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Title:
TECHNIQUES FOR FLEXIBLE RESOURCE ALLOCATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/157183
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Various aspects described herein relate to techniques for managing resource allocation in wireless communications. In an aspect, the method includes identifying a system bandwidth for communications, identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format, determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs), and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs. The techniques described herein may apply to different communications technologies, including 5th Generation (5G) New Radio (NR) communications technology.

Inventors:
LIU LE (US)
RICO ALVARINO ALBERTO (US)
CHEN WANSHI (US)
WANG XIAO FENG (US)
Application Number:
US2019/017052
Publication Date:
August 15, 2019
Filing Date:
February 07, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
QUALCOMM INC (US)
International Classes:
H04W72/02; H04L5/00
Foreign References:
EP2830378A12015-01-28
US20170347354A12017-11-30
US201862628776P2018-02-09
US201862670347P2018-05-11
US201916269405A2019-02-06
Other References:
FUJITSU: "Discussion on frequency domain resource allocation", vol. RAN WG1, no. Prague, Czech Republic; 20171009 - 20171013, 8 October 2017 (2017-10-08), XP051340903, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20171008]
QUALCOMM INCORPORATED: "Support of larger data channel bandwidth", vol. RAN WG1, no. Reno, Nevada, USA; 20161114 - 20161118, 13 November 2016 (2016-11-13), XP051175595, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20161113]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BINDSEIL, James J. et al. (1717 K Street NWWashington, District of Columbia, 20006-5344, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of wireless communications by a user equipment (UE), comprising:

identifying a system bandwidth for communications;

identifying one or more radio resource control (RRC) messages;

identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format;

determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs) as being outside of a range of RIVs used for legacy resource allocation; and

performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the one or more RRC messages, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the one or more RIVs further includes determining, based on the one or more RIVs, a starting resource block and a resource allocation size of the resource allocation.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein determining the starting resource block and the resource allocation size is based on a table mapping the one or more RIVs to starting resource block indices and resource allocation sizes.

4. The method of claim 2, wherein starting resource block indices of the starting resource block align with a resource block group boundary of a narrowband.

5. The method of claim 2, wherein ending resource block indices, as defined as an index of the starting resource block plus the resource allocation size, align with a resource block group boundary of the narrowband.

6. The method of claim 2, wherein the resource allocation is within the system bandwidth by limiting a size of the resource allocation size to be no larger than a number of remaining resource blocks between the starting resource block and an end of the system bandwidth.

030284.17080

7. The method of claim 1, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises performing NB hopping among resource allocations based on using the one or more RIVs for each hop.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises retuning a local oscillator of the UE based on the resource allocation moving from one NB to a different NB.

9. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

identifying a narrowband (NB) index offset indication; and

performing NB hopping based on the NB index offset indication.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

identifying an indication of resource allocation for the system bandwidth; and performing NB hopping based on the identified indication.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more RIVs comprise a first RIV, and further comprising:

receiving DCI over a physical downlink control channel (PDCCH);

dynamically switching between the first RIV and a second RIV based on the received DCI.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the size of the one or more RIVs is 5 bits, and wherein the one or more RIVs include the 5 bits representing an integer value from 21 to 31.

13. The method of claim 1 , wherein a range of sizes for the resource allocation is defined based on an operation mode being time division duplexing (TDD) or frequency division duplexing (FDD).

030284.17080

14. A method of wireless communications by a user equipment (UE), comprising:

identifying a system bandwidth for communications;

identifying one or more radio resource control (RRC) messages;

identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format;

determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs);

determining a narrowband (NB) offset indication; and

performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the one or more RRC messages, the identified DCI format, the one or more RIVs, and the NB offset indication.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises determining a starting resource block of the resource allocation based on the one or more RIVs, and applying, based on the NB offset indication, an NB offset to the starting resource block.

16. The method of claim 15, further comprising determining the NB offset based on a table that maps NB offsets to system bandwidths.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the table maps NB offsets for multiple NBs within each of the system bandwidths.

18. The method of claim 14, wherein determining the NB offset indication comprises receiving the NB offset indication in radio resource control signaling.

19. The method of claim 14, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises performing NB hopping among resource allocations based on using the one or more RIVs for each hop.

20. The method of claim 14, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises retuning a local oscillator of the UE based on the resource allocation moving from one NB to a different NB.

030284.17080

21. The method of claim 14, wherein performing the resource allocation comprises:

identifying, based on the NB offset indication, an NB location and a resource block group (RBG) size based on the identified system bandwidth; and

generating an index for the resource allocation based on the identified NB location, the identified RBG size, and the one or more RIVs.

22. A method of wireless communications by a user equipment (UE), comprising:

identifying a system bandwidth for communications;

identifying one or more radio resource control (RRC) messages;

identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format;

determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs) based on a modified RIV equation different from a RIV equation used for legacy resource allocation; and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the one or more RRC messages, the identified DCI format, and the one or more RIVs.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the modified RIV equation is based on a total number of resource blocks in the system bandwidth.

24. The method of claim 22, wherein the modified RIV equation is based on a first number of resource blocks less than a second number of resource blocks determined for the resource allocation.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the modified RIV equation is based on a starting resource block for the resource allocation.

26. The method of claim 22, wherein the one or more RIVs comprise a first RIV, and further comprising:

switching between the first RIV and a second RIV in response to receiving the one or more RRC messages, wherein a starting resource block of the first RIV are within the system bandwidth and a starting resource block of the second RIV are within a narrowband.

030284.17080

27. A method of wireless communications by a user equipment (UE), comprising:

identifying a system bandwidth for communications;

identifying one or more radio resource control (RRC) messages;

identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format;

determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs); and

performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the one or more RRC messages, the identified DCI format, and the one or more RIVs at least in part by modifying, based on the one or more RIVs, a starting resource of the resource allocation.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein modifying the starting resource block comprises adding a value of two to the starting resource block.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein adding the value of two to the starting resource block is based at least in part on determining the one or more RIVs has a value of 7.

30. The method of claim 27, wherein the one or more RJVs comprise a first RIV, and further comprising:

switching between the first RIV and a second RIV in response to receiving the one or more RRC messages, wherein indices of the first RIV are identified based on indices of the second RIV and a resource block offset indication indicated in the RRC message.

030284.17080

Description:
TECHNIQUES FOR FLEXIBLE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

Claim of Priority

[0001] The present Application for Patent claims priority to Provisional Application No.

62/628,776, entitled“TECHNIQUES FOR FLEXIBLE RESOURCE ALLOCATION” and filed on February 9, 2018, Provisional Application No. 62/670,347, entitled “TECHNIQUES FOR FLEXIBLE RESOURCE ALLOCATION” and filed on May 11, 2018, and U.S. Patent Application No. 16/269,405, entitled “TECHNIQUES FOR FLEXIBLE RESOURCE ALLOCATION” and filed on February 6, 2019, which are expressly incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Aspects of the present disclosure relate generally to wireless communications systems, and more particularly, to techniques for flexible resource allocation for machine-type communication (MTC) in wireless communications.

[0003] Wireless communication systems are widely deployed to provide various telecommunication services such as telephony, video, data, messaging, and broadcasts. Typical wireless communication systems may employ multiple-access technologies capable of supporting communication with multiple users by sharing available system resources. Examples of such multiple-access technologies include code division multiple access (CDMA) systems, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems, frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems, single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) systems, and time division synchronous code division multiple access (TD-SCDMA) systems.

[0004] These multiple access technologies have been adopted in various telecommunication standards to provide a common protocol that enables different wireless devices to communicate on a municipal, national, regional, and even global level. An example telecommunication standard is the 4th Generation (4G) communications technology, for example, Long Term Evolution (LTE) or LTE-Advanced (LTE-A). However, although newer multiple access systems, such as an LTE or LTE-A system, deliver faster data throughput than older technologies, such increased downlink rates have triggered a

030284.17080 greater demand for higher-bandwidth content, such as high-resolution graphics and video, for use on or with mobile devices. As such, demand for bandwidth, higher data rates, better transmission quality as well as better spectrum utilization, and lower latency on wireless communications systems continues to increase.

[0005] The 5th Generation (5G) New Radio (NR) communications technology, used in a wide range of spectrum, is envisaged to expand and support diverse usage scenarios and applications with respect to current mobile network generations. In an aspect, 5G NR communications technology includes, for example: enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) addressing human-centric use cases for access to multimedia content, services and data; ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) with strict requirements, especially in terms of latency and reliability; and massive machine-type communications (mMTC) for a very large number of connected devices and typically transmitting a relatively low volume of non-delay-sensitive information. As the demand for mobile broadband access continues to increase, there exists a need for further improvements in 5G communications technology and beyond. Preferably, these improvements should be applicable to other multi-access technologies and the telecommunication standards that employ these technologies.

[0006] Accordingly, due to the requirements for higher data rates, lower power or battery consumption, and lower latency, new approaches or techniques may be desirable to improve physical layer procedures and signal scheduling, using flexible resource allocation schemes, in order to enhance or increase system capacity and spectral efficiency, to satisfy consumer demand, and to improve user experience in wireless communications, e.g., in a 4G LTE network or a 5G NR network.

SUMMARY

[0007] The following presents a simplified summary of one or more aspects in order to provide a basic understanding of such aspects. This summary is not an extensive overview of all contemplated aspects, and is intended to neither identify key or critical elements of all aspects nor delineate the scope of any or all aspects. Its purpose is to present some concepts of one or more aspects in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.

[0008] According to an example, a method related to managing resource allocation in a wireless communications system is provided. In an aspect, the method includes identifying a

030284.17080 system bandwidth for communications, identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format, determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs), and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs.

[0009] In another example, a method of wireless communications by a user equipment (UE) is provided. The method includes identifying a system bandwidth for communications, identifying a DCI format, determining one or more RIVs as being outside of a range of RIVs used for legacy resource allocation, and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs.

[0010] In another example, a method of wireless communications by a UE is provided. The method includes identifying a system bandwidth for communications, identifying a DCI format, determining one or more RIVs, determining a narrowband (NB) offset indication, and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, the one or more determined RIVs, and the NB offset indication.

