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Title:
THERMAL-STABLE WHIPPED FORMULATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/197193
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to, inter alia, a formulation comprising one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents and is co-mingled with a first propellant that is a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure into said package; the first propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation; the package is under sufficient pressure suitable to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on said formulation in said package. The present disclosure also relates to, inter alia, a method of preparing the disclosed formulation; a package comprising the disclosed formulation, and a method of using the disclosed formulation.

Inventors:
BALDWIN, Stephen (9212 Grey Cliff Drive, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
CARPENTER, Scott (5534 Wood Ridge Cove, Arlington, Tennessee, 38002, US)
KIM, Nanhye (8381 Westfair Circle South, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
MEYER, Tom (8668 Wine Leaf Cove, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
VANCLEAVE, Jerry (4202 Eagle Hill Cv, Lakeland, Tennessee, 38002, US)
Application Number:
US2017/032277
Publication Date:
November 16, 2017
Filing Date:
May 11, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BAYER HEALTHCARE LLC (100 Bayer Bovd, Whippany, New Jersey, 07981, US)
BALDWIN, Stephen (9212 Grey Cliff Drive, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
CARPENTER, Scott (5534 Wood Ridge Cove, Arlington, Tennessee, 38002, US)
KIM, Nanhye (8381 Westfair Circle South, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
MEYER, Tom (8668 Wine Leaf Cove, Germantown, Tennessee, 38139, US)
VANCLEAVE, Jerry (4202 Eagle Hill Cv, Lakeland, Tennessee, 38002, US)
International Classes:
A23C9/152; A23G3/02; A23P30/40; A61K8/04; A61K8/34; A61K8/73; A61K9/12; A61Q5/06; A61Q7/00; A61Q11/00; A61Q17/04; A61Q19/00; B65D83/14
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LIANG, Stanley et al. (520 White Plains Road, Suite 500Tarrytown, New York, 10591, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A formulation in a pressurized package, the formulation comprises one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents and is co-mingled with a first propellant that is a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure into said package;

wherein said first propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation;

wherein said package is under sufficient pressure suitable to expel said formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on said formulation in said package.

2. The formulation of claim 1, wherein said package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation.

3. The formulation of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein said package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component, wherein said component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellants which are not co-mingled with the

formulation .

4. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation further comprises a foaming agent.

5. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation is for topical application.

6. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said thermal stabilizing agent (s) is a long chain alcohol that is 18 carbon or longer, and/or a microcrystalline cellulose based product selected from one or more product selected from a purified, partially depolymerized alpha cellulose derived from purified specialty grades of wood pulp and a product based on microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium.

7. The formulation of claim 6, wherein said long chain alcohol is behenyl alcohol.

8. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation is an emulsion.

9. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature up to about 50°C.

10. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature between about -10°C and about 50°C.

11. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation is a sunscreen and said one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents.

12. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation is a sunscreen and said one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents; and wherein said formulation remains stable after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature up to about 50°C, wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.2% w/w to about 8.7% w/w behenyl alcohol .

13. The formulation of any one of claims 1-12, wherein said formulation is an after sun formulation and said one or more active agents include one or more after sun active agents; and wherein said formulation remains stable after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature up to about 50°C, wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.0% w/w to about 7.5% w/w behenyl alcohol.

14. The formulation of claim 6, wherein said microcrystalline cellulose based product is Avicel RC-591.

15. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation has at least about 60% of the gas bubbles at ≤ 100 μπι, after the formulation is expelled from the package.

16. The formulation of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said formulation has at least about 40% of the gas bubbles at ≤ 60 μπι, after the formulation is expelled from the package.

17. A method of preparing a whippable formulation, comprising:

(a) Filling a formulation comprising one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents, said formulation co-mingling with a first propellant that is a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure into said package;

wherein said first propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation;

wherein said pressurized package is under sufficient pressure suitable to maintain the first gas propellant dispersed in the formulation; and

wherein said pressurized package is under sufficient pressure to expel said formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on said formulation in said package.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein said package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation.

19. The method of claim 17 or claim 18, wherein said package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component, wherein said component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellants which are not co-mingled with the

formulation .

20. The method of any one of claims 17-19, wherein said thermal stabilizing agent (s) is a long chain alcohol that is 18 carbon or longer, and/or a microcrystalline cellulose based product selected from one or more product selected from a purified, partially depolymerized alpha cellulose derived from purified specialty grades of wood pulp and a product based on

microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium.

21. The method of any one of claims 17-20, wherein said

formulation further comprises a foaming agent.

22. The method of any one of claims 17-21, wherein said

formulation is for topical application.

23. The formulation of claim 20, wherein said long chain alcohol is behenyl alcohol.

24. The formulation of any one of claims 17-23, wherein said formulation is an emulsion.

25. The method of any one of claims 17-24, wherein said

formulation is a sunscreen formulation and said active

ingredients are sunscreen active ingredients; wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.2% w/w to about 8.7% w/w behenyl alcohol.

26. The method of any one of claims 17-25, wherein said

formulation is an after-sun formulation and said one or more active agents include one or more after sun active agents;

wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.2% w/w to about 7.5% w/w behenyl alcohol.

27. The method of any one of claims 20-26, wherein said

microcrystalline cellulose based product is Avicel RC-591.

28. A method of using a whipped formulation of claim 1, comprising administering said formulation to a subject in need of said application.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein said subject is a human subj ect .

30. The method of claim 28 or claim 29, wherein said whipped formulation is a sunscreen whipped formulation.

31. A pressurized package comprising a whippable formulation, the formulation comprises one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents, said formulation being co- mingled with a first propellant that is a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure into said package;

wherein said first propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation;

wherein said pressurized package is under sufficient pressure suitable to maintain the first gas propellant dispersed in the formulation; and

wherein said pressurized package is under sufficient pressure to expel said formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on said formulation in said package.

32. The package of claim 31, wherein said package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation.

33. The package of claim 31 or claim 32, wherein said package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component, wherein said component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellants which are not co-mingled with the

formulation .

34. The package of any one of claims 31-33, wherein said formulation further comprises a foaming agent.

35. The package of any one of claims 31-34, wherein said

formulation is for topical application.

36. The formulation of any one of claims 31-35, wherein said thermal stabilizing agent (s) is a long chain alcohol that is 18 carbon or longer, and/or a microcrystalline cellulose based product selected from one or more product selected from a purified, partially depolymerized alpha cellulose derived from purified specialty grades of wood pulp and a product based on microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium.

37. The formulation of claim 36, wherein said long chain alcohol is behenyl alcohol.

38. The formulation of any one of claims 31-37, wherein said formulation is an emulsion.

39. The package of any one of claims 31-38, wherein said

formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature up to about 50°C.

40. The package of any one of claims 31-39, wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature between about - 10°C and about 50°C.

41. The package of any one of claims 31-40, wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least about 1 day.

42. The package of any one of claims 31-41, wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least 1 day at a

temperature between about -10°C and about 50°C.

43. The package of any one of claims 31-42, wherein said formulation is a sunscreen formulation and said one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents.

44. The package of any one of claims 31-43, wherein said formulation is a sunscreen formulation and said one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents; and wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature up to about 50°C, wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.2% w/w to about 8.7% w/w behenyl alcohol.

45. The package of any one of claims 31-42, wherein said formulation is an after-sun formulation and said one or more active agents include one or more after sun active agents; and wherein said formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature up to about 50°C, wherein said formulation comprises between about 1.0% w/w to about 7.5% w/w behenyl alcohol.

46. The package of claim 36, wherein said product based on microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium is Avicel RC-591.

Description:
THERMAL-STABLE WHIPPED FORMULATIONS

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This invention relates to the field of whipped or whippable formulations. More specifically, the invention relates to thermal-stable whipped or whippable formulations.

BACKGROUND

[0002] A formulation such as sunscreen often requires

application in the sun. Sunscreen and other formulations, such as sunscreen, skincare, vitamins for oral administration, woundcare for animals or humans, whip cream, haircare, medical hair & scalp treatments, topical analgesics, skin protection, etc., may be stored at a wide temperature range. These

formulations would benefit if they were thermally stable during use or storage.

SUMMARY

[0003] This disclosure provides a formulation in a package, which may be pressurized. The formulation comprises one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents; the formulation is co-mingled (co-processed) with a first gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure into the

package. The first gas propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation.

[0004] In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the

formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure to maintain the first gas dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component. In certain embodiments, the component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant. In certain embodiments, the component is present in the package in sufficient amounts and pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the formulation in the package. In certain embodiments, the amounts of the generating and maintaining component are sufficient to expel substantially all the formulation in the package as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant does not co-mingle with the formulation.

[0005] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a method of preparing a whippable formulation, comprising: Filling a

formulation comprising one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents; the formulation is co-mingled (co- processed) with a gas propellant under controlled temperature and under pressure into a package; wherein the gas propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package is under

sufficient pressure suitable to maintain the first gas

propellant dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package is under sufficient pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the formulation in the package. In certain embodiment, the method is performed under controlled

temperature. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the package comprises a pressure

generating and maintaining component. In certain embodiments, the component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant; the generating and maintaining component is present in the package in sufficient amounts and pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of

external force on the formulation in the package; and wherein the one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant does not co- mingle with the formulation.

[0006] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a method of using a formulation that is a whipped formulation product disclosed herein, comprising administering the formulation to a subject in need thereof.

[0007] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a package comprising the formulation disclosed herein.

