the first round of L3 enrichment, while only the cancer and non-cancer samples were used in the subsequent rounds.

[00850] The enriched libraries were characterized using next-generation-sequencing (NGS) to measure copy numbers of sequences contained in each profiling library. NGS of L0 shows that the vast majority of sequences existed in low copy numbers, whereas libraries L1 and L2 showed significantly higher average counts per sequence (FIG.14B) and a reduced amount of different sequences, with unaltered total valid reads, (FIG. 14C) consistent with an enrichment process.

Example 15: Analysis of ADAPT-identified biomarkers

[00851] As described herein, e.g., in the section entitled“Aptamer Target Identification,” an unknown target recognized by an aptamer can be identified. In this Example, an oligonucleotide probe library (also referred to as Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT) libraries or Topographical Oligonucleotide Probe“TOP” libraries) was developed as described here and targets of the screened oligonucleotides were determined. This Example used a ADAPT library generated by enriching microvesicles collected from the blood of breast cancer patients and normal controls (i.e., non-cancer individuals). The enrichment protocols are described herein in Example 14.

[00852] Materials & Methods

[00853] SBED library conjugation

[00854] A naïve F-TRin-35n-B 8-3s library was enriched against microvesicles from normal female plasma. The naïve unenriched library comprised a 5’ region (5' CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131)) followed by the random naïve aptamer sequences of 35 nucleotides and a 3’ region (5' CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)). The naïve library may be referred to as the“L0 Library” herein and the enriched library referred to as the“L2 library.” See Example 14. The screened library was PCR amplified with a C6-amine sense primer (C6 Amine-5'

CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT 3' (SEQ ID NO.131)) and a 5’ phosphorylated anti-sense primer (5' Phos TCGTCGGCAGCGTCA (SEQ ID NO.133)), the purified product was strand separated and conjugated with sulfo-SBED (Thermo Scientific) according to Vinkenborg et al. (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.2012, 51:9176-80) with the following modifications: The reaction was scaled down to 5µg C6-amine DNA library (8.6 µM) in 25mM HEPES-KOH, 0.1M NaCl, pH 8.3 and incubated with either 100-fold molar excess of sulfo-SBED or DMSO in a 21µL volume for 30 min at room temp in the dark. The SBED- conjugated library was immediately separated from the unconjugated library and free sulfo-SBED by injection onto a Waters X-BridgeTM OST C-18 column (4.6 mm x 50 mm) and fractionated by HPLC (Agilent 1260 Infinity) with a linear gradient Buffer A: 100 mM TEAA, pH7.0, 0% ACN to 100 mM TEAA, pH7.0, 25% ACN at 0.2ml/min, 65 °C. There SBED-conjugated fractions were desalted into water with Glen Gel-PakTM Cartridges and concentrated by speed-vac. SBED conjugation was confirmed by LC-MS and/or a dot blot with streptavidin-HRP detection.

[00855] Binding reaction and cross-linking

[00856] SBED library functionalization was tested by performing the ADAPT assay with SBED vs DMSO mock conjugated control C6-amine library and sequenced on a HiSeq 2500TM (Illumina Corp.). The aptamer precipitation was performed with forty-eight ADAPT reactions incubated for 1hr with end- over-end rotation at room temp with a 5ng input of SBED conjugated library per 200 µL of plasma (pre- spun to remove cellular debris at 10,000 xg for 20min, 4 °C) in 1X PBS, 3mM MgCl 2 , 0.01mM dextran sulfate, 40 ng/µl salmon sperm DNA and 40 ng/µl yeast transfer RNA, and cOmplete ULTRA Mini EDTA-free TM protease inhibitors (Roche) equivalent to ~240ng library and 9.6 mls plasma. A duplicate set of 48 reactions was prepared with the DMSO control C6-amine library. Aptamer library-protein complexes were precipitated with incubation in 6% PEG8000 for 15 min at 4 °C then centrifuged at 10,000 xg for 5 min. Pellets were washed with 1ml 1x PBS, 3mM MgCl2 by gentle inversion to remove unbound aptamers. The washed pellets were resuspended in 100µL of water and subjected to photo-cross- linking at 365nm with a hand-held 3UV (254NM/302NM/365NM) lamp, 115 volts (Thermo Scientific) for 10 min on ice with 1-2 cm between the 96-well plate and lamp.

[00857] Oligonucleotide precipitation

[00858] Cross-linked reactions were subsequently pooled (~4.8ml) per library or 4.8 ml of 1X PBS (AP bead only control) and incubated with 10 µL of Prepared Dynabeads® MyOne™ Streptavidin C1 (10mg/ml) (Life Technologies) (pre-washed with 1X PBS, 0.01% Triton X-100) shaking for 1 hr at room temp. Beads were transferred to an eppendorf tube and lysed for 20 min with lysis buffer (50 mM Tris- HCl, 10mM MgCl2, 200mM NaCl, 0.5% Triton X-100, 5% glycerol, pH 7.5) on ice, washed 3 times with wash buffer 1 (10mM Tris-HCl, 1mM EDTA, 2M NaCl, 1% Triton X-100), followed by 2 times with wash buffer 2 (10mM Tris-HCl, 1mM EDTA, 2M NaCl, 0.01% Triton X-100) as described by

Vinkenborg et al. (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.2012, 51:9176-80). Cross-linked proteins were eluted by boiling 15 min in 1X LDS sample buffer with reducing agent added (Life Technologies) and loaded on a 4-12% SDS-PAGE gradient gel (Life Technology). Proteins and DNA were detected with double staining with Imperial Blue Protein Stain (Thermo Scientific) followed by Prot-SIL2 TM silver stain kit (Sigma) used according to manufacturer’s instructions in order to enhance sensitivity and reduce background.

[00859] Protein identification

[00860] Protein bands that appeared to differ between the cancer and normal were excised from the gradient gels and subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). [00861] Results

[00862] ADAPT protein targets were identified from bands cut from a silver stained SDS-PAGE gel (FIG.9). Aptamer-SBED protein complexes (lane 3) or Aptamer-DMSO protein complexes (control-lane 4) were precipitated with 6% PEG8000, subjected to UV photo-cross-linking, and pulled-down with Streptavidin coated beads. Eluate was analyzed under reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE and silver staining. Aptamer library alone (5ng) (lane 1) was loaded as a control for migration of the library (second to bottom arrows) and an equal volume of eluate from a bead only sample (lane 4) was loaded as a streptavidin control to control for potential leaching of the streptavidin monomer (bottom arrow) under the harsh elution conditions. Upper arrows (“Targets”) indicate specific or more predominant bands identified with the SBED-conjugated library vs. the mock DMSO treated control C6-amine library. Indicated target protein bands were cut out and sent for LC-MS/MS protein identification or indicated DNA library bands were eluted, reamplified and sequenced. The identified proteins are those that appeared as upregulated in the normal samples.

[00863] Tables 10-17 list human proteins that were identified in 8 bands excised from the silver stained gel. In all tables the proteins are those identified in the oligo-SBED protein complexes with proteins identified in the corresponding control lanes removed. The band numbers in the tables indicate different bands cut from the gel (FIG.9). Accession numbers in the table are from the UniProt database

(www.uniprot.org).“GN=” is followed by the gene name. Various protein classifications indicated in the Tables 10-17 include Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins (NAB), Tumor suppressors (TS), cell

adhesion/cytoskeletal (CA/CK) and abundant plasma proteins (ABP). In Table 18, the proteins listed below the row“SBED associated” were identified by peptide fragments linked to SBED, indicating that the peptides are from near the cross-linking sites. Class is not reported for these proteins.

Table 10: Band 3

[00864] Certain proteins were identified in multiple bands. For example, IGLC2 was identified in bands 3, 15 and 19 and SHROOM3 was identified in bands 7, 15, 19. This may be due to degradation products, isoforms or the like. These experiments identified 108 proteins (plus 2 lysozyme controls), comprising among others 34 Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins (NAB) where 7 of the 34 are putative tumor

suppressors/repressors; 37 cell adhesion/cytoskeletal (CA/CK); and 14 abundant plasma proteins (ABP). All of the tumor suppressors/repressors are DNA/RNA binding proteins. Other proteins comprise chaperones, signaling molecules etc.

[00865] The biomarkers in this Example can be used to detect microvesicles that are indicative of cancer or non-cancer samples.

Example 16: Identification of biomarkers through affinity enrichment with an enriched

oligonucleotide library and mass spectrometry

[00866] This Example continues upon the Example above. Identification of protein-protein and nucleic acid-protein complexes by affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) can be hampered in samples comprising complex mixtures of biological components (e.g., bodily fluids including without limitation blood and derivatives thereof). For example, it may be desireable to detect low abundance protein and nucleic acid-protein complexes in a complex milieu comprising various components that may interact promiscuously with specific binding sites such as high abundance proteins that interact non-specifically with the affinity resin. AP-MS has been used previously to enrich for pre-identified targets of interest using individual DNA or RNA aptamers or specific nucleic acid binding domains. In this Example, an enriched oligonucleotide probing library was used as the affinity reagent. This approach combined with mass spectrometry enables the identification of differentially expressed biomarker from different disease states or cellular perturbations without relying on a priori knowledge of the targets of interest. Such biomarker may comprise proteins, nucleic acids, miRNA, mRNA, carbohydrates, lipid targets, combinations thereof, or other components in a biological system.

[00867] The method comprises identification of an enriched oligonucleotide probe library according to the methods of the invention followed by target identification with affinity purification of the bound probing library and mass spectrometry. The members of the enriched oligonucleotide probing library comprise an affinity tag. A biological sample is probed with the oligonucleotide probe library, affinity purification of the oligonucleotide probe library via the affinity tag is performed which will accordingly purify biological entities in complex with various members of the probe library, and read-out of targets that purified with the members of the probe library is performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for proteins or oligonucleotide targets (e.g., miRNA or mRNA) with next generation sequencing (NGS). Confirmation of protein targets is performed using quantitative mass spectrometry (MS), e.g., using MRM/SRM or SWATH based methods. [00868] The method of the Example lends itself to various options. For example, any appropriate affinity tags can be used for affinity pull-down, including without limitation anti-sense oligonucleotides, biotin, polyhistidine, FLAG octapeptide (i.e., N-DYKDDDDK-C (SEQ ID NO.134), where N stands for Amino- terminus and C stands for Carboxy terminus), 3X FLAG, Human influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-tag (i.e., N-YPYDVPDYA-C (SEQ ID NO.135)), myc-tag (N-EQKLISEEDL-C (SEQ ID NO.136)), other such as known in the art, and combinations thereof. Similarly, any appropriate enrichment support can be used in addition to the magnetic streptavidin beads exemplified herein, including without limitation other bead systems, agarose beads, planar arrays or column chromatography supports. It follows that the various supports can be coupled with the various affinity reagents appropriate for the oligonucleotide library, including without limitation streptavidin, avidin, anti-His tag antibodies, nickel, and the like. The different affinity tags and supports can be combined as desired. This Example used cross-linking but in certain cases such cross-linking is not necessary and may even be undesirable, e.g., to favor identification of high affinity complex formation. When cross-linking is desired, any appropriate cross-linkers can be used to carry out the invention, including BS2G, DSS, formaldehyde, and the like. Other appropriate cross-linkers and methods are described herein. See, e.g., Section“Aptamer Target Identification.” Lysis buffers and wash stringencies can be varied, e.g, depending on whether complexes are cross-linked or not. Less stringent lysis/wash conditions may produce a wider array of potential protein complexes of interest whereas more stringent lysis/wash conditions may favor higher affinity oligo-target complexes and/or targets comprising specific proteins (e.g., by disassociating larger complexes bound to the oligos). One of skill will further appreciate that qualitative and/or quantitative LC-MS/MS may be used for target detection and verification. Similarly, metabolic labeling and label-free approaches may be used for quantitative MS, including without limitation spectral counting, SILAC, dimethyl labeling, TMT labeling, Targeted MS with SRM/MRM or SWATH, and the like.

[00869] References:

[00870] Vickenborg et al.“Aptamer based affinity labeling of proteins”, Angew Chem Int.51(36):9176- 80 (2012).

[00871] Tacheny, M, Arnould, T., Renard, A.“Mass spectrometry-based identification of proteins interacting with nucleic acids”, Journal of Proteomics 94; 89-109 (2013).

[00872] Faoro C and Ataide SF.“Ribonomic approaches to study the RNA-binding proteome.”, FEBS Lett.588(20):3649-64 (2014).

[00873] Budayeva HG, Cristea, IM,“A mass spectrometry view of stable and transient protein inteeractions.” Adv Exp Med Biol.806:263-82 (2014).

Example 17: Protocol for Affinity capture using oligonucleotide probing library

[00874] This Example presents a detailed protocol for the method of affinity capture using an

oligonucleotide probing library presented in the Example above.

[00875] Protocol: [00876] The oligonucleotide probe library comprises F-TRin-35n-B-8-3s described herein either desthiobiotin labeled or unlabeled library and binding to normal (i.e., non-cancer) female plasma. The oligonucleotide probe library is enriched against the plasma samples as described elsewhere (e.g., in Example 13). The plasma samples are processed separately against the desthiobiotin labeled or unlabeled oligonucleotide libraries. General parameters included the following:

[00877] 48 normal plasma samples are pooled for enrichment of each oligonucleotide library

(Desthiobiotin or Unlabeled)

[00878] 200 µl input plasma per sample

[00879] Ultracentrifugation (UC) is used to pre-clear the samples

[00880] 5 ng of each aptamer library is added to each sample

[00881] Binding competitors for all library samples include 0.01mM dextran sulfate, 340ng for tRNA and 340 ng Salmon sperm DNA as described elsewhere herein

[00882] 6% PEG 8000 is used for precipitation of microvesicles within the samples

[00883] Affinity purification is performed with C1 Streptavidin beads (MyOne Strptavidin Beads C1- 65001, lot 2ml (10mg/ml))

[00884] Buffers:

[00885] Plasma dilution: 6 mM MgCl2 in 2X PBS

[00886] Pellet Wash Buffer: 1X PBS, 3mM MgCl2

[00887] PEG Ppt Buffer: 20% Peg8000 in 1X PBS, 3mM MgCl2

[00888] Bead Prep Buffer: 1XPBS containing 0.01% Triton X-100

[00889] Lysis Buffer: prepare a 2X stock solution consisting of 100mM Tris-HCl, 20mM MgCl2, 400mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, pH 7.5. Diluted to 1X with water 1:1 prior to using.

[00890] AP Wash buffer 1: 10mM Tris-HCl, 1mM EDTA, 2M NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, pH 7.5

[00891] AP wash buffer 2: 10mM Tris-HCL, 1mM EDTA, 2M NaCl, 0.01% Triton X-100, pH 7.5

[00892] Biotin Elution buffer 1: 5mM Biotin, 20mM Tris, 50mM NaCl, pH 7.5

[00893] 1X LDS, 1X Reducing buffer 2

[00894] Reagent/Instrument Prep:

[00895] Pre-chill Ultracentrifuge to 4 °C.

[00896] Protease inhibition: dissolve 2 tablets of“cOmplete ULTRA MINI EDTA-free EASYpack” protease inhibitor in 1100 µl of H2O (20x stock of protease inhibitor).

[00897] Plasma Preparation (for each of Desthiobiotin or Unlabeled oligonucleotide libraries):

[00898] 1. Add 50 µl of protease inhibitor to each ml of sample (on top of frozen plasma) in a room temperature (RT) water bath. Will use 22 mls of pooled plasma, so 1100 µl inhibitor.

[00899] 2. To remove cell/debris, spin samples at 7500 xg 20min, 4 °C in the Ultracentrifuge.

[00900] 3. Collect the supernatant, pool and measure volume & record.

[00901] 4. Add an equal volume of 2X PBS, 6mM MgCl 2 to the plasma.

[00902] 5. Label low-retention eppendorf tubes 1-96. [00903] 6. Transfer 400µl of each sample to eppendorf tubes based on appropriate tube map

[00904] 7. Using an electronic P200, add competitors: 8.6 µl of 40ng/µl Salmon sperm DNA; 8.6 µl of 40ng/µl tRNA; 8.6µl of 0.5X S1.

[00905] 8. Incubate at RT with end over end rotation for 10 min.

[00906] 9. Add 10µL of appropriate oligo library, mix well. Save any leftover diluted library for gel control (see below).

[00907] 10. Incubate 1 hr at RT with end over end rotation.

[00908] 11. Using an electronic repeat P100, add 187µl of 20% PEG 8000 to sample for a final 6% concentration to the 435.5 µl of sample/oligo library. Invert a few times to mix and incubate for 15 min at 4 °C

[00909] 12. Spin each sample in table top centrifuge at 10,000 xg for 5 min.

[00910] 13. Remove supernatant and discard, add 1ml 1x PBS, 3mM MgCl 2 to pellet.

[00911] 14. Wash pellet by gentle inversion

[00912] 15. Remove buffer, re-suspend pellets in 100µl 1X PBS, 3mM MgCl 2 : incubate at RT for 10 min on mixmate @ 900rpm to re-suspend. Make sure each sample is well re-suspended by pipetting.

[00913] 16. Pool all desthiobiotin library samples into one 50ml falcon tube, and the unlabeled library into another, total volume for each should be 4800µl.

[00914] 17. Take 10µL aliquot for the input into AP sample for gel (add 10 µL of 2x LDS buffer w/ 2X reducing agent.

[00915] Affinity Purification:

[00916] 18. Prepare 10µL of MyOne Strep-coated Magnetic beads per each condition into a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube and place on a magnetic bead rack. Have a Bead only control as well (n=3)

[00917] 19. Remove supernatant and wash 1X 500µl with Bead buffer.

[00918] 20. Discard supernatant

[00919] 21. Resuspend beads in an equal volume of 1X PBS, 3mM MgCl 2 (equal vol to what was taken out originally = 10µl)

[00920] 22. Add the 10µl of beads directly to the 4780µL from step 19. To Bead only control add PBS.