[0011] In another example, a method of wireless communications by a UE is provided. The method includes identifying a system bandwidth for communications, identifying a DCI format, determining one or more RIVs based on a modified RIV equation different from a RIV equation used for legacy resource allocation, and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs.

[0012] In another example, a method of wireless communications by a UE is provided. The method includes identifying a system bandwidth for communications, identifying a DCI format, determining one or more RIVs, and performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs at least in part by modifying, based on the one or more determined RIVs, a starting resource of the resource allocation.

[0013] In a further aspect, an apparatus for wireless communication is provided that includes a transceiver, a memory configured to store instructions, and one or more processors communicatively coupled with the transceiver and the memory. The one or more processors are configured to execute the instructions to perform the operations of methods described herein. In another aspect, an apparatus for wireless communication is provided that includes means for performing the operations of methods described herein. In yet

030284.17080 another aspect, a computer-readable medium is provided and includes code executable by one or more processors to perform the operations of methods described herein. The computer-readable medium may be a non-transitory computer-readable medium.

[0014] To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, the one or more aspects comprise the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims. The following description and the annexed drawings set forth in detail certain illustrative features of the one or more aspects. These features are indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of various aspects may be employed, and this description is intended to include all such aspects and their equivalents.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0015] In order to facilitate a fuller understanding of aspects described herein, reference is now made to the accompanying drawings, in which like elements are referenced with like numerals. These drawings should not be construed as limiting the present disclosure, but are intended to be illustrative only.

[0016] FIG. l is a block diagram illustrating a first example of a wireless communications system including a user equipment (UE) communicating with one or more base stations to perform resource allocation operations, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0017] FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a second example of a wireless communications system including multiple UEs for communicating with one or more base stations to perform resource allocation operations, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0018] FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a UE communicating with a base station to perform resource allocation operations in an access network, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0019] FIG. 4 are five examples of misalignment between resource block groups (RBGs) and one or more narrowbands (NBs) in different system bandwidths (BWs), according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0020] FIG. 5 are three examples of tables representing resource allocation for bandwidth- reduced low-complexity (BL) or coverage enhanced (CE) UEs, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

030284.17080 [0021] FIG. 6 is an example of a table used for resource allocation for DCI format 6-OA and/or DCI format 6-1 A, with various system BWs, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0022] FIG. 7 is an example of a resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of 3MHz or 5MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0023] FIG. 8 is an example of a resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of lOMHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0024] FIG. 9 is an example of a resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of 20MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0025] FIG. 10 is an example of a resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of l5MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0026] FIG. 11 is an example of a flexible resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station for uplink transmissions, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0027] FIG. 12 is an example of a first resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station to indicate NB offset(s), according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0028] FIG. 13 is an example of a resource allocation scheme with NB hopping used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of 3MHz or 5MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0029] FIG. 14A is an example of a resource allocation scheme with NB hopping used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of 15MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0030] FIG. 14B is an example of a resource allocation scheme with NB hopping used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of lOMHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0031] FIG. 14C is an example of a resource allocation scheme with NB hopping used by a UE or a base station having a system BW of 20MHz, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

030284.17080 [0032] FIG. 15 is an example of a second resource allocation scheme used by a UE or a base station to indicate NB offset(s), according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0033] FIG. 16 is a flow chart of a first example method for performing resource allocation, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0034] FIG. 17 is a flow chart of a second example method for performing resource allocation, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0035] FIG. 18 is a flow chart of a third example method for performing resource allocation, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

[0036] FIG. 19 is a flow chart of a fourth example method for performing resource allocation, according to one or more of the presently described aspects.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0037] In wireless communications, for example, a number of resource block(s) may be grouped together to form a resource block group (RBG) which varies depending on the system bandwidth. The size of an RBG may be different from another RBG, and may depend on the system bandwidth. In a 4G (e.g., LTE) network or a 5G NR. network, misalignment between resource block groups (RBGs) and narrow bands (NBs) may result in system performance degradations, for example, decreased downlink cell throughput or fragmentation of the spectrum for uplink transmissions.

[0038] As such, new or improved approaches or schemes may be desired. In some examples, a user equipment (EE) may use or be configured to have more flexible downlink and/or uplink resource allocation (RA) mechanism that may help to avoid or significantly reduce the above-mentioned degradations. In some aspects, the flexible downlink and/or uplink resource allocation mechanism may be used in enhanced machine-type communication (eMTC) or even further eMTC (efeMTC). For example, the EE may be a bandwidth- reduced low-complexity (BL) or coverage enhanced (CE) EE. In an aspect, the BL/CE EE may be capable of a coverage enhancement mode or configured in a coverage enhancement mode, and may intend to access a cell in a coverage enhancement mode.

[0039] In some implementations, the EE (e.g., a BL/CE EE) may consider or use a more flexible downlink and/or uplink resource allocation mechanism in the specification of a wireless communication standard (e.g., the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Technical Specification (TS), Release 15). In some cases, the flexible downlink and/or

030284.17080 uplink resource allocation mechanism may not increase or significantly increase complexity or energy consumption of the UE.

[0040] In some aspects, the terms UE, BL/CE UE, BL UE, CE UE, NB-UE, narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) UE, NB device, an MTC UE, an eMTC UE, or an efeMTC UE, may be used interchangeably, and may represent a same or similar apparatus for wireless communications.

[0041] The detailed description set forth below in connection with the appended drawings is intended as a description of various configurations and is not intended to represent the only configurations in which the concepts described herein may be practiced. The detailed description includes specific details for the purpose of providing a thorough understanding of various concepts. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that these concepts may be practiced without these specific details. In some instances, well known components are shown in block diagram form in order to avoid obscuring such concepts.

[0042] Several aspects of telecommunication systems will now be presented with reference to various apparatus and methods. These apparatus and methods will be described in the following detailed description and illustrated in the accompanying drawings by various blocks, modules, components, circuits, steps, processes, algorithms, etc. (collectively referred to as“elements”). These elements may be implemented using electronic hardware, computer software, or any combination thereof. Whether such elements are implemented as hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system.

[0043] By way of example, an element, or any portion of an element, or any combination of elements may be implemented with a“processing system” that includes one or more processors. Examples of processors include microprocessors, microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSPs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), programmable logic devices (PLDs), state machines, gated logic, discrete hardware circuits, and other suitable hardware configured to perform the various functionality described throughout this disclosure. One or more processors in the processing system may execute software. Software shall be construed broadly to mean instructions, instruction sets, code, code segments, program code, programs, subprograms, software modules, applications, software applications, software packages, routines, subroutines, objects, executables,

030284.17080 threads of execution, procedures, functions, etc., whether referred to as software, firmware, middleware, microcode, hardware description language, or otherwise.

[0044] Accordingly, in one or more aspects, the functions described may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software, the functions may be stored on or encoded as one or more instructions or code on a computer-readable medium. Computer-readable media includes computer storage media. Storage media may be any available media that may be accessed by a computer. By way of example, and not limitation, such computer-readable media may comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium that may be used to carry or store desired program code in the form of instructions or data structures and that may be accessed by a computer. Disk and disc, as used herein, includes compact disc (CD), laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), and floppy disk where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media. In some aspects, the computer-readable media may be non-transitory or include a non-transitory computer- readable storage medium.

[0045] Described herein are various aspects related to a wireless communications network, for example, a 4G network (e.g. an LTE network) or a 5G NR network, in particular, techniques for flexible downlink and/or uplink resource allocation (RA). Each of the aspects described above are performed or implemented in connection with FIGs. 1-17 which are described in more detail below. In some aspects, the methods, techniques, or schemes discussed herein may be within the limits of current specifications of various wireless communication standards (e.g., 3GPP standards). In some examples, the techniques or methods discussed herein may be implemented by or reside in hardware or software at the EGE.

[0046] Referring to FIG. 1, in an aspect, a wireless communication system 100 includes at least one UE 12 (e.g., a BL, MTC, eMTC, or efeMTC EGE) in communication coverage of at least one network entity 14 or network entity 20. The EGE 12 may communicate with a network via the network entity 14 or network entity 20. In some aspects, multiple EIEs including the EGE 12 may be in communication coverage with one or more network entities, including the network entity 14 and/or the network entity 20. In an aspect, the network entity 14 or network entity 20 may be a base station, such as an eNB in a 4G

030284.17080 LTE network or a gNB in a 5G NR network. Although various aspects are described in relation to a UMTS, LTE, or a 5G NR network, similar principles may be applied in other wireless wide area networks (WWAN). The wireless network may employ a scheme where multiple base stations may transmit on a channel. In an example, the UE 12 may transmit and/or receive wireless communications (e.g., messages or signals used for resource allocation) to and/or from the network entity 14 and/or the network entity 20. For example, the UE 12 may be actively communicating with network entity 14 and/or network entity 20, for example, to perform resource allocation procedures.

[0047] In some aspects, the UE 12 may also be referred to by those skilled in the art (as well as interchangeably herein) as an MTC UE, an eMTC UE, an efeMTC UE, a mobile station, a subscriber station, a mobile unit, a subscriber unit, a wireless unit, a remote unit, a mobile device, a wireless device, a wireless communications device, a remote device, a mobile subscriber station, an access terminal, a mobile terminal, a wireless terminal, a remote terminal, a handset, a terminal, a user agent, a mobile client, a client, or some other suitable terminology. The UE 12 may be a cellular phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a wireless modem, a wireless communication device, a handheld device, a tablet computer, a laptop computer, a cordless phone, a wireless local loop (WLL) station, a global positioning system (GPS) device, a multimedia device, a video device, a digital audio player (e.g., MP3 player), a camera, a game console, a wearable computing device (e.g., a smart-watch, smart-glasses, a health or fitness tracker, etc.), an appliance, a sensor, a vehicle communication system, a medical device, a vending machine, a device for IoT (e.g., a NB-IoT device), an MTC device, or any other similar functioning device.