[0008] Numerous other aspects are provided in accordance with these and other aspects of the invention. Other features and aspects of the present invention will become more fully apparent from the following detailed description and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] FIG. 1 shows the results for appearance and stay-put- ness features: A Whipped Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30 (Finished

Product: Z16-006, Concentrate: Y71-189) versus Kiehl's Lotion

Activated Sun Protector™ Water-Light Lotion For Face & Body, SPF

30. FIG. 1A shows appearance of a "whipped- foam" delivered from a whipped sunscreen lotion SPF 30. FIG. lB-1 shows application of two lotions (Left: a whipped sunscreen lotion SPF 30, Right:

Kiehl's sunscreen lotion SPF 30) . FIG. 1B-2 shows T=initial;

Applied amounts of two lotions are similar. FIG. 1B-3 shows T=

10 seconds; Left (a whipped sunscreen lotion SPF 30) : no change in appearance and no tendency to run or drip (when the container is tilted); Right (Kiehl's sunscreen lotion SPF 30) : became runny (when the container is tilted) .

[0010] FIG. 2 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped sunscreen lotions containing different key functional excipients, which had been stored at 50°C/75%RH for 1 day.

[0011] FIG. 3 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped sunscreen lotions containing different key functional excipients, which had been stored at 50°C/75%RH for 1 day.

[0012] FIG. 4 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped sunscreen formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol, which had been stored at 50°C/75%RH for 1 day.

[0013] FIG. 5 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped after sun lotion stored at RT and 50°C/75%RH for 1 day.

[0014] FIG. 6 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped after sun formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol, which had been stored at 50°C/75%RH for 1 day.

[0015] FIG. 7 shows appearance and stability of "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped after sun formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol, which had been stored at 40°C/75%RH for 1 day.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] As used herein, the word "a" or "plurality" before a noun represents one or more of the particular noun. For the terms "for example" and "such as," and grammatical equivalences thereof, the phrase "and without limitation" is understood to follow unless explicitly stated otherwise. As used herein, the term "about" is meant to account for variations due to

experimental error. All measurements reported herein are

understood to be modified by the term "about," whether or not the term is explicitly used, unless explicitly stated otherwise. As used herein, the singular forms "a, " "an, " and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0017] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Methods and materials are described herein for use in the present invention; other, suitable methods and materials known in the art can also be used. The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. All publications, patent applications, patents, sequences, database entries, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of

conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control .

[0018] This disclosure provides a formulation in a package, which may be pressurized. The formulation comprises one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents; the formulation is co-mingled (co-processed) with a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure (and in certain embodiments under controlled temperature) into the package. The gas

propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure to maintain the first gas dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component. In certain embodiments, the component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant. In certain embodiments, the component is present in the package in sufficient amounts and pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the formulation in the package. In certain embodiments, the amounts of the generating and maintaining component are sufficient to expel substantially all of the formulation in the package as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant does not co-mingle with the formulation.

[0019] The disclosed whipped formulation may be referred to herein as whipped formulation, whipped formulation product, whipped product, and the like.

[0020] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a method of preparing a whippable formulation, comprising: Filling a

formulation comprising one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents; the formulation is co-mingled (co- processed) with a gas propellant under controlled temperature and under pressure into a package;

wherein the gas propellant is added in sufficient amounts to be dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package is under sufficient pressure suitable to maintain the first gas propellant dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressurized package is under

sufficient pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the

formulation in the package. In certain embodiment, the method is performed under controlled temperature. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining

component. In certain embodiments, the component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant; the generating and maintaining component is present in the package in sufficient amounts and pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the

formulation in the package; and the one or more second gas and/or liquid propellant does not co-mingle with the

formulation . [0021] The disclosed whipped formulation may be referred to herein as whipped formulation, whipped formulation product, whipped product, and the like.

[0022] The disclosed whippable formulation may be referred to herein as whippable formulation, whippable formulation product, whippable product, and the like.

[0023] A whipped formulation is at one time a whippable formulation .

[0024] The term "can" may be used to also mean "package."

[0025] A subject may be a human subject (user) or may be an animal subject (user) . The terms "subject" and "user" are used interchangeably .

[0026] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a method of using a formulation that is a whipped formulation product disclosed herein, comprising administering the formulation to a subject in need thereof.

[0027] In other aspects, this disclosure provides a package, which may be pressurized, comprising a whippable formulation. The formulation comprises one or more active agents and one or more thermal stabilizing agents. The formulation is co-mingled

(co-processed) with a gas propellant prior to being filled under pressure (and in certain embodiments under controlled

temperature) into the package. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure until substantially all the formulation in the package is expelled as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the package maintains at least a minimal amount of pressure to maintain the first gas dispersed in the formulation. In certain embodiments, the package comprises a pressure generating and maintaining component. In certain embodiments, the component is present in the package in sufficient amounts and pressure to expel the formulation as a whipped formulation upon application of external force on the formulation in the package. In certain embodiments, the amounts of the generating and maintaining component are sufficient to expel substantially all the

formulation in the package as a whipped formulation. In certain embodiments, the pressure generating and maintaining component comprises one or more second gas and/or liquid propellants which are not co-mingled with the formulation.

[0028] Whippable products include, in addition to for

skincare and suncare (sunscreen and after sun care), for example and without limitation:

[0029] Category- Class- Whipped Benefit

[0030] Whip Cream - Food- Anti-Abuse

[0031] Peanut Butter- Food- Ease of Application

[0032] Dessert Topping - Food -Ease of Application

[0033] Topical Analgesic -OTC Drug - Improved Absorption

[0034] Burn Cream- Medical Device Rx - Reduced Spread-ability

Pain

[0035] Medical Haircare - Hair loss - NDA - Reduced Consumer Complaints - Failure to empty

[0036] Medical Haircare - Scalp treatment - OTC Drug - Improved Delivery/Application

[0037] Petrolatum Gel - OTC Drug - Ease of Application

[0038] Hair Styling Product - Cosmetic - Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0039] Diaper Rash Prevention - OTC Drug - Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0040] Tooth Whitener - Cosmetic - Better Coverage

[0041] Oral Care - Toothpaste - Cosmetic - Improved Delivery

[0042] Anti-Fungal treatment - OTC/Rx Drug - Reduced Spread- ability Pain/ Improved Absorption

[0043] Eye-lid Cleanser - Cosmetic- Novel Delivery [0044] Psoriasis treatment -Medical Device - Reduced Spread- ability Pain

[0045] Colon-Rectal Treatment - Rx - Improved Drug Delivery and Absorption

[0046] Acne treatment - OTC Drug - Novel Delivery

[0047] Hand Sanitizer - OTC Drug - Formulation Approach

[0048] Natural Deodorant - Cosmetic - Improved Spread-ability

[0049] Shave Prep - Cosmetic - Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0050] Wound Care- Medical Device- Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0051] Self-Tanner - Cosmetic - Improved Delivery

[0052] Body Moisturizer - Cosmetic - Novel Delivery of

Thicker Products

[0053] Lice Treatment - Medical Device/ OTC- Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0054] Hair Depilatory - OTC Drug- Novel Delivery of Thicker Products

[0055] Anti-Hemorrhagic - Rx/Device - Formulation

Compatibility - Non-Flammability - Surgical Application.

[0056] Thus, in certain embodiments, the formulation

disclosed herein comprise one or more active agents for each of the above formulations.

[0057] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is a skincare product, comprising one or more skincare active agents. In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is a sunscreen or an after-sun product. In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product may be an oral dosage form, such as a whipped multi-vitamin product. In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product may be for

woundcare of animals. [0058] A subject may be a human subject (user) or may be an animal subject (user) . "Subject" and "user" are used

interchangeably .

[0059] In certain embodiments, the formulation further comprises a foaming agent. In certain embodiments, the

formulation is for topical application.

[0060] In certain embodiments, the pressurized package in which pressure may be generated and/or maintained sufficient for the disclosed formulations is a Bag-on-valve, Piston Can, or Bag-in-Can. In other embodiments, the pressurized package is a mechanical pressure system, including for example, bladder system (such as Exxal Atomos System), which is a PowerContainer system with a rubber bladder around the outside providing pressure to the internal volume. In certain embodiments, springs are used to exert pressure on a bag. In certain other

embodiments, hydrostatic pressure is used to exert pressure on a bag .

[0061] In certain embodiments, the package is a bag on valve (BOV) pressurized assembly, comprising a two-way fill/dispensing valve, an attached internal high barrier bag affixed to the valve, and rigid container adapted to and capable of holding positive pressure, affixed to the valve. In certain further embodiments, the container is glass, barrier resin, metal/alloy, or another material capable of holding positive pressure. In certain other further embodiments, the container is pre- pressurized with one or more gas and/or liquid propellants prior to filling. In certain further embodiments, the BOV pressurized assembly dispenses the whipped product in a metered dispensing system and not a continuously dosing system.

[0062] In certain embodiments, the pressurized package can comprise a "pressure generating and maintaining component, " which may be a component that generates and/or maintains pressure in the package. It may refer to a chemical component or components which generate pressure, e.g., compressed gas, while inside an enclosed package, device or container (such as a can, for example) . Non-limiting examples of such pressure generating and maintaining components are compressed gases/propellants and liquid propellants such as, for example, CO2, propane, butane, isobutane, dimethyl ether, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, oxygen, air and the like, and suitable blends of such propellants. When a valve is opened by applying an external force, the formulation or ingredients in the device are dispensed in a 'whipped' form or a foamy form. This chemical component or components does not co-mingle with the formulation.

[0063] In certain embodiments, pre-pressurizing the package is not needed. In certain embodiments, the package is under Zero Cut Bag Pressure, where gas is present around bag but not pressurized above ambient. Filling the package at ambient pressure, the pressure inside the package would increase as the BOV expands. In certain embodiments, the package comprises an elastomeric tube/bag (akin to a tied off surgical tube) . In certain further embodiments, a slight vacuum is applied. In certain embodiments, the package is pressure agnostic, in which the container cannot hold pressure around the bag. In certain embodiments, the package has Negative Cut Bag Pressure, where vacuum is present around the bag but not pressurized above ambient. Other such systems may be used, such as the Sterilflo ® system (https : //www.hydrasense . ca/en/why-choose- hydrasense/steriflo/ ) .

