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Title:
THERMAL OXIDIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/005545
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A thermal oxidizer (50) employing an oxidation mixer (51), an oxidation chamber (52), a retention chamber (53) and a heat dissipater (54) forming a fluid flow path for thermal oxidation of a waste gas. In operation, the oxidation mixer (51) facilitates a combustible mixture of the waste gas and an oxidant into an combustible waste gas stream. A heating element (55) of the oxidation chamber (52) facilitates a primary combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream into an oxygenated waste gas stream. The retention chamber (S3) facilitates a secondary combustion reaction of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases. The heat dissipater (54) atmospherically vents of the oxidized gases. An oxidization controller (61) may be employed to regulate the operation of the thermal oxidizer (50), and a data logger (63) and a data reporter (65) may be employed for respectively logging and remotely reporting: a regulation of the thermal oxidizer (50) by the oxidation controller (61).

Inventors:
EVANS, Patrick, Ross (11211 North Longbranch Street, Monrovia, IN, 46157, US)
JOHNSON, David, Elliot (25 East Banta Road, Indianapolis, IN, 46227, US)
EVANS, Thomas, Darrell (6115 East County 200 North, Avon, IN, 46123, US)
HAILEY, J., David (1510 Rain Barrel Court, Richmond, TX, 77406, US)
Application Number:
US2017/039575
Publication Date:
January 04, 2018
Filing Date:
June 27, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS COMPANY, INC. (5701 West Minnesota Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46241, US)
International Classes:
B01D53/34; B01D53/75; F01N3/10; F23G7/06; F27D17/00
Foreign References:
US6019597A2000-02-01
US5259757A1993-11-09
US20070042306A12007-02-22
US20060144700A12006-07-06
US5533890A1996-07-09
US5871349A1999-02-16
US20030035762A12003-02-20
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HARRIS, Darrin, Wesley et al. (Taft Stettinius & Hollister LLP, One Indiana Square Suite 350, Indianapolis IN, 46204, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

I , A thermal oxidizer (50), comprising:

a oxidation mixer (51 ), an oxidation chamber (52), a retention chamber (S3) and a heat dissipater (54) forming a fluid flow path for a thermal oxidation of a waste gas,

wherein the oxidation mixer (51) is structurally configured to facilitate a combustible mixture of a waste gas stream and an oxidant within the oxidation mixer into a combustible waste gas stream;

wherein the oxidation chamber (52) is in fluid communication with the oxidation mixer (51 ) to receive a flo of the combustible waste gas stream;

wherein the oxidation chamber (52) includes a primar heating element (55) to faeilitate a primary combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream into an oxygenated waste gas stream within the oxidation chamber (52);

wherein the retention chamber (53) is in fluid communication with the oxidation chamber (52) to receive flow of the oxygenated waste gas stream;

wherein the retention chamber (53) is structurall configured to f cilitate' a secondar combustion: reaction of th oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases withlU the retention chamber (53);

wherein the heat dissipates (54) is in fluid communication with the retention chamber (53) to receive a flow of the oxidized gases; and

wherein the heat dissipater (54) is structurally configured to facilitate an atmospheric venting of the oxidized gases.

2. Th thermal oxidizer (50) of claim 1, further comprising:

a thermocouple (67) in thermal communication with the oxidation chamber (52) to measure a temperature of the oxidation chamber (52),

3. The thermal oxidizer (50) of claim 1 ,. further comprising:

a thermocouple (68) in thermal communication with the retention chamber (53) to measure a temperature of the retention chamber (53),

4. The thermal oxidizer (50): of claim 1, further comprising: thermocouple (69) in thermal communication with the heat dissipater (54) to m eas ure a tem perat u re of t he hea t dissipates (54).

5. The thermal oxidizer (50) of claim 1, further comprising at least on of;

5 solenoid valve operable tor regulating a feed of the waste gas stream into the oxidation mixer (51); and

an oxidant, supply operable for regulating a feed of the oxidant into the oxidation mixer (51),. 0 6. The thermal oxidize (50) of claim 1, wherein the retention chamber (53)

includes:

a secondary heating element (55) operable t facilitate a secondary combustion reaction of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases Within the retention chamber (53),

5

7. The thermal oxidizer (50) of claim: 1, wherein the oxidation chamber (52) further includes::

a supplemental air inlet stTueturally configured to facilitate a combustible mixture of an additional oxidant and the oxygenated waste gas stream into a

0 combustible oxygenated waste gas stream: flowing in the retention chamber (53).

8. A thermal oxidization, system, comprising;

a thermal oxidizer (50) including an oxidation mixer (51), an oxidation chamber (52), a retention chambe (53) and a heat dissipater (54) forming fluid flow path for:5 thermal oxidation of a waste gas,

wherein the oxidation mixer (51 ) Is structurally configured to facilitate a combustible m ixture of a waste gas stream and an oxidant within the oxidation mixer into a combustible waste gas stream;

wherein the oxidation chamber (52) is in fluid communication with-0 the oxidation mixer (51) to reeeive a flow of the combustible waste gas stream; wherein the oxidation chamber (52) includes a primary heating element (55) to facilitate a primary combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream into an oxygenated waste gas stream within the oxidation chamber (52);

wherein the retention chamber (S3) is in fluid communication with the 5 oxidation chamber (52) to receive a flow of the oxygenated waste ga stream ;

wherein the retention chamber (53) Is structurally configured to facilitate a secondary combustion: reaction of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases within the retention chamber (53);

wherein the heat dissipater (54) is in fluid communicatjon with the 0 retentio chamber (53) to receive a flo of the oxidized gases; and

wherein the heat dissipater (54) is structurally configured to facilitate an atmospheric venting of the oxid ized gases, and

an oxidation controller (61) structurally corrflgured t regulate an operation of the thermal oxidizer (50) including at least one of:

5 regulating the combustible mixture of the waste gas stream and the oxidant into the combustible waste gas stream within the oxidation mixer (51 ), regulating the primar combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream into an oxygenated aste gas stream within, the oxidation- chamber (52), reguiating the secondary combustion reaction of the oxy genated Θ waste gas stream into the oxidized gases within the retention chambe (53), and

regulating the atmospheric venting of the oxidized gases: by the heat dissipater (54).