[0048] In some examples, the network entity 14 or network entity 20 may be referred to as a base station, a base transceiver station, a radio base station, a radio transceiver, a basic service set (BSS), an extended service set (ESS), a NodeB, eNodeB, Home NodeB, a Home eNodeB, a gNB or some other suitable terminology. The coverage area for a base station may be divided into sectors making up only a portion of the coverage area (not shown). The wireless communications system 100 may include the network entity 14 and/or network entity 20 of different types (e.g., macro, micro, and/or pico base stations). The network entity 14 or network entity 20 may utilize different radio technologies, such as cellular and/or Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) radio access technologies (RAT). The network entity 14 or network entity 20 may be associated with the same or different access networks or operator deployments. The coverage areas of the network entity 14

030284.17080 or network entity 20, including the coverage areas of the same or different types of the network entity 14 or network entity 20, utilizing the same or different radio technologies, and/or belonging to the same or different access networks, may overlap. Furthermore, the network entity 14 or network entity 20 may be substantially any type of component that may communicate with UE 12 to provide wireless network access at the UE 12.

[0049] According to the present aspects, the EE 12 may include one or more processors 103 and a memory 130 that may operate in combination with a resource allocation component 40, which may comprise a bandwidth component 42, downlink control information (DCI) format component 44, resource indication value (RIV) component 46, narrowband (NB) index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50. In some cases, similarly, the network entity 14 or the network entity 20 may include or use one or more components discussed herein (or similar components) and be configured to perform resource allocation operations, according to one or more aspects discussed herein.

[0050] In some examples, the resource allocation component 40 may be configured to perform one or more resource allocation procedures or management as discussed herein. In an aspect, the bandwidth component 42 may be configured to identify one or more system bandwidths for communications. In an aspect, the DCI format component 44 may be configured to identify one or more DCI formats used by the EE 12, network entity 14, and/or network entity 20, as discussed herein. In another aspect, the RIV component 46 may be configured to determine, define, identify, or search for one or more RIVs (e.g., an integer value from a predetermined index or table, as discussed herein). The NB index component 48 may be configured to identify an NB index and/or an NB index offset indication. In an aspect, the NB hopping component 50 may be configured to define or identify one or more NB hopping offsets, and/or perform NB hopping as described herein.

[0051] In some aspects, the resource allocation component 40 may be communicatively coupled with a transceiver 106, which may include a receiver 32 for receiving and processing radio frequency (RF) signals (e.g., including DCI, resource allocation, or grants), and a transmitter 34 for processing and transmitting RF signals. The processor 103 may be communicatively coupled with the transceiver 106 and memory 130 via at least one bus 110

[0052] The receiver 32 may include hardware, firmware, and/or software code executable by a processor for receiving data, the code comprising instructions and being stored in a memory (e.g., computer-readable medium). The receiver 32 may be, for example, a radio

030284.17080 frequency (RF) receiver. In an aspect, the receiver 32 may receive signals transmitted by the UE 12, one or more other UEs 12 and/or one or more network entities (e.g., the network entity 14 or network entity 20). The receiver 32 may obtain measurements of the signals. For example, the receiver 32 may determine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), RSRP, etc.

[0053] The transmitter 34 may include hardware, firmware, and/or software code executable by a processor for transmitting data, the code comprising instructions and being stored in a memory (e.g., computer-readable medium). The transmitter 34 may be, for example, a RF transmitter.

[0054] In an aspect, the one or more processors 103 may include a modem 108 that uses one or more modem processors. The various functions related to the resource allocation component 40 may be included in the modem 108 and/or processor(s) 103 and, in an aspect, may be executed by a single processor, while in other aspects, different ones of the functions may be executed by a combination of two or more different processors. For example, in an aspect, the one or more processors 103 may include any one or any combination of a modem processor, or baseband processor, or digital signal processor, or transmit processor, or transceiver processor associated with the transceiver 106. In particular, the one or more processors 103 may implement components included in the resource allocation component 40, including the bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50.

[0055] The resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component

44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50 may include hardware, firmware, and/or software code executable by a processor for performing resource allocation management and related operations. For example, the hardware may include, for example, a hardware accelerator, or specialized processor. In an aspect, the term“component” as used herein may be one of the parts that make up a system, may be hardware, firmware, and/or software, and may be divided into other components.

[0056] Moreover, in an aspect, the UE 12 may include an RF front end 104 and the transceiver

106 for receiving and transmitting radio transmissions, for example, wireless communications 26. For example, transceiver 106 may transmit or receive one or more signals. The transceiver 106 may measure a received pilot signal in order to determine

030284.17080 signal quality (e.g., based on RSRP, RSRQ, or RSSI) and for providing feedback to the network entity 14 or network entity 20. For example, the transceiver 106 may communicate with the modem 108 to transmit messages generated by the resource allocation component 40 and to receive messages and forward them to the resource allocation component 40.

[0057] The RF front end 104 may be communicatively couple with one or more antennas 102 and may include one or more low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) 141, one or more switches 142, 143, one or more power amplifiers (PAs) 145, and one or more filters 144 for transmitting and receiving RF signals. In an aspect, the components of the RF front end 104 may be communicatively coupled with the transceiver 106 (e.g., via one or more communication links or buses 110). The transceiver 106 may be communicatively coupled with one or more modems 108 and/or processor 103.

[0058] In an aspect, the LNA 141 may amplify a received signal at a desired output level. In an aspect, each LNA 141 may have a specified minimum and maximum gain values. In an aspect, the RF front end 104 may use one or more switches 142, 143 to select a particular LNA 141 and its specified gain value based on a desired gain value for a particular application. In an aspect, the RF front end 104 may provide measurements (e.g., Ec/Io) and/or applied gain values to the resource allocation component 40.

[0059] The one or more PA(s) 145 may be used by the RF front end 104 to amplify a signal for an RF output at a desired output power level. In an aspect, each PA 145 may have a specified minimum and maximum gain values. In an aspect, the RF front end 104 may use one or more switches 143, 146 to select a particular PA 145 and a specified gain value of the PA 145 based on a desired gain value for a particular application.

[0060] The one or more filters 144 may be used by the RF front end 104 to filter a received signal to obtain an input RF signal. Similarly, in an aspect, for example, a respective filter 144 may be used to filter an output from a respective PA 145 to produce an output signal for transmission. In an aspect, each filter 144 may be communicatively coupled with a specific LNA 141 and/or PA 145. In an aspect, the RF front end 104 may use one or more switches 142, 143, 146 to select a transmit or receive path using a specified filter 144, LNA, 141, and/or PA 145, based on a configuration as specified by the transceiver 106 and/or processor 103.

[0061] The transceiver 106 may be configured to transmit and receive wireless signals through one or more antennas 102 via the RF front end 104. In an aspect, the transceiver 106 may

030284.17080 be tuned to operate at specified frequencies such that the UE 12 may communicate with, for example, the network entity 14 or network entity 20. In an aspect, for example, the modem 108 may configure the transceiver 106 to operate at a specified frequency and power level based on the UE configuration of the UE 12 and communication protocol used by the modem 108.

[0062] In an aspect, the modem 108 may be a multiband-multimode modem, which may process digital data and communicate with the transceiver 106 such that the digital data is sent and received using the transceiver 106. In an aspect, the modem 108 may be multiband and be configured to support multiple frequency bands for a specific communications protocol. In an aspect, the modem 108 may be multi -mode and be configured to support multiple operating networks and communications protocols. In an aspect, the modem 108 may control one or more components of the UE 12, or the network entity 14 or 20 (e.g., RF front end 104, transceiver 106), to perform resource allocation procedures or enable transmission and/or reception of signals based on a specified modem configuration. In an aspect, the modem configuration may be based on the mode of the modem and the frequency band in use. In another aspect, the modem configuration may be based on UE configuration information associated with the UE 12 as provided by the network during resource allocation, cell selection and/or cell reselection (or handover).

[0063] In some aspects, the UE 12 may further include memory 130, such as for storing data used herein and/or local versions of applications or the resource allocation component 40 and/or one or more subcomponents of the resource allocation component 40 being executed by the processor(s) 103. The memory 130 may include any type of computer- readable medium usable by a computer or processor(s) 103, such as random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), tapes, magnetic discs, optical discs, volatile memory, non-volatile memory, and any combination thereof. In an aspect, for example, the memory 130 may be a computer-readable storage medium that stores one or more computer-executable codes defining resource allocation component 40 and/or one or more of the subcomponents of the resource allocation component 40, and/or data associated therewith, when the UE 12 and/or the network entity 14 or network entity 20 is operating the processor(s) 103 to execute the resource allocation component 40 and/or one or more subcomponents of the resource allocation component 40. In another aspect, for example, the memory 130 may be a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium.

030284.17080 [0064] Referring to FIG. 2, a diagram illustrates an example of a wireless communications system 200, in accordance with aspects described herein. In some examples, the wireless communications system 200 may include the wireless communications system 100 in FIG. 1, and may include a plurality of network entities 14 and/or 20 (e.g., base stations, gNBs, or WLAN network entity), a number of UEs 12, and a core network 230. In an aspect, one or more UEs 12 may include the resource allocation component 40 configured to manage resource allocation. The resource allocation component 40 may be configured to perform at least some aspects of the techniques or methods described above in wireless communications, including 4G LTE or 5G R. Some of the network entity 14 or 20 may communicate with the UEs 12 under the control of a base station controller (not shown), which may be part of the core network 230 or the network entity 14 or the network entity 20 (e.g., a base station or a gNB) in various examples.

[0065] In an aspect, the network entity 14 or 20 may communicate control or system information and/or user data with the core network 230 through backhaul links 232. In some cases, the network entity 14 or 20 may communicate, either directly or indirectly, with each other over backhaul links 234, which may be wired or wireless communication links. The wireless communications system 200 may support operation on multiple carriers (waveform signals of different frequencies). Multi-carrier transmitters may transmit modulated signals simultaneously on the multiple carriers. For example, each communication link 225 (e.g., wireless communications 26 in FIG. 1) may be a multi- carrier signal modulated according to the various radio technologies described above. Each modulated signal may be sent on a same or different carrier and may carry control or system information (e.g., control channels, RRC signals, etc.), overhead information, data, etc.

[0066] In some examples, the network entity 14 or 20 may wirelessly communicate with the UEs

12 via one or more antennas. Each of the network entity 14 or 20 may provide communication coverage for a respective coverage area 210. In some examples, the network entity 14 or 20 may be referred to as a base station, a NodeB, an eNodeB, a Home NodeB, a Home eNodeB, a gNB, or an access point. In some cases, at least a portion of the wireless communications system 200 may be configured to operate on a spatial multiplexing (e.g., multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO)) scheme in which one or more of the UEs 12 and one or more of the network entity 14 or 20 may be configured to support transmissions on closed-loop MIMO and/or open-loop MIMO scheme.