[00921] 23. Incubate samples with streptavidin beads 1hr RT on plate shaker (taped).

[00922] 24. Place on the large magnetic stand for 1 min and remove supernatant

[00923] 25. Add 1.5 mL of 1X lysis buffer to the samples (do 3 X 500µl with a good rinse of the 50mL falcon tube for each to collect all the beads) and transfer to a new set of eppendorf tubes.

[00924] 26. Incubate for 20 min on ice.

[00925] 27. Place tubes in magnetic bead rack, let equilibrate 1 min and remove the supernatant.

[00926] 28. Wash the beads with wash buffer #1 via vortexing. Resuspend well.

[00927] 29. Place tubes on magnetic bead rack, let equilibrate 1 min and remove the supernatant [00928] 30. Wash 2 additional times as with wash buffer # 1 steps 27-29 (total 3 washes with wash buffer #1)

[00929] 31. Repeat steps 27-29 (2) additional times with wash buffer #2

[00930] 32. During the last wash transfer beads to a new eppendorf tube. (to reduce non-specific binding)

[00931] 33. Do one dry spin to make sure all residual wash buffer is removed.

[00932] 34. Add 10µl of Biotin Elution buffer 1 to beads

[00933] 35. Incubate for 15 minutes at 37°C.

[00934] 36. Place on magnetic stand for 1 min, collect sup and transfer to a new tube, add 10µL of 2X LDS, 2X Reducing agent to eluted sample. Save as Elution #1.

[00935] 37. Add 10µl of 1X LDS Sample Buffer, 1X Reducing buffer to magnetic beads.

[00936] 38. Boil the samples for 15 min at 90 °C. The boiling time is 15 minutes to essure the streptavidin on the beads unfolds and releases the biotinylated aptapmer-protein complex.

[00937] 39. Place samples on magnetic stand on ice and collect the eluted sample. This is Elution #2. Discard the beads.

[00938] 40. Gel 1 layout:

[00939] Lane 1: 5ng Desthiobiotin library

[00940] Lane 2: 1X LDS

[00941] Lane 3: Marker

[00942] Lane 4: Desthiobiotin Elution #1

[00943] Lane 5: Unlabeled Elution #1

[00944] Lane 6: Bead only Elution #1

[00945] Lane 7: Desthiobiotin Elution #2

[00946] Lane 8: Unlabeled Elution #2

[00947] Lane 9: Bead only Elution #2

[00948] Lane 10: Input for AP (saved from step 17)

[00949] Running Reducing SDS gel:

[00950] Prepare 1X MOPS SDS Running Buffer from 20X MOPS SDS Buffer

[00951] Use 10 or 12 well 4 -12 % Bis Tris gel

[00952] Peel off tape seal and place in the gel box. Insert spacer for second gel cassette if needed

[00953] Fill the inside/upper chamber with running buffer MOPS (1X) and 500ul Antioxidant

[00954] Remove the comb carefully, not disturbing the wells

[00955] Rinse the wells with the running buffer to remove the storage buffer which can interfere with sample running

[00956] Slowly load samples to each well carefully using L-20 tip

[00957] Fill the outer/lower chamber with approximately 600ml of running buffer MOPS (1X)

[00958] Place top portion of unit and secure correct electrodes [00959] Run the gel to migrate proteins

[00960] 100 V constant for samples to move through stack (until all samples line up) for 15 min

[00961] Increase to 150 V constant for running (until visible sample buffer comes to bottom) for ~1 hr

[00962] At the end of the run, stop the power supply and remove the gel cassettes from cell

[00963] Disassemble the gel cassette by with gel knife.

[00964] Remove one side of cassette case. Trim off the gel foot and wells (avoid drying gel).

[00965] Transfer gel into container filled with Mili Q water and perform a quick wash.

[00966] Silver staining:

[00967] Materials:

[00968] ProteoSilver TMSilver Stain Kit, Sigma Catalog No. PROT-SIL1, Lot No. SLBJ0252V

[00969] Ethanol, Fisher Scientific Catalog No. BP2818-4, Lot No.142224

[00970] Acetic acid, Acros organics Catalog No.14893-0025, Lot No. B0520036

[00971] Water, Sigma Catalog No. W4502, Lot No. RNBD1581

[00972] Preparation:

[00973] 1. Fixing solution. Add 50 ml of ethanol and 10 ml of acetic acid to 40 ml of ultrapure water.

[00974] 2. 30% Ethanol solution. Add 30 ml of ethanol to 70 ml of ultrapure water.

[00975] 3. Sensitizer solution. Add 1 ml of ProteoSilver Sensitizer to 99 ml of ultrapure water.The prepared solution should be used within 2 hours. A precipitate may form in the ProteoSilver Sensitizer. This precipitate will not affect the performance of the solution. Simply allow the precipitate to settle and remove 1 ml of the supernatant.

[00976] 4. Silver solution. Add 1 ml of ProteoSilver Silver Solution to 99 ml of ultrapure water. The prepared solution should be used within 2 hours.

[00977] 5. Developer solution. Add 5 ml ProteoSilver Developer 1 and 0.1 ml ProteoSilver

Developer 2 to 95 ml of ultrapure water. The developer solution should be prepared immediately (<20 minutes) before use.

[00978] 6. All steps should be carried out in the hood and waste needs to be collected in toxic designated container.

[00979] Procedure

[00980] A. Direct Silver Staining

[00981]• All steps are carried out at room temperature on an orbital shaker at 60 to 70 rpm.

[00982] 1. Fixing - After electrophoresis of the proteins in the mini polyacrylamide gel, place the gel into a clean tray with 100 ml of the Fixing solution overnight in the hood. Cover tightly.

[00983] 2. Ethanol wash - Decant the Fixing solution and wash the gel for 10 minutes with 100 ml of the 30% Ethanol solution.

[00984] 3. Water wash– Decant the 30% Ethanol solution and wash the gel for 10 minutes with 200 ml of ultrapure water. [00985] 4. Sensitization– Decant the water and incubate the gel for 10 minutes with 100 ml of the Sensitizer solution.

[00986] 5. Water wash– Decant the Sensitizer solution and wash the gel twice, each time for 10 minutes with 200 ml of ultrapure water.

[00987] 7. Silver equilibration– Decant the water and equilibrate the gel for 10 minutes with 100 ml of the Silver solution.

[00988] 8. Water wash– Decant the Silver solution and wash the gel for 1 to 1.5 minutes with 200 ml of ultrapure water.

[00989] 9. Gel development–Decant the water and develop the gel with 100 ml of the Developer solution. Development times of 3 to 7 minutes are sufficient to produce the desired staining intensity for most gels. Development times as long as 10 to 12 minutes may be required to detect bands or spots with very low protein concentrations (0.1 ng/mm2).

[00990] 10. Stop - Add 5 ml of the ProteoSilver Stop Solution to the developer solution to stop the developing reaction and incubate for 5 minutes. Bubbles of CO 2 gas will form in the mixture.

[00991] 11. Storage– Decant the Developer/Stop solution and wash the gel for 15 minutes with 200 ml of ultrapure water. Store the gel in fresh, ultrapure water and take picture for documentation.

[00992] Protein identification

[00993] Protein bands of interest were excised from the gradient gels and subjected to liquid

chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as above.

Example 18: Oligonucleotide probes: breast cancer versus non-cancer

[00994] This Example presents breast cancer oligonucleotide probes identified in a library enriched against balanced fractions pool of plasma-derived microvesicles from patients with 50% aggressive cancer. General methodology is as presented in Example 13 above. The samples comprised pools of 30 each of breast cancer patient plasma and healthy plasma (i.e., non-cancer controls). A set of cancer specific aptamers was identified where each aptamer has a fold change exceeding two when compared to either the healthy plasma pool (normal and non-cancer) or process control (no negative selection enriched library).

[00995] Methodology

[00996] The F-TRin-35n-B 8-3s library as described herein was enriched against microvesicles from the plasma samples. See Example 13 with the modifications noted below. The screened library comprised a 5’ region (5' CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT 3' (SEQ ID NO.131)) followed by the random naïve aptamer sequences and a 3’ region (5' CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)).In the previous enrichment protocol in Example 13, positive, negative and positive selections were performed before each cycle of PCR to re-amplify the library. But in the current enrichment protocol, the aptamer library was purified with streptavidin beads after each selection and the beads were directly used for PCR amplification. Also as compared to prior experiments, the new sample pool for aptamer enrichment was balanced for different plasma fractions and collection vial for each of cancer, non-cancer and normal patients. Specifically, plasma was initially collected in 4 tubes from each patient, each of those 4 tubes were split into 3 aliquots, resulting in 12 aliquots from each patient. For example, a 1st tube out of the 4 results in aliquots 1A, 1B and 1C, the same split is repeated for the other three aliquots, which results in 12 aliquots from each patient (1A-C, 2A-C, 3A-C, 4A-C). Correspondingly, a pool of 60 patients consists of each variant repeated 5 times (5x12). Enrichment was done according to the selection methodology outlined above, where the library was PCR amplified after each binding round for 7 rounds, which include 3 positive selections against cancer-derived samples, 3 negative selections against controls, and a final positive selection. The enriched library was subjected to the probing test on cancer and healthy pools of plasma samples. There was a subset of 296 cancer specific aptamers, which have a relatively higher read count and fold change > 2 as compared to healthy pool and process control. The detailed protocol is as follows:

[00997] Equipment & Supplies

[00998] 1xPBS (HiClone): SH30256.01, Lot #: AZC186921, bottle#1476, exp.05/2016. Supplemented with 3mM MgCl 2 (4227844, USB) in steps 6, 7, 11.

[00999] Table Top centrifuge: 0363

[001000] 20X S1: Aptamer Science TT 070214, LN: 14F-01-S1, exp.2015-06

[001001] PEG8000- lot #SLBJ9928V cat # 91458, protease inhibitor Ref - 05892791, Water - ref 10977-015, lot # 1606173

[001002] 2X PBS+ 6mM MgCl 2 - PBS (Sigma) -SLBK2636V, Water - RNBD2918, MgCl 2 - 4227844 (USB). Used in steps: 5, 9.

[001003] Stock yeast tRNA (Ambion) - lot # 1406019. Salmon DNA (Invitrogen)- lot # 1617974

[001004] Starting solution comprises 5 ng Non-Enriched F-Trin-35n-B aptamer library, 300 ul of plasma, 0.01x S1 + 0.8ng/ul Salmon DNA/tRNA (competitor DNAs), 6% PEG8000 (to precipitate microvesicles); final volume 600 ul.

[001005] Round 1 (1st positive enrichment)

[001006] Step 1: Pre-chill tabletop centrifuge at 4°C.

[001007] Step 2: Protease inhibition: dissolve 1 tablet of“cOmplete ULTRA MINI EDTA-free EASYpack” protease inhibitor in 550 ul of H2O (20x stock of protease inhibitor).

[001008] Step 3: Add 50 ul of protease inhibitor to the sample (on top of frozen plasma) and start thawing: 1 ml total ea.

[001009] Step 4: Cell spin: To remove cells/debris, spin samples at 10,000 x g, 20 min, 4°C. Collect the entire volume of supernatant (SN) without disturbing the pellet.

[001010] Step 5: Mix SN from step 4 with equal volume of 2xPBS 6 mM MgCl 2 , collect 600 ul ea into 2ml Fisher Low binding tubes for use in step 6. Store remaining sample at 4°C for the following rounds. [001011] Step 6: Blocking: Add competitors in order: 1) Salmon DNA Stock; 2) tRNA; 3) S1. Make dilutions to desired concentration (see starting solution above) in 1xPBS, 3mM MgCl2, mix well. Incubate for 10 min at room temperature (RT), end-over-end rotation.

[001012] Step 7: Binding: Add ssDNA Probing library to the final concentration 12.5 pg/ul for binding. Make dilutions in 1xPBS, 3mM MgCl 2 .

[001013] Step 8: Precipitation: Add buffer (20% PEG8000 in 1x PBS with 3mM MgCl 2 ) to sample to the final PEG concentration 6%.

[001014] Step 9: Spin at 10,000 x g for 5 min, RT.

[001015] Step 10: Wash: Remove SN, add 1ml 1xPBS, 3 mM MgCl2 and wash pellet by gentle invertion with 1ml aptamer buffer.

[001016] Step 11: Resuspention: Remove buffer, Re-suspend pellets in 200 ul H2O:

incubate at RT for 10 min on mixmate 900rpm. Ensure each sample is re-suspended by pipeting after step 11.

[001017] Step 12: Purification: Aptamers elution from PEG/Protein pellet with Streptavidin beads (Dynabeads #65001: Dynabeads® MyOne™ Streptavidin C1):

[001018] -> Beads stock: 10 mg/ml; Capacity: >2,500 pmoles/mg;

[001019] -> 10 ul beads should bind 250 pmoles Biotin

[001020] -> 3 ul beads for each aptamer library (AL) sample can bind 75 pmoles Biotin

[001021] Library input in the protocol above is ~5ng, which is 0.17 pmol

[001022] 12.1) Pre-washing Streptavidin Magnetic Beads:

[001023] 12.1.1 Add 10 uL of Streptavidin Magnetic Beads into 1.5mL microcentrifuge tube (3ul x 2 samples + overage)

[001024] 12.1.2 Place the tube into a magnetic stand to collect the beads against the side of the tube. Remove and discard the supernatant.

[001025] 12.1.3 Add 0.5mL of Wash Buffer (1xPBS with 0.1% Tween 20) to the tube. Invert the tube several times or vortex gently to mix. Collect the beads with a magnetic stand, then remove and discard the supernatant.

[001026] 12.1.4 Wash once with 0.5ml 1xPBS, collect the beads with a magnetic stand, then remove and discard the supernatant.

[001027] 12.1.5 Add 35 ul 1xPBS to tubes. Aliquot into 10ul per well (using repeater pipet) in 1.5 ml Fisher low-binding tubes. Add 40 ul of 1xPBS.

[001028] 12.2) Incubate 100 ul of sample, recovered in step 12, at 50°C for 10 min (mixmate, 500 rpm) (to denature/remove protein/PEG from aptamer library)

[001029] 12.3) Sample Binding:

[001030] 12.3.6 Add heat denatured samples to beads (aliquoted in step 5). [001031] 12.3.7 Incubate for 30min, 37°C, mixmate at 800 rpm. Spin down at 2000rpm for 20 sec.

[001032] 12.3.8 Collect the beads (with bound aptamers) using magnet and remove the supernatant by multichanel pipet.

[001033] 12.3.9 Take tubes off the magnet, add 300ul of 1xPBS, pipet well. Collect the beads with magnetic stand, then remove supernatant.

[001034] 12.3.10 Add 100ul H2O to resuspend beads by multichanel pipet.

[001035] 12.3.11 Block the beads with Biotin: add 7.5 ul from 10uM stock, incubate 15 min, RT, 800rpm.

[001036] 12.3.12 Collect the beads (with bound aptamers) using magnet and remove the supernatant by multichanel pipet. Take tubes off the magnet, add 200ul of 1xPBS, pipet well. Collect the beads with magnetic stand, then remove supernatant.

[001037] 12.3.13 Add 100ul H2O

[001038] Step 13: Use beads with bound aptamer library directly in re-AMP PCR (3x33ul)

[001039] Step 14: Agarose gel

[001040] SYBR Gold gel lot #: H204044-01

[001041] 2ul of sample + 8ul of loading buffer. Run for 10 cycles

[001042] If no dsDNA bands appear, run additional 3 cycles

[001043] Optional: if PCR product has non-specific bands, perform gel cut.

[001044] Step 15: dsDNA purification with Nucleospin column (NTI binding buffer):

[001045] 2x volume of buffer NTI per sample volume (600ul NTI to 300ul sample)

[001046] - combine 3 wells per column

[001047] - 5 min elution in 30 ul NE buffer, RT. Add 20 ul of NE after elution.

[001048] Step 16: Optional: Gel, SybrGold, Agarose: to verify product with correct size is observed

[001049] Step 17: Quantify dsDNA (QuBit, Life Technologies) (keep 5 ul of dsDNA as control for gel later)

[001050] Step 18: Lambda digestion at 37C for 2 h; heat inactivation at 80C for 10 min.

[001051] Step 19: ssDNA purification with Nucleospin column (NTC binding buffer).

[001052] - combine 3 samples per column

[001053] - elution: 5 miin in 30 ul NE buffer, RT

[001054] Step 20: Quantify dsDNA (QuBit, Life Technologies) ssDNA (5 ul)

[001055] Step 21: Gel ssDNA: load between 2ng and 10 ng

[001056] Round 2 (2d positive enrichment)

[001057] Repeat protocol starting from step 6 above, using diluted plasma samples stored in step 5. All steps are the same except for step 7. Input of library is 5 times less [001058] Step 7: Binding: Add ssDNA Probing library to the final concentration 2.5 pg/ul for binding. Make dilutions in 1xPBS, 3mM MgCl2.

[001059] Steps 6-13: As above. Use entire 100 ul of re-suspended sample to re-amplify via PCR

[001060] Steps 14-20: ssDNA preparation as above.

[001061] Round 3 (3rd positive enrichment)

[001062] Repeat steps as shown for round 2

[001063] Round 4 (Negative enrichment)

[001064] Make sure to use correct negative samples (e.g., non-cancer sample in the case of positive cancer selection above, or vice versa)

[001065] Steps 1-9: Repeat as in Round 2 above (ssDNA input is 2.5pg/ul).

[001066] Step 10: Collect SN (~900ul) and discard pellet after PEG precipitation.