9. The thermal oxidization, system of claim 8, further comprising:

5 a thermocouple (67) in thermal communication with the oxidation chamber (52) to measure a temperature of the oxidation chamber (52); and

wherein, responsive to a measurement of the temperature of the oxidation chamber (52) by the thermocouple (67). the oxidation controller (61 ) is structurally configured to monitor the temperature of the oxidation chamber (52) relative to at least 0 one regulation threshold representative of a eontrol ied operation of the thermal oxidizer

(50).

10. The thermal oxidization system of claim 8, further comprising;

a thermocouple (68) in thermal communication wit the retention chamber (S3) to measure a temperature of the retention chambe (53); and

wherein, responsive to a measurement of the temperature of the retention chamber (53) by the thermocouple (68), the oxidation .controller (61) is structurally configured to monitor the temperature of the retention chamber (53) relati ve to at least one regulation threshold representati ve of a controlled operati on of the thermal oxidizer (50),

11. The thermal oxidization system of claim 8f further comprising:

a thermocouple (69) in thermal eomniui ication with the heat dissipater (54) to measure a temperature of the heat dissipater (54); and

wherein, responsive to a measurement f the temperature of the heat dissipater (54) by the thermocouple (69), the oxidation controller (61) is structurally configured to monitor the temperature of the heat dissipater (54) relative to at least one regulation threshold representative of a controlled operatio of the thermal oxidizer (50).

1.2. The thermal oxidization system of claim 8, further comprising at least one of: a solenoid valve operable for regulating a feed of the waste gas stream into the oxidation mixer (5 1. ): and

an oxidant supply operable for regulating a feed of the oxidant in to the oxidation mixer (51).

13. The thermal oxidization system of claim 8, wherein the retention chamber (53) includes:

a secondary heatin element (55) operable to facilitate a secondary combustion reaction of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases within the retentio chamber (53),

14. The thermal oxidization system of claim 8„ wherein the oxidation chamber ( 52) further includes: a sup lemental air inlet structurally configured to facilitate a combustible mixture of an add itional oxidant and the oxygenated waste gas stream into a combustible oxygenated waste gas stream flowing in the retention chamber (53).

15. The thermal oxidization: system of claim 8, further comprising at least one of: a data logger (63) structurally configured to log a regulation of the thermal oxidizer (50) by the oxidation controller (61); and

a data reporter (65) structurally configured to remotely report the regulation of the thermal oxidizer (50) by the oxidation control le (61).

Description:
THERMAL OXIDIZATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure generally relates to a thermal oxidation of waste gas (e.g., toxic release inventory (''Til") gases, particularly volatile .organic compound 'VOC")) into desirable oxidized gases including carbon dioxide gas (COj), water vapor (¾0).,. nitrogen gas (f%) and oxygen gas (O 2 ).

The present disclosure .specifically relates to a controlled thermal oxidation of the wast gas involving a regulated combustible mixture of the - waste gas and a oxidant (e.g., atmospheric air), a regulated combustion reaction of the combustible -mixture into desirable oxidized gases and/or a regulated atmospheric venting of desirable oxidized gases.

B ACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION FIG. 1 illustrates a thermal oxidizer 20 known in the art of the present diselosure. Thermal oxidizer 20 employs a heating chamber 21 and a perforated oxidation reaction ("POR") chamber 24 forming a fluid flow path for a. desired oxidation of a waste gas stream 32 (e.g., Till gases) into oxidized gases 41 :(e<g„ CO 2 ,

I operation, a heating element 22. within heating chamber 21 is activated, to generate heat waves 23 for heating waste gas stream 32 as waste ga stream 32 Is teed from a waste gas source 30 via an inlet conduit 33 through heaiing chamber 21 into POR. chamber 24 and as an oxidant 10 (e.g., atmospheric air) flows into FOR chamber 24< The heating of waste ga stream 32 is intended to facilitate a combustible oxidation 40 of waste gas stream 32 within POR chamber 24 info oxidized gase 41, However, there are design flaws with thermal oxidizer 20 that impedes a combustible oxidation 40 of waste gas stream 32 within POR -chamber 24 into oxidized gases 41.

First, thermal oxidizer 20 fails to regulate a .combustible mixture of waste gas stream 32 and oxidant 1.0 within a flammable range between an upper explosive limit ("UEL") and a lower explosive level f LEL") as known in the art of the present disclosure, particularly when waste gas stream 32 enters heating chamber 21 at a concentratio belo the LEL for waste gas stream 32 (i.e.,. waste gas is to lean) * Specifically * a simultaneous suction of oxidant 10 into FOR chamber 24 and ventmg of any gases within POR chamber 24 impedes a sufficient flow of oxidant 10 into FOR chamber 2 to ensure a combustible mixture of waste gas stream 32 and oxidant 10 within th flammable range. Consequently, while the combustible mixture of waste gas stfeam 32 and oxidant 10 may be within the flammable range upon a power-on of thermal oxidizer 20, the m ixture of waste gas stream 32 and oxidant 10 will e ventually become too "rich" for combustible oxidation 40 within FOR chamber 24. As a result, an incomp lete combustion facili tates a buildup of high concentrations of undesirable gases (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)) and soot within POR chamber 24,

Second, thermal oxidizer 20 fails to regu late a combustion reaction of waste gas stream 32 withi FOR chamber 24. Specifically, thermal oxidizer 20 does not regulate the heating of heating element 22. Consequen ly, additional undesirable gases (e.g., nitroge oxides (NO) and :{N<¾)} (not shown) may form within POR chamber 24 if a temperature of heating wa ves 23 is too high.. Moreover, even if the heating of heating element 22 was regulated, POR chamber 24 is configured and sized fo an

instantaneous combustible oxidation 40 of waste gas stream 32 without a sufficient retention time for a combustible m ixture of waste gas stream 32 and oxidant 1 , if any, to convert to desirable oxidized gases 41 (e,g., : CQ¼. J¾G, ' r¾ and O;?).

The in ventions of the present disclosur o vercome the drawbacks of prior heating element based thermal oxidizers, particularly thermal oxidizer 20 of FIG. 1.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One form of the inventions of the present disclosure is a thermal oxidizer employing an oxidation mixer, an oxidation chamber, a retention chamber and a heat dis ipater forming: a fluid flow path for thermal oxidation of a waste gas (e.g., toxic release inventory ("TRP) gases, particularly volatile organic compound ("VOC * )).