030284.17080 [0067] In network communication systems using 4G (e.g., LTE/LTE-A), 5G NR, or similar communication technologies, the terms evolved Node B (eNodeB or eNB) or gNB may be used to describe the network entity 14 or 20, though concepts described herein may be applied to other types of network entity in other types of communication technologies. For example, the wireless communications system 200 may be a 4G or a 5G NR network in which different types of network entity provide coverage for various geographical regions. For example, each network entity 14 or 20 may provide communication coverage for a macro cell, a pico cell, a femto cell, and/or other types of cell. Small cells such as pico cells, femto cells, and/or other types of cells may include low power nodes or LPNs. A macro cell may cover a relatively large geographic area (e.g., several kilometers in radius) and may allow unrestricted access by EIEs 12 with service subscriptions with the network provider. A small cell may cover a relatively smaller geographic area and may allow unrestricted access by EIEs 12 with service subscriptions with the network provider, for example, and in addition to unrestricted access, may also provide restricted access by EIEs 12 having an association with the small cell (e.g., EIEs in a closed subscriber group (CSG), EIEs for users in the home, and the like). A base station for a macro cell may be referred to as a macro base station. A base station for a small cell may be referred to as a small cell base station. A base station may support one or multiple (e.g., two, three, four, and the like) cells.

[0068] In some aspects, the core network 230 may communicate with the base stations or other network entity 14 or 20 via one or more backhaul links 232 (e.g., Sl interface, etc.). The network entity 14 or 20 may also communicate with one another, e.g., directly or indirectly via backhaul links 234 (e.g., X2 interface, etc.) and/or via backhaul links 232 (e.g., through core network 230).

[0069] In some examples, the EIEs 12 may be dispersed throughout the wireless communications system 200, and each EIE 12 may be stationary or mobile (e.g., in a low mobility mode). The EIE 12 may be referred to by those skilled in the art as a suitable terminology discussed herein. The EIE 12 may be able to communicate with macro base stations, small cell base stations, relays, and the like. The EIE 12 may be able to communicate over different access networks, such as cellular or other WWAN access networks, or WLAN access networks.

[0070] The communication links 225 (e.g., wireless communications 26 in FIG. 1) shown in wireless communications system 200 may include uplink transmissions from the UE 12

030284.17080 to the network entity 14 or 20, and/or downlink transmissions (e.g., resource allocation, RRC signals) from the network entity 14 or 20 to the UE 12. The downlink transmissions may also be called forward link transmissions while the uplink transmissions may also be called reverse link transmissions. The communication links 225 may carry transmissions of each hierarchical layer which, in some examples, may be multiplexed in the communication links 225. The UEs 12 may be configured to collaboratively communicate with multiple network entity 14 or 20 through, for example, MIMO, carrier aggregation (CA), Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP), or other schemes. MIMO techniques use multiple antennas on the network entity 14 or 20 and/or multiple antennas on the UE 12 to transmit multiple data streams. The MIMO techniques may include closed-loop MIMO and/or open-loop MIMO scheme. Carrier aggregation (CA) may utilize two or more component carriers (CCs) on a same or different serving cell for data transmission. CoMP may include techniques for coordination of transmission and reception by a number of network entity 14 or 20 to improve overall transmission quality for UEs 12 as well as increasing network and spectrum utilization.

[0071] Referring to FIG. 3, a block diagram illustrates an example of a base station 310 (e.g., the network entity 14 or 20) in communication with a UE 350 (e.g., the UE 12) in an access network (e.g., the wireless communications system 100 and/or 200). In the downlink, upper layer packets from the core network are provided to a controller/processor 375. The controller/processor 375 implements the functionality of the L2 layer. In the downlink, the controller/processor 375 provides header compression, ciphering, packet segmentation and reordering, multiplexing between logical and transport channels, and radio resource allocations to the UE 350 based on various priority metrics. The controller/processor 375 is also responsible for HARQ operations, retransmission of lost packets, and signaling (e.g., resource allocation, RRC signals) to the UE 350.

[0072] The transmit (TX) processor 316 implements various signal processing functions for the

Ll layer (i.e., physical layer). The signal processing functions includes coding and interleaving to facilitate forward error correction (FEC) at the UE 350 and mapping to signal constellations based on various modulation schemes (e.g., binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), M-phase-shift keying (M-PSK), M-quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM)). The coded and modulated symbols are then split into parallel streams. Each stream is then mapped to an OFDM subcarrier, multiplexed with a reference signal (e.g., pilot signal) in the time and/or frequency

030284.17080 domain, and then combined together using an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) to produce a physical channel carrying a time domain OFDM symbol stream. The OFDM stream is spatially precoded to produce multiple spatial streams. Channel estimates from a channel estimator 374 may be used to determine the coding and modulation scheme, as well as for spatial processing. The channel estimate may be derived from a reference signal and/or channel condition feedback transmitted by the UE 350. Each spatial stream is then provided to a different antenna 320 via a separate transmitter 318TX. Each transmitter 318TX modulates an RF carrier with a respective spatial stream for transmission.

[0073] At the EE 350, each receiver 354RX receives a signal through a respective antenna 352.

Each receiver 354RX recovers information modulated onto an RF carrier and provides the information to the receive (RX) processor 356. The RX processor 356 implements various signal processing functions of the Ll layer. The RX processor 356 performs spatial processing on the information to recover any spatial streams destined for the EE 350. If multiple spatial streams are destined for the EE 350, they may be combined by the RX processor 356 into a single OFDM symbol stream. The RX processor 356 then converts the OFDM symbol stream from the time-domain to the frequency domain using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The frequency domain signal comprises a separate OFDM symbol stream for each subcarrier of the OFDM signal. The symbols on each subcarrier, and the reference signal, is recovered and demodulated by determining the most likely signal constellation points transmitted by the base station 310. These soft decisions may be based on channel estimates computed by the channel estimator 358. The soft decisions are then decoded and deinterleaved to recover the data and control signals that were originally transmitted by the base station 310 on the physical channel. The data and control signals are then provided to the controller/processor 359.

[0074] The controller/processor 359 implements the L2 layer. The controller/processor may be associated with a memory 360 that stores program codes and data. The memory 360 may be referred to as a computer-readable medium. In the uplink, the controller/processor 359 provides demultiplexing (DEMETX) between transport and logical channels, packet reassembly, deciphering, header decompression, control signal processing to recover upper layer packets from the core network. The upper layer packets are then provided to a data sink 362, which represents all the protocol layers above the L2 layer. Various control signals may be provided to the data sink 362 for L3 processing. The

030284.17080 controller/processor 359 may be responsible for error detection using an acknowledgement (ACK) and/or negative acknowledgement (NACK) protocol to support HARQ operations. In addition, the UE 350 may include a resource allocation component 40 configured to manage schemes of cell selections/reselections of the base station 310. Though the resource allocation component 40 is shown as communicatively coupled with controller/processor 359, substantially any processor of the UE 350 may provide the functions of the resource allocation component 40 and/or the related components described herein (e.g., in conjunction with controller/processor 359, memory 360, or otherwise). For example, TX processor 368 and/or RX processor 356 may additionally or alternatively provide one or more functions of the resource allocation component 40, as described herein.

[0075] In the uplink, a data source 367 is used to provide upper layer packets to the controller/processor 359. The data source 367 represents all protocol layers above the L2 layer. Similar to the functionality described in connection with the downlink transmission by the base station 310, the controller/processor 359 implements the L2 layer for the user plane and the control plane by providing header compression, ciphering, packet segmentation and reordering, and multiplexing between logical and transport channels based on radio resource allocations by the base station 310. The controller/processor 359 is also responsible for HARQ operations, retransmission of lost packets, and signaling to the base station 310.

[0076] Channel estimates derived by a channel estimator 358 from a reference signal or feedback transmitted by the base station 310 may be used by the TX processor 368 to select the appropriate coding and modulation schemes, and to facilitate spatial processing. The spatial streams generated by the TX processor 368 are provided to different antenna 352 via separate transmitters 354TX. Each transmitter 354TX modulates an RF carrier with a respective spatial stream for transmission.

[0077] The uplink transmission is processed at the base station 310 in a manner similar to that described in connection with the receiver function at the UE 350. Each receiver 318RX receives a signal through its respective antenna 320. Each receiver 318RX recovers information modulated onto an RF carrier and provides the information to a RX processor 370. The RX processor 370 may implement the Ll layer.

[0078] The controller/processor 375 implements the L2 layer. The controller/processor 375 may be associated with a memory 376 that stores program codes and data. The memory 376

030284.17080 may be referred to as a computer-readable medium. In the uplink, the controller/processor 375 provides demultiplexing (DEMUX) between transport and logical channels, packet reassembly, deciphering, header decompression, control signal processing to recover upper layer packets from the UE 350. Upper layer packets from the controller/processor 375 may be provided to the core network. The controller/processor 375 may be responsible for error detection using an ACK and/or NACK protocol to support ELARQ operations.

[0079] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 4, a wireless communication system may encounter misalignment between RBGs and NBs. In some examples, a UE (e.g., UE 12) may be in an LTE network using LTE RBGs, or in a 5G NR. (or LTE) network using NBs. For example, in LTE (or 5GNR.), bitmap-based resource assignment information may be used to indicate one or more RBGs that are scheduled for a non-BL or non-CE UE. The RBG size may be different and predetermined for each system bandwidth. Meanwhile, for a BL UE (or a BL/CE UE, MTC UE, eMTC UE, feMTC UE, efeMTC UE) in LTE, the NB locations may be defined or configured as six non-overlapping consecutive PRBs in frequency domain. The NB index location is shown in FIG. 4 for BWs that equal to 3MHz, 5MHz, IOMHz, l5MHz, and 20MHz, respectively.

[0080] In an example, if the total number of RBs in a BW is an odd number, the center RB may not belong to any NBs in the BW, resulting in different misalignment with RBGs in the first half and/or second half BW. In an aspect, the even/odd NB location may have different RB offset(s) relative to one or more neighbor RBG boundaries. In another aspect, different RBG size(s) may take into account and may cause different RB offset(s) between the NB and one or more RBG boundaries. In some cases, the PRB utilization loss may depend on allocated NB(s) and/or the total system BW, where the PRB utilization loss may be the wasted RBs normalized by the remaining RBs for non-BL UE(s) when one or more 6-PRB NBs are allocated to a BL UE. In an example, the misalignment between LTE RBGs and NBs may result in a degradation of, for example, zero to thirty-three percent (0-33%) of physical RBs (PRB) utilization, and may degrade the downlink cell throughputs. In some examples, when the RBGs and NBs are aligned, there may be a minimized loss or reduced loss that is close to 0% degradation.