[001067] Step 11: Resuspention: Not needed in this step

[001068] Step 12: Purification: Aptamers elution from PEG/Protein pellet with Streptavidin beads (Dynabeads #65001: Dynabeads® MyOne™ Streptavidin C1):

[001069] -> Beads stock: 10 mg/ml; Capacity: >2,500 pmoles/mg;

[001070] -> 10 ul beads should bind 250 pmoles Biotin

[001071] -> 3 ul beads for each AL sample can bind 75 pmoles Biotin

[001072] Library input in the protocol above is ~5ng, which is 0.17 pmol

[001073] CHANGE FOR SN -> For each sample, split 900ul SN collected in step 10 above into two aliquots 450ul ea, consider 3ul of beads per each aliquot.

[001074] 12.1) Pre-washing Streptavidin Magnetic Beads:

[001075] 12.1.1 Add 30 uL of Streptavidin Magnetic Beads into 1.5mL microcentrifuge tube. Four samples make 8 aliquots (for beads treatment) x 3ul beads + overage.

[001076] 12.1.2 Place the tube into a magnetic stand to collect the beads against the side of the tube. Remove and discard the supernatant.

[001077] 12.1.3 Add 0.5mL of Wash Buffer (1xPBS with 0.1% Tween 20) to the tube. Invert the tube several times or vortex gently to mix. Collect the beads with a magnetic stand, then remove and discard the supernatant.

[001078] 12.1.4 Wash 1 time with 0.5ml 1xPBS, collect the beads with a magnetic stand, then remove and discard the supernatant.

[001079] 12.1.5 Add 105 ul 1xPBS to tubes. Aliquot into 10ul per well (using repeater pipet) in 1.5 ml Fisher low-binding tubes. Add 40 ul of 1xPBS.

[001080] 12.2) Incubate 900 ul of sample, recovered in step 10, at 50°C for 10 min (mixmate, 500 rpm) (to denature/remove protein/PEG from aptamer library)

[001081] 12.3) Sample Binding:

[001082] 12.3.6 Add 1/2 (450ul) heat denatured samples to beads (aliquoted in step 5). [001083] 12.3.7 Incubate for 30min, 37°C, end-over-end rotation. Spin down at 2000rpm for 20 sec.

[001084] 12.3.8 Collect the beads (with bound aptamers) using magnet and remove the supernatant by multichanel pipet.

[001085] 12.3.9 Take tubes off the magnet, add 300ul of 1xPBS, pipet well. Collect the beads with magnetic stand, then remove supernatant.

[001086] 12.3.10 Add 100ul H2O to resuspend beads by multichanel pipet.

[001087] 12.3.11 Block the beads with Biotin: add 7.5 ul from 10uM stock, incubate 15 min, RT, 800rpm.

[001088] 12.3.12 Collect the beads (with bound aptamers) using magnet and remove the supernatant by multichanel pipet. Take tubes off the magnet, add 200ul of 1xPBS, pipet well. Collect the beads with magnetic stand, then remove supernatant.

[001089] 12.3.13 Add 100ul H2O per purification sample (total 200ul per negative enrichment sample)

[001090] 12.3.14 Split each sample into 3 aliquots (33ul each), this results into 6 wells per enrichment sample.

[001091] Step 13: Perform PCR

[001092] Rounds 5, 6: same as round 4

[001093] Round 7: repeats steps as shown for round 2

[001094] Results

[001095] FIGs.10A-B are scatter plots showing high correlation of frequencies between replicates of cancer pool (FIG.10A) and appearance of cancer specific subset of aptamers when cancer and healthy pools are compared (circled region in FIG.10B). FIGs.10C-F are scatter plots showing the appearance of cancer specific subset of aptamers when the cancer pool profile of the enriched library (i.e., C-RN7) was compared to the cancer pool of the process control library (CP; FIG.10C) and healthy pool profile of process control library (HP; FIG.10D). We did not observe a similar subset when the healthy pool profile (C-RN7 v HP) of the enriched library was compared to both variants of profile of process control (FIGs. 10E-F, see points along x-axis).

[001096] Selections of aptamer sequences identified in the enrichment screening are shown in Table 18. In the table, each complete aptamer sequence is assembled from 5’ to 3’ as a 5’ region, the variable region, and 3’ region. The sequences are indicated 5’ to 3’ from left to right, wherein each complete sequence consists of a 5’ leader sequence 5’- CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131) followed by the indicated Variable Region sequence followed by the 3’ tail sequence 5’- CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132).The top 50 Cancer-Specific Sequences each had a relatively high copy number in these experiments and a cancer/normal copy number ratio of at least 2-fold higher in the cancers. Moderate Control Sequences had mid-level copy number and a cancer/normal copy number difference of 0.8-1.2-fold. Negative Control Sequences have low copy numbers and cancer/normal copy number ratio of ~1.0 (i.e., no significant difference).

Table 18: Cancer-Specific Sequences

[001097] The data described above (i.e., FIGs.10A-F and Table 18) were obtained with 1 ng input of the specified oligonucleotide libraries used to probe the various samples. In addition, probing experiments were performed with lower titers of the C-R7N oligonucleotide library, specifically 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 ng. A total of 826 unique oligonucleotide sequences were detected between all titers. An eighth enrichment round (round 8) was performed with four titers of the library C-R7N-1 (i.e., 1 ng input in round 7): 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 ng input. From each titer, sets of oligonucleotides that passed the same filters described above were obtained. The composite set of oligonucleotides was compared to the sets of oligonucleotides obtained from the titrations of the C-R7N library noted above. The variable regions of 733 oligonucleotides observed in at least two of the five sets of oligonucleotides are listed in rank order by occurrence in SEQ ID NOs.237-969. These oligonucleotides were identified as oligonucleotide probes that selectively bind to cancer samples. As in Table 18, the oligonucleotides were synthesized with a 5’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131)) and a 3’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)) flanking the variable regions. The 733 cancer specific sequences which can be used to identify cancer samples along with those in Table 18 above.

[001098] As noted, next generation sequencing technologies can be used to identify and quantify members of the oligonucleotide library that bind to a sample. We also designed probes that can be used to identify and quantify members of the oligonucleotide library that bind to a sample without requiring a PCR step. This procedure relies on hybridization of the bound oligonucleotide with oligonucleotide- specific complementary probe. The complementary probe can directly or indirectly carry a tag that can be detected. For example, the oligonucleotide-specific complementary probe may carry a fluorescent tag. A general design is shown in FIG.10G. In the figure, an individual member of the oligonucleotide library 1001 is bound by complementary probe 1002. Complementary probe 1002 consists of three sections from 5’ to 3’: 1) probe part B 1003; 2) probe complement 1004; and 3) probe part A 1005. The member of the oligonucleotide library 1001 is bound by complementary probe 1002 via base pair hybridization between the variable region of oligonucleotide library 1001 and the probe complement region 1004 of

complementary probe 1002. Tag probe 1006 which is fluorescently labeled (indicated by the circles in the figure) and capture probe 1007 hydridize to the probe part A 1005 and probe part B 1003 of

complementary probe 1002, respectively. These features allow for the capture of the entire complex (i.e., oligonucleotide library 1001, complementary probe 1002, tag probe 1006, and capture probe 1007) via the capture probe, combined with detection via the label of the tag probe 1006. For these experiments, the complementary probes were designed to work with tag probe and capture probe supplied as part of the nCounter nucleic acid detection system from NanoString Technologies, Inc. (Seattle, WA). The complementary probes for nCounter quantification were designed as reverse complement to the top 50 oligonucletide probe binders and 50 negative controls, described above.

Example 19: Use of an oligonucleotide probe library to characterize Breast Cancer samples

[001099] An oligonucleotide probe library comprising approximately 2000 different probe sequences was constructed and used to probe approximately 500 individual breast cancer and non-cancer samples. The probe sequences were derived from different screening experiments and are listed herein in SEQ ID NOs 137-969 and 1072-3150. The oligonucleotides listed in these tables were synthesized and pooled together. The samples were plasma samples from 212 breast cancer patients, 177 biospy confirmed non-cancer patients, and 117 normal control patients (self-reported as non-cancer). Experiments details are as provided above. The plasma samples were contacted with the oligonucleotide probe library and microvesicles were isolated using PEG precipitation. Oligonucleotides that were recovered with the microvesicles were isolated. Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) was used to identify the isolated sequences for each sample.

[001100] Analysis of significance of difference identified 18 aptamers with p-values below 0.01 when compared Cancer/Normal, 15 aptamers with p-values below 0.001 when compared cancer/Non- Cancer, 28 aptamers with p-values below 0.001 when compared Non-Cancer/Normal.

[001101] Multi-oligonucleotide panels were next constructed using a cross-validation approach. Briefly, 50 samples were randomly withheld from the sample cohort. The performance of individual oligonucleotides to distinguish the remaining cancers and non-cancer/normals was determined using logistic regression methodology. Additional oligonucleotides were added iteratively and performance was assessed using logistic regression until further performance improvements were no longer obtained with additional oligonucleotides. The approach generally led to panels of approximately 20-100 different probe sequences. The constructed panels were then used to classify the 50 withheld samples and diagnostic performance was assessed using Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis and estimation of the Area Under the Curve (AUC).

[001102] In approximately 300 rounds of cross-validation, the average AUC was 0.6, thus showing that the average performance was statistically better than random (i.e., AUC of 0.5) and that the probe library could distinguish breast cancer and non-breast cancer/normal patient samples. AUC values as high as 0.8 were observed for particular cross validations. FIGs.11A-B illustrate a model generated using a training (FIG.11A) and test (FIG.11B) set from a round of cross validation. The AUC was 0.803. The variable regions of the sequences used to build this model are shown in Table 19. Another exemplary round of cross-validation is shown in FIGs.11C-D. The AUC was 0.678. [001103] The SEQ ID NOs. of the sequences used in the model in FIGs.11A-B are listed in rank in Table 19. As in Table 18, the oligonucleotides were synthesized with a 5’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131)) and a 3’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO. 132)) flanking the variable regions.

Table 19: Oligonucleotide Probe Variable Regions

[001104] The data presented in this Example demonstrate that an oligonucleotide pool comprising members having the variable regions listed in SEQ ID NOs 137-969 and 1072-3150, e.g., a pool of probes having the variable regions listed in Table 19, can be used to distinguish plasma from individuals having breast cancer versus plasma from non-breast cancer individuals.

Example 20: Updated oligonucleotide pools to characterize Breast Cancer samples

[001105] The profiling of 500 clinical samples with an oligonucleotide probe library comprising 2000 oligonucleotides showed significant ability to distinguish breast cancer from non-cancer control samples. See Example 19 above. When performing cross-validation in these experiments, it was observed that 85 out of 500 were misclassified at a higher rate compared to the other samples. We therefore identified another selection of oligonucleotide probe which were able to correctly classify the noted samples. These 85 samples were profiled with a naïve oligonucleotide probe library (6-3S/8-3S), and enriched on breast cancer and non-cancer plasma using methodology presented in the Examples above. The selected oligonucleotides were compared to a positive controls cohort, which comprised of the cancer and non-cancer samples that were consistently classified correctly within the experiments in Example 19 above. Oligonucleotides were selected based on absolute number of copies sequenced of at least 50 and various criteria when comparing sample groups including: 1) copy number fold-change (fc) of at least 1.2; 2) effect size (es) above 0.6; 3) t-test (p-value <= 0.05); and 4) Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (ks) (p-value <= 0.05). Effect size is a population effect size calculated as (mean(group1)– mean(group2) ) / standard deviation(group1 and group2).

[001106] The profiling data were normalized by dividing the count of each particular

oligonucleotide by the total counts for particular sample and multiplying by the global mean across the entire experiment. These normalized values were used to calculate the statistical criteria specified above to compare the following samples type: Misclassified Cancer (“C”), misclassified non-cancer (“NC”), positive control Cancer (“C-P”), positive control Non-Cancer (“NC-P”), misclassified Normal (“N”). The comparisons performed and numbers of resulting oligonucleotides are shown in Table 20. Negative controls are oligonucleotides that did not match any criteria and thus should not distinguish be any samples groups.

Table 20: Oligonucleotide probe candidates were selected from the following comparisons

[001107] *“C/NC-P” in Table 20 means that oligonucleotides were selected with specificity toward cancer (“C”) while compared to Non-Cancer positive (“NC-P”) control.

[001108] A** - selection criteria: counts > 50, fc≥ 1.2, es > 0.6, ttest p<0.05,

[001109] B*** - selection criteria: counts >200, estimated sample size <71, fc >1.2, ttest/ks test p<0.05.

[001110] The sequences selected based on Table 20 are shown in Table 21. As in Table 18, the oligonucleotides each have a 5’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131)) and a 3’ region consisting of the sequence (5’- CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO.132)). Table 12 lists in rank order the SEQ ID NOs of the variable regions that are positioned between the 5’ and 3’ regions. The column “Specificity” shows the specificity of the oligonucleotides based on the comparisons in Table 20.

Table 21: Oligonucleotide Probe Variable Regions

[001111] The 1000 selected oligonucleotides are synthesized as DNA with a 5’ biotinylation. The synthesized oligonucleotides are pooled with 1000 of the most informative aptamers from the profiling performed in Example 19 to create a further optimized oligonucleotide probing library that can be used to distinguish cancer and normal samples.

Example 21: Comparison of Oligonucleotide Pools

[001112] In this Example, the performance of the oligonucleotide pool from Example 19 was compared to the performance of the oligonucleotide pool from Example 20 to characterize breast cancer samples. In this Example, the oligonucleotide pool from Example 19 is referred to as the 2000v1 and the oligonucleotide pool from Example 20 is referred to as the 2000v2. A random forest approach was used to analyze the data, which data was obtained for the 2000v1 library in Example 19. The 2000v2 data was obtained via tested on a cohort of 858 plasma samples which comprised some samples described in

Example 19 with additional samples according to three groupings: 194 breast cancer positive, 382 breast cancer negative as confirmed by biopsy (“non-cancer”), and 282 self declared normals (“normal”).

[001113] ROC curves are shown in FIGs.15A-D for the various settings. AUC values are shown above the curve and are statistically significant from random (i.e., AUC = 0.5) in all cases. In FIG.15A, the 2000v1 probe library was used to distinguish cancer samples versus biopsy confirmed non-cancer samples. In FIG.15B, the 2000v2 probe library was used to distinguish the same sample groupings. A small improvement in AUC was observed with the 2000v2 probe library in this setting. In FIG.15C, the 2000v1 probe library was used to distinguish cancer samples versus self-declared normal samples. In FIG.15D, the 2000v2 probe library was used to distinguish the same sample groupings. A small decline in AUC was observed with the 2000v2 probe library in this setting. Highly stringent

[001114] The SEQ ID NOs. of the variable regions of informative oligonucleotides from the 2000v1 and 2000v2 libraries are listed in Table 22. As above, the oligonucleotides were synthesized with a 5’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO.131)) and a 3’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO. 132)) flanking the variable regions. The listed oligonucleotides were used in the Random Forest modeling to generate AUC values, e.g., as shown in FIGs.15A-D, and are listed in rank order. The row“Common” in Table 22 shows overlapping informative sequences from the 2000v1 and 2000v2 settings.

Table 22: Informative oligonucleotide probes

[001115] The data presented in this Example demonstrate that an oligonucleotide pool comprising members having the variable regions listed in SEQ ID NOs 137-969 and 1072-4150, e.g., a pool of probes having the variable regions listed in Table 22, can be used to distinguish plasma from individuals having breast cancer versus plasma from non-breast cancer individuals.

Example 22: Anti-C1q oligonucleotides

[001116] This Example presents identification of anti-C1q aptamers. In this Example, biotinylated forms of oligonucleotides that differentiate cancer and non-cancer plasma samples were synthesized and immobilized to streptavidin beads and incubated with the PEG precipitated plasma fraction. Proteins that immunoprecipitated with oligonucleotides from SEQ ID NO.1472-1486 were separated by SDS-PAGE. Specific bands were excised from the gel and proteins therein identified by in-gel trypsin digestions and LC-MS/MS such as in Example 15 above.

[001117] Immunoprecipitation of specific oligonucleotides conjugated to magnetic beads was performed to identify oligonucleotide targets. Several oligonucleotides were identified that recognized C1q and subunits. The sequences of the variable regions of identified anti-C1q aptamers include 5’- ACTATAGAACAATCCACCGCTTTAAATCAACTATCTTA (SEQ ID NO.1472), also known by the identifier 83S-B1; 5’-TACCCCTGACAATCCTCGCGCCGAGGCCTCCATCCTGA (SEQ ID NO.1475), also known by the identifier 83S-B4; 5’-GATTTTAAAACCCTTGCACCTGATTGTGCCAATCCA (SEQ ID NO.1477), also known by the identifier 83S-B6; and 5’- AACCCAATTCACATACACTCTCACCCCCACTAAACA (SEQ ID NO.1482), also known by the identifier 83S-B11. Of note, the variable regions of 83S-B1 and 83S-B4 share the motif 5’-ACAATCC (SEQ ID NO.4151), suggesting that this may comprise a consensus sequence that facilitates binding to C1q.

Further as noted below, an oligonucleotide comprising the reverse complement of this putative consensus sequence did not bind C1q. Several variants of the anti-C1q aptamers were also identified in our previous experiments described in Example 27 of PCT/US2016/044595, filed July 28, 2016. The sequences of the variable regions thereof are shown in Table 23. As above, the full length oligonucleotide probes in Table 23 each had a 5’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTAGCATGACTGCAGTACGT (SEQ ID NO. 131)) and a 3’ region consisting of the sequence (5’-CTGTCTCTTATACACATCTGACGCTGCCGACGA (SEQ ID NO. 132)). Table 23 shows the variable region that is positioned between the 5’ and 3’ regions of the sequences.

Table 23: Anti-C1q Variable Regions

[001118] Specificity for C1q as a target was performed by immunoprecipitation of C1q depleted or spiked serum and plasma samples. SDS-PAGE analysis of the immunoprecipitation products

demonstrated that bands corresponding to C1q subunits (i.e., A, B, C) were only present in the samples spiked with C1q. As a control, oligonucleotides comprising the reverse complements to SEQ ID NOs. 1472 and 1482 were synthesized. For example, the construct comprising the reverse complement to SEQ ID NOs.1472 comprised the variable region sequence 5’- TTAAGATAGTTGATTTAAAGCGGTGGATTGTTCTATAGT (SEQ ID NO.4326).