In operation, the oxidation mixer facilitates a combustible m ixture of the waste gas and an oxidant (e.g., atmospheric air) into a combustible waste gas stream.

For purposes of the inventions of the present disclosure, the term

"combustible waste gas stream" broadly encompasse any stream of gas including molecules eombinable with oxygen or combust resul tin in: heat and light, and excludes totally inert gases.

"j The oxidation mixer may be any form of an oxidation mixer as kno wn in the art of the present disclosure and beremailer conceived including, but not limited to, a yentttri or distributed air-gas mixer.

The oxidation mixer may be fed the waste gas vi any type of waste gas feeding mechanism kno wn i the art of the present disclosure and hereinafter conceived including,, but not limited, to, (!) an aeration nozzle, (2) a aeration nozzle and back flow preventer and (3) an aeration nozzle, back flow preventer and blocking valve.

The oxidation mixer may be fed the oxidant via any type of oxidant feedin mechanis as known i the art of the present disclosure and hereinafter conceived including, but not limited to, (i) an open air inlet involving an inductive air/waste gas flow optionally providing flash back protection,, (2) a force modulation air blower with mixing "T" o (3) a forced modulation air pump and mixing T' <

A heating element of the oxidation chambe generate heat waves facilitating primar combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream flowing .from the oxidation mixer to the oxidation chamber.

For purposes of the invention of the present disclosure,

( 1) the term "heating element" broadly encompasses any element for converting electricity into heat through the process of Joi!le/ohmic/resistive, inductive or other means of electrical ' heating,

(2) the term "primary combustion reaction" broadly encompasses an oxidation of the combustible waste gas stream flowing from the oxidation mixer into the oxidation chamber in vol ving a partial combustion of the combustible waste: gas stream within the oxidation chamber resulting in an oxygenated waste gas stream, and

(3) the term "oxygenated waste gas stream" broadly encompasses a partial combustion of the combustible waste gas stream in many forms including , but not limited to, CO + other hydrocarbon compounds *€(¾. + ¾0 + N + excess :<¾.

The oxygenated waste gas stream flows from the oxidation chamber into the retention chamber whereby the retention chamber facilitates a secondary

combustion reaction as needed of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases. For purposes of the .in ventions of the present di sclosure, the term "secondar combustion reaction" encompasses a complete oxidation of the oxygenated waste gas stream flowing from the oxidation chambe to the retention chamber involving a conversion of the oxy genated waste: gas stream, into oxidized gases (e.g., CO ¾ 1¾0,. N 2 and (¼). The retentio chamber may also include an additional heating element to faci litate the com plete oxidation of oxy genated waste gas stream into oxidized gases.

Concurrently or alternatively., the oxidation: chamber ma further include an supplemental oxidant inlet for mixing additional oxidant to the oxygenated waste gas stream into a combustible oxygenated waste gas stream flowing into the retention chamber.

The heat dissipater facilitates an atmospheric venting of the oxidized gases flowin into the heat dissipater from the retention chamber.

The heating element of the oxidation chamber and the optional heating element of the retentio chamber may be powered via an on/off switch or a temperature modulation control scheme. Further, if the heating element of the retentio chamber is employed, the heating elements of the oxidation chamber and the retention chamber may be separate heating elements or a single integrated heating element.

Another form, of inventions of the present disclosure is an oxidation controller for controlling an operation of the thermal oxidizer.

In operation, the oxidation mixer facilitate the combustible mixture of a waste gas stream and an oxidant into a combustible waste gas stream, in operation, the oxidation mixer facilitates a combustible mixture of the waste gas and an oxidant into an combustible waste gas stream. A heating element of the oxidation chamber facilitates a primary combustion reaction of the combustible waste gas stream into an oxygenated waste gas stream. The retention chamber facilitates a secondary combustion, reaction of the oxygenated waste gas stream into oxidized gases. The heat dissipater atmospherically vents of the oxidized gases. An oxidization controller ' may be employed to regulate the operation of the thermal oxidizer,

The oxidation controller ma further regulate the waste gas feed and/or the oxidant feed into the oxidation mixer, and may further regulate the optional heating element of the retent ion chamber for the secondar combustion reaction if the heating element is employed.

The oxidation controller may further employ a data, logger and a data reporter for respectively logging and reporting; a regulation of the thermal oxidizer by the oxidation controller.

The foregoing forms and other forms of the present invention as well as various features and advantages of the present invention, will become further apparent from the following detailed description of various embodiment of the present invention read i conjunction wit th accompanying drawings. The detailed description and drawings are merely illustrative of the present invention rather than limiting, the scope of the present invention being defined by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplar}' thermal oxidizer as known in the art.

FIG:. 2: illustrates a block diagram of a first exemplary chamber embodiment of a thermal oxidization system in accordance with the in ventive principles of the present disclosure.

FIG. 3 illustrates a block diagram of an exemplary embodiment of a control syste in accordance with the inventive principles of the present disclosure...

FIGS. 4A- C illustrate a flowchart representative of an exemplary embodiment of a thermal oxidization method in accordance with the inventiv principles of the present disclosure.

FIGS. 5 A and SB illustrate perspective views of a first exemplary embodiment of the thermal oxidization system of FIG. 2 in accordance with the in ventive principles of the presen t disclosure ,

FIGS. 6A-6C illustrate exploded views of the thermal oxidization system of FIGS. SA and SB,

FIG. 7 illustrates a perspective view of a second exemplary embodiment of the thermal oxkf izaiion system of FIG, 2 in accordance with the inventive principles of the present disclosure. FIG, 8 illustrates a block diagram o f a second exemplary embod iment of a thermal oxidization system in accordance with the inventive principles of the present disclosure.

FIG. 9 illustrates a: perspective: view of an exemplary embodiment of the thermal oxidizer of FIG. 8 in accordance with the inventi ve principles of the present disclosure,

FIG. I OA illustrates an exemplary atmospheric embodiment of the thermal oxidizer of F IG . 9.