[0081] In another aspect, for uplink, the UE or a base station (e.g., network entity 14 or network entity 20) may be difficult to utilize the NBs which may not be directly adjacent to the resources used for uplink transmissions, for example, physical uplink control channel

030284.17080 (PUCCH) or physical random access channel (PRACH), causing to fragmentation of the spectrum (e.g., for uplink transmissions).

[0082] In an aspect, for example, as shown in FIG. 4, in a conventional wireless communication network (e.g., an LTE network), the system bandwidth (BW) may be 3MHz, 5MHz, IOMHz, l5MHz, and/or 20MHz. In an aspect, cross marks in one or more RBGs are used to identify the RBs that may not be used by NB or MTC due to misalignment between NBs and RBGs. In an example, the UE may use a frame structure 402 having a 3MHz LTE BW, with one or more RBGs each having two RBs or PRBs, and one or more NBs each having six RBs or PRBs. For the first NB (P NB = 0) in the first half BW (RB 0 to RB 7) of the frame structure 402, there are two offsets, a first offset between the first NB and the first RBG, and the second offset between the first NB and the fourth RBG. In other words, the first NB is not aligned with the RBG boundaries, causing misalignment between the LTE RBGs and the first NB, shown as crosses in RBGs. In this case, the resource utilization loss is about one third or thirty-three percent (33%) due to the misalignment. In contrast, in the second half BW (RB 8 to RB 14) of the frame structure 402, the second NB (P NB = 1) is aligned with the RBG boundaries, for example, the left (or starting) boundary of the fifth RBG and the right (or ending) boundary of the seventh RBG, as shown in FIG. 4. Thus, the second half BW has minimized or low resource utilization loss due to the second NB being aligned with the RBG boundaries.

[0083] In another example, the LIE may use a frame structure 404 having a 5MHz LTE BW, with one or more RBGs each having two RBs or PRBs, and one or more NBs each having six RBs or PRBs. For the third NB (P NB = 2) in the second half BW (RB 12 to RB 24) of the frame structure 404, there are two offsets, a first offset between the third NB and the seventh RBG, and the second offset between the third NB and the tenth RBG. In other words, the third NB is not aligned with the RBG boundaries, causing misalignment between the LTE RBGs and the third NB, shown as crosses in RBGs. In this case, the resource utilization loss is about 10.5% due to the misalignment. In contrast, in the first half BW (RB 0 to RB 1 1) of the frame structure 404, the first NB (P NB = 0) is aligned with the RBG boundaries, for example, the left (or starting) boundary of the first RBG and the right (or ending) boundary of the third RBG, as shown in FIG. 4. As such, in this example, the first half BW has minimized or low resource utilization loss due to the first NB being aligned with the RBG boundaries.

030284.17080 [0084] In yet another example, the UE may use a frame structure 406 having a lOMHz LTE BW, with one or more RBGs each having three RBs or PRBs, and one or more NBs each having six RBs or PRBs. In this example, the first NB (PNB = 0) of the frame structure 406 is not aligned with the RBG boundaries. For example, there is a first offset between the first NB and the first RBG, and a second offset between the first NB and the third RBG, causing misalignment between the LTE RBGs and the first NB, shown as crosses in RBGs in FIG. 4. In this case, the resource utilization loss is about 6.8% due to the misalignment, as shown in FIG. 4.

[0085] In an aspect, the EE may be an MTC EE (e.g., an eMTC or efeMTC EE), and may share the system bandwidth with one or more LTE EEs. In some aspects, the resource utilization loss may be the spectrum loss to the LTE EEs because of wasted RBs/PRBs when a NB is allocated to the MTC EE. In an aspect, the utilization loss may equal to N 0 ffset/(NRB - NNB), where NRB is the total number of RBs, NNB is the number of narrowband RBs for the MTC EE (e.g., NNB = 6 for the calculation). Noffset is the total number of misaligned RBs between the NB and RBG boundaries. For example, in case of BW = lOMHz, NRB = 50, NNB = 6, Noffset = 3, the resource utilization loss = 3/(50-6) = 6.8%, as discussed above, and as shown in FIG. 4.

[0086] In an example, the EE may use a frame structure 408 having a l5MHz LTE BW, with one or more RBGs each having four RBs or PRBs, and one or more NBs each having six RBs or PRBs. For the second NB (PNB = 1) of the frame structure 408, there are two offsets, a first offset between the second NB and the second RBG, and the second offset between the second NB and the fourth RBG. In other words, the second NB is not aligned with the RBG boundaries, causing misalignment between the LTE RBGs and the second NB, shown as crosses in RBGs in FIG. 4. In this case, the resource utilization loss is about 8.7% due to the misalignment. Similarly, the first NB (PNB = 0) has about 2.9% resource utilization loss, the seventh NB (PNB = 6) and the eighth NB (PNB = 0) have about 2.1% resource utilization loss, which are due to misalignment with the RBG boundaries in the frame structure 408, shown as crosses in RBGs in FIG. 4.

[0087] In another example, the EE may use a frame structure 410 having a 20MHz LTE BW, with one or more RBGs each having four RBs or PRBs, and one or more NBs each having six RBs or PRBs. For the first NB and second NB (PNB = 0, 1) of the frame structure 410, there is an offset between the first NB and the first RBG, and another offset between the second NB and the fourth RBG. In other words, the first NB and second NB are not

030284.17080 aligned with the RBG boundaries, causing misalignment between the LTE RBGs and the first NB and second NB, shown as crosses in RBGs in FIG. 4. In this case, the resource utilization loss is about 2.1% due to the misalignment.

[0088] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 5, in a conventional wireless communication network (e.g., an LTE network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) may be configured to perform RA for legacy CE mode A or mode B. For example, for l .4MHz BL/CE UEs, the resource block (RB) assignment information may be represented as:

• NB index: PNB = 0. . . (NNB- 1), with N NI where N RB is the total number

of RBs, and

• RA within the indicated NB (e.g., NRB = 6 PRBs) using an RIV corresponding to a starting RB ( RB START ) and a length in terms of contiguously allocated resource blocks (CRBs) (I CRBs > 1).

[0089] In an aspect, for Downlink Control Information (DCI) format 6-0 A (for uplink) and 6-1 A

(for downlink), a 5-bit Resource Indication Value (RIV) may be used having a valid value from 0 to 20, and can be found in Table 5.1 in FIG. 5 that being calculated by the following equations:

else RIV = N m ( RB - L CRBS + 1) + ( RB - 1 - RB slm )

with N m - 6 as the number of RBs within the NB.

[0090] In some cases, some RIVs (e.g., 21 to 31) may be reserved or not be used in the conventional wireless communication network.

[0091] In another aspect, having a same set of DCI, for DCI format 6-OB (uplink), a 3 -bit RIV may be used having a valid value from 0 to 7 and may be found in Table 5.2, with selected RAs having a length of one RB or two RBs. For DCI format 6-1B (downlink), a l-bit RIV may be used having a value of 0 or 1 and may be found in Table 5.3, with selected RAs having a length of four RBs or six RBs.

[0092] In a previously proposed implementation without using an NB index, for DCI format 6- 0A and DCI format 6-1A, the RIVs with 5 bits to 9 bits (e.g., a 5-bit RIV for BW=l .4MHz, a 6-bit RIV for 3MHz, a 7-bit RIV for 5MHz, a 8-bit RIV for lOMHz, or a 9-bit RIV for l5MHz or 20MHz), defined by ~ + ? ma y b e used for

030284.17080 flexible RA, which may be a same size/length of legacy RIV by restricting RB start = 0~(NRB-2) and length of 2~6 RBs with ICRB = 0~5; and N RB is the total number of RBs in the bandwidth. For DCI format 6-OB, RIV with 4 to 8 bits may be used for flexible RA, which is l-bit larger than the size/length of legacy RIV: RB start = 0~(N RB -l) and length of

[0093] For DCI format 6-1B, RIV with 4 to 8 bits may be used for flexible RA, which is 3-bit larger than the size/length of legacy RIV: RB start = 0~(NRB-2) and length of 4 or 6 RBs , T _ n ,

with ICRB— 0, 1; RIV = 2 RB s t tar t t + 1 CRB .

[0094] However, when using such an implementation, for example, the conditions or triggers

(e.g., when and whether) to use new RIV (e.g., RIV for flexible RA) or legacy RIV may not be clear. For example, the UE may use a Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection to semi-statically switch between a new RIV and a legacy RIV. In an aspect, the modified RIV may be independent from an NB index, which is used in the legacy resource assignment indication for a MTC UE. In an aspect, the UE may not be able to use legacy NB hopping with an NB index offset indication, since legacy NB hopping (or frequency hopping) is based on an NB index. In another aspect, the UE may be unable to support RA with the length of one RB for DCI format 6-OA and/or DCI format 6-1A. In some cases, the UE may not support flexible RA for DCI format 6-OB and/or DCI format 6-1B within a legacy DCI size/length.

[0095] Therefore, in some aspects, to solve the issues with the above implementation, more flexibility of the downlink/uplink RA mechanism may be used by a BL/CE UE that may assist in avoiding or at least significantly reducing the above-mentioned degradations on resource utilization. In an example, the UE may use or be configured to use a more flexible uplink/downlink resource allocation mechanism based on the specification of a newly released wireless communication standard (e.g., 3GPP Release 15). In an aspect, the UE may be backward capable to a legacy system (e.g., LTE) and take an approach so that the flexible uplink/downlink resource allocation mechanism may not lead to significantly increased UE complexity or energy consumption, as described further herein. In some cases, the downlink/uplink RA mechanism may not use an NB index indication, and may indicate the resource allocation over the whole system bandwidth. For example, a base station may indicate resource allocation for the whole system BW to

030284.17080 the UE, and the base station and/or the UE may not use an NB index and/or an NB index indication for the resource allocation.