[001119] FIG.17A shows a silver-stained reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (SDS- PA) gel of immunoprecipitated proteins from plasma samples with the indicated oligonucleotides. In the figure, B1 comprises the variable region SEQ ID NO.1472, B11 comprises the variable region SEQ ID NO.1482, and L4 and L15 comprises variable regions without specific recognition of C1q. The individual biotinylated oligonucleotides were immobilized on streptavidin magnetic beads, contacted with PEG- precipitated plasma isolates from a pool of healthy donors, and the beads were isolated. Proteins that immunoprecipitated with the beads are shown on the gel. Controls included the reverse complements of B1 and B11 (lanes B1rc and B11rc, respectively) and a control using beads without oligonucleotides (Lane“NO”). Dashed arrows indicate pulled down proteins C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC. The dotted arrow indicates the heavy chain of IgM (IgMHC). The band labeled“SA” is streptavidin and the lane kDa is a protein ladder. As shown in FIG.17A, specific bands indicated by the dashed arrows were observed in the B1 and B11 immunoprecipitation experiments. These bands were excised and analyzed by LC- MS/MS. This analysis revealed the complement protein complex C1q as the target of sequences B1 and B11, and the figure indicates the positions of C1q subunits A, B and C. In contrast, reverse complement versions of B1 and B11 (i.e., B1rc, B11rc) did not immunoprecipitate C1q. Also shown in the figure, IgM co-precipitated with C1q. Without being bound by theory, these findings are consistent with previous observations where IgM was found to remain complexed with C1q in sera that were precipitated with PEG. See Krieger, et al. Characterization of immune complexes detected by the 125I-C1q binding assay in breast cancer. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 46, 14-23 (1988); which publication is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[001120] To further investigate the interaction of aptamer B1 and B11 with C1q, we performed a filter retention assay. Radioactively labelled B1 and B11 were incubated with increasing concentrations of purified C1q and subsequently passed through a nitrocellulose membrane. The amount of oligonucleotides retained on membrane-immobilized C1q was then quantified by autoradiography. Results are shown in FIG.17B. These experiments demonstrate that B1 and B11 exhibit concentration dependent binding to C1q, whereas B11rc did not. Similar results were obtained with B11 and B11rc in an Enzyme-Linked Oligonucleotide Assay (ELONA; see US Patent 5789163, which patent is incorporated herein in its entirety). See FIG.17C. The figure shows ELONA analysis of B11 (circles) at indicated concentrations and a fixed C1q concentration (0.625 nM). As a control, the reverse complement of B11, B11RC, was used (squares).“No aptamer” control (triangles) shows low background binding of detector Streptavidin- HRP. B11 specifically binds C1q (estimated K D around 40 nM). This binding behaviour indicates that B1 and B11 specifically interact with C1q with high affinity.

[001121] A second control comprised the reverse complement to the consensus motif (i.e., SEQ ID NO.4151). This construct comprised the variable region sequence 5’- TACTATAGATGGATTGTCCGCTTTAAATCAACTATCTTA (SEQ ID NO.4327) and did not

immunoprecipitate C1q from plasma.

[001122] Table 24 lists proteins that were identified in the immunoprecipitation with B1 (i.e., SEQ ID NO.1472) using PSMs (peptide spectrum matches) sorted by area. The proteins in the list were observed only in the immunoprecipitation with B1 (i.e., not observed with negative controls) or at levels at least 2-fold over negative controls. The mass spectrometry results were obtained from a single band that was run a short distance in a gel in order to clean up the sample. Accession numbers in the table are from the UniProt database (www.uniprot.org).“GN=” is followed by the gene name. As seen in Table 24, C1q subunits A-C were prominent in the results. IgM was also observed at high levels. Without being bound by theory, this may be due to complexes between C1q and immunoglobulins as noted above. Complement C4b-binding protein alpha chain was also observed at 10-fold higher levels versus controls.

Table 24: Oligonucleotide probe targets

[001123] The oligonucleotide sequences in Table 23 can be futher modified to assess the effects of various subsequences and structural conformation on the ability to bind C1q. Exemplary rationally designed modifications are shown in Table 25. For example, the modifications can be based on the secondary structure of the oligonucleotides as estimated using mFold. The sequences in the table may comprise a modification such as a 5’ Biotin motif. The Name column indicates the sequence and/or modications thereof. For example,“83s B1 Full” (SEQ ID NO.4328) consists of the 83s B1 sequence (SEQ ID NO.1472) shown above with 5’ and 3’ regions (i.e., SEQ ID NOs.131 and 132, respectively). Beneath are truncations (“TrXX-YY,” where XX is the start position of the truncation and YY is the end position of the truncation as compared to the parent), substitutions (e.g., T(23)G indicating that T at position 23 of the parent sequence is modified to G), and combinations thereof.“RC” indicates reverse complement sequence, in this case for use as a negative control. The italicized and underlined sequences highlight the 5’-ACAATCC consensus sequence.

Table 25: Modified anti-C1q oligonucleotide probe targets

[001124] In further analysis, C1q was immunoprecipitated from female plasma samples using the 83s B1 aptamer (or its negative control). For sequences, see Table 25 above. C1q was eluted with TFA/Urea +/- acetonitrile then detected by either an in-solution trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry or SDS-PAGE stained for total protein as in FIG.17A (gel not shown). Mass Spectrometry was performed using the Q Exactive HF Mass Spectrometer system from ThermoFisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Various post-translational modifications (PTM) have been observed for C1q A. For example, the UniProt database lists various oxidation sites (e.g., P45, K48, P54, P57, P73, P79, P85) and galactosyl sites (e.g., K48, K67). Other modifications were reported in Pflieger et al., Analysis of Human C1q by Combined Bottom-up and Top-down Mass Spectrometry, Mol Cell Proteomics.2010 Apr; 9(4): 593–610, which publication is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Table 26 lists PTMs observed in this study. The modifications in bold italics are previously unreported to our knowledge.

Table 26: Observed C1q A post-translational modifications

Example 23: C1q immunoassay and isolation

[001125] This Example illustrates C1q immunoassays using an anti-C1q oligonucleotide. A nucleic acid construct is synthesized comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide region, for example, as described in Example 22 above. The anti-C1q construct comprises a 5’ biotin modification to facilitate specific recognition by a desired moiety attached to streptavidin.

[001126] A labeled anti-C1q aptamer construct is contructed. The anti-C1q construct is contacted with fluorescently labeled streptavidin such as a streptavidin - Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Catalog number: S11223. This creates a fluorescently labeled anti-C1q construct which is used to detect C1q in various immunoassay formats. In one scenario, a biological sample known or suspected to contain C1q is contacted with an ELISA plate. The plate is washed and contacted with the fluorescently labeled anti-C1q construct. The fluorescent signal is read from the wells in the plate, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of C1q in the biological sample. In another scenario, a biological sample is directly contacted with the fluorescently labeled anti-C1q construct. The contacted sample is subjected to flow cytometry to detect fluorescent particles of the size of microvesicles, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of microvesicle associated C1q in the biological sample. Alternate labels such as disclosed herein or known in the art can be used in such formats.

[001127] Various modifications of the above scenarios are performed. For example, the anti-C1q aptamer is directly labeled with Alexa Fluor during the oligonucleotide synthesis process.

[001128] An immobilized anti-C1q aptamer is contructed. In one scenario, the anti-C1q aptamer construct is contacted with streptavidin conjugated beads. The beads are contacted with a biological sample known or suspected to contain C1q. The beads are precipitated (e.g., by centrifugation or magnetism) and washed. Proteins that precipitate with the beads are analyzed, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of C1q and associated proteins in the biological sample. In another scenario, the anti-C1q aptamer construct is contacted with streptavidin agarose resin, e.g., Pierce™ Streptavidin Agarose, Thermo Fisher Scientific Catalog number: 20347 or Pierce™ High Capacity Streptavidin Agarose Thermo Fisher Scientific Catalog number: 20357. The resins are placed in a spin column or chromatography column, respectively. The anti-C1q aptamer is contacted with the resin where it is bound by the streptavidin. A biological sample known or suspected to comprise C1q is allowed to pass through the resin. C1q and associated proteins in the biological sample are retained by the anti-C1q aptamer within the resin and are then analyzed after elution. In either scenario, if desired, the anti-C1q aptamer is contacted with the biological sample in solution and then the sample is contacted with the beads or resin. C1q and associated proteins are analyzed as above. This modification allows the C1q and aptamer to bind freely in solution prior to aptamer immobilization.

[001129] Various modifications of the above scenarios are performed. For example, the anti-C1q aptamer is directly conjugated to a bead or other desired surface.

[001130] One of skill will appreciate that the anti-C1q aptamer construct can be used in any desired scenario where antibodies are conventionally used. See, e.g., Toh et al., Aptamers as a replacement for antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biosens Bioelectron.2015 Feb 15;64:392-403. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.026. Epub 2014 Sep 16; Chen and Yang, Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay. Biosens Bioelectron.2015 Sep 15;71:230-42. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.04.041. Epub 2015 Apr 14; Guthrie et al, Assays for cytokines using aptamers. Methods.2006 Apr;38(4):324-30; Romig et al., Aptamer affinity chromatography: combinatorial chemistry applied to protein purification. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl.1999 Aug 20;731(2):275-84.

Example 24: C1q Detection in Bodily Fluids

[001131] This Example describes using an anti-C1q oligonucleotide to detect C1q in bodily fluids. A bodily fluid such as blood or a derivative thereof, including without limitation sera or plasma, is obtained from a subject. An assay such as described in Example 23 is used to detect C1q in the bodily fluid. As desired, such detection may assist in the diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of a disease or disorder. See, e.g., Examples 8-9 herein.

[001132] In one scenario, the anti-C1q aptamer is used to capture and quantitate immune complexes in clinical samples based on the ability of C1q to preferentially bind immune complexes versus monomeric immunoglobulins.

Example 25: C1q Inhibition

[001133] This Example describes using an anti-C1q oligonucleotide to inhibit C1q mediated apoptosis.

[001134] Deficiency in the host C1q inhibitor protein, encoded by the SERPING1 gene (also known as C1NH and others), is associated with hereditary angioedema (“hereditary angioneurotic edema”;“HAE”), which comprises swelling due to leakage of fluid from blood vessels into connective tissue. In addition to facial swelling and/or abdominal pain, C1q inhibitor deficiency also predisposes to autoimmune diseases, e.g., lupus erythematosus, and age related macular degeneration. C1q inhibitors CINRYZE® (C1 esterase inhibitor [human]) and RUCONEST® (C1 esterase inhibitor [recombinant]) are approved by the US FDA for HAE symptoms. See, e.g., Bernstein, Hereditary angioedema: a current state-of-the-art review, VIII: current status of emerging therapies. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.100 (1 Suppl 2): S41–6 (January 2008). A pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is administered to an HAE patient in sufficient dosage to ameliorate symptoms of HAE.

[001135] As the complement cascade damages cells, C1q inhibitors have potential functionality for diseases other than HAE. See e.g., Caliezi et al, C1-Esterase inhibitor: an anti-inflammatory agent and its potential use in the treatment of diseases other than hereditary angioedema. Pharmacol. Rev.52 (1): 91– 112 (March 2000). During heart attack, lack of oxygen in heart cells causes necrosis in heart cells. Dying heart cells spill their contents in the extracellular environment, which triggers the complement cascade and may increase the damage for the surviving heart cells. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is administered to a heart attack victim in sufficient dosage to ameliorate complement-mediated heart damage. Similarly, a pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is administered to a patient following organ transplantation to ameliorate delayed graft function.

[001136] The complement cascade is a first defense against non-self cells and is also activated by malignant cells. Thus, complement appears to play a role in cancer surveillance by the immune system. Recently, however, it has been reported that the complement system can also play a role in promoting tumor growth, inflammation and angiogenesis. Thus, complement inhibition has been proposed for cancer treatment. See, e.g., Pio et al, Complement inhibition: a promising concept for cancer treatment, Semin Immunol.2013 Feb; 25(1): 54–64; Pio et al., The role of complement in tumor growth. Adv Exp Med Biol.2014;772:229-62. It has further been reported that C1q may act in the tumor microenvironment to promote cancer independently of its complement function. Bulla et al. report that C1q may promote cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation as well as angiogenesis and metastasis. See Bulla et al., C1q acts in the tumour microenvironment as a cancer-promoting factor independently of complement activation. Nat Commun.2016; 7: 10346. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage to treat the cancer in the victim. As desired, the composition is administered in combination with traditional cancer therapeutics or in addition to immune therapies, e.g., cell-based tumor immunotherapies, or antitumor vaccines.

Example 26: Complement cascade initiation

[001137] This Example describes using an anti-C1q oligonucleotide to direct complement mediated cell killing.

[001138] Antibody immunotherapies may direct the killing of target cells through several mechanisms, including without limitation complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody- dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), apoptosis, and direct growth arrest. See, e.g., Taylor and Lindorfer, The role of complement in mAb-based therapies of cancer. Methods.2014 Jan 1;65(1):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.07.027. Epub 2013 Jul 22; Rogers et al., Complement in monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer. Immunol Res.2014 Aug;59(1-3):203-10. doi: 10.1007/s12026-014-8542-z; Zhou et al., The Role of Complement in the Mechanism of Action of Rituximab for B-Cell Lymphoma: Implications for Therapy, The Oncologist September 2008 vol.13 no.9954-966; Di Gaetano et al., Complement activation determines the therapeutic activity of rituximab in vivo. J Immunol.2003 Aug 1;171(3):1581-7.

[001139] The Fc regions of membrane-bound therapeutic antibodies interact with the

heterooligomeric Clq complex and activate the classical complement pathway to initiate CDC. A multipartite construct comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is provided in a pharmaceutical composition. The pharmaceutical composition is administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage to treat the cancer in the victim. The construct comprises the anti-C1q oligonucleotide connected to an anti-tumor domain. See, e.g., FIGs.16A-D herein and related discussion. The anti-tumor domain can be to a general tumor antigen or specific to a tumor of a given origin. See, e.g., Section“Anti- target and multivalent oligonucleotides” herein for illustrative targets. The anti-tumor domain may comprise the C10.36 aptamer provided herein (SEQ ID NO.4357). As desired, the multipartite construct comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide is used to direct complement mediated cell killing where cancer cells and tumors have adapted to evade the complement system.

[001140] As noted herein, C1q may play a role in both preventing cancer, e.g., through

complement mediated cell killing, and facilitating the growth of cancer, e.g., through cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation as well as angiogenesis and metastasis, perhaps in a non-complement fashion. Such disparate roles allow for combination treatment with oligonucleotides of the invention that both inhibit the roles of C1q in promoting cancer while targeting C1q mediated cell killing to cancer cells. A multipartite construct comprising an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention is provided in a pharmaceutical composition. An anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention that inhibits non-complement functions of C1q is provided in a pharmaceutical composition. The pharmaceutical compositions are administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage to treat the cancer in the victim.

Example 27: Anti-lymphona oligonucleotide probes

[001141] This Example presents aptamer sequences that can be used to target cancer cells. For example, the aptamer can be used to target the C1q aptamers of the invention (see, e.g., Table 23) to cancer cells. This Example uses the C10 aptamer from Raddatz et al., Enrichment of cell-targeting and population-specific aptamers by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.

2008;47(28):5190-3; which publication is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. The C10 aptamer was found to recognize Burkitt Lymphoma cells. Here we have discovered a 36-mer sequence of Aptamer C10, the“C10.36” or“10.36” aptamer, that is responsible for binding Burkitt Lymphoma cells. We reported characterization of the structure of Aptamer C10.36 in Opazo et al., Modular Assembly of Cell-targeting Devices Based on an Uncommon G-quadruplex Aptamer, Molecular Therapy—Nucleic Acids (2015) 4, e251; doi:10.1038/mtna.2015.25; published online 1 September 2015; which publication is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

[001142] The oligonucleotide sequences in Table 27 comprise various combinations of C10.36 linked to anti-C1q aptamers of the invention (i.e., B1 (SEQ ID NO.1472) and B11 (SEQ ID. NO.1482) derivatives as indicated). These oligonucleotides can be futher modified to assess the effects of various subsequences and structural conformation on the ability to bind cancer cells. For example, the modifications can be based on the secondary structure of the oligonucleotides as estimated using mFold. Exemplary rationally designed modifications are shown in Table 27. The sequences may further comprise desired modification such as a 5’ Biotin motif. The“Name” column indicates the sequence and/or modications thereof. For example,“C10.36” is the functional truncation of the C10 aptamer as described. Beneath are truncations (“TrXX-YY,” where XX is the start position of the truncation and YY is the end position of the truncation as compared to the parent), substitutions (e.g., T(57)G indicating that T at position 57 of the parent sequence is modified to G), and combinations thereof. The italicized and underlined sequences highlight the 5’-ACAATCC consensus sequence (SEQ ID NO.4151) described above.

Table 27: C10.36 truncated oligonucleotide and derivatives

Example 28: Aptamer C10.36 binds a ribonucleoprotein complex

[001143] We reported that aptamer C10.36 (SEQ ID NO.4357) forms a G-quadruplex structure and is taken up by Burkitt’s Lymphoma (Ramos) cells via a clathrin-mediated endocytotic pathway. Opazo et al. This aptamer is taken up by Ramos cells to a greater extent than other lymphoma derived cell lines (e.g., Jurkat, Raji, or P12). Opazo et al. In this Example, we report identification of the target of aptamer C10.36.

[001144] A single point mutant in aptamer C10.36, C10.36(G24A) (SEQ ID NO.4369), disrupts the G-quadruplex structure and results in loss of binding to Ramos cells. Opazo et al. This point mutant was used as a control in the aptamer precipitation experiments in this Example to control for non-specific binding to nucleic acid binding proteins.