FIG . S OB .illustrates an exemplary forced air embodiment- of the thermal oxidizer of FIG. 9.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

To facilitate an understanding of inventions of the present disclosure, the following description of FIGS, 2-4 teach basic inventi ve principles of thermal oxidization systems and thermal oxidization: methods of the present: disclosure. From ■this .description, those having ordinary sfctii. in the art will appreciate how to apply the inventive principles of the present disclosure for making and using additional numerous and various embodiments of thermal oxidization systems and thermal oxidization methods of the present disclosure.

Referring t FIG. % a thermal oxidization system of the presen disclosure incorporates a thermal oxidizer 50a employing an oxidation mixer 51, an oxidatio chamber 32a, a retention chamber 53a and a heat dissipater 54a forming a fluid flow path for oxidation of a waste gas stream 32 (e .g., Till gases) into oxidized combustion products 74 (e.g., oxidized gases 73 including ( ϋ¾ H2O, N2 and 0 2 ).

Oxidation mixer 51 is structurally configured for implementing a combustible mixture of an oxidant 10 supplied by oxidant supply 1 1 (e.g., a blower or a. pump) via. a supply line 12 and of a waste gas stream 32 (e.g., TRI gases) supplied by a waste gas source 30 as controlled via a control flow conduit 33 (e.g., a solenoid valve and a flame arrester in series coupling waste gas source 30 to oxidation mixer 51) into a combustible waste gas stream 70.

In one embodiment, oxidation m ixer 51 is a venturi air-gas mixer whereb turbu l en t fluid flo ws of oxidant 10 and waste gas stream 32 in to the venture air-gas mixer are controlled via oxidant supply 1 1 and control flow conduit 33 to ensure combustible waste gas stream 70 attains proportional concentrations, of oxidant 10 and waste gas stream 32 % Mn a flammable range :(e.g., 11 ,5:1 oxidant 10 to waste gas stream 32). Additionally, oxidation mixer 51 may be equipped with, a nozzle (not shown) tor regulating a feeding, of combustible waste gas stream 70 into oxidation chamber 52a whereby the nozzle may be structurally configured to generate more turbulence to combustible waste ga stream 70.

Oxidation chamber 52a is structurally configured fo implementing a primar combustion reaction 71 therein of eombustible waste ga strea 70 into an oxygenated waste ga stream 72 via a controlled emissio of heat waves 56 by a heating element 55. In one embodiment, oxidation chamber 52a is a refractory ceramic cylinder and heating element.55 is embedded withi n the walls of the refractory, ceramic cylinder.

Optionally, oxidation chamber 52a may further emplo a spark ignite 66 for a controlled ignition of combustible waste gas stream 70 at a proximal opening of oxidati on chamber 52a. For this em bod iment, if oxidization mixer 51 is eq uipped with a nozzle, then a distal tip of spark igniter 6 may be positi oned within or adjacent to the flow of the combustible waste gas stream 70 out of the nozzle into oxidation chamber 52a.

Retention chamber 53a is structurally configured for implementing a retention time for secondary combustion reaction of oxygenated waste gas stream 72 into heated oxidized combustion products 74 (e.g., oxidized gases 73 including CO , ¾(¼ N2 and <¾). In one embodiment, retention chamber 53a is a refractory ceramie cylinder integrated with oxidatio chamber 52a as shown.

Meat dissipater 54a is structurally configured for implementing a heat exchange of atmosphere air 74 with heated oxidized combusti on products 74 t vent cooled oxidized combustion products 74 into the atmosphere. I one embodiment, heat dissipater 54a includes a heat exchanger 57a constructed of stainless steel woven fabric which has bee pleated and roiled in to a cylinder shape whereby oxidized combustion products 74 exits heat exchanger 57a along a length and -circumference of the vertical wall of heat exchanger 57a as shown with cooling atmosphere air 75 being directed vertical ly past the vertical wal l of heat exchanger 57a to thereby extract heat from heat dissipater 54a. Additionally, heat dissipate* 54a may be equipped with mesh baffles (e.g., mesh baffles 58b and 58e as shown) axiaily aligned on a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical heat exchanger 57a to thereby provide a more controlled flow diversion of oxidized combustion products 74 in a direction of vertical wall of heat exchanger 57a a shown in FIG, 2,

Referring to FIG. 3, thermal oxidization system of the present disclosure further incorporates a control system employing an oxidation controller 61 , a data logger 63 and a dat reporter 65 housed, within a control box 60.

Oxidation controller 1 is structurally configured for controlling an operation of thermal oxidize 50a as will be further described herein in connection with a description of FIGS. 4A-4C.

in one embodiment,, oxidation controller 61 is an application specific main board or an application specific integrated circuit for controlling a thermal oxidation application of various inventive 'principles of the present disclosure as subsequently described herein in connection, with. FIGS. 4A-4C. The structural configuration of oxidation controller 61 may include, but is not limited, to, processoris), computer- usable/compute readable storage mediuni(s), an operating system, application inoduie(s) : , peripheral device control lerfs), slot(s) and port(s). Each application module consists of an electronic circuit and/or an executable program (e.g., executable software .and/or firmw'are stored on non-transitory computer readable niedinm(s)) for controlling an execut ion of the thermal, oxidation application.

A noii-iimiting example of oxidation controller 61 is an all-in-one XL4

Gontroiler sold by Horner APG of Indianapolis, Indiana that i configured in accordance with the inventi ve principles of the present disclosure.

Data logge 63 is structurall configured for logging operational data ("OD") 62 transmitted by oxidation controller 61 to data logger 63 via a push or pull operation, or by a monitoring of speeific data points of oxidation controller 61 by data logger 63. Operational data 62 Includes data informative of an operational status of therm al oxidizer 5Qa in executing the oxidation of waste gas stream 32.

in one embodiment, data logger 63 is an ap lication specific main board or an application speeific integrated circuit for controlling a data logging application of the present disclosure. The structural configuration of dat logger 63 may include, but is not limited to, processor(s} f eornputer-ysable/compuier readable stor age mediu;rn(s), an operating system^ application module(s), peripheral deviee c0nirolier{s), sloi(s) and port(s) . Each application, module consists of an electronic circuit and/or an executable program (e.g.. executable software and/or firmware stored on non-transitory computer readable medium(s)) for executing the data logging application.