[0096] According to an aspect, a EE (e.g., EE 12) may use a modified RIV equation based on

RIV = N m (L CRB - 1) + RB star1 for DCI format 6-OA and/or DCI format 6-1 A to achieve flexibility of the downlink/uplink RA, where v H is the total RB number of the system BW instead of the total RB number of a NB. For example, when using DCI format 6-OA and/or 6-1 A, the system may define one or more new RIVs with a same size (e.g., 5 bits) as the legacy RIV, and no extra bit(s) for RIV may be needed.

In a first scheme:

• Define

o RB s tart = 0~(NKB-1) with Y H as total RB number of BW and ICRB = 0~4 if limited to the same size of legacy RIV or IC RB = 0~5 if using 1 more bit than legacy RIV is allowed;

o For uplink using DCI format 6-OA, length of RA is LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = l~5 RB(s) with RBs tart + LCRB S < NRB if limited to the same size of legacy RIV or LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = l~6 if using 1 more bit than legacy RIV is allowed; and

o For downlink using DCI format 6-1 A, length of RA is LCRB S = ICRB S +2 = 2~6 RBs with RB start + LCRB S < NRB if limited to the same size of legacy RIV or LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = l~6 if using 1 more bit than legacy RIV is allowed.

In a second scheme:

• Define RIV = N RBG I CRB + RBGaur , where o total number of RBGs and

ICRB = 0~5; v H is the total RB number of system BW, and RBG is the RB number per RBG in the system BW;

o For both DCI format 6-OA (uplink) and DCI format 6-1 A (downlink), length of RA is LCRB S = ICRB S +1=1— 6 with (RBGsizeRBGstart) + LCRB S < NRB.

030284.17080 [0097] In an example, when using the modified RIV(s) discussed above, NB hopping is supported, and the hopping offset other than the NB index offset may be defined. For example, if using the first scheme mentioned above, a hopping offset may be a RB offset. Considering the narrowbands with size of 6RBs, the RB offset for hopping can be (0,

6RBs, l2RBs, .. For example, if using the second scheme mentioned

above, a hopping offset may be a RBG offset.

[0098] In another aspect, the UE may switch between a new RIV using a new format (e.g., to indicate the assignment without an NB index) and a legacy method (e.g., to indicate the NB index together with 5-bit RIV within the NB with RIV values from 0 to 20). In this case, for example, RRC signaling may be used to switch between a new RIV and a legacy method for DCI format 6-OA and/or DCI format 6-1 A. In some cases, for UEs sending early data in a message (e.g., Msg3) before setting up the RRC connection, one or more of the UEs may use new RIV by default without RRC signaling.

[0099] According to another aspect, as shown in Table 6.1 of FIG. 6, the UE (e.g., UE 12) may use the NB index and RIVs of 0 through 20 for the legacy allocation, and define remaining RIV(s) with additional values (21 to 31) for DCI format 6-OA and/or DCI format 6-1 A to extend the flexible downlink/uplink resource allocation for each NB, with various system BWs. The legacy RIV of 0 through 20 and newly defined RIV of 21 through 31 may be switched between each other dynamically based on information (e.g., DCI) on a physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) and/or an MTC PDCCH (MPDCCH). In an aspect, MPDCCH may be one type of PDCCH designed for a bandwidth-reduced operation. In some examples, the system or UE 12 may define, identify, or determine one or more tables with RIV being equal to an integer value from 21 to 31, for the NB in BW with different NB location(s) and RBG size(s), but may keep same RIV size of 5 bits as the legacy DCI formats 6-OA and 6-1 A.

[00100] Still referring to FIG. 6, the Table 6.1 is based on the NB index (PNB), and may be compatible with a legacy NB hopping indication based on the NB index offset(s). In some other tables discussed herein, for example, the same RIV entry may have same length LCRB S of allocation but different starting RB index (RB s tart). For example, when UE 12 hops from an NB (with misalignment) to another NB (without misalignment), the PRB allocation may keep the same length but shift the starting RB to keep the PRB allocation within the NB without misalignment, thereby not contaminating other RBGs.

030284.17080 In some examples, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the UE may use a same RIV value in the table corresponding to the indicated NB index (PNB).

[00101] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 7, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 3MHz (with frame structure 402) or 5MHz (with frame structure 404). For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIVs with 21-31 values for DCI formats 6-0 A and 6-1 A, which are shown in the tables 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3, with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = 3MHz or 5MHz. In this example, for BW=3MHz, Table 7.1 may be used for PNB=1 (no misalignment) and Table 7.2 (and/or Table 7.3) may be used for PNB=0 (having misalignment). For BW = 5MHz, Table 7.1 may be used for P NB = 0, 1 (no misalignment) and Table 7.2 (and/or Table 7.3) may be used for P NB = 2, 3 (having misalignment). In some cases, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the UE may use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated PNB and BW.

[00102] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 8, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 10 MHz (with frame structure 406). For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) with 21-31 values for DCI formats 6-0 A and 6-1 A, which are shown in the tables 8.1 and 8.2 with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = lOMHz. In this example, for BW = lOMHz, Table 8.1 and/or Table 8.2 may be used for P NB = 0-7. In some cases, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the UE may use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated P NB and BW.

[00103] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 9, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 20 MHz (with frame structure 410). For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) with 21-31 values for DCI formats 6-OA and 6-1 A, which are shown in the tables 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, and/or 9.4 with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = 20MHz. In this example, for BW = 20MHz, Table 9.1 and/or Table 9.2 may be used for PNB=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and Table 9.3 and/or Table 9.4 may be used for PNB=1 , 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. In some

030284.17080 cases, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the UE may use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated P NB and BW.

[00104] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 10, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 15 MHz (with frame structure 408). For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) with 21-31 values for DCI formats 6-OA and 6-1 A, which are shown in the tables 10.1, 10. 2, 10.3, and/or 10.4, with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = l5MHz. In this example, for BW = l5MHz, Table 10.1 may be used for PNB=0, 2, 4, Table 10.2 may be used for PNB=1 , 3, 5, Table 10.3 may be used for PNB=6, 8, 10, and Table 10.4 may be used for PNB=7, 9, 11. In some cases, for NB hopping, the UE may use the legacy NB index offset indication, and/or use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated P NB and BW.

[00105] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 11, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme for DCI format 6-OB. In an aspect, for uplink RA, the RA adjacent to the edge RBs may reduce the segmentations of the spectrum. For example, Table 11.1 and/or Table 11.2 may be used by a legacy or existing system, UE, or RIV, and Table 11.3 and/or Table 11.4 may be used to enable the allocation with two RBs next to the adjacent subband, as discussed herein. In this example, for RIV = 7, RB start changes from the second RB to the fourth RB, or from a RB start value of 2 to a value of 4, as shown in FIG. 11. In another aspect, the UE may switch between a new RIV and a legacy RIV. For example, the UE may use RRC signaling to switch between a new RIV and a legacy RIV for PUSCH. In another example, for UEs sending early data in a message (e.g., Msg3) before setting up an RRC connection, the UE may use new RIV by default without RRC signaling.

[00106] In another aspect, referring to FIG. 12, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G

NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using at least an NB offset indication without changing RIVs in DCI. For example, the UE or base station may use RRC signaling to indicate the NB offset for NB in a BW (e.g., 3MHz, 5MHz, IOMHz, l5MHz, or 20MHz) with different NB location(s) and RBG size(s), and may use or reuse legacy RIV but shift the NB

030284.17080 location by the indicated NB 0ffSet . In an example, as shown in Table 12.1, the UE or base station may use a l-bit indication to indicate no change or change the NB location to align with one side (left or right, start or end) of a RBG boundary. In another example, as shown in Table 12.2, the UE or base station may use a 2-bit indication to indicate the selected value of NB 0ffSet among a maximum four possible values for different NB(s) in each BW.

[00107] In some aspects, in legacy eMTC, the UE (e.g., UE 12) may perform retuning (e.g. in the uplink) when the resource allocation moves from one NB to a different NB. In an example, during retuning, the UE may be allowed to not transmit signals. In other words, the UE may delay or stop signal transmissions, for example, when the UE is retuning the local oscillator (LO). In this case, the UE RF front end is six-PRB wide (e.g., for an NB). In some cases, the resource allocation may be performed outside the NB or six PRBs. In an example, to perform retuning in a lOMHz BW, the UE moving from“PRB -1” to“PRB 7” may need to retune, since the separation is or may require nine PRBs.

[00108] If the resource allocation being performed outside an NB, in a first example, the UE may retune only where the indicated NB changes. In this example, UEs that support the feature (retuning only where the indicated NB changes) may need a slightly wider RE BW (e.g., nine PRBs) than a regular RF BW (e.g., six PRBs).

[00109] In a second example, whenever the UE transmits PUSCH in between two NBs, and the resource allocation changes, the UE may be allowed to retune.

[00110] In a third example, the UE may determine, identify, signal, or indicate whether the UE supports the feature in the first example or the feature in the second example, which may be based on the UE capability or implementations such as RF designs. In case the UE supports the feature in the second example, then the UE may signal or indicate a retuning time that the UE takes to retune from a first RA to a second RA in the same NB index. For instance, the UE may take two SC-FDMA symbols to retune between different NBs (e.g., NBo and NBi). In another example, it may take the UE one SC-FDMA symbol to retune between -1 and +7 in the NB index.

[00111] Referring to FIG. 13, FIG. 14A, FIG. 14B, and/or FIG. 14C, NB hopping and hopping distance are used or considered. For example, after hopping, the allocated RBs after hopping may be sparsely distributed in the system BW compared to the allocated RBs before hopping, and the hopping distance(s) may be predetermined (e.g., as much as possible). In some examples, the sparsely distribution may be important for the allocation

030284.17080 with small size LCRB. In an aspect, for downlink transmissions (e.g., physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) coverage enhancement (CE) mode A), the legacy NB index indication may be reused and defines the reserved RIVs of 21-31 in Tables 13.1, 13.2, and/or 14.2-14.8 for different BWs to support flexible RA and backward compatible with NB hopping.