[001145] Preferential Binding to Ramos Cells:

[001146] A titration of C10.36 and C10.36(G24A) demonstrated binding of C10.36 preferentially to Ramos cells and lack of binding to C10.36(G24A) to either Ramos or Jurkat cells. See FIG.18A. Panels i-ii show results of flow cytometry with Ramos cells and panels iii-iv show results with Jurkat cells. Panels i and iii show results with aptamer C10.36 and panels ii and iv show results with control aptamer C10.36(G24A). To perform these experiments, aptamer stocks were diluted to 10 µM in Hank’s Buffered Salt Solution (HBSS), denatured, and allowed to cool to room temperature for 15 minutes. They were further incubated with streptavidin, R-phycoerythrin conjugate (SAPE; at 1 SAPE molecule per 4 aptamer molecules) for 30 minutes at room temperature in the dark, then diluted in the appropriate media (RPMI medium (Gibco)-10% serum, 0.1 mg/mL sheared salmon sperm DNA (sssDNA), 0.1 mg/mL yeast tRNA, 0.01mM dextran sulfate, with or without prior heat inactivation of serum). The cells were washed, counted, and resuspended in media. They were then incubated with diluted aptamers and SAPE in media for 15 min at 37 °C, 5% CO 2 . After incubation with aptamers, cells were washed twice with HBSS, then resuspended in HBSS for flow analysis on Apogee flow cytometry platform (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Middlesex, England).

[001147] As seen in FIG.18A, SAPE by itself had the same binding pattern as unstained flow experiments under all conditions. Ramos cells had a clear positive population at all C10.36 concentrations with titration effect seen with increasing concentration of C10.36 (i.e., 200 nM to 800 nM, as indicated). See panel i. Jurkat cells were dimly positive at the highest concentration of C10.36 aptamer, 800µm. See panel iii. All cells were negative for C10.36(G24A) staining. See panels ii and iv. Slightly brighter staining of Ramos cells was observed in media comprising heat-inactivated serum. Data not shown.

[001148] Target Identification:

[001149] Targets of C10.36 were assessed by affinity purification of aptamers bound to Ramos or Jurkat cells with streptavidin Dynabeads® (ThermoFisher, Sci). Proteins eluted from the beads were separated by SDS-PAGE and detected by silver stain. Protocol used as follows: [001150] 1. Pellet appropriate volume of cells by centrifuging for 5 minutes at room temperature (RT) at 500xg.

[001151] 2. Aspirate media.

[001152] 3. Resuspend cells in 500 µL binding buffer (see above for flow cytometry) to provide 2X10^5 cells per reaction.

[001153] 4. Aptamers: dilute aptamer to 10 µM stock and heat denature for 5 min at 95 °C; allow to cool 15 min on bench.

[001154] 5. Dilute aptamer stock to a working stock using binding buffer.

[001155] 6. Add 50µl of aptamer to each well of a 96 well deep plate.

[001156] 7. Add 50µl of cells to the above wells.

[001157] 8. Briefly tap/mix the samples.

[001158] 9. Incubate 15 minutes at 37 °C, 5% CO 2 .

[001159] 10. Add 10µL of Dynabeads® MyOne™ Streptavidin C1 to all the wells (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

[001160] 11. Incubate beads with aptamer–cell solution for 30 mins at RT mixing.

[001161] 12. Discard supernatant via magnetic capture with a MagMax™ platform (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

[001162] 13. Wash beads twice with 200µL of 1X HBSS.

[001163] 14. Lyse cells with 200µl lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, 3 mM MgCl 2 , 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, pH 7.5) for 15 min at RT. Mix on Magmax.

[001164] 15. Wash again with with 200µL of 1X HBSS

[001165] 16. Elute sample with 15µL 0.3%TFA, 6M Urea heat 37 °C for 10min; transfer supernatant to fresh tube then add 5µL of 4X LDS, 2µL of 10X reducing agent

[001166] 17. To remaining beads at 22µL of 1X LDS, 1X reducing agent, boil for 15min at 95 °C, freeze at -20C

[001167] 18. Run 4-12% SDS-PAGE of TFA/Urea eluted samples

[001168] 19. Silver stain gels

[001169] 20. Cut out bands and process to in gel trypsin digestion

[001170] An exemplary gel is shown in FIG.18B. Lanes in the Gel are shown in Table 28:

Table 28: Silver staining gel lanes

[001171] As shown in FIG.18B, few proteins bound to the G24A (lanes 2, 5) or no aptamer (lanes 3, 6) control beads in either Ramos or Jurkat cells. Two duplicate gels were run for 10 min, the entire lane was cut out in one band and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS. See, e.g., Example 16. Sixty-five of 81 identified proteins were identified as differentially binding to Ramos vs. Jurkat cells with at least a 2-fold change, suggesting these proteins are related to the difference in binding between Ramos and Jurkat cells. Of these, 51 were unique to C10.36 bound to Ramos cells. See Table 29. Accession numbers in the table are from the UniProt database (www.uniprot.org).“GN=” is followed by the gene name. Proteins in the table are sorted by level detected in Ramos cells, from high to low. The most abundant proteins included components of nucleolin containing complexes nucleolin (NCL), nucleophosmin (NPM1), actin (ACTB), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (HNRNP) (Pinol- Roma, Hovanessian et al.) as well as other nucleoproteins. The table indicates the fold change in Ramos cells as compared to Jurkat cells.“n/d” indicates that the protein was observed in Ramos but not detected in Jurkat cells.

Table 29: Proteins differentially binding to Ramos vs. Jurkat cells

Q12905 Interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2 n/d [001172] Aptamer C10.36 is internalized by Ramos cells through a clathrin dependent mechanism at the cell surface. See Opazo et al. Both NCL and NPM1 have both been shown to be expressed on the cell surface of cancer cells and together regulate K-Ras signaling. See Gervin et al.; Inder et al.

Ribonucleoprotein containing structures have been shown to accumulate on the cell surface of apoptotic cells. See Biggiogera et al. for review. To assess whether aptamer C10.36 could bind nucleolin at the cell- surface, aptamer precipitations were conducted in the presence of 80 µM Dynasore®, which inhibits clathrin mediated endocytosis. For methodology, see Opazo et al; Kirchhausen et al. To reduce viscosity of the cellular lysate, endonuclease HL-dsDNase, which specifically cleaves dsDNA but does not degrade the single stranded DNA aptamer (data not shown), was added to the lysis buffer at a final concentration of 4 Units per 100 μl. The number of total proteins identified by LC-MS/MS from gel bands run in triplicate in the presence of endonuclease HL-dsDNase was much lower and was similar with and without Dynasore®. See FIG.18C. In the figure, lanes are indicated in Table 30. Panels i, ii and iii are triplicate gels. Consistent with the flow cytometry results described above, higher levels of protein were detected with Ramos cells and aptamer C10.36 as opposed to Jurkat cells or control aptamer C10.36(G24A).

Table 30: Silver stained gel lanes

[001173] Eight proteins were differentially bound to C10.36 and Ramos cells and included NCL, FBL, hnRNP C1/C2, SFPQ and DDX21. See Table 31. The last column in the table indicates the fold change in Ramos cells (R) as compared to Jurkat cells (J), in the presence (+) or absence (-) of Dynasore. “n/d” indicates that the protein was observed in Ramos but not detected in Jurkat cells. Dynasore inhibits internalization of C10.36 (see Opazo et al) but made minimal difference on the proteins we detected under our conditions. NCL, NMP1 and DDX21 have been shown to directly bind G-quadruplex DNA structures. See Arcovito et al.; Girvan et al.; Tosoni et al.; Brazda, et al.; Mendoza et al. SFPQ was originally described as a myoblast cell surface antigen and is a DNA- and RNA binding protein, involved in several nuclear processes. See Gower et al. DDX21 is a nucleolar helicase that can unfold Q-quadruplex structures. See Mendoza et al. To our knowledge this is the first time the translational control proteins SFPQ and DDX21 have been identified co-precipitating with cell surface complexes comprising nucleolin.

Table 31: Proteins differentially binding to Ramos vs. Jurkat cells

[001174] To increase the yield of the surface target proteins or protein complexes and limit endocytotic aptamer internalization, ~1µg of aptamer C10.36 and control aptamer C10.36(G24A) were immobilized to 1µm streptavidin Dynabeads® (ThermoFisher, Sci). Ramos or Jurkat cells were captured from the solution using the beads in the presence of Dynasore® and endonuclease HL-dsDNase. As above, differential detection by LC-MS/MS analysis of digests of triplicate gel bands (not shown) found ribonucleoproteins precipitated with the C10.36 aptamer specifically in Ramos cells. See Table 32. Accession numbers in the table are from the UniProt database (www.uniprot.org).“GN=” is followed by the gene name. Proteins in the table are sorted by level detected in Ramos cells, from high to low. The table indicates the fold change in Ramos cells as compared to Jurkat cells.“n/d” indicates that the protein was observed in Ramos but not detected in Jurkat cells.

Table 32: Proteins differentially binding to Ramos vs. Jurkat cells

[001175] Four proteins were identified as differentially bound in all the experimental conditions tested as shown in Tables 29, 31 and 32: NCL, FBL, SFPQ, and DDX21. Without being bound by theory, these data indicate that aptamer C10.36 binds a ribonucleoprotein complex comprising multiple proteins including without limitation nucleolin, hnRNP U, fibrillarin, actin, SFPQ, hnRNPM, hnRNPC1/C2. To examine which proteins C10.36 binds directly as opposed to indirectly as part of a ribonucleoprotein complex, we increased the stringency of salt in the wash buffers from 133 mM to 1M NaCl in the presence of Dynasore. FIG.18D shows gels run at the indicated salt concentrations (i.e., panel i = 250 mM; panel ii = 500 mM; panel iii = 1M). Lanes in the gel are shown in Table 33. Lane 1 is a molecular weight (MW) marker.

Table 33: Silver staining gel lanes [001176] We compared aptamer C10.36 to aptamer AS1411 (SEQ ID NO.4370), an anti-NCL homodimeric DNA aptamer that binds specifically to cancer cells, and CRO26 (SEQ ID NO.4371), a biologically inactive control oligonucleotide. See Reyes-Reyes et al.; Soundararajan et al. See FIG.18D and Table 33. AS1411 had no detectable binding to Ramos or Jurkat cells under our affinity purification experimental conditions. See FIG.18D, lanes 4, 8. To assess whether immobilization of the aptamer disrupted its ability to homodimerize, binding was repeated in-solution. These experiments were carried out as follows:

[001177] 1. Pellet appropriate volume of cells by centrifuging for 5 minutes at RT, 500xg

[001178] 2. Aspirate media.

[001179] 3. Resuspend cells 500µL binding buffer (same as described above) to provide 1X10^5 cells per reaction

[001180] 4. Aptamers: dilute aptamer to 10 µM stock and heat denature for 5 min at 95 °C; allow to cool 15 min on bench

[001181] 5. Dilute aptamer stock to a working stock using binding buffer containing Dynasore to inhibit endocytosis of aptamer

[001182] 6. Add 50µl of aptamer to each well of a 96 well deep plate

[001183] 7. Add 50µl of cells to the above wells

[001184] 8. Briefly tap/mix the samples

[001185] 9. Incubate 15 minutes at 37C, 5% CO 2

[001186] 10. Add 10µL of Dynabeads® MyOne™ Streptavidin C1 to all the wells

[001187] 11. Incubate beads with Aptamer–cell solution for 30 mins at RT mixing

[001188] 12. Discard supernatant

[001189] 13. Wash beads twice with 200 µL of 1X HBSS.

[001190] 14. Lyse cells with 200µl lysis buffer for 30min at rm temp Mix on Magmax

[001191] 15. Wash again with with 200 µL of 1X HBSS

[001192] 16. Elute sample with 1% Rapigest heat 37°C for 10 min

[001193] 17. Run one replicate for silver stain and one for anti-nucleolin western blot

[001194] 18. Run 4-12% SDS-PAGE gel [001195] 19. Silver stain gel or proceed to western blot

[001196] 20. Process remaining replicates in solution digestion

[001197] FIG.18E, panel i, shows that greater levels of protein precipitated with aptamers C10.36 (lane 2) and AS1411 (lane 4) in Ramos cells than controls (i.e., C10.36(G24A) (lane 4) or CRO26 (lane 5)) or with Jurkat cells. However, nucleolin was not detected bound to AS1411 in Ramos cells by Western blot with an anti-NCL antibody (lane 5) under our experimental conditions. See FIG.18E, panel ii. Lanes in the figure are shown in Tables 34 (panel i) and 35 (panel ii). Lane 1 in Table 34 and Lane 2 in Table 35 indicate molecular weight (MW) marker ladders at the weights indicated in kiloDaltons (kDa). In Table 35, lane 1 refers to 50 ng of recombinant purified nucleolin protein. The position of nucleolin is indicated by the arrow in FIG.18E, panel ii.

Table 34: Silver staining gel

Table 35: Western blot with anti-nucleolin antibody (anti-NCL ab)

[001198] To further explore target binding of aptamer C10.36, the aptamer was conjugated to crosslinking agent SBED. See Example 15 above. To perform these experiments, SBED labeled C10.36 aptamer or SBED labeled C10.36(G24A) control aptamer were incubated with Ramos cells. After incubation to allow binding of the aptamers to their targets, the aptamer-target complexes were photo- crosslinked with UV light. Cross-linked complexes were affinity purified and eluted proteins were washed under very stringent conditions (2M NaCl), eluted by boiling in LDS sample buffer, and run on SDS- PAGE for 10 min for clean up. The entire lane was extracted, digested with trypsin, and peptides were detected by LC-MS/MS and identified with Protein Discoverer (Thermo) with SBED as a dynamic modification. Table 36 lists proteins identified with an SBED modification. Accession numbers in the table are from the UniProt database (www.uniprot.org).“GN=” is followed by the gene name. Proteins in the table are sorted by level detected in Ramos cells, from high to low. IL3RA (CD123) expression is correlated with leukemia and lymphomas and affects proliferation. See Gupta et al.; Zhang et al; Ehninger et al. JMJD1C family member JMJD2 has been shown to be required for expression of Il3RA and survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells. Agger et al. RanBP2 forms a fusion protein with ALK (UniProt Q9UM73) that has been observed in lymphomas. See Galietta et al; Vassileva et al. ALK also forms a fusion with nucleophosmin, which we identified along with nucleolin, fibrillarin, actin, SFPQ, hnRNPM, hnRNPC1/C2 and other proteins. See above.

Table 36: SBED-linked proteins binding to Ramos cells

[001199] We also assessed whether aptamer C10.36 would bind the prostate cancer cell line DU145 and breast cancer cell line MCF7. Aptamer pull-down experiments using bead captured aptamers was performed as above. We used ~500 ng of aptamer per 10 µL of beads per reaction and 2.5x10 5 cells per reaction. Results were compared to aptamer AS1411. In addition, the aptamers were biotinylated on either the 5’ or 3’ ends to determine whether biotin placement affected aptamer binding. Results with Ramos cells and DU145 cells are shown in FIG.18F. Lanes in the gel are shown in Table 37. As shown in the figure, C10.36 precipitated many proteins in Ramos cells, regardless of the position of the biotin (lanes 2 and 4), but did not pull down proteins in DU145 cells. Similar results to DU145 were observed with MCF7 cells (data not shown). Under our experimental conditions, AS1411 did not precipitate detectable protein in any case although AS1411 has previously been reported to kill DU145 cells. See Bates et al. Without being bound by theory, any differences may be due to experimental conditions such as dextran sulfate in our buffer.

Table 37: Lanes in silver stained gel

[001200] We performed pull-down experiments to identify proteins that precipitate with aptamer C10.36 in Ramos cells. Conditions were as above and included 1x10 5 cells per reaction, both binding steps at 4 ºC for 30 mins, lysis for 30 min, and additions of HL-dsDNAse to shear genomic DNA, various concentrations of non-biotinylated C10.36 competitor, and Dynasore to inhibit endocytosis.

Macropinocytosis (and other forms of internalization) are inhibited at 4 ºC. Proteins were run on triplicate silver stained gels as shown in FIG.18G. Lanes in the gel are as in Table 38. Various concentrations of non-biotinylated C10.36 competitor are shown in Table 38. As shown in FIG.18G, only the highest concentrations of competitor appeared to reduce binding, indicating that the binding of biotinylated C10.36 is not saturated under our experimental conditions.

Table 38: Lanes in silver stained gel

[001201] We performed differential detection by LC-MS/MS analysis of digests of different gel bands indicated in FIG.18G for one gel (the“fractionated” gel; FIG.18G) and for two otherwise identical gels used LC-MS/MS analysis of the entire gel lane (the“unfractionated” gels; not shown). See Tables 39-40. Accession numbers in the tables are from the UniProt database (www.uniprot.org). The column“Band” in Table 39 indicates the band the gel shown in FIG.18G. For each band, the proteins are listed in order of abundance. Table 40 lists proteins identified in the two unfractionated gels. These proteins are also indicated by their appearance in the bands in FIG.18G.

Table 39: Proteins precipititated with aptamer C10.36 in Ramos cells

Table 40: Proteins precipititated with aptamer C10.36 in Ramos cells

[001202] Taken together, aptamer C10.36 appears to bind a ribonucleoprotein complex on the surface of Ramos cells comprising multiple proteins including without limitation nucleolin, fibrillarin, actin, SFPQ, hnRNPM, and hnRNPC1/C2. See, e.g., Table 40. This binding appears to be specific to Ramos cells as much less protein was pulled down with C10.36 in Jurkat (human T lymphocyte cells from a T cell leukemia patient) or DU145 (prostate cancer cells from a brain metastasis). By silver staining gel, no proteins were observed pulled down in MCF7 (breast cancer) cells.