A non-limiting: example of data logger 63 is an all-in-one XLE controller sold by Horner APG of Indianapolis, Indian that is configured in accordance with, the in ventive principles of the present d isclosure.

Another non -limiting exam ple of data logger 63 is as an application mod ule configured within oxidation controller 61.

Also in practice, data logger 63 may be omitted and oxidation controller 6.1 may be configured for executing the data logging application of the present disclosure.

Data reporter 65 is structurall configured for receiving reporting data f'RI ) 65 from data logger 63 via a push or pull operation and transmitting reporting data 64 to a network 80 (e, g. , a eel 1 ular network) . Reporting: data 64 is operational d ata 62 processed by dat logger 63 into a reporting format associated with data reporter 65,

In one embodiment, data reporter 65 is an application specific modem for executing a data reporting ap lication of the present diselosnre,

A non-limiting example of data logge 66 is a SonicU™ modem sold by Sonieli, LLC -of ' Greenfield., Indiana that is configured in accordance with the inventive principles of the present di sc losure.

Referring back to FIG:. 2, oxidation, controller 61 regulates control of thermal oxidizer 50a in accordance with a thermal, oxidization method of the present disclosure as represented by a flowchart 90 shown i FIGS, A-4C. In support of executing the thermal oxidization method:

I . oxidation controller 61 senses and controls a flash point

temperature ¾> of oxidation chamber 52a via a connection of

therniocowple 67 at a signal input 67s; 2. oxidation controller 61 senses and controls an oxidation point temperature TQP of retention chamber 53a via a conoeetion of

thermocouple 68 at a signal input 68s;

3. oxidation controller 61 senses and controls a venting point

temperature Tpp of heat dissipater 54a vi a connection to thermoeouple 69 at a signal input 69s;

4. oxidation controller 61 controls a feeding rate of ' oxidant 10 by oxidant supply 11 via a connection of an signal output 13a to oxidant sup l 1 1 a;

5. oxidation controller 61 controls a feeding rate of waste ga

stream 32 by waste gas source 3 via a connection of a signal output 34s to control flow conduit 33;,

6. oxidation controller 61 controls an activation and a deactivation of heating element 55 via a signal output 55s; and

7. oxidation controller 1 controls a activation and a deactivatio of spark igniter 66 via a signal output 66s;

Referring to FIGS. 2 arid 4A, prio to be oxidation controller 61 being powered- on, oxidant supply 1 1 is deactivated and control flow conduit 33 i closed.

Upon oxidation controller 61 being powered-on, oxidation controller 61 executes flowchart 90, and initiates a transmission of a point monitoring of flash point temperature ¾ , oxidization point temperature ¾> a d venting paint temperature Typ t data logger 63 for recording purposes.

As to the execution of flowchart 90 by oxidation controller 1 , a stage S92 of flowchart 90 ; encompasses a thermoeouple validity cheek ("TVC") by oxidation controlle 61 concurrently or sequentially involving: 1. a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of flash, point

temperature ¾> relative to a flash thermocouple validity threshold

("FTVT");

2. a comparison by oxidation controiier 61 of oxidation point

temperature T ' op relative to an oxidation thermocouple validity threshold ΌΤΥΓ'); an

3, a. comparison b oxidation: controller 61 of venting point

temperature Typ relative to a venting the.nnoeoup.le validity threshold

("VTVT").

In practice, to test the validity of the thermocouples;, the thermocouple validit thresholds should be set at. an anticipated maximum room temperature (e.g., 22 0 C) or to an anticipated maximum local outdoor air tern perature.

For TVC cyc le of stage S92, if flash poi n t temperature TFP i s more than flash thermocouple validity threshold FTVT, OR if oxidation point temperature Topis more than oxidation thermocouple validity threshold O F, OR if venting point temperature ½ is more than venting thermocouple validity threshold VTVT* then oxidation controller 61 is powered down for a maintenance inspection of the thermocouple(s) and powered on again after a sueeessfui repair/replacemen if any, of the thermocouple^}.

Otherwise, if flash point temperature '!½ is less than or equal to flash thermocouple valid ity threshold. FT¥T, : AND i f oxidation point temperature ¾> is less than or equal to oxidation thermocouple validity threshold OT VT, AND if venting point temperature Typ is less than or equal to venting thermocouple validity threshold VTVT, then oxidation controller 1 proceeds to a stage S 4 of flowchart .90 encompassing a thermal oxidation limit check {"TOLC") by oxidation controiier 61 concurrently or sequentially involving: 1. a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of flash point

tem erature T F relative to a flash thermal limit threshold ("FTLT"):; 2. a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of oxidation point

temperature T O P relati ve to an oxidation thermal limit threshold

("ΟΤί/Γ'); and

3. a compariso by oxidation controller 61 of venting point

temperature Typ relative to a; venting thermal limit threshold ("VTLT").

In practice, to ensure a safe heat activation erf oxidation chamber 52a, the thermal limit, thresholds should represent a. predefined maximum temperature of oxidation chamber 52a, retentio chamber 53a and heat dissipater 54a prior to the heat, activation of thermal oxidizer 50a (e,g„ : 3 ' QQ°F for all thermocouple limit thresholds).

For a TOLC cycle of stage S94, if flash point temperature ¾>· is more than flash thermal limit threshold FTLT-. OR if oxidation point temperature TOP S Wore than oxidation thermal limit thresh old OTLT, OR i f venting point tem perature T V1 > is more than venting thermal limit threshold VTLT, the oxidation controller 61 returns to stage S94 to execute a, new TOLC" cycle.