[0064] A "skincare active agent" includes all those materials which are regarded as acceptable for use as active skin- protecting ingredients. A skincare active agent includes, for example and without limitation, skin protectant and/or anti- aging agent. Approval by a regulatory agency may sometimes be required for inclusion of active agents in formulations intended for human contact including but not limited to sunscreen active ingredients or petrolatum, white petrolatum, mineral oil, and dimethicone as skin protectants, as well as agents used as self- tanners or for diaper rash treatment and the like.

[ 0065 ] Sunscreen active agents which have been or are

currently approved for sunscreen use in the United States and elsewhere include, without limitation, paraaminobenzoic acid, avobenzone, cinoxate, dioxybenzone, homosalate, menthyl

anthranilate, octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl

salicylate, oxybenzone, padimate 0, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, octisalate, sulisobenzone, trolamine salicylate, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, diethanolamine methoxycinnamate, digalloyl trioleate, ethyl dihydroxypropyl PABA, glyceryl aminobenzoate, lawsone with dihydroxy acetone, red petrolatum and the like. Several other sunscreen active ingredients are accepted for use in other countries. Some non-limiting examples from outside the U.S. include Tinosorb M, Tinosorb S, Uvinul T- 150, UVA sorb HEB, Uvinul A Plus, Neo Heliopan AP, Neo Heliopan MBC, and the like. It is typical to use combinations of two or more skincare active agents in a formulation. Preferably, the amount of skincare active agent or agents is present in an amount that is consistent with the FDA guidelines. The use of a combination of active agents is especially true for sunscreen formulations in order to achieve higher levels of ultraviolet absorption or to provide useful absorption over a wider range of ultraviolet wavelengths than can be the case with a single active component. Preferably, the sunscreen active agent or agents is present in an amount that is consistent with the FDA sunscreen monograph for sunscreen active agent or agents that are believed to provide the requisite SPF in accordance with the FDA monograph for such sunscreens. Other skin care active agents include sunless tanning active agents, skin protectant active agent emollients, insect repelling agents, and the like. And other agents known in the art.

[0066] After sun product is specially formulated to cool, soothe, calm, and re-hydrate (moisturize) a sunburnt or stressed skin, and to lessen the pain or itch of a sunburnt body.

Currently, after sun products are available as lotion, cream, gel, or spray. The active agents in them are known in the art and any of which is within the scope of this invention. After Sun Actives are ingredients that can provide the following (but not limited) effects on skin: cooling; soothing; calming; re- hydrating (moisturizing) ; or relief pain/ itch associated with sunburn. As an example and without limitation, an After Sun formulation contains Glycerin, Panthenol, and Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice to provide cool and moisturizing effects on skin. As another example, and without limitation, another After Sun formulation contains Lidocaine as an active to provide sunburn pain/itch relief.

[0067] Other active agents are contemplated. These include, for example and without limitation, sunscreen active agents, after sun active agents, vitamins, food, etc. Any active agents that can be included as a whipped formulation or a whippable formulation are within the scope of this invention. These agents are known in the art .

[0068] In certain embodiments, the thermal stabilizing agent (s) is a long chain alcohol that is 18 carbon or longer, and/or a microcrystalline cellulose based product selected from one or more product selected from a purified, partially

depolymerized alpha cellulose derived from purified specialty grades of wood pulp and a product based on microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium. In further

embodiments, the long chain alcohol is behenyl alcohol. In other further embodiments, the microcrystalline cellulose based product is Avicel RC-591.

[0069] In certain embodiments, the formulation is an

emulsion .

[0070] Thermal-stable whipped formulation is a formulation that remains in its whipped form after being expelled from the package after storage and/or during use at a range of

temperatures .

[0071] In certain embodiments, the formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature up to about 50°C. In certain embodiments, the formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage at a temperature between about - 10°C and about 50°C. In certain embodiments, the formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least about 1 day. In certain embodiments, the formulation remains stable after the

formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 days, or more. In certain embodiments, the formulation remains stable after the formulation is expelled from the package after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature between about -10°C and about 50°C.

[0072] In certain embodiments, the formulation is a sunscreen and the one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents. In certain embodiments, the formulation is a sunscreen and the one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents; and the formulation remains stable after storage for at least 1 day to up to one month at a

temperature up to about 50°C; the formulation comprising between about 1.2% w/w to about 8.7% w/w behenyl alcohol.

[0073] In certain embodiments, the formulation is an after sun formulation and the one or more active agents include one or more after sun active agents; and the formulation remains stable after storage for at least 1 day at a temperature up to about 50°C, wherein the formulation comprises between about 1.0% w/w to about 7.5% w/w behenyl alcohol.

[0074] In certain embodiments, the formulation is

characterized by microdispersion and gas propellant level above normal saturation. In certain embodiments, the formulation is characterized by substantially consistent microvoid after the formulation is expelled from the package. In certain

embodiments, the formulation is highly emollient after the formulation is expelled from the package. In certain

embodiments, the formulation is readily spreadable and spreaded evenly after the formulation is expelled from the package.

[0075] In certain embodiments, the gas propellant (co-mingled or co-processed with the formulation comprising one or more active agent) is nitrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, Argon, air or oxygen. In certain embodiments, the gas propellant in the formulation is between about 0.01% w/w to about 15.00% w/w.

[0076] In certain embodiments, the formulation has one or more of characteristics such as little or no wetness after application, having a collapse time of at least 60 seconds, or structurally stable for at least 30 minutes.

[0077] In certain embodiments, the formulation is a sunscreen and the one or more active agents include one or more sunscreen active agents.

[0078] The disclosed whipped formulation product represents the careful culmination of advancements in formulation,

processing, and packaging to meet the end result of delivering a rich, creamy, spreadable, lightweight whipped product for consumer application.

[0079] Formulation: [0080] Non-shear thickening emulsion chemistry developed to allow for high levels of gas saturation, physical stability during temperature and pressure extremes, and post-dispensing foam stability. The chemistry has also been customized to allow for the inclusion of consumer-relevant ingredients that may include, for example and without limitation, sun screen actives, moisturizers, emulsifying agents, film forming agents,

thickening agents, skin feel aesthetic enhancers, antifungals, pH adjusters, pro vitamin additives, physical skin barriers, anti-bacterial agents, skin colorants, etc. Other ingredients are also contemplated, such as, without limitation, pain relief additives .

[0081] Processing:

[0082] In processing of certain embodiments, the blended formulation is transferred into a hopper, pressurized and under a controlled temperature; rate of flow and pressure is

transferred into a high shear, continuous-flow, high-pressure "whipping" head, which rapidly mixes the base formulation with a series of infusion gas injector ports which controls the gas pressure and rates of flow with a selection of gases (or gas) to rapidly co-mingle the gas and formulation solution, effectively "saturating" the gas into the formulation prior to injection into the package. The gas-infused formulation is then tested for density inline and controlled under pressure and finally

injected under pressure into the desired package.

[0083] The following three major steps are involved in manufacturing a whipped product (Finished Product) .

[0084] 1) Pre-mixing step: Co-process of a base formulation (Concentrate) and a 1st Gas.

[0085] 2) Pre-pressurizing step: Pressurizing of a 2nd gas between a bag and the inside wall of the product package. [0086] 3) Packaging step: Packaging the pre-mixed formulation (concentrate + the 1st gas) into the pre-pressurized Bag on Valve (BOV) package.

[0087] Generally, a blended base formulation is transferred into a hopper, pressurized and under a controlled temperature, rate of flow and pressure is transferred into a high shear, continuous-flow, high-pressure "whipping" head, which rapidly mixes the base formulation with a series of infusion gas injector ports which controls the gas pressure and rates of flow with a selection of gases (or gas) to rapidly co-mingle the gas

(1st gas) and the base formulation, effectively "dispersing" the gas into the formulation prior to injection into the pre- pressurized Bag on Valve (BOV) package. In addition, the gas- infused formulation is tested for density inline and controlled under pressure and finally injected under pressure into the desired package.

[0088] In certain embodiments, the gas propellant co-mingled with the formulation prior to filling the formulation/gas into the package is nitrous oxide gas. In certain embodiments, the Nitrous Oxide in the formulation is 0.1% w/w -4.0% w/w. In certain embodiments, the Nitrous Oxide in the formulation is about 0.1% w/w - about 10.0% w/w. In certain embodiments, the Nitrous Oxide in the formulation is about 0.1% w/w -about 1.9% w/w. In certain embodiments, the Nitrous Oxide in the

formulation is about 0.1%, 1.0%, 1.9%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, 5.0% w/w to about 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10 w/w.

[0089] Nitrous Oxide has a slight sweet odor that can

contribute to fragrance benefits (dual purpose gas benefits) .

[0090] In certain embodiments, certain other gases can serve as a particularly good whipping agent, as evaluated by the known or estimated Ostwald Coefficients of the blended mixture and gases. Taking into consideration the potential negative effects of co-mingling of the gases with base blended formulation, example being CO2, which can react with water-containing formulas to create carbonic acid and cause shifts in product pH.

Alternatively, CO2 can be used as a whipping gas to deliberately modify the pH of the formulation to reach targeted pH levels. Gas propellant or combinations include, without limitation, CO2, argon, isobutane, nitrogen, Argon, air, oxygen, isopentane, hydrofluroolefin, other suitable gases, and combination thereof.

[0091] In certain embodiments, the gas propellant in the formulation is between about 0.01% w/w to about 15.00% w/w.