[001203] References:

[001204] Opazo F, et al. (2015). Modular Assembly of Cell-targeting Devices Based on an Uncommon G-quadruplex Aptamer Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids 4, e251.

[001205] Mayer, G, et al. (2005). Light-induced formation of G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures. Chembiochem 6: 1966–1970.

[001206] Reyes-Reyes, EM, et al. (2010). A new paradigm for aptamer therapeutic AS1411 action: uptake by macropinocytosis and its stimulation by a nucleolin-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res 70: 8617–8629.

[001207] Pinol-Roma (1999). Association of Nonribosomal Nucleolar Proteins in

Ribonucleoprotein Complexes during Interphase and Mitosis. Molecular Biology of the Cell: 10, 77–90.

[001208] Biggiogera, M, et al. (2004). Rearrangement of nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP)- containing structures during apoptosis and transcriptional arrest. Biology of the cell 96, 603-615.

[001209] Arcovito A, et al. (2014). Synergic role of nucleophosmin three-helix bundle and a flanking unstructured tail in the interaction with G-quadruplex DNA. J Biol Chem.;289:21230-41.

[001210] Mellgren R (2011). A new twist on plasma membrane repair. Communicative &

Integrative Biology 4:2, 198-200.

[001211] Tosoni et al (2015). Nueclolin stabilizes G-quadruplex structures folded by the LTR promorter and silences HIV-1 viral transcription. Nucleic Acids Research 43:8884-97.

[001212] Girvan AC, et al. (2006). AGRO100 inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF- kappaB) by forming a complex with NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) and nucleolin. Mol Cancer Ther.5:1790-9.

[001213] Brázda V, et al. (2014). DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, 17493-17517.

[001214] Inder KL, et al. (2010). Nucleophosmin and nucleolin regulate K-Ras signaling. Commun Integr Biol.3:188-90.

[001215] Wang K, et al.2010). Export of microRNAs and microRNA-protective protein by mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Research 38, 7248–7259. [001216] Hovanessian AG, et al. (2000). The cell-surface-expressed nucleolin is associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Exp Cell Res.261:312-28.

[001217] Gower HJ, et al. (1989). Cloning and characterization of a myoblast cell surface antigen defined by 24.1D5 monoclonal antibody. Development 105:723-31.

[001218] Cai Y, et al. (2015). C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins. J Biol Chem.290:22570-80.

[001219] Mendoza O, et al. (2016). G-quadruplexes and helicases. Nucleic Acids Res.44:1989- 2006.

[001220] Kirchhausen, T, et al. (2008). Use of dynasore, the small molecule inhibitor of dynamin, in the regulation of endocytosis. Methods Enzymol 438: 77–93.

[001221] Soundararajan, S. et al. (2009). Plasma Membrane Nucleolin Is a Receptor for the Anticancer Aptamer AS1411 in MV4-11 Leukemia Cells. Mol Pharmacol. Nov; 76(5): 984–991.

[001222] Gupta, SK et al. Gene copy number alteration profile and its clinical correlation in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma.2016 Jun 24:1-10.

[001223] Zhang, W et al. Expressions of CD96 and CD123 in Bone Marrow Cells of Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Clin Lab.2015;61(10):1429-34.

[001224] Ehninger A et al. Distribution and levels of cell surface expression of CD33 and CD123 in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Cancer J.2014 Jun 13;4:e218. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2014.39.

[001225] Agger K et al., Jmjd2/Kdm4 demethylases are required for expression of Il3ra and survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells. Genes Dev.2016 Jun 1;30(11):1278-88.

[001226] Galietta A et al., NPM/ALK binds and phosphorylates the RNA/DNA-binding protein PSF in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Blood.2007 Oct 1;110(7):2600-9.

[001227] Vassileva MT et al. SUMO modification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Mol Cell Biol.2004 May;24(9):3623-32.

[001228] Bates, P et al. (2009). Discovery and development of the G-rich oligonucleotide AS1411 as a novel treatment for cancer. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 86:151–164.

Example 29: Cell killing mediated by Aptamer C10.36

[001229] This work expands on that in Example 28 above. Here we explored cell killing mediated by aptamer C10.36. Aptamer AS1411 has been shown to decrease viability of a variety of cancer cell types and has undergone phase II clinical trials. See, e.g., Bates et al.; Rosenburg et al. Since C10.36 binds Ramos cells as determined by flow cytometry (see, e.g., FIG.18A) and pulls down nucleolin complexes in Ramos cells with a ~10-fold lesser concentration than AS1411, we tested a titration of C10.36 and AS1411 in cellular viability experiments on Ramos, Jurkat and DU145 cell lines.

[001230] To perform these experiments, aptamers were directly added at various concentrations to log phase cells and incubated at 37 °C with CO 2 for up to 6 days. In order to assess cell viability, ATP levels were quantitated with CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. (Promega, Madison, WI). The reagent was added at indicated time points, mixed to allow cell lysis and incubated for 10 mins at room temperature to allow signal stabilization. Luminescence was detected using a Synergy 2 microplate reader (BioTek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT). Experiments were performed in quadruplicate.

[001231] Representative results are shown in FIGs.19A-E. FIG.19A shows viability of Ramos cells after three days incubation of aptamer C10.36 and control C10.36(G24A) at the indicated concentrations of aptamer. Aptamer C10.36 killed over 50% of the cells at 1.0 μM and 10 μM whereas C10.36(G24A) had no effect. FIG.19B shows similar results with the addition of aptamer AS1411 and control CRO26. In these experiments, C10.36 killed Ramos cells with ~5-fold more efficiency than AS1411. FIGs.19C-E show results after 6 days incubation with aptamer in Ramos (FIG.19C), Jurkat (FIG.19D), and DU145 cells (FIG.19E). After 6 days, killing of Ramos cells was similar between aptamers C10.36 and AS1411, whereas only AS1411 had an effect on the viability of Jurkat and DU145 cells. These data are consistent with findings in the Example above that proteins immunoprecipitated with aptamer C10.36 in Ramos cells but not Jurkat or DU145 cells.

[001232] Comparison of aptamer C10.36 with aptamer AS1411 reveals similarities and differences. Both aptamers are able to immunoprecipitate nucleolin-containing complexes. See Tables 29 and 31-32 above; Bates et al. In addition, both form G-quadruplex structures. See Opazo et al.; Bates et al.

Functionally, however, aptamer C10.36 kills Ramos cells more rapidly (day 2– day 3) than AS1411 (day 4-6). See, e.g., FIGs.19B-C. In addition, aptamer C10.36 kills Ramos cells at a lower concentration than AS1411 (as low as 200 nM). See, e.g., FIGs.19B-C. However, aptamer C10.36 killed Ramos but not Jurkat or DU145 cells under our conditions, whereas aptamer AS1411 killed all cells under the same conditions. Compare FIGs.19C-E. In accordance with the cell killing data, we found that aptamer C10.36 binds to Ramos cells with higher affinity than AS1411. See, e.g., FIGs.18D-E above and related discussion in the Example above. Finally, recognition of Ramos cells by aptamer C10.36 was impervious to extreme conditions (i.e., 1M NaCl; 4 ºC). See Example 28. Without being bound by theory, these data suggest that both aptamers recognize a similar target (e.g., nucleolin comprising protein complexes) but operate via different mechanism.

[001233] Refererences (see also references in Example 28):

[001234] Rosenberg J, et al. (2014). A phase II trial of the nucleolin-targeted DNA aptamer AS1411 in metastatic refractory renal cell carcinoma. Invest New Drugs 32:178-187.

Example 30: Cell Growth Inhibition or Killing

[001235] The C10.36 oligonucleotide aptamer of the invention can be used for inhibiting the growth of neoplastic, hyperplastic, malignant or otherwise hyperproliferative cells. See, e.g., Example 29. This Example describes using the aptamer to treat a cancer.

[001236] A pharmaceutical composition comprising a C10.36 oligonucleotide of the invention is administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage (e.g., a therapeutically effective amount) to treat the cancer in the victim. As desired, the composition is administered in combination with traditional cancer therapeutics or in addition to immune therapies, e.g., cell-based tumor immunotherapies, or antitumor vaccines. [001237] Relatedly, the C10.36 aptamer is used to target a liposome, nanoparticle or other chemotherapeutic agent to a hyperproliferative cell. See, e.g., Liao J et al., Cell-specific aptamers and their conjugation with nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv.2015

Mar;12(3):493-506; Zhu H et al., Nucleic acid aptamer-mediated drug delivery for targeted cancer therapy. ChemMedChem. 2015 Jan;10(1):39-45; Khedri M, et al., Cancer immunotherapy via nucleic acid aptamers. Int Immunopharmacol.2015 Dec;29(2):926-36. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a C10.36 oligonucleotide of the invention on the surface of a liposome is administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage (e.g., a therapeutically effective amount) to treat the cancer in the victim. As desired, the composition is administered in combination with traditional cancer therapeutics or in addition to immune therapies, e.g., cell-based tumor immunotherapies, or antitumor vaccines.

[001238] Relatedly, the C10.36 aptamer is used as the targeting domain of a chimeric, multi-part aptamer construct of the invention. A C10.36 region is connected to a segment which also leads to cell killing, such as an immunomodulatory domain. One non-limiting example comprises an anti-C1q oligonucleotide of the invention. See Example 27. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a C10.36 chimeric oligonucleotide is administered to a cancer victim in sufficient dosage (e.g., a therapeutically effective amount) to treat the cancer in the victim. As desired, the composition is administered in combination with traditional cancer therapeutics or in addition to immune therapies, e.g., cell-based tumor immunotherapies, or antitumor vaccines.

Example 31: Cell Imaging

[001239] This Example describes using a C10.36 oligonucleotide aptamer as an imaging agent.

[001240] The aptamer is combined with imaging agents including without limitation ananomaterial such as a magnetic nanomaterial, quantum dot, gold or radionuclide probe as desired. Sun and Zu.

Aptamers and their applications in nanomedicine. Small.2015 May;11(20):2352-64; Dougherty CA et al., Applications of aptamers in targeted imaging: state of the art. Curr Top Med Chem.2015;15(12):1138-52. The nanomaterial or other imaging agent is directly conjugated to the aptamer or encapsulated in a C10.36 targeted liposome or other nanoparticle. The construct can be configured to recognize cell surface splicing complexes or cell surface ribonucleoprotein complexes and not internalize, thereby preferentially recognizing cancer cells. The aptamer targeted construct is administered to a patient and imaged to visualize the location of desired cells such as cells comprising cell surface splicing complexes or cell surface ribonucleoprotein complexes.

Example 32: C10.36 immunoassay and isolation

[001241] This Example illustrates immunoassays using a C10.36 oligonucleotide. A nucleic acid construct is synthesized comprising oligonucleotide region corresponding to C10.36 (i.e., SEQ ID NO. 4357). The oligonucleotide construct may comprise a biotin modification to facilitate specific recognition by a desired moiety attached to streptavidin. Alternate modifications and sequence variants that retain binding ability (e.g., do not disrupt the G quaruplex structure) may be used as desired. See, e.g., SEQ ID NOs.4372-4407. [001242] A labeled C10.36 aptamer is contructed. The C10.36 construct is contacted with fluorescently labeled streptavidin such as a streptavidin - Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Catalog number: S11223. The C10.36 can be directly conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488, using labeled nanoparticles, or any other useful mechanism. This creates a fluorescently labeled C10.36 construct which is used to detect targets in various immunoassay formats. In one scenario, a biological sample known or suspected to contain a target of C10.36 (see, e.g., Example 28) is contacted with an ELISA plate. The plate is washed and contacted with the fluorescently labeled C10.36 construct. The fluorescent signal is read from the wells in the plate, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of target in the biological sample. In another scenario, a biological sample is directly contacted with the fluorescently labeled C10.36 construct. The contacted sample is subjected to flow cytometry to detect fluorescent particles of the size of cells, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of cells having surface displayed target in the biological sample. Alternate labels such as disclosed herein or known in the art can be used in such formats.

[001243] Various modifications of the above scenarios are performed. For example, the C10.36 aptamer is directly labeled with Alexa Fluor during the oligonucleotide synthesis process.

[001244] An immobilized C10.36 aptamer is contructed. In one scenario, the C10.36 construct is contacted with streptavidin conjugated beads. The beads are contacted with a biological sample known or suspected to contain a target of C10.36 (see, e.g., Example 28). The beads are precipitated (e.g., by centrifugation or magnetism) and washed. Proteins that precipitate with the beads are analyzed, thereby providing an indication of the presence or amount of target in the biological sample. In another scenario, the C10.36 aptamer construct is contacted with streptavidin agarose resin, e.g., Pierce™ Streptavidin Agarose, Thermo Fisher Scientific Catalog number: 20347 or Pierce™ High Capacity Streptavidin Agarose Thermo Fisher Scientific Catalog number: 20357. The resins are placed in a spin column or chromatography column, respectively. The aptamer is contacted with the resin where it is bound by the streptavidin. A biological sample known or suspected to comprise a target of C10.36 is allowed to pass through the resin. Targets (proteins, complexes, cells, etc) in the biological sample are retained by the aptamer within the resin and are then analyzed after elution. In either scenario, if desired, the C10.36 aptamer is contacted with the biological sample in solution and then the sample is contacted with the beads or resin. This step allows the C10.36 aptamer and target to bind freely in solution prior to aptamer immobilization.

[001245] Various modifications of the above scenarios are performed. For example, the C10.36 aptamer is directly conjugated to a bead or other desired surface.

[001246] One of skill will appreciate that the C10.36 aptamer construct can be used in any desired scenario where antibodies are conventionally used. See, e.g., Toh et al., Aptamers as a replacement for antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biosens Bioelectron.2015 Feb 15;64:392-403. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.026. Epub 2014 Sep 16; Chen and Yang, Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay. Biosens Bioelectron.2015 Sep 15;71:230-42. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.04.041. Epub 2015 Apr 14; Guthrie et al, Assays for cytokines using aptamers. Methods.2006 Apr;38(4):324-30; Romig et al., Aptamer affinity chromatography: combinatorial chemistry applied to protein purification. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl.1999 Aug 20;731(2):275-84.

Example 33: Target Detection in Bodily Fluids

[001247] This Example describes using a C10.36 oligonucleotide aptamer to detect cancer cells in bodily fluids. A bodily fluid such as blood or a derivative thereof, including without limitation sera or plasma, is obtained from a subject. An assay such as described in Example 32 is used to detect C10.36 bound to cells in the bodily fluid. As desired, such detection may assist in the diagnosis, prognosis or theranosis of a disease or disorder. See, e.g., Examples 8-9 herein.

Example 34: Differential cell killing mediated by Aptamer C10.36

[001248] We showed in Example 29 above that aptamer C10.36 killed Ramos but not Jurkat or DU145 cells under our conditions, whereas aptamer AS1411 killed all cells under the same conditions. Compare FIGs.19C-E. In this Example, these experiments were repeated with additional cells lines.

[001249] Aptamers were added directly to log phase cultures and viability was assessed after 72hrs with CellTiter-Glo®.The IC 50 for Ramos cells was determined to be ~238nM. See FIG.20A. Ramos 2G6.4C10, a derivative cell line from the parental Ramos cell line selected by reptitive cloning with selection for low constitutive expression of CD23 and maximum stimulation of CD23 by expression of IL-4 had an IC 50 ~328nM. See FIG.20B. In addition, a Diffuse Histiocytic Lymphoma line, SU-DHL-1, was the most sensitive to treatment with C10.36 with an IC 50 of ~100nM. See FIG.20C. In addition to Jurkat (FIG.20D), SKW6.4, a cell line derived from normal B-cell lymphoblast transformed with EBV was not sensitive to treatment with C10.36 (FIG.20E). Nor was a CLL derived cell line, MEC-1 (FIG. 20F), the Burkitt’s Lymphoma cell line, Raji (FIG.20G), or Daudi cells, a human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line (FIG.20H).

[001250] Negative control aptamer G24A treatment did not result in a concentration dependent decrease in viability in any of the cell lines.

[001251] As in Example 29, these data confirm that cell killing by aptamer C10.36 is specific to certain cell types.

Example 35: Cellular targets of Aptamer C10.36

[001252] In Example 28 above, we reported a number of proteins that co-precipitated with aptamer C10.36 in various conditions and cell lines. Here we expand these results with additional cell lines as in the Example above.

[001253] As above, we performed affinity purification (aka pull downs) with C10.36 or the control aptamer C10.36(G24A) across the 7 cell lines. These data revealed that the most amount of protein was recovered in Ramos, Ramos2G6.4C10, SU-DHL-1, and MEC-1 cells. See FIGs.21A-B. In FIG.21A, the aptamer used for the precipitations is indicated in the Gel Layout table. In FIG.21B, the aptamer used for the precipitations is indicated to the right of the gel images. We digested purified bands from the gels followed by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified in the experiments are listed in Table 41 Tables 42 43 shows the number of peptide spectral matches (PSMs) identified in Ramos, SUDHL1, Raji, and Jurkat cells lines after duplicate pull downs with aptamer C10.36 or C10.36(G24A), respectively. Table 44 shows the peptides and number of PSMs identified in the indicated cells lines after pull downs with aptamer C10.36 or C10.36(G24A), as indicated.