[00112] In some examples, similar to the allocation in LTE, the RB index may be in the range of

0~(NKB- 1), where NRB is the total number of RBs in the system BW. If RB s tart+LcRBs³NRB, the length of the allocated RB may be reduced (e.g., automatically reduced) but keep the same RB start , e.g., L' CRB S =NRB-RB start - 1. Alternatively, the starting RB may be shifted but keep the same LCRB S , e.g., RB' start =NRB- LCRB S -E

[00113] In some cases, different valid entries in DCI 6-1 A may be used to help UE improve DCI detection performance, and/or UE behavior. For example, if a l-bit RRC signaling, e.g., for flexible resource allocation of PDSCH CE mode A, is set‘off , the RIVs of 0-20 are valid. Otherwise, for example, if the l-bit RRC signaling, e.g., for flexible resource allocation of PDSCH CE mode A, is set‘on’, RIVs of 0-29 in Table 13.1 to Table 13.2 are valid entries for BW=3MHz and/or 5MHz, RIVs of 0-31 in Table 14.2 to Table 14.5 are valid entries for BW=l5MHz, RIVs of 0-29 in Table 14.6 are valid entries for BW=l0MHz, and RIVs of 0-31 in Table 14.7 and/or 14.8 are valid entries for BW=20 MHz.

[00114] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 13, similar to FIG. 7, in a wireless communication network

(e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 3MHz or 5MHz with NB hopping. For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIVs entries with 21-31 values (e.g., for DCI formats 6-OA and/or 6-1 A). In an example, Table 13.1 shows RBs in index [0, 5], and Table 13.1 shows RBs in in index [-1+0, 5+1], and the legacy NB index indication may be reused and defines the reserved RIVs of 21-31 in Tables 13.1 and 13.2, to support flexible RA and backward compatible with NB hopping, with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = 3MHz or 5MHz. In an example, for BW=3MHz, Table 13.2 may be used for « NB = {0}, and Table 13.1 may be used for « NB = { 1 }. In another example, for BW=5MHz, Table 13.1 may be used for « NB = (0, 1 } and Table 13.2 may be used for « NB = {2, 3 } .

[00115] In an aspect, the valid entries in DCI 6-1 A may be used to help the UE improve DCI detection performance. For example, if a l-bit RRC signaling is off, the RIVs of 0-20

030284.17080 may be valid, otherwise, if the l-bt RRC signaling is on (as shown in Table 13.1 and Table 13.2), RIVs of 0~29 may be valid entries for BW=3MHz and/or 5MHz.

[00116] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 14 A, similar to FIG. 10, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 15 MHz with NB hopping. For example, the EE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) entries with 21-31 values (e.g., for DCI formats 6-OA and/or 6-1 A), which are shown in the Tables 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, and/or 10.5, with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = l5MHz. In this example, for BW = l5MHz, Table 14.2 may be used for P NB = 0, 2, 4, Table 14.3 may be used for P NB =1, 3, 5, Table 14.4 may be used for P NB = 6, 8, 10, and Table 14.5 may be used for P NB = 7, 9, 11. In other words, for BW=l5MHz, Table 14.2 may be used for « NB = (0, 2, 4}, Table 14.3 may be used for « NB = { 1, 3, 5}, Table 14.4 may be used for « NB = {6, 8, 10}, and Table 14.5 may be used for « NB = {7, 9, 1 1 } .

[00117] In some examples, for NB hopping, the EE may use the legacy NB index offset indication, and/or use new RIV value(s) (e.g., RIV = 21, 31, or an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated «NB and BW. In some cases, 11 entries instead of 9 entries for RIVs may be used for BW=l5MHz to increase the flexibility. In some examples, similar to the allocation in LTE, the RB index in 5G NR may be in the range of 0— ( N RB -l), where NRB is the total number of RBs in the system BW. If RB s tart VLCRB S ^NRB, the length of the allocated RB may be reduced (e.g., automatically reduced) but keep the same RB start , e.g., L'cRBs=NRB-RB start -l . Alternatively, the starting RB may be shifted but keep the same LCRB S , e.g., RB' start =NRB- LCRB S - T

[00118] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 14B, similar to FIG. 8, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 10 MHz with NB hopping. For example, the UE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) entries with 21-31 values (e.g., for DCI formats 6-OA and/or 6-1 A), which is shown in the Table 14.6 with RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = lOMHz. In this example, for BW = lOMHz, Table 14.6 may be used for P NB = 0-7 (or « NB = {0, 1, ...7}). In some cases, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the UE may use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated PNB and BW.

030284.17080 [00119] In another aspect, referring to FIG. 14C, similar to FIG. 9, in a wireless communication network (e.g., a 5G NR network), a UE (e.g., UE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using a RA scheme having a BW of 20 MHz with NB hopping. For example, the EE or base station may define the remaining RIV(s) entries with 21-31 values (e.g., for DCI formats 6-OA and/or 6-1 A), which are shown in the Table 14.7 and/or Table 14.8, having RIV = 21-31 for the NB in BW = 20MHz. In this example, for BW = 20MHz, Table 14.7 may be used for even « NB = (0, 2, ... , 16} and Table 14.8 may be used for odd «NB = ( 1, 3, ... , 15}. In other words, Table 14.7 may be used for PNB=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and Table 14.8 may be used for PNB=1 , 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15. In some cases, for NB hopping based on the legacy NB index offset indication, the EE may use new RIV values (e.g., RIV = an integer between 21 and 31) in the table corresponding to the indicated PNB and BW.

[00120] In an aspect, referring to FIG. 15, similar to FIG. 12, in a wireless communication network

(e.g., a 5G NR network), a EE (e.g., EE 12) or base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may be configured to perform RA using at least an NB offset indication (for example, for DCI formats 6-1B, and/or 6-1A and in another example, for DL PDSCH CE mode A and/or mode B). The NB offset consider the RBG boundary alignment in DL PDSCH resource allocation as well as the NB hopping distance. For example, the EE or base station may use RRC signaling to indicate the NB offset for NB in a BW (e.g., 3MHz, 5MHz, IOMHz, l5MHz, or 20MHz) with different NB location(s) and RBG size(s), and may use or reuse legacy RIV but shift the NB location by the indicated NB 0ffSet . In an example, as shown in Table 15, the UE or base station may use a l-bit RRC on/off indication to indicate no change of NBs (e.g., NB OffSet =0), or change the NB location by using the predefined NB offset based on the BW and « NB . Note that in some cases, even l-bit RRC on/off is set‘on’, there is no NB offset (

(N^-l) in 2 nd half BW in BW=3MHz, n^ =0, ... , (N^/2-l) in 1 st half BW in BW=5MHz, n N m B mod 2 = 1 in 2 nd half BW in BW=l5MHz, 5 and NB onset =0 for n NB mod 2 = 1 in

BW=20MHz.

[00121] Referring to FIG. 16, in an operational aspect, a UE (e.g., an MTC UE), such as UE 12 in

FIG. 1, or a base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may perform one or more aspects of a method 1600 for managing one or more resource allocation procedures in a wireless communications system (e.g., a 4G or a 5G NR system). For example, one or more of

030284.17080 the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, transceiver 106, resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50 may be configured to perform one or more aspects of the method 1600.

[00122] In an aspect, at block 1602, the method 1600 may include identifying a system bandwidth for communications. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or bandwidth component 42, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify or determine a system bandwidth for communications, as discussed herein.

[00123] In another aspect, at block 1604, the method 1600 may include identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or DCI format component 44, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify a DCI format, as discussed herein.

[00124] In an aspect, at block 1606, the method 1600 may include determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs). In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine one or more RIVs, as discussed herein. As described, for example, this may include receiving the one or more RIVs in a configuration from the network.

[00125] In another aspect, at block 1608, the method 1600 may include performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to perform one or more resource allocation operations based on the identified system bandwidth (at block 1602), the identified DCI format (at block 1604), and the one or more determined RIVs (at block 1606), as discussed herein. In an aspect, performing the resource allocation may include a UE 12 determining a resource allocation, as described herein, or a network entity 14 or network entity 20 generating a resource allocation and/or related parameters for a UE 12. In addition, starting resource block indices of the starting resource block can align with a resource block group boundary of a narrowband and/or ending resource block indices, as

030284.17080 defined as an index of the starting resource block plus the resource allocation size, align with a resource block group boundary of the narrowband.

[00126] In an aspect, the method 1600 may optionally include identifying a NB index offset indication, and performing NB hopping based on the NB index offset indication. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify a NB index offset indication, and perform NB hopping based on the NB index offset indication, as discussed herein.

[00127] In another aspect, the method 1600 may optionally include identifying an indication of resource allocation for the system bandwidth, and performing NB hopping based on the identified indication. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, and/or NB hopping component 50, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify an indication of resource allocation for the system bandwidth, and perform NB hopping based on the identified indication, as discussed herein.

[00128] In an aspect, in determining the one or more RIVs at block 1606, optionally at block 1610, the one or more RIVs can be determined as outside of a range of RIVs used for legacy resource allocation. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine the one or more RIVs as outside of the range of RIVs used for legacy resource allocation. As described, for example, legacy resource allocation for legacy communication technologies, such as LTE, can use RIV 0-20, thus for flexible resource allocations, RIVs 21-31 can be used, where the values 0-31 can be represented by a number of bits in a RIV field defined or otherwise received in a network configuration. In this regard, where RIV 21-31 are encountered, this can be determined to correspond to a flexible resource allocation, as defined herein (e.g., and/or as shown in examples in FIGs. 7-10, 13, and 14).

[00129] In an aspect, in determining the one or more RIVs at block 1606, optionally at block 1612, a starting resource block and resource allocation size can be determined based on the RIV. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108,

030284.17080 and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine, based on the RIV, the starting resource block and resource allocation size. In one example, the starting RB and allocation size can be determined based on the RIV and a corresponding table, as described above (e.g., one or more tables shown in examples in FIGs. 7-10, 13, and 14). For example, the RIV and/or the table may be configured by the network. In one example, the UE 12 may receive or otherwise know the table from a configuration, and may receive the RIV and/or related information in RRC signaling from a base station.