[0092] Unless otherwise noted or otherwise clear in context to a person of ordinary skill in the art, all % herein are weight to weight (w/w) .

[0093] Packaging:

[0094] In certain embodiments, the pressure in the

pressurized package is between about 15psig to about 60psig. In certain embodiments, the final pressure in the pressurized package is between about 80psig to about 160psig. In certain embodiments, the pressure is about 40psig.

[0095] In certain embodiments, the package is a Bag on Valve

(BOV) pressurized assembly, comprising a two way fill/dispensing valve, an attached internal high barrier bag (affixed to valve) , and rigid container capable of holding positive pressure

(affixed to the valve) . The container may be glass, barrier resin, metal/alloy, or another material capable of holding positive pressure. The container may be "pre-pressurized" with a combination of gaseous and/or liquid propellants prior to filling, with internal pressure expected to build as the

internal volume is displaced during pressurized BOV filling.

[0096] The Bag on Valve assembly and accompanying "air gap" created between bag and the pressurized rigid container help to create an insulated barrier between the formulation and the user environment. This isolative barrier is helpful to moderate the temperature swings that might be experienced when taking this product from an ambient (indoor) location to a cooler or warmer environment, such as into the sun or into vehicles located in low/high temperature environments. This barrier helps to buffer formulation temperature change and help the formulation deliver a more consistent product experience (lower temperatures can form more rigid foam structures and high temperatures can cause weaker foam structures) . This feature can be particularly useful for products formulated with lower melt point foam-formers, intended for use in elevated temperature environments.

[0097] Bag on Valve delivery systems differ from traditional aerosol delivery systems in at least the following district ways: Aerosols require propellant gases to be co-joined or co- mingled into the base formulation, as would be the case in single or multiphase system. These systems use the propellant gas to both expel the product and as a foaming and/or particle breakup agent. By contrast, a Bag on Valve system includes the use of a bag within a metal can. The bag is in direct contact with the single phase formulation and is expelled by application of pressure to the outside of the bag. As such, the propellant gas inside the package never comes in contact with the product. Particle breakup or foaming can be accomplished through the dispensing actuator design and/or through the inclusion of a secondary gas within the formulation.

[0098] This BOV design has a several distinct benefits over traditional aerosol systems including without limitation:

[0099] - Very high levels of product evacuation (>99% or even greater than 99.5%)

[00100] - The ability to dispense formulas without the need to comingle with the propellant gas ("pure" formulation

concentrate ) [00101] - The ability to include gases within the formation as a foaming or particle breakup mechanism that might not serve as a sufficient propellant system

[00102] - The ability to use two different gases within the system, one optimized as a propellant and one optimized as a forming or particle breakup additive.

[00103] For example, in certain embodiments, Nitrous Oxide is used as a whipping agent without allowing "free gas" to be expelled and potentially abused. By contrast, whipped cream packaging which is sold in a traditional aerosol permits the user the ability to release and potentially abuse the gas propellant/whipping agent.

[00104] The pressure generating and maintaining component may be a gas, such as gaseous propellant, a liquid, such as a liquid propellant or a blend of gas and liquid. As used herein, a gaseous propellant may also be a compressed gas, such as CO2, nitrous oxide and the like. As used herein, a liquid propellant may also be a liquefied gas, such as isobutane and the like.

[00105] The pressure generating and maintaining component can be formulated inside the device in a variety of ways, depending upon the nature of the component or components that form the pressure generating and maintaining component. The vehicle, while acting as pressure-generator, may be a gas, even though it may have been packaged as, for example, a gas, a liquid or a solid. Non-limiting examples of the gas are carbon dioxide

(CO 2 ) , nitrous oxide (N2O) and the like. Thus, for example, if the vehicle is carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide can be

'derived' inside the sealed pressurized container in several ways. For example, the gas could be pumped into the container, or it could be added into the ingredients as "dry ice", or it could be derived or generated in situ via the chemical reaction of a suitable base with a suitable acid. In the case of "pumped in" or "dry ice", the gas is already present as CO2. In the case of generation in situ via the chemical reaction of a base with an acid, the gas is generated when the acid and the base mix.

[00106] If generating the gas by chemical reaction between a base and an acid, non-limiting examples of suitable bases include sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, potassium

bicarbonate, potassium carbonate and the like. Non-limiting examples of suitable acids include acetic acid, citric acid and the like. Sodium bicarbonate with citric acid is a suitable combination. Because the components are being combined inside of the sealed container (device) , the gas produced during the reaction is trapped which pressurizes the container.

[00107] One advantage of the inventive system is that the gas introduced or produced may be non-flammable.

[00108] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is characterized by microdispersion and gas propellant level above normal saturation. In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is characterized by substantially consistent microvoid.

[00109] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product comprises at least one recognized skincare active agent.

[00110] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation is a sunscreen formulation comprising at least one sunscreen active agent .

[00111] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product further comprises other ingredients, such as, for example and without limitation, one or more fatty alcohols - selected from, for example and without limitation, cetyl

alcohol, stearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, hydroxystearyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, isostearyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, hexadecyl alcohol, ricinoleyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol (lanette 22), erucyl alcohol and 2-octyl-dodecanol . In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation is an after sun lotion (contains Cetyl alcohol) but optionally without any added behenyl alcohol.

[00112] In certain embodiments, the physical stability of the whipped products obtained may also be characterized by means of these tests : determination of the organoleptic characteristics (e.g., aspect, color, odor), characterization of the texture (e.g., thick, fluid, greasy, non-greasy), and characterization of the spreadability .

[00113] In one embodiment, the disclosed whipped product formulation dispenses in a continuous stream when an external pressure is applied to the device, such as by depressing the valve/actuator, thereby eliminating the need to sgueeze and shake the formulation out of a bottle or tube.

[00114] In another embodiment, the disclosed whipped product in its device (package) operates as a "one-touch" delivery system; in such system, the user will hold down the actuator until the desired amount of formulation is dispensed.

[00115] In another embodiment, the disclosed whipped product in its package offers a continuous delivery system for an application, such as, for example and without limitation, skincare applications and suncare applications. Traditionally, "continuous delivery" is typically offered as a spray product and has been very successful due to the ease and speed that it provides for sunscreen application. Many consumers, however, prefer lotions/gels over sprays and would benefit from a continuous delivery mechanism. The present invention offers such an advantage.

[00116] The disclosed whipped formulation product can be used for any application that would benefit from such product, including, for example and without limitation, skincare, sunscreen, after sun care, vitamins, woundcare, etc. For each application, the formulation needs to comprise the corresponding active agent (s) and may further comprise other appropriate ingredients .

[00117] The disclosed whipped product dispenses in a light whipped form, infused with tiny bubbles that make the texture of the formulation lighter, smoother and easier to spread across the skin. This texture also makes the formulation feel less greasy and more aesthetically pleasing on hands and skin, leaving a 'sumptuous' feel with a sun-screen during application. This formulation spreads quickly and disappears rapidly as the user rubs the formulation into the skin. Such a formulation may even prevent excess application of the agent and may offer ecological advantages.

[00118] In another embodiment, the disclosed whipped product offers an easier, faster, smoother, and less greasy skincare formulation than a traditional formulation.

[00119] The term "emulsion" identifies oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) type dispersion formulations intended for application to the skin, and air emulsion. Such dispersion formulations include, for example and without limitation, lotions and creams providing cosmetic or therapeutic benefits. The emulsions may contain any of a number of desired "active" ingredients, including skin colorants, drug substances (such as anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics, topical anesthetics, antimycotics , keratolytics , etc.), skin protectants or

conditioners, humectants, ultraviolet radiation absorbers, food, vitamins, etc., depending on the intended uses for the

formulations .

[00120] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product comprises one or more of a thickening agent and/or an emulsifying agent. [00121] Suitable emulsifiers are those known in the art for producing oil-in-water type emulsions. An aqueous external phase is preferred by many people for skin contact, since it is not as likely to produce an oily or greasy sensation when it is being applied, as is an emulsion having an oil external phase. The typical oil-in-water emulsifier has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (frequently abbreviated as "HLB") value greater than about 9, as is well known in the art; however, this "rule" is known to have numerous exceptions. The chosen emulsifier, depending upon its chemical nature, will be a component of either the oil or aqueous phase or both, and assists with both the formation and the maintenance, or stability, of the

emulsion .