Table 41: Proteins pulled down in Ramos, SUDHL1, Raji, and Jurkat cells

Table 42: Peptides pulled down in Ramos, SUDHL1, Raji, and Jurkat cells with C10.36

Table 43: Peptides pulled down in Ramos, SUDHL1, Raji, and Jurkat cells with C10.36(G24)

Table 44: Peptides pulled down in Ramos 2G6.4C10, MEC-1, and SKW6.4 cells with C10.36 and

C10.36(G24)

[001254] The above experiments identified 13 proteins in common between Ramos, Ramos 2G6.4C10, and SU-DHL-1 cells that are sensitive to treatment with C10.36, which are the first 13 proteins listed in Table 41 (i.e., Cluster of Actin, cytoplasmic 1; Nucleolin; Isoform C1 of Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2; splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich; histone H4; Histone H1.5; NHP2- like protein 1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; Nucleolar RNA helicase 2/DDX21; 60S ribosomal protein L30; 60S ribosomal protein L26). There were an additional 45 that overlap between Ramos and SU-DHL- 1 and three that overlap between Ramos and Ramos2G6.4C10. See Table 42. The majority of the identified proteins are ribonucleoproteins involved in chromatin rearrangements and splicing. Only three proteins were detected in SKW6.4 control EBV transformed B-cells (accessions P07910, P60709 and P0C0S8). And five proteins were detected between Ramos, MEC-1, Raji and Jurkat that had no loss of viability (accessions P07910, P60709, P19338, P62805 and P23246). [001255] We next found that specific binding of C10.36 assessed by flow cytometry correlates well with the amount of protein recovered by affinity purification. See Table 45. These experiments indicated that C10.36 binding to cells as assessed by flow cytometry was consistent with the amount of protein that is detected from the affinity purification experiments above. In addition, MEC-1 binding is high but does not correlate with loss of viability.

Table 45: Binding of aptamer C10.36 to different cell lines assessed by flow cytometry

[001256] Because many of the identified proteins have nucleolar or cytoplasmic localization, biotin cell surface labeling of Ramos cells was used to confirm localization on the cell surface. Ramos cells were labeled with biotin to biotinylate cell surface proteins. The cells were lysed then biotinylated proteins were captured. In-solution digestion of the proteins was performed followed by protein identification with LC-MS-MS. Eleven of the proteins identified that bind specifically to C10.36 were confirmed as cell surface proteins in Ramos cells. These include: 60S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H1.2, H1.4, H1.3, H1.5; 40S ribosomal protein L11; Histone H4; Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins; Histone H2A, H2B; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial; rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin P2;

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; Nucleolin; and Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. Example 36: Aptamer C10.36 to monitor sub-complex formation dependent upon cellular growth conditions

[001257] We observed that Ramos cells experienced a loss of viability when grown in culture from day 4 to day 5. The decrease was from 84.5% (day 4) to 64% (day 5). However, when parallel cultures were grown in media supplemented with Gibco Glutamax™ that contains L-alanyl-L-glutamine, which is a stabilized form of L-glutamine, that allows for long–term culture growth the viability was 93.8% on day 4 and 84.8% on day 5. Affinity purification with aptamers C10.36 or C10.36(G24A) identified ribonucleoproteins unique to C10.36 (Table 46) or with low binding to C10.36(G24A) (Table 47) found in all 4 conditions. We also identified proteins that only affinity purified with aptamers C10.36 or C10.36(G24A) upon loss of viability (i.e., on day 5 v day 4) (Table 48) and proteins that only appeared in the samples not supplemented with Glutamax (Table 49). Table 46: Peptides and PSMs unique to aptamer C10.36 in various conditions

Table 47: Proteins precipititated with aptamer C10.36 and C10.36(G24A) in various conditions

Table 48: Identified Proteins that Increased with loss of viability

Table 49: C10.36 Specific Proteins Not Identified in Glutamax Samples

[001258] Proteins that form the TriC chaperone folding complex, MCM helicase complex, and the Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex were isolated with the ribonucleoprotein complex identified above. These suggest a role in protein folding or cellular compartmentalization of translation or alternate splicing. Proteins that were detected specifically bound to C10.36 but not detected in cells treated with Glutamax™ at Day 4 or Day 5 include ATP-dependent helicases as well as other ribonucleoproteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C10.36 can bind a dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex and specific sub-complexes can be identified in different cellular conditions.

Example 37: Mechanism of C10.36 induced cell death

[001259] In this Example, we performed gene expression analysis to explore the mechanism of C10.36 induced cell death (see, e.g., Examples 29 and 34 above).

[001260] First, we used the Human Lymphoma RT 2 Profiler PCR Array (Qiagen, Inc. Product number 330231) containing 84 genes involved in lymphoma development, classification, prognosis, and therapeutic response to assess gene expression in SU-DHL-1 cells after treatment with C10.36 for 48 hours versus a no aptamer control. The genes included on the array are shown in Table 50, and adapted from www.qiagen.com/us/shop/pcr/primer-sets/rt2-profiler-pcr-arra ys/?catno=PAHS-139Z#geneglobe.

Table 50: Human Lymphoma RT 2 Profiler PCR Array

[001261] 2.5M SU-DHL-1 cells were treated for 48 h with 200nM C10.36 or without aptamer as a control. FIG.29 shows a comparison of gene expression in cells treated with or without the aptamer. The figure reveals a number of genes that were upregulated or downregulated in the C10.36 treated cells versus controls, as indicated. Genes involved in IL6/Stat signaling pathway and belonging to the Immunoglobulin receptor superfamily or cell adhesion were identified as differentially expressed. See Table 51. In the table, the UniProt ID of differentially expressed genes is shown. Negative Differential expression indicates that expression was reduced in the presense of C10.36, whereas positive differential expression indicates that expression increased in the presence of C10.36. As indicated, it has been reported that SU-DHL-1 are CD80 and CD22 negative and IL6R positive. It has also been reported that CD80, CXCR4 and CD22 are targets for lymphoma therapies.

Table 51: Gene expression in SU-DHL-1 cells treated with or without aptamer C10.36

[001262] In addition, we analyzed Ramos cells treated with aptamer C10.36 versus no aptamer for 6 or 48 hours using whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing by RNA-Seq analysis.1.7M Ramos were grown in triplicate and treated with 700nM aptamer C10.36, which is ~3X IC 50 , or no aptamer as a control. Expression was analyzed at 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h after treatment.

[001263] Cell viability was assessed as above using Cell Titer Glo, which measures ATP levels. Under all conditions, the cells appeared to be in lag phase (data not shown). Although the cells grown in flasks were still in lag phase, we detected significant differential expression of 8 genes and 16 transcipts after 6 hrs (Table 52) and 7 genes and 9 transcripts after 48 hrs (Table 53). In the tables, FPKM stands for Fragments Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads. In RNA-Seq, the relative expression of a transcript is proportional to the number of cDNA fragments that originate from it. FPKM is calculated by counting fragments. As indicated in Table 52, at the 6 h time point, MYCBP2, HUWE1, MALAT1, USP34, TRRAP, and PSAT1 were expressed at higher values in the absence of aptamer C10.36 whereas NEAT1 amd MIF were expressed at higher values in the presence of aptamer C10.36. As indicated in Table 53, at the 48 h time point, MALAT1, BNIP3L, and BNIP3 were expressed at higher values in the absence of aptamer C10.36 whereas TMEM259, SLC4A2, MIF and were expressed at higher values in the presence of aptamer C10.36.

Table 52: Differential gene expression 6 hrs after treatment with aptamer C10.36

[001264] Two of the identifed transcripts, MALAT1 and NEAT1, encode long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) upregulated in cancers and shown to increase epithelial cell proliferation. See e.g., Wang et al., LncRNA MALAT1 promotes development of mantle cell lymphoma by associating with EZH2. J Transl Med.2016 Dec 20;14(1):346; Wang et al. The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis. Biomed Res Int.

2016;2016:1823482. doi: 10.1155/2016/1823482. Epub 2016 Jan 27.; Tripathi et al., The nuclear-retained noncoding RNA MALAT1 regulates alternative splicing by modulating SR splicing factor

phosphorylation, Mol Cell.2010 Sep 24;39(6):925-38; Han et al., Hsa-miR-125b suppresses bladder cancer development by down-regulating oncogene SIRT7 and oncogenic long noncoding RNA MALAT1, FEBS Lett.2013 Oct 25. pii: S0014-5793(13)00780-1; all of which references are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Incubation with C10.36 for 6 hrs also decreased the levels of MYCBP2, HUWE1, and TRRAP which have been shown to regulate Myc activation, an oncogenic protein that is deregulated in the majority of B-cell lymphomas. See McMahon et al. The essential cofactor TRRAP recruits the histone acetyltransferase hGCN5 to c-Myc, Mol. Cell. Biol.2000;20:556-562; which reference is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Although not differentially regulated, a novel ABC1B-CUX1 fusion protein was also detected in the Ramos cells. Park et al. found recurrent copy gains of TRRAP and CUX1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients refractory to CHOP

(rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) treatment. Park et al., Whole- exome and transcriptome sequencing of refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Oncotarget.2016 Dec 27;7(52):86433-86445; which reference is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. These data suggest that DLBCL patients that experience disease relapse or are refractory to CHOP treatment may respond to treatment with C10.36 because C10.36 can reduce TRRAP levels in cells with an ABC1B- CUX1 fusion.

Example 38: hnRNPU is a direct binding partner of aptamer C10.36

[001265] In this Example, aptamer C10.36 was crosslinked to target proteins to further elucidate potential binding partners. Sulfo-SDAD (Sulfo-NHS-SS-Diazirine; sulfosuccinimidyl 2-((4,4'- azipentanamido)ethyl)-1,3'-dithiopropionate) heterobifunctional cross-linker was conjugated to an amine on T14 of C10.36 and photo-crosslinked to protein targets on Ramos cells. Incorporation of SDAD does not disrupt target binding but may rather stabilize the aptamer’s G-quadruplex structure and enhance binding. Sulfo-SDAD may deliver more efficient cross-linking than Sulfo-SBED used in various experiments above and thus provide complementary results. See, e.g., Table 36 and FIG.18F for SBED results. Proteins were separated on reducing gels as above and transfer of SDAD from the aptamer to the target protein by reduction of the disulfide bond in SDAD was confirmed by detecting a modified crosslinking agent in the gel by Western blotting. MS/MS as above was used to identify protein fragments that contained the transferred SDAD label. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU;

hnRNP U; Scaffold attachment factor A; SAF-A; p120; pp120) was identified as crosslinked to aptamer C10.36 in these experiments. In agreement with these data, it has been found that similar proteins as reported here co-immunoprecipitate with hnRNPU. The peptide that we cross-linked in this Example is also directly up-stream of the RGG box, which is important for interactions with other hnRNP proteins to form hnRNP particles. See Piñol-Roma, et al., Immunopurification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles reveals an assortment of RNA-binding proteins. GENES & DEVELOPMENT 2:215-227 (1988); Kiledjian M and Dreyfuss G: Primary structure and binding activity of the hnRNP U protein: binding RNA through RGG box. EMBO J 11: 2655-2664, 1992; which references are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[001266] Without being bound by theory, our data indicate that aptamer C10.36 plays a role in effecting MYC activity in the cellular environment. The Myc proto-oncogene protein (MYC) is a transcription factor that binds DNA in a non-specific manner, yet also specifically recognizes the core sequence 5'-CAC[GA]TG-3'. Myc activates the transcription of growth-related genes and is known to play a role in neoplastic growth and proliferative diseases including various cancers. See, e.g., Dang, MYC on the Path to Cancer, Cell 149 (2012), which reference is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. hnRNPU is a coactivator of the c-Myc-Max transcriptional activator complex and is essential for cell proliferation. It directly interacts with c-Myc-Max complex on E-box promoter of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene. See Matsuoka et al., Oncol Rep.2009 Aug;22(2):249-55, which reference is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Moreover hnRNPU is a component of the CRD-mediated complex that promotes MYC mRNA stabilization. See www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q00839.

[001267] Additional data points toward a role of MYC in the action of aptamer C10.36. For example, we observed that C10.36 treatment reduces level of TRRAP mRNA. See Example 37. TRRAP binds Myc and recruits the Histone Acetyl Transferase complex resulting in increased histone acetylation and cellular proliferation. Because C10.36 treatment reduces TRRAP levels, it is possible that C10.36 deregulates downstream histone acetylation resulting in apoptosis. In addition, we found that C10.36 treatment reduces level of HUWE1. See Example 37. HUWE1 is a ubiquitin ligase that directly regulates Myc by adding a single ubuiquitin to the Myc protein resulting in direct stabilization of the Myc protein. Reduction of HUWE1 could potentially result in destabilization of Myc protein thus inducing apoptosis. We also found that aptamer C10.36 treatment increased levels of MIF RNA expression to no aptamer control. See Example 37. MIF is a potent regulator of inflammation and cell growth and its loss impairs Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Overexpression of GYS1, MIF, and MYC is associated with adverse outcomes and poor response to azacitidine in myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloid leukemia. The lncRNA MALAT1 was decreased upon treatment with C10.36. See See Example 37. MALAT1 controls cellular proliferation through a regulation of histone modification and splicing regulation, and various ribonucleoproteins we identified as C10.36 binding targets regulate chromatin modification and splicing. N-Myc up regulates both the histone demethylase (JMJD1A) and MALAT1 gene in N-Myc oncogene- amplified human neuroblastoma cells by directly binding the JMJD1A gene promoter and JMJD1A binds the MALAT1 gene promoter. Increased JMJD1A and MALAT1 induced neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion. See, e.g., Tee et al, The histone demethylase JMJD1A induces cell migration and invasion by up-regulating the expression of the long noncoding RNA MALAT1. Oncotarget.2014 Apr

15;5(7):1793-804, which reference is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. MALAT1 may mediate mRNA stability and splicing, and recruit histone-modifying complexes (such as those we identified as C10.36 target proteins above), forming RNA-dsDNA triplex. Interaction of DNA, RNA and proteins is involved in lncRNAs role in gastric tumorigenesis and development. These data further suggest that aptamer C10.36 could be used as a MALAT1 inhibitor for the prevention of tumor metastasis.

[001268] Our data also indicate that aptamer C10.36 may be used as viral inhibitor since hnRNPU binds complement receptor type 2 (CR2), which acts as an Epstein Barr Virus receptor. See

www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P20023.

Example 39: The B-cell Lymphoma Specific Aptamer C10.36 Binds a Ribonucleoprotein

[001269] The DNA aptamer C10.36 forms a G-quadruplex structure and has been shown to bind the Ramos Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line. See Opazo F, et al. (2015). Modular Assembly of Cell-targeting Devices Based on an Uncommon G-quadruplex Aptamer Molecular Therapy. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2015 Sep; 4(9): e251. In this Example, we provide further details on the identification of the molecular target of C10.36. Aptamer-affinity purification, followed by LC-MS/MS revealed unique proteins pulled down with C10.36 associated with Ramos cells but not Jurkat, a T-cell lymphocyte cell line. The majority of the identified target molecules were found to be associated within ribonucleoprotein complexes, of which the abundant and consistent belong to the nucleolin complex including nucleolin (NCL) itself and its interacting partners, i.e. nucleophosmin (NPM1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP) family members such as HNRNP C1C2 and U, rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin (FBL), actin (ACTB), nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (DDX21), and proline- and glutamine-rich splicing factors (SFPQ). All proteins identified in the above ribonucleoprotein complex are aberrantly expressed on the surface of several disparate cancer cell types and have been shown to play an oncogenic role in cancer. We tested the effect of C10.36 on viability of Ramos and other non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (NHL) cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that C10.36 treatment causes specific cell death of certain lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos but not Jurkat cells.

[001270] FIG.18A shows flow cytometry analysis of C10.36 shows specific binding to Ramos cells but not to Jurkat cells. FIG.18C shows affinity-purification with C10.36, which revealed greater number of proteins bound to C10.36 in Ramos compared to Jurkat cells. FIG.23A illustrates a network map based on known protein-protein interactions from Interolog Finder (interologfinder.org) indicating putative multi-protein complexes of potential C10.36 targets. Targets detected by LC-MS/MS are double circled in the figure. See e.g., Tables 29, 31, 32, 39-44 above. We further found that C10.36 directly binds ribonuclear protein hnRNP U on the surface of Ramos cells. The direct molecular target of C10.36 was identified using the workflow 2300 in FIG.23B. This is similar to the aptamer based affinity labelling (ABAL) protocol reported by Vinkenborg et al, Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.2012, 51:9176-80. A Ramos cell 2302 comprising surface antigens 2301 was contacted with a construct comprising C10.36 aptamer 2304 which is biotinylated 2305 and linked to crosslinker T14 SDAD (NHS-SS-Diazirine) (succinimidyl 2-[(4,4′-azipentanamido)ethyl]-1,3′-dithiopropionate) 2303. After the aptamer is allowed to contact its target 2301 on the Ramos cells 2302, the complex is irradiated with UV light 2306 to form a crosslink between the SDAD 2303 and target 2301. Aptamer target complexes are affinity purified 2307 using streptavidin beads 2308, reduced 2309, then separated by PAGE gel 2310. Bands are excised from the gel 2312 and constructs are reduced 2312. This step results in target protein 2313 labeled with SDAD 2314 to form a complex 2315. The gel band is alkylated 2316 with Iodoacetyl Tandem Mass Tag label reagents (Thermo Scientific) iodoTMT 126/1292317. The complex 2315-2317 is subjected to trypsin digestion 2318 and analyzed by LC-MS/MS 2319 to identify peptides.

[001271] A closer view of the structure of C10.36 aptamer 2304 is shown in FIG.23C. The figure also shows the location of the point location in the G24A variant. FIG.23D shows a closer view of the variant of C10.362304 carrying an hexamine-linker at the position C5 of T14, which was further modified with succinimidyl 2-([4,4'-azipentanamido]ethyl)-1,3'-dithiopropionate (SDAD) yielding C10.36 SDAD 2303. FIG.23E shows a closer view of the reaction 2316 between recovered proteins 2315 with the 126 Da MS/MS reporter iodoacetyl-tandem mass tag (Iodo-TMT126) 2317 allowing secondary confirmation of the presence of SDAD labelled peptide targets.

[001272] Following the above process, hnRNP U was the only protein detected with the precursor mass of the peptide with the TMT-SDAD label and both the 126 and 129 reporter ions in the MS/MS spectrum a single peptide. The peptide is sequence KRFILDQTNVSAAAQR (SEQ ID NO. 4409), which showed the iodoTMT-SDAD modification on arginine. A schematic of the hnRNP U protein is shown in FIG.23F. The crosslinked peptide identified above (indicated by the arrow) is located within the AAA+ ATPase domain which is upstream of the RNA/DNA binding RGG domain. Likewise FIG.23G shows a ribbon diagram of the modeled hnRNP U protein, modeled on PDB-3ZVL, with the putative C10.36 binding site site circled.