[00130] In an aspect, in determining the one or more RIVs at block 1606, optionally at block 1614, a modified RIV equation can be used, for the DCI format, to determine the one or more RIVs. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to use, for the DCI format, the modified RIV equation to determine the one or more RIVs. For example, as described, a formula such as RIV = N m ( L CRBs - 1) + RB s1m1 can be used, and/or according to the first scheme described above, RIV = N miCRBs + RB star1 . In the latter example, for instance, length of RA is LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = l~5 RB(s) with RB start + LCRB S < NRB if limited to the same size of legacy RIV or LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = l~6 if using 1 more bit than legacy RIV is allowed. In another instance, length of RA is LCRB S = ICRB S +2 = 2~6 RBs with RB start + LCRB S < NRB if limited to the same size of legacy RIV or LCRB S = ICRB S +1 = 1—6 if using 1 more bit than legacy RIV is allowed. As described, this can allow for resource allocation where an allocation size at a certain starting RB may not otherwise be supported within a legacy DCI size/length.

[00131] In an aspect, in performing the resource allocation at block 1608, optionally at block 1616, the length of the allocation can be reduced or the starting RB can be shifted to prevent the resource allocation from exceeding the total number of RBs. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to reduce the length of the allocation or shift the starting RB to prevent the resource allocation from exceeding the total number of RBs. For example, as described above, if RBs tart +LcRBs³NRB, the length of the allocated RB may be reduced (e.g., automatically reduced) but keep the same RBstan, e.g., L'cRBs=NRB-RB s tart- l so that the length of the allocated RB, LCRB S , does not exceed NRB-RB start . Alternatively, the starting RB may be

030284.17080 shifted but keep the same LCRB S , e.g., RB' start =NRB- LcRBs- l . This can also allow for resource allocation where an allocation size at a certain starting RB may not otherwise be supported within a legacy DCI size/length.

[00132] In an aspect, in performing the resource allocation at block 1608, optionally at block 1618, a starting RB of the resource allocation can be modified based on the one or more determined RIVs. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to modify, based on the one or more determined RIVs (e.g., for one or more specific values of RIV), the starting RB of the resource allocation. As described for example, in reference to FIG. 11, allocation with two RBs next to the adjacent subband can be enabled. In one specific example, for an RIV (e.g., RIV = 7 in FIG. 11), RB start can be changed from the second RB to the fourth RB, or from a RB start value of 2 to a value of 4, as shown in FIG. 11, Table 11.4.

[00133] Referring to FIG. 17, in an operational aspect, a UE (e.g., an MTC UE), such as EE 12 in

FIG. 1, or a base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may perform one or more aspects of a method 1700 for managing one or more resource allocation procedures in a wireless communications system (e.g., a 4G or a 5G NR system). For example, one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, transceiver 106, resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50 may be configured to perform one or more aspects of the method 1700.

[00134] In an aspect, at block 1702, the method 1700 may include identifying a system bandwidth for communications. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or bandwidth component 42, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify or determine a system bandwidth for communications, as discussed herein.

[00135] In another aspect, at block 1704, the method 1700 may include identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or DCI format component 44, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify a DCI format, as discussed herein.

030284.17080 [00136] In an aspect, at block 1706, the method 1700 may include determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs). In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine one or more RIVs, as discussed herein. As described, for example, this may include receiving the one or more RIVs in a configuration from the network.

[00137] In an aspect, at block 1708, the method 1700 may include determining a NB offset indication. In an aspect, for example, the NB index component 48, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine the NB offset indication. For example, as described, the NB offset can be indicated or received using RRC signaling. In addition, the UE 12 can receive a table indicating a NB offset for one or more specific BWs (e.g., 3MHz, 5MHz, IOMHz, l5MHz, or 20MHz) with different NB location(s) and/or RBG size(s). For example, the table can map NB offsets for each of multiple NBs in each of the multiple specific BWs (e.g., as shown and described with reference to FIGs. 12 and 15). In this regard, as described further herein, the resource allocation may be determined based on using (or reusing) legacy RIV and shifting the NB location by the indicated NB 0ffSet , and based on receiving the NB offset indication. In an example, as shown in Table 12.1, a 1- bit indication can be used to indicate no change or change the NB location to align with one side (left or right, start or end) of a RBG boundary. In another example, as shown in Table 12.2, the UE or base station may use a 2-bit indication to indicate the selected value of NB offset among a maximum four possible values for different NB(s) in each BW.

[00138] In another aspect, at block 1710, the method 1700 may include performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, the one or more determined RIVs, and the NB offset. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to perform one or more resource allocation operations based on the identified system bandwidth (at block 1702), the identified DCI format (at block 1704), the one or more determined RIVs (at block 1706), and the NB offset (at Block 1708), as discussed herein. As described, the resource allocation can be determined from a table based on a RIV and/or the NB location of the resource allocation can be offset based on a received NB 0ffSet .

030284.17080 [00139] Referring to FIG. 18, in an operational aspect, a UE (e.g., an MTC UE), such as EE 12 in FIG. 1, or a base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20) may perform one or more aspects of a method 1800 for managing one or more resource allocation procedures in a wireless communications system (e.g., a 4G or a 5G NR system). For example, one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, transceiver 106, resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50 may be configured to perform one or more aspects of the method 1800.

[00140] In an aspect, at block 1802, the method 1800 may include identifying a system bandwidth for communications. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or bandwidth component 42, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify or determine a system bandwidth for communications, as discussed herein.

[00141] In another aspect, at block 1804, the method 1800 may include identifying a downlink control information (DCI) format. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or DCI format component 44, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify a DCI format, as discussed herein.

[00142] In an aspect, at block 1806, the method 1800 may include determining one or more resource indication values (RIVs). In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to determine one or more RIVs, as discussed herein. As described, for example, this may include receiving the one or more RIVs in a configuration from the network.

[00143] In another aspect, at block 1808, the method 1800 may include performing resource allocation based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified DCI format, and the one or more determined RIVs. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, and/or RIV component 46, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to perform one or more resource allocation operations based on the identified system bandwidth (at block 1802), the identified DCI format (at block 1804), and the one or more determined RIVs (at block 1806), as discussed herein.

030284.17080 [00144] In an aspect, in performing the resource allocation at block 1808, optionally at block 1810, the same RIV can be used in hopping across different resource allocations. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or NB hopping component 50, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to use the same RIV in hopping across different resource allocations. For example, where legacy NB hopping is enabled, this may include using legacy hopping based on the RIV, where the RIV can be determined, as described above.

[00145] In an aspect, in performing the resource allocation at block 1808, optionally at block 1812, the local oscillator can be retuned from one NB resource allocation to a different NB resource allocation. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to retune the local oscillator (e.g., of a transceiver) from one NB resource allocation to a different NB resource allocation, as described above.

[00146] Referring to FIG. 19, in an operational aspect, a UE (e.g., an MTC UE), such as UE 12 in

FIG. 1, or a base station (e.g., network entity 14 or 20), may perform one or more aspects of a method 1900 for managing one or more resource allocation procedures in a wireless communications system (e.g., a 4G or a 5G NR system). For example, one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, transceiver 106, resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, DCI format component 44, RIV component 46, NB index component 48, and/or NB hopping component 50 may be configured to perform one or more aspects of the method 1900.

[00147] In an aspect, at block 1902, the method 1900 may include identifying a system bandwidth for communications. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, and/or bandwidth component 42, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify or determine a system bandwidth for communications, as discussed herein.

[00148] In another aspect, at block 1904, the method 1900 may include identifying an NB location and a RBG size. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, and/or NB index component 48, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to identify an NB location (P NB ) and/or a RBG size (e.g., 2, 3, or 4 RBs).

030284.17080 [00149] In an aspect, at block 1906, the method 1900 may include transmitting an indication to indicate an NB offset based on the identified system bandwidth, the identified NB location, and the identified RBG size. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, bandwidth component 42, and/or NB index component 48, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to transmit, via transceiver 106, an indication to indicate an NB offset based on the identified system bandwidth (at block 1902), the identified NB location (at block 1904), and the identified RBG size (at block 1904), as discussed herein.

[00150] In another aspect, at block 1908, the method 1900 may optionally include performing a retuning operation based on the indication. In an aspect, for example, the resource allocation component 40, e.g., in conjunction with one or more of the processors 103, memory 130, modem 108, and/or transceiver 106, may be configured to perform a retuning operation based on the indication (at block 1906), as discussed herein.

[00151] For purposes of simplicity of explanation, the methods discussed herein are shown and described as a series of acts, it is to be understood and appreciated that the method (and further methods related thereto) is/are not limited by the order of acts, as some acts may, in accordance with one or more aspects, occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other acts from that shown and described herein. For example, it is to be appreciated that a method could alternatively be represented as a series of interrelated states or events, such as in a state diagram. Moreover, not all illustrated acts may be required to implement a method in accordance with one or more features described herein.

[00152] Several aspects of a telecommunications system have been presented with reference to a

4G or a 5GNR. system. As those skilled in the art will readily appreciate, various aspects described throughout this disclosure may be extended to other telecommunication systems, network architectures and communication standards.

[00153] By way of example, various aspects may be extended to other communication systems such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), High Speed Packet Access Plus (HSPA+) and TD-CDMA. Various aspects may also be extended to systems employing Long Term Evolution (LTE) (in FDD, TDD, or both modes), LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) (in FDD, TDD, or both modes), CDMA2000, Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX), IEEE 802.20, Ultra-Wideband (UWB),

030284.17080 Bluetooth, and/or other suitable systems. The actual telecommunication standard, network architecture, and/or communication standard employed will depend on the specific application and the overall design constraints imposed on the system.

[00154] It is to be understood that the specific order or hierarchy of steps in the methods disclosed is an illustration of exemplary processes. Based upon design preferences, it is understood that the specific order or hierarchy of steps in the methods may be rearranged. The accompanying method claims present elements of the various steps in a sample order, and are not meant to be limited to the specific order or hierarchy presented unless specifically recited therein.

[00155] The previous description is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the various aspects described herein. Various modifications to these aspects will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other aspects. Thus, the claims are not intended to be limited to the aspects shown herein, but is to be accorded the full scope consistent with the language of the claims, wherein reference to an element in the singular is not intended to mean“one and only one” unless specifically so stated, but rather“one or more.” Unless specifically stated otherwise, the term“some” refers to one or more. A phrase referring to“at least one of’ a list of items refers to any combination of those items, including single members. As an example,“at least one of: a, b, or c” is intended to cover: a; b; c; a and b; a and c; b and c; and a, b and c. Moreover, nothing disclosed herein is intended to be dedicated to the public regardless of whether such disclosure is explicitly recited in the claims.

030284.17080