[00122] Non-limiting examples of suitable emulsifiers or surfactants include pharmaceutically acceptable, non-toxic, non- ionic, anionic and/or cationic surfactants. Examples of suitable non-ionic surfactants include, for example and without

limitation, glycerol fatty acid esters such as glycerol

monostearate, glycol fatty acid esters such as propylene glycol monostearate, polyhydric alcohol fatty acid esters such as polyethylene glycol (400) monooleate, polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters such as polyoxyethylene (40) stearate, polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers such as polyoxyethylene (20) stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters such as

polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate, sorbitan esters such as sorbitan monostearate, alkyl glycosides such as cetearyl

glucoside, fatty acid ethanolamides and their derivatives such as the diethanolamide of stearic acid, Prolipid and the like. An example of a suitable Prolipid is Prolipid 141 which lists behenyl alcohol, glyceryl stearate, palmitic acid, stearic acid, myristyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, cetyl alcohol and lecithin as its ingredients in its Formula Data Sheet. Examples of suitable anionic surfactants are soaps including, for example and without limitation, alkali soaps, such as sodium, potassium and ammonium salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids, usually fatty acids, such as sodium stearate. Organic amine soaps include, for example and without limitation, organic amine salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids, usually fatty acids, such as triethanolamine stearate. Metallic soaps include salts of polyvalent metals and aliphatic carboxylic acids, usually fatty acids, such as aluminum

stearate. Other classes of suitable anionic surfactants include, for example and without limitation, sulfated fatty acid alcohols such as sodium lauryl sulfate, sulfated oils such as the

sulfuric ester of ricinoleic acid disodium salt, and sulfonated compounds such as alkyl sultanates including sodium cetane sulfonate, amide sulfonates such as sodium N-methyl-N-oleyl laurate, sulfonated dibasic acid esters such as sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, alkyl aryl sulfonates such as sodium

dodecylbenzene sulfonate, alkyl naphthalene sulfonates such a sodium isopropyl naphthalene sulfonate, petroleum sultanate such as aryl naphthalene with alkyl substitutes. Examples of suitable cationic surfactants include, for example and without

limitation, amine salts such as octadecyl ammonium chloride, quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride. Non-limiting examples of emulsifiers include a mixture of cetearyl glucoside and cetearyl alcohol, available under the trade name Emulgade PL68/50 from Henkel KGaA, and PEG 30

dipolyhydroxy stearate, available under the trade name Arlacel 135 from ICI . Also preferred are various C12-15, C12-16 and C14-15 alcohols available from various manufacturers, and Ceteareth 2, 10, 18, 22, Ceteth-1 and 20, cetyl dimethicone copolyol, and cetyl phosphate, glyceryl stearate, Oleth 3 and 10, polyglyceryl 3 methylglucose dis-tearate sorbitan isostearate, steareth 2, 10, and/or 20. [00123] Other suitable emulsifiers are those known in the art for producing water-in-oil type emulsions. Non-limiting examples of some suitable water-in-oil emulsions include, for example and without limitation, SIMALINE WO (PEG-30 Dipolyhydroxystearate ; available from Seppic) , FLUIDANOV 20X (Octyldodecanol &

Octyldodecyl Xyloside; available from Seppic) , ES-5300 (Lauryl PEG-10 Tris (trimethylsiloxy) silylethyl Dimethicone; available from Dow Corning) , Abil EM90 (Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone; available from Evonik) and Abil WE09 ( Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate and Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone and Hexyl Laurate; available from Evonik) . The typical water-in-oil emulsifier has a HLB value of about 4 to about 6, however, this "rule" is also known to have numerous exceptions.

[00124] It may be advantageous to incorporate thickening agents, such as, for instance, Avicel RC-591 , Carbopol Ultrez, Carbopol ETD 2001, available from the B. F. Goodrich Co, Abil Wax 9801, a surfactant available from Evonik, Alginic Acid, available from Kelco, cellulose gum, available from TIC Gums, ammonium acrylates copolymer, ammonium polyacryloyl dimethyl taurate, bentonite available from Southern Clay, guar

hydroxpropyltrimonium chloride available from Henkel, hydroxy propylprocellulose available from Aqualon, magnesium aluminum silicate, available from Salomon, potassium alginate available from Kelco, beeswax available from Strah & Pitsch, and behenyl alcohol, available from Nikko.

[00125] Insect repelling components are also a desirable ingredient in certain skincare and sunscreen formulations, if the formulations are to be used by persons engaged in outdoor activities. The most widely used insect repelling agent for personal care products is N, N-Diethyl-m-toluamide, frequently called "DEET" and available in the form of a concentrate

containing at least about 95 percent DEET. Other synthetic chemical repellents include, for example and without limitation, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl hexanediol, indalone, di-n- propylisocinchoronate, bicycloheptene, dicarboximide, IR3535 (3- [N-Butyl-N- acetyl ] -aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester; available from Merck KGaA) ) and tetrahydrofuraldehyde . Certain plant- derived materials also have insect repellent activity, including citronella oil and other sources of citronella (including lemon grass oil), limonene, rosemary oil and eucalyptus oil. Choice of an insect repellent for incorporation into the skincare or sunscreen emulsion will frequently be influenced by the odor of the repellent. The amount of repellent agent used will depend upon the choice of agent; DEET is useful at high concentrations, such as up to about 15 percent or more, while some of the plant- derived substances are typically used in much lower amounts, such as 0.1 percent or less.

[00126] The disclosed formulation/ formulations may contain a wide range of additional, optional components. The CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook, Seventh Edition, 1997, and the Eighth

Edition, 2000, which are both incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, describe a wide variety of cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients commonly used in skin care

formulations, which are suitable for use in the formulations of the present invention. Examples of these functional classes disclosed in these references include, for example and without limitation, : absorbents, abrasives, anticaking agents,

anti-foaming agents, antioxidants, binders, biological

additives, buffering agents, bulking agents, chelating agents, chemical additives, colorants, cosmetic astringents, cosmetic biocides, cryoprotectants , film stabilizers, denaturants, drug astringents, external analgesics, film formers, fragrance components, humectants, pacifying agents, pH adjusters,

plasticizers, preservatives, propellants, reducing agents, skin bleaching agents, skin-conditioning agents (emollients, humectants, miscellaneous, and occlusive) , skin protectants, solvents, SPF enhancers/boosters, foam boosters, hydrotropes, solubilizing agents, suspending agents (nonsurfactant ) ,

sunscreen agents, ultraviolet light absorbers, water-proofing agents, and viscosity increasing agents (aqueous and

nonaqueous) .

[00127] An emollient is a substance which helps to smooth and soften the skin, and may also reduce its roughness, cracking or irritation. Non-limiting examples of suitable emollients

include, for example and without limitation, mineral oil having a viscosity in the range of 50 to 500 centipoise (cps), lanolin oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter, olive oil, almond oil, macadamia nut oil, aloe extracts such as aloe vera lipoquinone, synthetic jojoba oils, natural Sonora jojoba oils, safflower oil, corn oil, liquid lanolin, cottonseed oil and peanut oil. Preferably, the emollient is a cocoglyceride, which is a mixture of mono, di and triglycerides of cocoa oil, sold under the trade name of Myritol 331 from Henkel KGaA, or Dicaprylyl Ether available under the trade name Cetiol OE from Henkel KGaA or a C12-C15 Alkyl Benzoate sold under the trade name Finsolv TN from

Finetex. Another suitable emollient is DC 200 Fluid 350, a silicone fluid, available from Dow Corning Corp. One or more emollients may be present ranging in amounts from about 1 percent to about 10 percent by weight, preferably about 5 percent by weight.

[00128] Other suitable emollients include, for example and without limitation, squalane, castor oil, polybutene, sweet almond oil, avocado oil, calophyllum oil, ricin oil, vitamin E acetate, olive oil, silicone oils such as dimethylopolysiloxane and cyclomethicone, linotenic alcohol, oleyl alcohol, the oil of cereal germs such as the oil of wheat germ, isopropyl palmitate, octyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, hexadecyl stearate, butyl stearate, decyl oleate, acetyl glycerides, the octanoates and benzoates of (C12-C15) alcohols, the octanoates and decanoates of alcohols and poly-alcohols such as those of glycol and glyceryl, ricinoleates esters such as isopropyl adipate, hexyl laurate and octyl dodecanoate, dicaprylyl maleate, hydrogenated vegetable oil, phenyltrimethicone, jojoba oil and aloe vera extract.

[00129] Other suitable emollients which are solids or

semi-solids at ambient temperatures may be used. Such solid or semi-solid cosmetic emollients include, for example and without limitation, glyceryl dilaurate, hydrogenated lanolin,

hydroxylated lanolin, acetylated lanolin, petrolatum, isopropyl lanolate, butyl myristate, cetyl myristate, myristyl myristate, myristyl lactate, cetyl alcohol, isostearyl alcohol and isocetyl lanolate. One or more of these emollients can be optionally included in the formulation.

[00130] The whipped formulations can further comprise skin protectant active agents. Suitable examples include, for example and without limitation, (with preferred weight percent ranges), Allantoin (0.5 to 2 percent); Aluminum hydroxide gel (0.15 to 5 percent), Calamine (1 to 25 percent); Cocoa butter (greater than 50 percent); Cod liver oil (5 to 14 percent); Dimethicone (1 to 30 percent) ; Glycerin (20 to 45 percent) ; Hard fat (greater than 50 percent); Kaolin (4 to 20 percent); Lanolin (12.5 to 50 percent) ; Mineral oil (greater than 50 percent) ; Petrolatum

(greater than 30 percent); Topical starch (10 to 98 percent); White petrolatum (greater than 30 percent); Zinc acetate (0.1 to 2 percent); Zinc carbonate (0.2 to 2 percent); and Zinc oxide (1 to 25 percent) . Additional skin protectant active agents may include Colloidal oatmeal or Sodium bicarbonate.

[00131] Water is employed in amounts effective to form the emulsion. It is generally preferred to use water which has been purified by processes such as deionization or reverse osmosis, to improve the batch-to-batch formulation inconsistencies which can be caused by dissolved solids in the water supply. The amount of water in the emulsion or formulation can range from about 15 percent to 95 weight percent.

[00132] A humectant is a moistening agent that promotes retention of water due to its hygroscopic properties. Suitable humectants include, for example and without limitation,

glycerin, polymeric glycols such as poly- ethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, mannitol and sorbitol. Preferably, the humectant is glycerin, Sorbitol 70% USP or polyethylene glycol 400, NF. More preferably, the humectant is glycerin. One or more humectants can optionally be included in the formulation in amounts from about 1 percent to about 10 percent by weight, preferably about 5 percent by weight. Other suitable humectants include, inter alia, fructose, glucose, lactic acid, PCA, potassium lactate and PCA, propylene glycol, sodium lactate and PCA.