[001273] Preferential binding of C10.36 to different Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cell lines was assessed by flow cytometry. Results are shown in FIG.23H, which plots concentration of aptamer versus MESF (see below). At each concentration, the cell lines from left to right were: SU-DHL-1, Ramos, Ramos 2G6.4 C10, Daudi, Raji, MEC1, SKW6.4 and Jurkat. To compare binding levels across cell lines, internal standardization was carried out to obtain the molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF) values. Ramos 2G6.4 C10 and MEC1 cells showed highest level of binding, followed by SU-DHL-1 and Ramos cells. Daudi, Raji and SKW6.4 cells displayed low binding levels, similar to Jurkat cells. No binding to negative control aptamer G24A was observed in these experiments (FIG.23I).

[001274] We further found that C10.36 consistently binds a core ribonucleoprotein complex across non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cell lines. Affinity purified targets of C10.36 on different NHL cell lines assessed by a silver stained gel show a greater number of proteins bound to C10.36 than G24A. See FIG. 23J. In these experiments, 1,000,000 cells were used compared to 100,000 cells in the complementary experiments in FIG.21A. Using LC-MS/MS to identify proteins in the bands across different NHL cell lines, Jurkat and SKW6.4, a non-tumor derived EBV transformed cell line, we again observed C10.36 binding to common core proteins within the ribonucleoprotein complex. Table 54 shows ten common proteins that were identified that specifically interact with C10.36 on NHL cells and six proteins that were identified across all cell lines. In the table, (*) indicates potential ribonucleoprotein targets of C10.36 confirmed to be present on the surface of the Ramos, SU-DHL-1, MEC1, Jurkat, and SKW6.4 cells through biotin surface labeling. And (**) indicates proteins also detected in non-biotin controls.

Table 54: Common proteins that interact with C10.36

[001275] Without being bound by theory, FIGs.23K-L show a model for C10.36 mediated toxicity in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells. See FIGs.20A-H. , FIG.23K: Ribonucleoproteins like hnRNP U are known to regulate of global splicing in the nucleus. See Xiao R , et al. (2012). Nuclear Matrix Factor hnRNP U/SAF-A Exerts a Global Control of Alternative Splicing by Regulating U2 snRNP Maturation. Mol Cell. In NHL cells hnRNP U is also aberrantly localized in a cell surface ribonucleoprotein complex (CSRC). FIG.23L: C10.36 binding to the CSRC leads to its lipid raft dependent internalization. Upon hnRNP U mediated C10.36 uptake, significant changes in splicing occur. MYC driven lymphomas are susceptible to splicing defects (Kon CM, et al. (2015). MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in lymphomagenesis. Nature; Hsu TYT, et al (2015). The spliceosome is a therapeutic vulnerability in MYC-driven cancer. Nature), therefore C10.36 mediated global alternative splicing disrupts cellular homeostasis and leads to cell death by necrosis.

[001276] In conclusion, this Example builds on the invention. We found that C10.36 interacts with a ribonucleoprotein complex on the surface of NHL cells and that C10.36 binds hnRNP U directly within the ribonucleoprotein complex. When performing these pulldown experiments under various settings and conditions, we observe that the members of the complex are dynamic but certain proteins are identified consistently, e.g., splicing factors. C10.36 treatment inhibits cell viability in certain NHL cell lines. The oncogene c-MYC is commonly over-expressed in NHL cells. hnRNP U has previously been shown to stabilize c-MYC mRNA as well as promote c-MYC transcriptional activity. See, e.g., Weidensdorfer D, et al. (2009). Control of c-myc mRNA stability by IGF2BP1-associated cytoplasmic RNPs. RNA.2009 Jan; 15(1): 104–115. doi: 10.1261/rna.1175909; Matsuoka Y, et al. (2009). hnRNP U interacts with the c- Myc-Max complex on the E-box promoter region inducing the ornithine decarboxylase gene. Oncol Rep. 2009 Aug;22(2):249-55; which references are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. Without being bound by theory, C10.36 mediated toxicity may be a result of indirect inhibition of c-MYC by sequestering hnRNP U. C10.36 represents a B-cell lymphoma targeting compound, with therapeutic applications in cancer.

Example 40: Aptamer C10.36 Identifies Targets for CAR-T Therapy

[001277] Immune-oncology approaches to treat cancer and other diseases include the engineering of a patient’s own T-cells, a type of immune cell collected from the patient’s blood. The collected T cells are genetically engineered to produce receptors on their surface called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CARs are engineered T cell receptors that allow the T cells to recognize a given protein (antigen) on tumor cells, e.g., a protein that is specifically or abarrently expressed on cancer cells. These engineered CAR-T cells are propogated in vitro, e.g., until they number in the billions. To effect therapy, the expanded population of CAR T cells is infused into the patient. After the infusion, the T cells multiply in the patient’s body and, with guidance from their engineered receptor, recognize and kill cancer cells that harbor the target antigen on their surfaces. For reviews, see e.g., Trapani and Darcy, Immunotherapy of cancer, AFP VOL.46, NO.4, APRIL 2017; Wilkins et al., CAR T-Cell Therapy: Progress and Prospects, HUMAN GENE THERAPY METHODS, VOLUME 28 NUMBER 2; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[001278] Clinical trials are ongoing with multiple CAR-T candidates. For example, T cells have been engineered to target the CD19 antigen, which is present on the surface of nearly all B cells, both normal and cancerous. In this setting, patients are able to tolerate killing of non-cancer B cells. However, as many cancer antigens are expressed on healthy cells, CAR-T therapy may result in severe toxicity, including patient death. Aptamer C10.36 provided herein has identified a group of nuclear proteins that are aberrantly expressed on the surface in certain lymphoma and leukemias. See Examples above. Thus, the targets of aptamer C10.36 are attractive targets for use as the cancer antigen targeted by the CAR-T construct. The invention provides a method of treatment comprising engineering CAR-T cells to recognize a target protein of aptamer C10.36, including without limitation the proteins listed in any one of Table 29, Table 31, Table 32, Table 39, Table 40, Table 41, Tables 46-49, Table 54, Tables 57-59 or a subcomponent of any protein listed therein.

Example 41: C10.36 is internalized into Ramos cells by lipid raft mediated endocytosis

[001279] Aptamer C10.36 (C10.36; SEQ ID NO.4357) internalization was assessed by confocal microscopy. One million cells were incubated with Alexa-488 labeled C10.36 or control aptamer G24A (10.36(G24A); SEQ ID NO.4369) at 4 °C (surface binding) or 37 °C (internalization) for 30 min. All incubations were performed in complete medium. After the respective incubations with the aptamer, cells were washed with PBS and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, followed by cell membrane staining with Texas Red-X conjugated Wheat Germ Agglutinin. Ramos cells specifically bound and internalized C10.36 whereas Jurkat cells showed significantly less binding and no internalization (FIG.24A). G24A did not show significant surface binding or internalization in either cell line (not shown). Next, we tested the dependence of C10.36 internalization on lipid rafts. For the inhibition of lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, cells were pretreated with 4 mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) or DMSO control in complete medium for 15 minutes at 37 °C and then incubated with aptamer for additional 30 minutes at 37 °C. We observed that (MβCD) mediated removal of membrane cholesterol resulted in a significant decrease in the number of cells with internalized aptamers indicating that lipid rafts are essential for C10.36 uptake (FIG.24B).

Example 42: C10.36 internalization leads to changes in splicing in Ramos cells

[001280] Ribonucleoproteins like hnRNP U are known regulate of global splicing in the nucleus 1 . We have identified that in Ramos Burkitt lymphoma cells hnRNP U is also aberrantly localized in a cell surface ribonucleoprotein complex (CSRC). C10.36 binding to the CSRC leads to its lipid raft dependent internalization. Therefore, we examined if hnRNP U mediated C10.36 uptake led to significant changes in splicing. Total RNA was extracted from aptamer treated cells at 0, 24 and 48 hours post-treatment. The sequencing library was prepared with the Illumina TruSeq Stranded mRNA HT Sample Prep and subjected to HiSeq Rapid paired-end 100 bp plus sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 Ultra-High- Throughput Sequencing System. The raw FASTQ data were aligned against the human genome and transcriptome reference using the Illumina BaseSpace RNA-seq Alignment application using default stringencies and parameters. Alternative splicing was examined following mRNA sequencing and analysis using DEXseq 2 .

[001281] We detected a global impact on splicing regulation specifically following C10.36 internalization compared to G24A after 24 hours of treatment (FIG.25A). A significant portion of the alternatively splicing genes encode for poly(A) RNA binding proteins including C10.36 binding targets itself. See Table 55. Furthermore, a majority of the alternatively spliced exons were located in the 5´ and 3´ terminals of genes indicating differential usage of alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites following C10.36 treatment (FIG.25B).

Table 55: Gene lists with alternatively spliced exons

[001282] References:

[001283] 1. Xiao R , et al. (2012). Nuclear Matrix Factor hnRNP U/SAF-A Exerts a Global Control of Alternative Splicing by Regulating U2 snRNP Maturation. Mol Cell. [001284] 2. Anders,S , et al. (2012). Detecting differential usage of exons from RNA-seq data. Genome Res.

Example 43: C10.36 treatment induces necrosis in Ramos cells

[001285] In this Example, we further investigated the mechanism of C10.36 mediated loss in viability. First we examined if C10.36 treatment lead to caspase mediated apoptosis. For this C10.36 treated protein lysates were probed for the presence of cleaved caspase 3 and its downstream target, cleaved PARP. Unlike doxorubicin treatment which causes canonical apoptosis, C10.36 did not result in increased levels of cleaved caspase 3 or PARP (FIG.26A). To test for caspase independent apoptosis we tested for Annexin V positive staining using Annexin V (marker for apoptosis) and SYTOX Orange (marker for loss of membrane integrity). In C10.36 treated cells, 98% of the Annexin V positive cells also displayed SYTOX positivity which indicates dead cells. Only about 2% of C10.36 treated cells showed Annexin V positive and SYTOX negative staining indicative of late apoptosis (FIG.26B). We next tested if C10.36 treatment led to an increase in autophagy mediated cell death. Autophagy initiation leads to accumulation of lysosomes which can be tracked by a lysotracker probe. Upon aptamer treatment, cells were collected and incubated with the lysotracker probe and imaged by confocal microscopy. C10.36 treatment did not lead to a significant difference in the accumulation of lysosomes whereas clear accumulation of lysosomes was observed in the positive control sample (FIG.26C). Overall lysotracker signal was more diffuse in cells upon C10.36 treatment indicating a cytoplasmic localization rather than contained vesicular localization. This is suggestive of lysosome membrane permeabilzation (LMP). We also observed close resemblance in the morphological changes to necrotic cells; particularly bleb formation in C10.36 treated Ramos cells (FIG.26D). The lack of evidence indicating C10.36 mediated apoptotic cell death combined with the presence of dual STYOX and Annexin V staining and the necrotic morphology indicate that C10.36 treatment leads to a loss in viability though necrotic cell death. Cell death vs loss of proliferation was also confirmed by cell cycle analysis and EdU incorporation in which no change was detected upon C10.36 treatment.

Example 44: C10.36 binding and internalization play a role in cell death

[001286] Preferential binding and sensitivity of different NHL cell lines to C10.36 was also assessed. Both Ramos 2G6.4 C10 and MEC1 cells showed highest level of binding to C10.36. However unlike Ramos 2G6.4 C10, MEC1 cells were not sensitive to cell killing by the aptamer. Therefore we tested if MEC1 cells internalize C10.36 upon binding by confocal microscopy. Unlike the sensitive Ramos 2G6.4 C10 which internalize the aptamer, MEC1 cells do not (FIG.27A). Similarly, SUDHL-1 cells which are sensitive to C10.36 internalize the aptamer (FIG.27B). Finally, a monoclonal antibody to hnRNP U that was not internalized did not affect Ramos cell proliferation (FIG.27D), unlike C10.36 under similar conditions (FIG.27C).

[001287] The above results indicate that binding and internalization are both required for sensitivity to C10.36. Example 45: C10.36-nanoparticle internalization

[001288] In this Example, we constructed a nanoparticle-aptamer conjugate and demonstrate that this construct is internalized within the target cells. Such construct can be used to deliver payload with the cells.

[001289] Fluorescent silica nanoparticles (green) functionalized with carboxyl groups on the particle surface for covalent binding to amine containing molecules (30 nm Sicastar®-greenF COOH, Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH) were conjugated with 5’C6amine-C10.36-3’TEX615 aptamer (red) or the scrambled version of the aptamer 5’C6amine-C10.36scr-3’TEX615 (red) to make a C10.36- fluorescent nanoparticle conjugate (yellow).5’C6amine-C10.36-3’TEX615 is C10.36 modified as indicated and the corresponding nanoparticle may be referred to hereis as“Nanoparticle-C10.36” or similar variants.5’C6amine-C10.36scr-3’TEX615 is a negative control with a scrambled C10.36 aptamer sequence and the corresponding nanoparticle may be referred to hereis as“Nanoparticle-C10.36scr” or similar variants. Sequences are shown in Table 56. Conjugated and unconjugated nanoparticles were quenched with 1% BSA for an hour after coupling and were stored in 1% BSA-PBS. Binding to Ramos cells was done in PBS at 37°C for 30 min to allow internalization and the C10.36 conjugated nanoparticle immunofluorescence (yellow) was detected by confocal microscopy.

Table 56: Sequences of nanoparticle conjugates

[001290] Results are shown in FIGs.28A-C. In the figures the circular shapes are blue stained nuclei. FIG.28A shows Ramos cells contacted with Nanoparticle-C10.36, FIG.28B shows Ramos cells contacted with Nanoparticle-C10.36scr control particles, and FIG.28C shows Ramos cells contacted with unconjugated control nanoparticles. The bright area in FIG.28A shows C10.36 conjugated nanoparticle. In contrast, such signal is not observed with the scrambled control aptamer (FIG.28B) or with a no aptamer control particle (FIG.28C).

Example 46: Characterization of C10.36-resistant Ramos cells

[001291] As shown in the data above, cellular binding by C10.36 alone may not lead to cellular death. Internalization also plays a role. For example, the proliferation of MEC1 cells was not influenced by C10.36 or G24A (FIG. 20F), although the cell line is bound by the aptamer to comparable high levels (FIG.23F). This observation indicates that binding alone of C10.36 does not necessarily lead to an impact on cell proliferation. In line with this notion, we observed some late passages (>40) of Ramos cells that became C10.36-resistant. Inhibition of the viability of these resistant Ramos cells by the aptamer is still observable, but to a much lesser extent. See FIG.29A; compare to sensitive Ramos cells in FIG. 20A. The resistant cells from these passages still bound to C10.36 comparably high as found for the sensitive Ramos passages, as observed using flow cytometry experiments (data not shown). However, uptake into resistant Ramos was strongly diminished. See FIG.29B; compare to sensitive Ramos cells in FIG.24A. In turn, the sensitive Ramos 2G6.4 C10 and SU-DHL-1 cells show a strong uptake of C10.36, whereas MEC1 cells do not (FIG.27A).

[001292] Immunoprecipitation (pulldown) of C10.36 bound protein complexes and subsequent protein identification using mass spectrometry were performed as above. See FIG.23B and related discussion. FIG.29C shows results of affinity-purification with C10.36 of Ramos cells sensitive to C10.36 (“Ramos s”) or the resistant Ramos cells (“Ramos r”). Jurkat cells, which are not sensitive to C10.36 (FIG.20D), are also shown. Differential proteins detected in Ramos cells sensitive versus resistant to C10.36 are shown in Table 57 and Table 58.

Table 57: Proteins significantly enriched in Ramos sensitive but not resistant to C10.36

Table 58: Proteins significantly enriched in Ramos resistant but not sensitive to C10.36

[001293] As noted, the entire protein content from the gels shown in FIG.29C was excised from the gel, digested, and analysed by LC-MS/MS. This analysis revealed 34 specific proteins identified by aptamer based pull-down experiments using sensitive Ramos cells, the majority of which are found to be ribonucleoproteins. See FIG.29D. The figure shows a STRING interaction network map (Szklarczyk et al. Nucleic Acids Res.201543(Database issue):D447-5) of affinity purified targets unique to C10.36 sensitive Ramos cells vs Jurkat cells identifies ribonucleoprotein splicing complexes on the surface of Ramos cells. Targets circled in gray/green were confirmed to be on the cell surface with biotin surface labeling independent of aptamer binding. These proteins were not found in pull-down experiments using G24A or Jurkat cells. InterologFinder [Wiles et al., Building and Analyzing Protein Interactome Networks by Cross-species Comparisons. BMC Systems Biology 2010, 4:36] reveals that the identified proteins putatively form a multicomponent complex (FIG.29D) and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis shows that their biological function is associated with RNA metabolism, mRNA processing, and alternative splicing. See Table 59, which indicates proteins are involved in ribonucleoprotein

complex (GO.0030529) and spliceosomal complex (GO.0005681) according to GO cellular component classification.

Table 59: Proteins significantly enriched in sensitive Ramos versus Jurkat

Example 47: C10.36 binds human lymphoma cells

[001294] In this Example, we used confocal microscopy to examine binding of aptamer C10.36 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human patients. FIG.30 shows binding of C10.36 or the scrambled C10.36scr control (Example 45) to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). As indicated in the figure, the cells were from PBMCs controls or PBMCs from non-Hodkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients. The percentages indicated correspond to the number of cells with aptamer staining by visual inspection. C10.36 bound the NHL samples at much higher levels than normals.

[001295] Although preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed in practicing the invention. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the invention and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.