Otherwise, if flash point temperature T Ft . is less than or equal to flash thermal limit threshold FTL ' I, AND if oxidation point temperature T OP is less than or equal t oxidation: thermal limit threshold OTLT, AN D if venting point temperature Ty is les than or equal to venting thermal limit threshold VTLT, then oxidation, controller 61 proceeds to a stage S96 of flowchart 90 to execute a pre-oxidation stage of the thermal oxidation of waste gas stream 32 sequentially involving:

1. with control flow conduit 33 being closed via valve control

signal VC (e.g., a binary pen-close signal) and healing element 55

being deactivated via heat regulation signal H (e.g., an AC current), oxidation controller 61 controlling a gaseous purge of thermal oxidizer 50a by activating oxidant supply 11. via a supply control signal SC (e.g., a digital amplitude signal) for specified time period. For example, oxidation controller 61 may activate oxidant sup ly 1 1 via supply

control signal for an oxidation feed of oxidant 10 (e.g., atmospheric air into oxidatio mixer 51 at a 100% oxidation feed rate of oxidized gas 10 for thirty (30) seconds to one :(1 ) minute (e.g., the feed rate in cubic

feet/hiinute over a duration. xceeding at least four (4) times a volume of oxidation chamber 52a and retention chamber 53a);

2. after .completion of the purge, oxidation controller 61 controlling an activation, of oxidant supply 1 1 via -supply control signal SC for an oxidation feed of oxidant 10 into oxidation mixer 51 at a 50% oxidation feed rate; and

3. concurrent with or subsequent to the 30% oxidatio feed rate of oxidant 10 into oxidation mixer 51, oxidation controller 61 executing a zero crossover regulation of beating element 55 via heating regulation signal HR.

Upon executin stage S96, oxidation controller 61 proceeds to a stage S98 of flowchart 9.0 encompassing an oxidation chamber ignition check ('OCIC") b oxidation controller 61 invol ving a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of flash point temperature T¾> relative to a oxidation: chamber ignition threshold ('ΌΟΤ') (e.g., 1 100°F).

Oxidation controller 61 cycles through stage S98 until such time flash point temperature T½> i s equal to or greater than oxidation: chamber ignition threshold OCI whereby oxidation .controller 61 proceeds to a stage SIOO of flowchart 90 to execute an oxidation stage of the thermal, oxidation of waste gas stream 32 sequentially involving:

1. if spark igniter 57 is employed, oxidation, controller 61

controlling a spark ignition of combustible waste gas stream 70 within oxidation chamber 52a: by acti vating spark igniter 57 via a spark ignition signal SI provided: to a power supply of spark Ignite 57 (not sho n or clarity) (e.g., a spark plug-transformer based power circuit). The spark ignition is executed to facilitate the primar combustion reaction 71 of combustible waste gas stream 70 within oxidation chamber 52a; and 2, oxidation controller 61 controlling an activation of a waste gas feed, (e.g., 0,35 cubic feei minute; 21 cubic feet/hour) into oxidation mixer . b opening control flow conduit 33 via valve control signal VC to form, combustible waste gas stream 70 whereby oxidant .10 flowing into oxidation mixer 51 will create vacuum o waste gas stream 30 at the inlet of the oxidization mixer 51 ; and

3. oxidation controller 61 controlling a regulation of a secondary combustion reaction of oxygenated waste gas stream 72 within retention chamber 53a by modulating the oxidation feed rate of oxidant 10 by oxidant supply 11 based on a comparison, of oxidation point temperature Top relative to a oxidation feed modulation, threshold ("OFMT") (e.g..

1400°F). For example, the oxidation feed rate of oxidant 10 is increased if the oxidation point temperature Top i less than the oxidatio feed modulation threshold OFMT and: conversely, the oxidation feed rate of oxidant: 10 is decreased if the oxidation point temperature TOP is greater than the oxidation feed modulation threshold OFMT.

Upon executing stage SI 00, oxidation controller : 61 proceeds to a stage SI 02 of flowchart 90 encompassing an oxidation protectio check f OPC") by oxidation controller 61 concurrently or sequentially involving:

1. a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of flash point

temperature T f t> relative to a flash point protection threshold TPPT");

2, a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of oxidation point

temperature Top relative to an oxidation point protection threshold

("OEPT"); and

3 , a com arison by o idation controller 61 of venting point

temperature Typ relative to a venting point protection threshold

("VPPT"). in practice, to ensure oxidation protection .of thermal oxidizer 50, the protection thresholds should represent a predefined maximum temperature of oxidation chamber 52a. retention: ehamber 53a and heat dissipater 54a during oxidation stage S 100 (e.g., 5 1400°F for oxidation ehamber 52a, 1800"! ' for retention chamber 53a and: 300°F for heat dissipater 54a).

For OPC cycle of stage I 02, if flash point temperature TVp is less than flash point protection threshold FPPT, AND if oxidation point temperature TOP is less than oxidation point protection threshold QPPT, AND if venting point temperature Typ is ø less than venting point protection threshold VPPT, then: oxidation controller 61

proceeds to a stage SI 04 of flowchart 90 to be subsequently described herein.

Otherwise, if flash point temperature ' ¾> is equal to or greater than flash point protection threshold FPPT, OR i oxidation point temperature OP is equal to or greater than oxidation point protection: threshold OPPT, OR if venting point temperature Typ is 5 equal to or greater than venting point protection threshold VPPT, then: oxidation

controller 61 proceeds to a stage SI 06 of flowchart : 90 to exec ute a sh utdown stage of the thermal oxidation of waste gas stream 32 concurrently or sequentially invol ving::

I , oxidation controller 61 controlling a termination of waste gas0 feed into oxidation mixer 51 by closing control flow conduit 33 via

valve control signal VC;

2. oxidat ion contro lle 61 controlling a deactivation of the zero crossover regulation of heating element 55 via heat regulation signal5 OR; and

3. oxidation controller 61 controlling an attenuation of the

oxidation fee rate of oxidant 10 to zero (0) via supply control signal SC.

Upon completion of stage S 106, oxidation controller 61 executes a power-off routine. Still referring to FIG. 4€, stage SI 04 encompasses a waste gas limit check C WGLC") by oxidization controller 61 involving;

1 . a compar son by oxidation controller 61 of oxidation point

temperature P relative to a waste ga limit threshold ("WGLT'); and

2. a comparison by oxidation controller 61 of an open duration

OI3cv5 2 of control flo conduit 33 relative to a fixed time period X in any unit of time (e.g., seconds as shown). in practice, the waste gas limit threshold represent a predefined: temperature indicative of a failure to achieve a primary combustion reaction 71 withi oxidation eharaher 53 a after time period . f .(e.g., ten (10) seconds) to thereby impede a flow of an unacceptable quantit of waste gas stream 32 through chambers 52a and 53a.