[00133] A dry-feel modifier is an agent which when added to an emulsion, imparts a "dry feel" to the skin when the emulsion dries. Dry feel modifiers can include, for example and without limitation, talc, kaolin, chalk, starches, zinc oxide, silicone fluids, inorganic salts such as barium sulfate, surface treated silica, precipitated silica, fumed silica such as an Aerosil

(silica) available from Degussa Inc., DryFlo starch (aluminum starch octenylsucinate available from Akzo Nobel), and/or an epichlorohydrin cross-linked glyceryl starch, available from Ingredion, Inc. Bridgewater, NJ, under the current tradename of Vulca 90 starch.

[00134] The disclosed formulation may additionally contain waterproofing agents. A waterproofing or water resistance agent is a hydrophobic material that imparts film forming and waterproofing characteristics to an emulsion. A waterproofing agent that can be used, for example and without limitation, is a copolymer of vinyl pyrollidone and eicosene and dodecane

monomers such as the Ganex V 220, Ganex P-904 LC, and Ganex V 216 Polymers, respectively, available from Ashland Inc. Still other suitable waterproofing agents include poly alfa olefin polymers, such as Performa V 825 available from New Phase

Technologies and polyanhydride resin No. 18 available under the trade name PA- 18 from Chevron. Additional examples of

waterproofing agents are polyurethane polymers. Some such polymers are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,097,828.

[00135] An antimicrobial preservative may be part of the disclosed formulation. An antimicrobial preservative is a substance or preparation which destroys, prevents or inhibits the proliferation of, microorganisms in the skincare

formulation, and which may also offer protection from oxidation. Preservatives are frequently used to make self-sterilizing, aqueous based products such as emulsions. This is done to prevent the development of microorganisms that may grow in the product during the manufacture and distribution of the product and/or during use by consumers, who may further inadvertently contaminate the products during normal use. Typical

preservatives include, for example and without limitation, the lower alkyl esters of para-hydroxyben-zoates (parabens),

especially methylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben and mixtures thereof, benzyl alcohol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and benzoic acid. The preferred preservative is available under the trade name of Germaben II from Sutton or a combination of chlorophenesin and benzyl alcohol. One or more antimicrobial preservatives can optionally be included in an amount ranging from about 0.001 to about 10 weight percent, preferably about 0.05 to about 1 percent .

[00136] An antioxidant may be part of the disclosed

formulation. An antioxidant is a natural or synthetic substance added to the sunscreen to protect from or delay its

deterioration due to the action of oxygen in the air (oxidation) and to protect the skin from sun damage. Antioxidants prevent oxidative deterioration which may lead to the generation of rancidity and nonenzymatic browning reaction products. Typical suitable antioxidants include, for example and without

limitation, propyl, octyl and dodecyl esters of gallic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, usually purchased as a mixture of ortho and meta isomers), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) ,

nordihydroguaiaretic acid, Oxynex (Oxynex ST liquid is a mixture of diethylhexyl syringyliden-emalonate and caprylic/capric triglyceride), Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Vitamin C. One or more antioxidants can optionally be included in the formulation in an amount ranging from about 0.001 to about 5 weight percent, preferably about 0.01 to about 0.5 percent.

[00137] Chelating agents may be part of the disclosed

formulation. Chelating agents are substances used to chelate or bind metallic ions, such as with a heterocyclic ring structure so that the ion is held by chemical bonds from each of the participating rings. Suitable chelating agents include, for example and without limitation, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) , EDTA disodium, calcium disodium edetate, EDTA trisodium, citric acid, EDTA tetrasodium and EDTA dipotassium. One or more chelating agents can optionally be included in the formulation in amounts ranging from about 0.001 to about 0.2 weight, percent preferably about 0.01% weight percent.

[00138] The disclosed formulation may include foam stabilizers or foam stabilizing agents. There are many examples of such agents and means to achieve foam stability. Non-limiting examples of suitable foam stabilizers include, for example and without limitation, the Avicels, Capmul S12L, Capmul S18L,

Amilite GCK-12, Amadol CMA-2, Ampholak 7 CX-C, Ampholak X CO-30, Polyox WSR N-10, Amaranth S, Foam-Coll 5, Blanose 12M31XP, Genu carrageenan, Avanel S150CG and others. Avicel is an example that can be used in the formulation. For example, Avicel RC-591 is a mixture of cellulose gum and microcrystalline cellulose. Some foam stabilizers also help improve long term high temperature stability .

[00139] Fragrances are aromatic substances which can impart an aesthetically pleasing aroma to the skincare or sunscreen formulation and may be part of the disclosed formulation.

Typical fragrances include, for example and without limitation, aromatic materials extracted from botanical sources (i.e., rose petals, gardenia blossoms, jasmine flowers, etc.) which can be used alone or in any combination to create essential oils.

Alternatively, alcoholic extracts may be prepared for

compounding fragrances. However, due to the relatively high costs of obtaining fragrances from natural substances, the modern trend is to use synthetically prepared fragrances, particularly in high-volume products. Both types are considered to be within the scope of the present invention.

[00140] A pH modifier may be part of the disclosed

formulation. A pH modifier is a compound that will adjust the pH of a formulation to a lower, e.g., more acidic pH value, or to a higher, e.g., more basic pH value. The disclosed formulations may contain such pH modifiers as is necessary.

[00141] In an embodiment, an SPF enhancer or booster,

including styrene/acrylates copolymer (such as Sunspheres PGL, commercially available from Dow Chemical), and/or skin active agents, and/or anti-oxidants , may be optionally added to the formulation .

[00142] The disclosed formulation may be used as an after-sun formulation. As used herein, an after-sun emulsion formulation is defined as a formulation that can be administered after a user has been in the sun for any amount of time and is a

formulation that provides a soothing or healing effect that is pleasant to the user. Such a formulation can contain, for instance, aloe vera, vitamins A and E, cooling agents,

moisturizers, redness-reducing agents and the like.

[00143] The present formulation may be used as self-tanning formulation or for sunless tanning. As used herein, the term "sunless-tanning" or "self-tanning formulations" refer to formulations which, when applied to human skin, impart thereto an appearance similar to that achieved by exposing the skin to natural or artificial sunlight. Examples of sunless tanning active agents are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,482,397,

6,261,541, and 6,231,837. Such sunless tanning compositions typically comprise, in addition to an artificial tanning

effective amount of a self-tanning agent, effective amounts of a formulation coloring agent and a cosmetically acceptable carrier adapted for topical application to human skin. The self-tanning agents can also include those formulations generally accepted in the art for application to human skin, and which, when so applied, react therein with amino acids so as to form pigmented products. Such reactions give the skin a brown appearance, similar to the color obtained upon exposing it to sunlight for periods of time sufficient to tan the skin. Suitable self- tanning agents include, without limitation, alpha-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones, glyceraldehyde and related alcohol aldehydes, various indoles, imidazoles and derivatives thereof, and various approved pigmentation agents. Presently preferred herein as self-tanning agents are the alpha-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Most preferably, the self-tanning agent is

dihydroxyacetone ("DHA") . Other suitable self-tanning agents include, without limitation, methyl glyoxal, glycerol aldehyde, erythrulose, alloxan, 2 , 3-dihydrox-ysuccindialdehyde, 2,3- dimethoxysuccindialdehyde, 2-amino-3-hydroxy-succindialdehyde and 2-benzylamino- 3-hydroxysuccindialdehyde .

[00144] The disclosed whipped formulation product has been developed, in part, to offer consumers a unique and better way to apply topical products such as sunscreen and after sun products to themselves and others.

[00145] One advantage of the disclosed whipped formulation product is during dispensing the density of the formulation contained within the package drops measurably, in one example dropping from a density roughly equal to 1.0 g/ml to 0.15-0.18 g/ml post evacuation. The resulting dispensed product represents a whipped product (a foam) of substantial rigidity and body, slow to collapse under ambient and elevated temperature

conditions but easy to "break" upon physical manipulation, as for example during rubbing. This allows for a more "controlled" and even dispersal/spreading/distribution of product as compared to the initial "un-whipped" presentation of the formulation.

[00146] Another advantage of the disclosed whipped product arises from the ability to contain such a large "dispensed volume" in such a condensed package format. The volume

comparison between "straight" (un-whipped) and "whipped"

formulation is represented in roughly a 1:5 to 1:6 ratio, allowing for a far more consumer friendly and portable package size/format for such a large volume of dispensed product.

[00147] In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped

formulation product can allow for more control of spread over body. In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped formulation product provides a more rigid "push" providing enhanced tactile response. In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped

formulation product is described as "thicker, creamier, and more volume," "lighter during application." In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped formulation product allows for more control as to "heaviness" of application. In certain

embodiments, the disclosed whipped formulation product provides for faster application due to perceived fast absorption.

[00148] In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped

formulation product allows for high levels of product

evacuation, particularly for viscous products as compared to traditional non-pressurized emulsion packaging. In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped formulation product with its pressured system allows for elevated levels of gas to be

dispersed into formulation, beyond what ambient would normally allow, which can increase whipping potential (lower resulting dispensed densities) and reduce sputtering that can be caused by saturating high levels of gas into formulation but failing to provide adequate pressure to contain the saturated gas. In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped formulation product results in reduced corrosion potential by separating the

formulation from the rigid, pressurized container (if metal) by containing the formulation in the internal bag.

[00149] In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped

formulation product can have its gas propellant or combination, pressure, and saturation customized for each formulation.

Whereas oil and water emulsions are particularly well suited for specific gases, liquid propellants can provide much larger bubble structures. BOV dispensing mechanism allows for co- blending of the various types of liquid and gas-phase propellant allowing to dispense whipped products without substantially altering temperature or potentially induce a cooling effect due to phase change energy absorption.

[00150] The disclosed whipped product is a light and

spreadable formulation and thus may be particularly well suited for sensitive or compromised skin applications, such as applying a whipped sunscreen product.