For a W LP cycle of stage S 104, i f oxidation point temperature OP is equal to or greater than waste g s: limit threshold WGLT Oil if open duration 0¾ ν.¾: of control flow conduit 33 is less than .X. seconds, then oxidation controller 61 returns to stage S I 02 as previously described herein.

Otherwise, if oxidation point temperature Top- is- less than waste gas limit threshold AND if open duration 0¾ν, ¾ of control flow conduit 33 is equal to or greate tha - seconds, then oxidation controller 6} proceeds to stage S I 06 as previously described herein.

Referring back to FIG. 3, previously stated herein, upon oxidatio controller 61 being po wered-on , : data logger 62 initiates a recording of flash poin t temperature ¾», oxidization point temperature TO and venting point temperature TVP over a course of an execution of flowchart 90 by oxidation controller 61.

Furthermore, oxidation controller 61 may provide a local reporting of flash point: temperature T¼, oxidization: point temperature. ¾> and venting point temperature Typ via a graphical display and/or data reporte 65 may provide a remote reporting of flash point temperature ¾>, oxidization point temperature T and venting point temperature Ί½ via a wireless communication to network, 80. In practice, oxidation controller 61 and/or data logger 63 may be further structurally configured to detect conditions suitable for a warning (e.g., a visual and/or audial alarm., and/or text message) to be locally issued by oxidation controller 61 or remotely issued by data reporter 65, Such conditions include, but ate not limited to, (1) a continual cycling of stage $94 indicative of an operational issue with thermal o idizer 50, (2) an inability of oxidation chamber 52a to reach oxidation combustion ignition threshold OCIT during stage S98, and (3) an occurrenee of stage S I 04 as an indication of an operational issue of thermal oxidize 50 ,

In practice, the structural dimensions and material compositions of oxidation chamber 52, retention chamber 53a and heat dissipater 54a will be dependent upon the specific oxidation applicatio (e.g., 20,000 BTU/hour of wast gas oxidization)..

To facilitate a further understanding of the inventions of the present disclosure, the fol lowing description of FIGS. 5-7 teach a couple of embod iments of the thermal oxidation system of FIG. 2. From this description, those having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate how to apply the inventive principles of the present disclosure for making and using numerous and various additional embodiments of thermal oxidization sy stems of the present disclosure.

Referring to FIGS, 5 A. and SB, an embodiment 150 a of thermal oxidizer 50a (FIG, 2) employs:

1. oxidant suppl 1 1 (FIG. 2) in the form; of n air blower 1 1 1 a;

2. oxidation: .mixer .51 (FIG. 2) in the form of a yeniuri air-gas

mixer 1.5 i,a (not shown in FIGS. 5 A. and SB; shown in FIG. 6A):

3. a control flow conduit 33 i the form of a solenoid valve 133a equipped with a flame arrestor 133 b;

4 oxidation: chamber 52 (FIG. 2): in the form an oxidation,

chambe 152 including a cylindrical insulation blanket and a cylindrical thermal mass defining an oxidation fluid path with a spiral heating

element. 155 disposed within the oxidation: fluid path; 5. retention chamber 53a (FIG . 2) in the form of a retention

chamber 153 including a cylindrical: insulation blanket and a cylindrical thermal mass 154b defining a retention fluid path;

6. heat dissipater 54a (FIG. 2) in the form of a heat dissipater 154;

7. a flash thermocou le 67 (FIG. 2) i the form of a flash

thermocouple 167;

8. an oxidization thermocouple 68 (FIG , 2) in: the form of an

oxidization thermocouple 169; and

9. a vent thermocouple 69 (FIG. 2) in the form of a vent

thermocouple 169,

Als shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B i a control box 160a as an embodiment of control box 60 (FIG. 3).

FIG. 6A provides: a view of venturi air-gas mixer 151a.

FIG. 6B provides a. view of a nozzle 15 l b of venturi air-gas mixer 151a, an. interior wall of oxidization chamber 153, a heating element 155 helically disposed within interior wail of oxidization chamber 153 and an interior wall of retention chamber 154.

FIG . 6C pro vides a view of pleated hea t exchanger 157 of heat di ssipater 154 encircling a top portion of the interior wall of retention chamber 154.

Referring to FIG. 7, : an embodiment 150b of thermal oxidizer 50 (FIG. 2) is a modification of thermal oxidizer 150a (FIG. 5 A) involving a substitution of air blower 1 1 1 with flashback preventer 1 1 l b.

To facilitate a further understandiiig of inventions of the present diselosure, the following description of FIG. 8 further teaches basic inventive principles of a thermal oxidization system and a thermal oxidization method of the present disclosure. From this description,, those having ordinary skill in the art will -appreciate how to apply the inventi ve princi ples of the present disclosure for making and using numerous a d: variou embodiments of thermal osidization. systems and thermal oxidization methods of the -present, disclosure.

Referring to FIG. 8, a thermal oxid ization system of the present disclosure incorporates a thermal oxidizer 5 Ob employing oxidation mixer 51 , an oxidation chambe 52b, a retention chamber 53b and heat disslpater S4b forming a fluid flow path for an oxidation of a waste gas stream .32 (e.g., XRl gases) into oxidized combustion products 74 (e.g., oxidized gases 73 (FIG. 2) including C(¾, ¾0, and 0 2 ),

A previously described, oxidation mixer 51 is structurally configured for mixing an oxidant 10 supplied by oxidant supply 1 1 (e.g.,, a blower or a pump) via a supply line 12 and a waste gas stream 32 (e.g.., TRI gases) supplied b waste gas source 30 as .controlled via a control flow conduit 33 (e.g., a solenoid valve and a flame arrester in series coupling waste gas source 30 to oxidation mixer 51 ) into a combustible: waste gas stream 70.

hi one embodiment.,; oxidation mixer S 1. is a venturi air-gas mixer whereby turbu lent fluid flows of oxidant 10 and waste gas stream 32 into the venture air-gas mixer are controlled ' via oxidant supply 1 1 and control flow conduit 33 to ensure comb stible waste gas stream. 70 attains proportional concentrations of oxidant 1 and waste gas stream 32 within a flammable range (e.g., 1 1.5: 1 oxidant 10 t waste gas stream 32). Additionally, oxidatio mixer 51 may be equipped with a nozzle (not- shown) for regulating: a feeding of combustible waste gas stream 70 into oxidation chamber 5 . 2b whereby the nozzle may be structurally configured to generate more turbulence t combustible waste gas stream 70.