[00151] The disclosed whipped product form is designed to dispense, for example and without limitation,

lotion/cream/ointment/oral dosage form/whipped cream in a controlled manner by delivering a pressurized, foaming

formulation via a dispensing orifice at the touch of a button. The product is dispensed via an actuator that depresses a valve stem into a female aerosol valve. Upon activation, the gas- saturated formulation experiences a drop in pressure as it moves from a pressurized containment system to ambient conditions. This change in pressure allows the saturated gas to rapidly expand, creating bubbles within the formulation, leading to a formulation of reduced density. Formulation customizations allow these bubbles to remain stable for about 10 seconds, for about 20 minutes, or longer, permitting the user to spread the

resulting product onto a surface with enhanced coverage

benefits .

[00152] Although specific suppliers of commercially available ingredients may be listed herein, it is understood that these products may be available from additional suppliers and that the instant invention is not limited to only that ingredient from the specifically cited supplier. Rather the supplier is being provided as an example of what is commercially available.

[00153] Description of certain embodiments of the whipped product

• Luxurious whipped product, whipped, spongy, soft, pillowy

• No shake whipping

• Not runny; stays where you put it • Easy to apply and handle, faster, easier application

• More controllable, no drip allows precise placement, convenience of Continuous-Spray but no wet-look. Applying easily to back, not chasing a liquid product, no smear mess but pull product to control application. Can apply multiple dollops to body at one time. Thus can put package down and not have to touch again while rubbing in multiple dollops

o Quick rub-out time

o Different sensory (drag of product) , smoothness

o Connect emotionally with application experience

• Perception - whipped dries more quickly

• After feel - no wetness/drag/tackiness

• Coping mechanism: whipped made convenient/quiet/easy dispose

• Characterization of the product - brightness, density, bubble size, bubble distribution, surface tension, pH,

stability, sheer, dose, sound, drag (skin feel) - low drag, sheen, full bodied, insulation, contact temperature, wetness, slip, sound cue

• Change in physical properties only, maintains formulation properties with enhanced application benefits, "transforms application but not properties"

• May have 5X -10X expansion in density

• Micro-voids, micro-bubbles, infused, air emulsion, trap gas in structure

• Consistent whipped product over life of product- beginning to end

• Reduce in dead inventory

• Stable, supersaturated nitrous oxide loading, helps to create microbubbles and thus unique structure

• Can create variable drag experience based on processing

• reduced drag application, increased/better/easier

application

• low sheer application for sensitive/damaged skin

• Create and maintain higher solubility product through containment under elevated pressure (allows constant pressure overtime )

• Size of nozzle (sheer rate impact) sound profile [00154] One drawback of standard lotion products is their tendency to become runny or drippy after application. As shown in FIG . 1 , Kiehl's sunscreen lotion, a typical sunscreen lotion product, became runny right after application. On the contrary, a whipped sunscreen lotion delivered a voluminous and creamy "whipped-foam" that does not deflate soon after dispensing, and stayed firmly on the application site and then resisted to run. This stay-put-ness attribute of whipped sunscreen products is advantageous as they do not need to be spread immediately after application .

[00155] HIGH SENSORY IMPACT

[00156] The disclosed whipped formulation product represents the careful culmination of advancements in formulation,

processing, and packaging to deliver a rich, creamy, spreadable, lightweight whipped product for consumer application, with high sensory impact.

[00157] Sensory impact (such as appearance, sound, and skin impact) to the user may be evaluated by trained personnel to determine how product variants are perceived differently by the user, with statistical confidence. Those formulations determined to have high sensory impact are thus selected. High sensory impact is, for example, an impact to the user's senses that is greater than adequate. In certain embodiments, the user's senses are highly satisfied by the disclosed formulation after its application on the user.

[00158] Two intertwined process variables may contribute to controlling the consumer experience associated with a base formula; gas loading (e.g., Nitrous Oxide) into the formulation with the active ingredient, which impacts density,

spreadability, sound, and physical appearance of product; and pre-gas can pressure, which influences stability of gas

emulsion, sound, speed of dispense, sputtering, and "quality" characteristics. Multiple product variants, combining these two process variables, are run and are being physically evaluated. Physical measurements may be made, including pre-gas CT scans to yield "in can" product profile characterization details; dispensing observations (appearance, sound, etc.) and high temperature foam stability; and post-dispensing physical

measurements including density, bubble size, and bubble size distribution. Sensory impact (such as appearance, sound, and skin impact) to the user of these multiple product variants may be evaluated by trained personnel to determine how product variants are perceived differently by the user, with statistical confidence. Some of these tested whipped formulations would have high sensory impact to the user. For any given product, the following parameters, as well as any other parameters that impact a user's sense (s), may be evaluated.

[00159] Appearance: visual compactness, integrity of shape, gloss, hue, intensity, brightness, opacity, whitening.

[00160] Sound: volume, tone, crackling/popping, sputtering. Skin Feel: firmness, stickiness, cohesiveness , peaking, wetness, spread-ability, coolness, thickness, slipperiness , oiliness, waxiness, greasiness, rubs to absorbency, tautness, roughness, thickness of residue, grittiness, graininess, chalkiness, peeling/ flaking, pilling, powdery-ness , plastic/coated.

[00161] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulations have high sensory impact to a user, who may be a human user. These formulations with high sensory impact are characterized by one or more of the following: positive appearance, low sound impact, high integrity of shape, visual compactness, high spreadability, positive skin feel, afterfeel (immediately after application or after a few minutes after application, such as about 10 minutes after) as well as other sensory input perceivable by a user.

[00162] In certain embodiments, the disclosed whipped product dispenses in a light whipped form, infused with tiny bubbles that make the texture of the formulation lighter, smoother and easier to spread across the skin. This texture also makes the formulation feel less greasy and more aesthetically pleasing on hands and skin, leaving a 'sumptuous' feel with a sunscreen during application. This formulation spreads quickly and disappears rapidly as the user rubs the formulation into the skin. Such a formulation may even prevent excess application of the agent and may offer ecological advantages.

[00163] In another embodiment, the disclosed whipped product offers an easier, faster, smoother, and less greasy skincare formulation than a traditional formulation.

[00164] In certain embodiments, the physical stability of the whipped products obtained may also be characterized by means of these tests : determination of the organoleptic characteristics (e.g., aspect, color, odor), characterization of the texture (e.g., thick, fluid, greasy, non-greasy), and characterization of the spreadability .

[00165] In certain embodiments, the disclosed formulation has one or more of the following physical characteristics: a majority of bubbles being of a bubble size of less than 20μπι, mean number of bubbles of about less than 20%, and high foam stability. In certain embodiments, the disclosed formulations have high foam stability at high temperatures, such as at 25°C to 37°C, or 37°C to 50°C.

[00166] In certain embodiments, the color of the whipped formulation post-dispensing is white. The whiteness of the whipped lotion may be used as a visual queue for application on skin .

[00167] In certain embodiments, the formulation has at least about 60% of the gas bubbles at ≤ 100 μπι, after the formulation is expelled from the package. In certain embodiments, the formulation has at least about 40% of the gas bubbles at ≤ 60 μπι, after the formulation is expelled from the package.

[00168] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is characterized by microdispersion . In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is characterized by substantially consistent microvoid.

[00169] In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product is highly emollient. In certain embodiments, the whipped formulation product has about 60% or more of the gas bubbles at < 100 μπι. In certain other embodiments, the whipped formulation product has about 40% or more of the gas bubbles at ≤ 60 μπι. The gas bubbles are formed from the gas propellant co-mingled with the formulation prior to filling the formulation into the package .

[00170] In certain embodiments, the formulation has one or more of characteristics such as little or no wetness after application, having a collapse time of at least 60 seconds, or structurally stable for at least 30 minutes.

[00171] Examples

[00172] For this invention to be better understood, the following examples are set forth. These examples are for

purposes of illustration only and are not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention in any manner.

[00173] Example 1. Evaluating Factors for Thermal-stable

Formulations

[00174] A new "whipped" platform technology has been

successfully applied for developing Sunscreen and After Sun products, and is being utilized in developing various products including medicated dermal products. These whipped products

(Finished Product) consists of a base emulsion formulation

(Concentrate) and a propellant (Gas), which is then packaged into a pre-pressurized Bag on Valve (BOV) package.

[00175] The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of key functional ingredients on the performance of whipped products. For this evaluation, the appearance of "whipped- foam" dispensed from whipped products has been graded from a stable, creamy, and fully whipped (+++++) to a liquid form (-) . The following general description captures the appearance of the "whipped-foam" corresponding to each of the grades observed. a. +++++: stable, rich creamy appearance, and fully whipped foam

b. ++++ : the "whipped-foam" largely maintains its appearance and structure/shape

c. +++ : the "whipped-foam" lost some of its appearance and structure/ shape

d. ++ : the "whipped-foam" lost much of its appearance and structure/ shape

e. +: the "whipped-foam" lost most of its appearance and structure/ shape

f. -: the "whipped-foam" lost its appearance and

structure/shape completely and is in viscous liquid form

g. - -: the "whipped-foam" lost its appearance and

structure/shape completely and is in runny liquid form

[00176] The present studies are focused on evaluating key functional ingredients which can control and improve effectively the performance of whipped products, particularly the stability of their dispensed "whipped-foams" . Formulations from each

Sunscreen and After Sun product categories were selected as model formulations to investigate the effect of key functional ingredients on the performance of whipped products.

[00177] All tested formulations are manufactured and packaged at Memphis R&D laboratory (brief manufacturing process is provided in Appendices A and B) . In general, a whipped product

(Finished Product) should be prepared by 1) pre-mixing step: co- process of a base formulation (Concentrate) and a 1st Gas, 2) pre-pressurizing step: pressurizing of a 2nd gas between a bag and the inside wall of the product can, and 3) packaging step: packaging the pre-mixed formulation (concentrate + the 1st gas) into the pre-pressurized Bag on Valve (BOV) package. For this study, a pre-pressurized BOV package and the pre-mixing step were not utilized. However, in order to mimic the performance of a typical whipped product, the mixture of a base formulation and nitrous oxide in a package was shaken vigorously before

dispensing. In addition, a careful dispensing method was

utilized to meet the end result of delivering a rich, creamy, spreadable, lightweight "whipped-foam" . Formulation details for whipped Sunscreen and After Sun products used in the following evaluation studies are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

[00178] Evaluation Study I: Investigation of Key Functional Ingredients in Whipped Products

[00179] The effects of key functional ingredients on whipped products stored at 50° C/75 % RH for 1 day are tested. The high temperature condition is used to visualize and differentiate each functional ingredient's effect on the whipped products.

[00180] As shown in FIG. 2, both Lanette 22 (Behenyl alcohol) and Avicel RC-591 have great impact on the high temperature stability of the whipped products. The "whipped-foam" delivered from the control formulation (Y71-098), which contains both Lanette 22 and Avicel, appears slightly lost some of its

appearance and structure at T=0 (right after storage at 50° C/75%RH for 1 day, the temperature of the packaged sample is close to 50° C when the x whipped-foam" was dispensed) . However, even after staying at RT for 2 minutes, the control formulation is able to deliver "whipped-foam" that largely maintains its appearance and structure. The effects of Lanette 22 and Avicel on the high temperature stability of whipped formulations are comparable. As expected, the "whipped-foam" delivered from the formulation without both Avicel and Lanette 22 losing its appearance and structure completely and becomes a viscous liquid at both T=0 and T= 2 minutes at RT . [00181] Neither cetyl alcohol (Ci6 fatty alcohol) nor Ganex P- 904 LC (a film former that provides water and wears resistance) appears to improve the thermal stability of the whipped products substantially (FIG. 3) . The results in FIGs.2 and 3 also

demonstrate that regardless of heat stress, all tested

formulations are able to deliver stable "whipped-foams" after remaining at room temperature (RT) for 24 hours.

[00182] Based on these results, the order of "whipped-foam" dispensed is as follows.

[00183] At T=0,

[00184] The control (+++) > the control minus Cetyl alcohol (+++) > the control minus Avicel (++) = the control minus

Lanette 22 (++) = the control minus both Cetyl alcohol and

Lanette 22 (++) > the control minus both Avicel and Lanette 22 (-) > the control minus Avicel, Ganex P-904, and Lanette 22 (- -) .

[00185] At T=2 minutes at RT,

[00186] The control (++++) > the control minus Cetyl alcohol (+++) = the control minus Avicel (+++) = the control minus

Lanette 22 (+++) > the control minus both Cetyl alcohol and Lanette 22 (++) > the control minus both Avicel and Lanette 22 (-) > the control minus Avicel, Ganex P-904, and Lanette 22 (- -) .

[00187] Evaluation Study II: The Effect of varying Behenyl Alcohol Amount on The Stability of Whipped Sunscreen Products

[00188] Whipped sunscreen formulations with behenyl alcohol concentration ranging from 1.2 % w/w to 8.7 % w/w are prepared and evaluated for their stability at the high temperature (50° C/75%RH for 1 day) . Each whipped lotion formulation contains 4.50 % w/w Prolipid 141. Table 3 lists the concentration for each of the ingredients in the prolipid 141 per each whipped lotion formulation. [00189] As presented in FIG. 4, increasing the concentration of behenyl alcohol from 1.2 % w/w to 6.2 % w/w significantly improves the stability of the whipped formulations for 50° C storage. Maximum improvement is achieved by the formulation containing 6.2% w/w behenyl alcohol. The effect of increasing the concentration of behenyl alcohol from 6.2 % w/w to 8.7 % w/w on the stability of the whipped formulations is negligible. The score of "whipped-foam" from whipped sunscreen formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol (BA) is as follows .

[00190] At T=0,

[00191] 1.2% BA (++) < 1.7% BA (+++) < 2.2% BA (+++) = 3.2% BA (+++) < 6.2% BA (++++) = 8.7% BA (++++)

[00192] At T=2 minutes at RT,

[00193] 1.2% BA (+++) =1.7% BA (+++) = 2.2% BA (+++) < 3.2% BA

(++++) < 6.2% BA (+++++) = 8.7% BA

[00194] At T=28 minutes at RT,

[00195] 1.7% BA (++++) < 2.2% BA

[00196] Evaluation Study III: The Effect of varying Behenyl Alcohol Amount on The Stability of Whipped After Sun Products

[00197] Similarly to whipped sunscreen products, a whipped after sun lotion also delivers a voluminous and creamy "whipped- foam" at RT . When stored at 50° C/75%RH for 1 day, the "whipped- foam" delivered from whipped after sun lotion losts its

appearance and structure completely and becomes a runny liquid even after staying at RT for 2 minutes (FIG. 5) . In order to investigate whether different levels of behenyl alcohol (Lanette 22) can provide adequate whipped after sun lotion stability at elevated temperature, after sun formulations containing various concentration of behenyl alcohol are prepared and stored at two different storage conditions (1 day at 40°C/20% RH and 1 day at 50°C/75%RH) . [00198] It is readily seen that the stability of the whipped after sun formulations at 50 °C improves markedly when the concentration of behenyl alcohol rose from 1.0 % w/w to 7.5% w/w( FIG . 6) . Maximum improvement is achieved by the formulation containing 7.5% w/w behenyl alcohol. The minimum concentration of behenyl alcohol required to maintain the adequate "whipped- foam" stability at the high temperature (at 50°C) needs to be > 1.0 % w/w. No enhancement of "whipped-foam" stability was observed when behenyl alcohol concentration is increased from 0.5 % w/w to 1.0 % w/w. The score of "whipped-foam" from whipped after sun formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol (BA) after 1 day at 50°C/75%RH is as follows.

[00199] At T=0, 0% BA (- -) = 0.5% BA (- -) = 1.0% BA (- -) < 5.0% BA (++++) < 7.5% BA (+++++)

[00200] At T=2 minutes at RT,

[00201] 0% BA (- -) < 0.5% BA (-) = 1.0% BA (-) < 5.0% BA [00202] At T=10 minutes at RT,

[00203] 0.5% BA (+++) = 1.0% BA (+++) < 5.0% BA (+++++)

[00204] At T=20 minutes at RT,

[00205] 0.5% BA (++++) = 1.0% BA (++++)

[00206] For samples stored at 40°C, at T=0, the presence of behenyl alcohol (from 0.5 % to 5.0 %) improves the stability of whipped after sun formulations, but increasing the behenyl alcohol content from 5.0 % to 7.5 % has no impact ( FIG . 7) . The score of "whipped-foam" from whipped after sun formulations containing different amount of behenyl alcohol (BA) after 1 day at 40°C/75%RH is as follows.

[00207] At T=0,

[00208] 0.5% BA (+++) < 1.0% BA (++++) < 5.0%

7.5% BA (+++++)

[00209] At T=2 minutes at RT, [00210] 0.5% BA (++++) < 1.0% BA (+++++)

[00211] At T=10 minutes at RT,

[00212] 0.5% BA (+++++)

[00213] The results in FIGs . 2-7 clearly demonstrate the impact of behenyl alcohol and or Avicel on the temperature stability of whipped sunscreen and after sun formulations.

[00214] In Summary, the effect of key functional ingredients on the performance of whipped products is evaluated. Among tested key ingredients, Avicel and Lanette 22 (behenyl alcohol) are found to be highly effective in terms of improving the stability of the whipped products at higher temperature. Cetyl alcohol and Ganex P-904 do not appear to contribute to this improvement. Therefore, adding Lanette 22 and/or Avicel into whipped formulations helps them maintain the desired product experience when used after high temperature exposure.

[00215] Moreover, increasing the concentration of behenyl alcohol significantly improves the stability of the whipped sunscreen and after sun formulations, indicating that

incorporating behenyl alcohol into formulations is an effective way to enhance the temperature stability of the whipped

formulations .

[00216] Table 1: Formula Comparison of Whipped Sunscreen Products Used in Evaluation Studies

[00217] Table l.A: Composition of Whipped Sunscreen Products (Finished Products)

[00226] Each whipped lotion formulation contains 4.50 % w/w Prolipid 141. [00227] Table 3 lists the concentration for each of the ingredients in the prolipid 141 per each whipped lotion formulation

[00228] Table 3

[00229] Appendix A. Laboratory manufacturing process for Whipped Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50 (Finished Product: Z16-016, Concentrate: Y71-098)

[00230] 1. Concentrate (Base Formulation): Whipped Sunscreen Lotion Concentrate (Y71-098) , Batch Size: 1000 g

[00231] Table 4

[00232] 2. Finished Product (Concentrate + Propellant): Whipped

Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50 (BOV) (Z16-016) , Batch Size: 5 oz . Bag on Valve (BOV) Can

[00233] Table 5

[00235] Appendix B. Laboratory manufacturing process for Whipped After Sun Lotion (Finished Product: Z16-023,

Concentrate: Z16-020)

[00236] 1. Concentrate (Base Formulation) : Whipped After Sun Lotion Concentrate (Z16-020) , Batch Size: 1000 g

[00237] Table 6

[00239] 2. Finished Product (Concentrate + Propellant) : After Sun Whipped Lotion (BOV) (Z16-023) , Batch Size: 5 oz . Bag on Valve (BOV) Can

[00240] Table 7

[00241] Other Embodiments

[00242] The foregoing description discloses only exemplary embodiments of the invention.

[00243] It is to be understood that while the invention has been described in conjunction with the detailed description thereof, the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications are within the scope of the appended claims.

Thus, while only certain features of the invention have been illustrated and described, many modifications and changes will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore to be

understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the invention.