Oxidation chambe 52b is structurally configured fo implementin a primary combustion reaction 71 therei of combustible waste gas stream 70 vi a controlled emission of heat waves 56a by a heating element.55a. In one embodiment,, oxidation chamber 52b is a refractory ceramic cylinder and heating; element 55 is embedded within the walls of the refractor ceramic cy linder.

Optionally, oxidation chamber 52b ma further employ a spark ignite 66 for a controlled ignition of combustible waste gas stream.70 at a proximal opening of oxidation chamber 52b. For this embodiment, if oxidization mixer 51 is equipped with a nozzle, then a distal tip of spark igniter 66 may be positioned within or adjacent to the flow of the combustible waste gas stream: 70 out of the nozzle into oxidation chamber 52b.

Combusti le waste gas stream 70a may fully or partiall combust within oxidatio chamber 52b. Oxidatio chamber 52b therefore includes a supplement air inlet 52b for an additional flow of oxidant 10 via oxidant suppl line 1 or via atmosphere to supplement the oxygenated waste gas stream 72 flowing: into retention chamber S3 fa.

Retention chamber 53b is structurally configured for implementing, a secondary combustion reaction 76 therein oxygenated waste gas stream 72 via a controlled emission of heat waves 56 b by a heating element 55 b. In one embodiment, retention chamber 53 is a refractory ceramic cylinder and heating element 55b is embedded within the walls of the refractory ceramic cylinder integrated with oxidation chamber 53b as shown. Retention chamber 53b ensures a complete oxidation of oxygenated waste gas stream 72 into heated oxidized combustion products 74 (e.g., oxidized gases 73 (FIG. 2) including ( .. '( ¾., ¾0, a and O2).

Heat dissipater 54 is structurally configured for implementing a heat exchange with heated oxidized combustion products 7 to vent cooled oxidized combustion products 74 into the atmosphere. In one embodiment, heat dissipater 54b includes a nozzle 59 having a cyimdricai shape whereby oxidized combustion products 74 exits heat dissipater 54b along a length and circumference of heat exchanger 57 with cooling atmosphere air 75 being directed vertically past heat exchanger 57 to thereby extract heat from heat, exchanger .57.

The thermal oxidization system of FIG, 8 further incorporates a control system employing an oxidation controller 61, a data logger 63 (FIG. 3) and. data reporter 65 (FIG. 3) housed within, a control box 60 (FIG, 3).

Oxidation controller 61 is structurally configured for controlling an operation of thermal oxidizer 50 b in . accordance with the thermal oxidization method of FIGS. 4.Λ- 4C as previously described herein. More particularly, heating elements 55a and 55b are controlled via a simila scheme as heating: element 55 (FIG. 2). in practice, oxidation controller 61 ma be omitted whereby the heating elements 55 of thermal oxidizer 50a (FIG. 2) and thermal oxidizer 50b (FIG. 8): may be operated via an on/off switch .

Also in practice, oxidatio controller 61 may implement a variation of the thermal oxidization method 90 (FIGS. 4A-4C) excluding the heat dissipater thermocouple 69 and involving the oxidation chamber thermocouple 67 and/or the retention chamber thermocouple 68. For such an embodiment, a one loop or a two loop proportionai-integral-deriyative ("PID") control ' may be implemented by oxidation controller 61 invol ving a zero crossover regulatio of the heating element(s) 55 via heating regulation signal FIR.

To facilitate a further imdersianding of th inventions of the present disclosure, the following description of FIGS. 9-10 teach a couple of embodiments of the thermal oxidation system of FIG, 8. From this description, those having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate how to apply the inventive principles of the present disclosure for making and using; numerous and various additi onal embodiments of thermal oxidization systems of the present disclosure.

Referring to FIG. 9, an embodiment 250 of thermal oxidizer 50b (FIG, 8) employs: 1. an oxidation mixer nozzle 251 having an air inlet on a side wail and a bottom gas inlet;

2. oxidation chamber 52b (FIG. 8) in the form an oxidation

chamber 252. including a cylindrical insulation blanket and a cylindrical therm l mass defining an oxidation fluid path with a spiral heating

element 255a encircling the oxidation fluid path;

3. retention chamber 53b (FIG. 8) in the for of a retention

chamber 253 including an insulation blanket and a thermal mass

definin a retention fluid path with a spiral heating element 255 b

encircling the oxidation fluid path; 4. heat dissipater 54b (FIG, 1 ΘΑ in the form of a heat dissipater

254 having a rain cap 290 (FIG. 9); and

5. mounting brackets 291a and 29 lb.

Thermocouples may or may not be incorporated dependent upon the control scheme.

For exam le FIG, 10A illustrates an atmospheric version 250a of thermal oxidizer 250 (FIG. 9) involving a riorf-force flow of atmospheric air into the thermal oxidizer 250a and an on'oiT control of the heating elements, A heat exchanger 257 provides for beat exchange and back flash protection of the heat dissipater, and a back flash 292 protects a back flash of the oxidation mixer.

By further example, FIG, 1QB illustrates a force-air version 250h of thermal oxidizer 250 (FIG. 9) incorporating an air blower 21 1 , a solenoid valve 233a, a flash arrester 233b, an oxidation thermocouple 267 and a retention thermocouple 268,

Referring to FIGS, 1- 0, those havin ordinary skill in the art of the present disclosure will appreciate various: ad vantages of the inventions of the present disclosure including, but not limited to:

1. an active or passive control of an efficient thermal combustion of toxic release .inventorie gases ("TRI"), particularl in. compliance

applicable environment regulations; and

2. data logging and data reporting of the active control of the

thermal combustion of TRI .

While various embodiments of the present inven tion have been, illustrated and described, it will be understood- by those skilled in the art that the methods and the system as described herein are illustrative, and various: changes and modifications may be made and equivalents may be .substituted for elements thereof without, departing from the true scope of the present invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt the teachings of the present invention without departing from its central scope. Therefore, it Is intended that the present invention not foe limited to the particular embodiments disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out the present invention, but that the present invention include all embodiment felling within the scope of the appended claims.