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Title:
THREE DIMENSIONAL SCALABLE AND MODULAR AIRCRAFT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/184095
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention presents a three-dimensionally and discreetly scalable, modular and customizable aircraft (V) which is composed of stably flyable plurality of planar unitary systems (S) in which each provides a coordinated thrusting vector in any direction of the three-dimensional space. The invented aircraft (V) includes at least one circumferential frame (1) that surrounds the system (S) in one plane that houses at least one rotatable piece (1a) that allows the system (S) rotate around at least one rotation axis relative to the circumferential frame (1). The invented aircraft (V) includes at least two assembly regions (1b) located on the external surfaces of the circumferential frame (1) which is used to attach at least two adjacent modules (M) by touching each other. The invented aircraft (V) also includes at least two electrical power transmission regions (1c) that are aligned with the corresponding identical region of the next module (M), which allows sharing of the power sources (1d), providing energy to the system (S), among all of the modules (M).

Inventors:
GOZLUKLU, Burak (Angora Evleri Turkmavisi Sok. No:A8/2 Mutlukent Mah, Cankaya/Ankara, 06530, TR)
Application Number:
TR2017/050136
Publication Date:
October 26, 2017
Filing Date:
April 11, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GOZLUKLU, Burak (Angora Evleri Turkmavisi Sok. No:A8/2 Mutlukent Mah, Cankaya/Ankara, 06530, TR)
International Classes:
B64C29/02; B64C27/20; B64C29/00; B64C39/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016027942A12016-02-25
WO2015124556A12015-08-27
Foreign References:
KR20160031602A2016-03-23
CN102556341B2013-11-13
US20120158215A12012-06-21
US20050096800A12005-05-05
US20110226892A12011-09-22
US20120179308A12012-07-12
DE102005061741A12007-07-05
EP2121439B12012-11-14
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CAYLI, Hulya (Paragon Consultancy Incorporated, Koza Sokak No:63/2G.O.P, Ankara, 06540, TR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An aircraft (V), made of at least two systems (S), where each system (S) is suitable be controlled remotely, able to perform vertical take-off, flight, and landing, and at least one thrust provider operating in coordination with these systems (S), characterized by;

- At least two modules (M), each having at least one circumferential frame (1 ) that encloses the system (S) on a plane where at least one rotatable piece (1 a), passing through the centerline of the circumferential frame (1 ) and freely rotating relative to the circumferential frame (1 ), located to connect the system (S) to its circumferential frame (1 ) of which at least three orthogonal surfaces facing the outside accommodate at least two assembly regions (1 b) that are used to physically connect the modules (M) in touching condition on any of the three orthogonal planes of space, - At least two electrical power transmission regions (1 c), existing on the same surfaces as the assembly regions (1 b) located on the circumferential frames (1 ) and aligned with the corresponding power transmission regions (1 c) of the neighboring connected module (M),

- At least one energy source (1 d) providing energy to the power transmission regions (1 c) which allows all of the modules (M) sharing the same pool of energy sources (1 d).

2. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the circumferential frame (1 ) is made of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

3. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the rotatable piece (1 a) is connection with the circumferential frame (1 ) via at least from one edge.

4. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the rotatable piece (1 a) is a beam.

5. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the energy source (1 d) is located on the system (S).

6. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the energy source (1 d) includes at least one battery and/or gyroscope and/or a control computer.

7. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein said thrust provider is a motor.

8. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the motor is connected to the energy source (1 d).

9. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the communication among the modules (M) is wireless.

10. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the individual self-flight capable module (M) includes at least three propellers (P) which are connected to each other via at least one propeller beam (S1 ).

11. An aircraft (V) of claim 10, wherein the propeller beams (S1 ) reach the center of the propeller (P).

12. An aircraft (V) of claim 10, wherein energy source (1 d) is located at the intersection point of the propeller beams (S1 ).

13. An aircraft (V) of claim 10, wherein the system (S) encompasses four propellers (P) which are located at the corners of a square of which center houses the energy source (1 d).

14. An aircraft (V) of claim 10 or claim 13, wherein at least one gear system exists between the motor and propeller (P).

15. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein at least one secondary power transmission region (1 e) is located at the outside of the module (M) that allows attaching a hardware (2).

16. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein at least one power source is able to provide enough power to all of the system (S).

17. An aircraft (V) of claim 16, wherein the power source is a battery.

18. An aircraft (V) of claim 16, wherein the power source is a part of energy source (1 d) and connected to the rotational piece (1 a).

19. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 or claim 15, wherein the power source is a part of energy source (1 d) and connected to the rotational piece (1 a).

20. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 or claim 15, wherein the information is transmitted to the adjacent Modules (M) or hardware (2) wireless or directly via the secondary power transmission region (1 e).

21. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein system (S) is connected to the circumferential frame (1 ) via at least one additional rotatable beam (1 f).

22. An aircraft (V) of claim 21 , wherein the additional rotatable beam (1 f) can rotate around an axis relative to rotatable piece (1 a).

23. An aircraft (V) of claim 21 , wherein the additional rotatable beam (1 f) is a circular or a rectangular shape.

24. An aircraft (V) of claim 10 or claim 23, wherein the propellers (P) stay inside of the additional rotatable beam (1 f).

25. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the system (S) is connected to the rotatable piece (1 a) via a spherical joint.

26. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the power transmission region (1 c) is in the vicinity of assembly region (1 b).

27. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the assembly region (1 b) has a mating hole and a structure which is suitable to be attached to the assembly region (1 b) of the next module (M).

28. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the module (M) has at least one control unit.

29. An aircraft (V) of claim 28, wherein the control unit of the modules (M) is capable of performing synchronized thrust vectoring in order to control the whole aircraft (V).

30. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the shape of the circumferential frame (1 ) is polygon.

31. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the whole set of circumferential frames (1 ) after the assembly of modules (M) form a three-dimensional cage structure.

32. An aircraft (V) of claim 31 , wherein the formed cage structure is in the geometrical form of a cube.

33. An aircraft (V) of claim 31 , wherein the formed cage structure is in the geometrical form of the connected multiple identical cubes.

34. An aircraft (V) of claim 1 , wherein the rotatable piece (1 a) is loosely connected to the circumferential frame (1 ) in order to avoid axial loads and perform free rotation.

Description:
DESCRIPTION

THREE DIMENSIONAL SCALABLE AND MODULAR AIRCRAFT Technical Field

The present invention presents a reliable and customizable vertical take-off, flight and landing aircraft which is scalable and modular in the three-dimensional space.

Prior Art

Today, rotor propelled unmanned drones (VTOLEPUD) capable of taking off vertically, flying in all three-axis and landing, are started to be frequently used in emergency situations, surveying, and observation purposes. Another example of an application of drones is to transport packages between different locations. Considering the diversity of the weights of the packages, the fleet should include drones with various load carrying capacities (maximum takeoff weights). Therefore, this invention proposes a unitary "worker drone" design that can assemble itself with other unitary worker drones in all three-dimension to increase the load carrying capacity as well as improving reliability.

Especially in the United States, online retailers are planning to modify their businesses towards using drone systems to deliver the orders. The packages to be delivered would be unavoidably in different sizes and weights. This is the reason why some retailer companies plan to operate drones in various capacities, which is not economical regarding the inventory costs of the fleet. Another conventional solution is to operate single sized drones, which is capable of carrying the heaviest allowable package. However, in this case, employment of high capacity drones in carrying small packages would be more expensive regarding the operation costs. Consequently, the best model is to command a fleet composed of unitary worker drones which can both singly operate to carry light and small packages or be modularly scaled to have larger drones which improve the weight carrying capacity in the increments of a single drone based on the package weight and size. Scalability in 3D provides a better load distribution among the assembled drones, which results in better flight dynamics, versatility and reliability of the whole system, compared to a 2D configuration. In the prior arts, 2D scalability or the scalability solely based on the propellers do not provide the same performance characteristics and reliability which are all accomplished by our invention. Recently, the increasing number of practices in drone industry persuaded airworthiness regulators; such as Federal Airworthiness Authority (FAA), to settle restrictions on the drone operations due to the misuse and low reliability of the system. The currently presented invention provides a "fail-safe" solution to enhance the reliability of the whole system significantly. Damage to a propeller or failure of a single worker drone in a 3D formed flying assembly do not lead to catastrophic failure of the entire system since the modularly scaled aircraft is composed of inherently stable systems. This further helps to get adequate permission from the authorities in the future due to the achieved fail-safe compliance in this invention.

One of the similar drone systems is the US patent of US201 10226892A1 , which presents a plurality of assembled tilted propellers, so-called "modules" by US201 10226892A1 . The modules are utilized to provide the desired thrust and moment to the flying system. The tilted propellers can rotate on at least three planes, which improves the maneuverability of the vehicle. At first glance, it can be easily noticed that the patent of US201 10226892A1 has a different architecture by assigning the propellers as the modules to be scaled in the system. This fact makes the vehicle unstable in case of a loss of the propellers since each propeller is not inherently stable due to the angular momentum created by the added propeller should be balanced. Due to the fact of losing one of the propellers may lead to loss of the total control, US201 10226892A1 required the symmetry condition for the modules of propellers. On the other hand, our invention does not require any global symmetry or any global geometrical condition that is necessary to keep the stability of the aircraft thanks to the intrinsically balanced angular momentum of each module in our invention.

An aircraft formed by connecting stable independent modules can be found in US20120179308A1 . In this document, each module is able to fly alone using their four propellers. The vehicle is connected by attachment of the constituent flying units within a single plane that create different configurations in two-dimensional space. However, connectivity within in a single plane cripples the variety of possible applications and maneuverability of the resulting aircraft. For US20120179308A1 , the lack of modules on the planes that are orthogonal to the mutually connected plane of two modules does not allow formation of 3D systems, which strongly reduce the load carrying capacity of the aircraft. Due to the same reason, the addition of modules in 2D plane to have the adequate thrusting force would lead to an assembled aircraft filling a large surface on air, which eventually creates a burden on the operational actions. The same property does not allow the whole system carrying larger loads that means that the resulting system is not purely scalable due to the resulting constraints in the architecture of the design. Another application is exhibited in DE102005061741 A1 patent that explains a modularly scaled aircraft, built by symmetrically assembled propellers. As discussed in the US201 10226892A1 patent, the symmetry condition constitutes reliability and versatility problems. Along with the symmetry requirement, the modularity solely achieved by the propellers lessening the flexibility in the modular and scalable aircraft design.

A similar patent is presented in EP2121439B which proposes the plurality of propellers positioned in various angular formations. Since EP2121439B's modularity is depending on the propellers (rotors), the issues previously mentioned for DE102005061741 A1 and US201 10226892A1 are also applicable to this patent, too. The general application includes a plurality of drones in swarm configuration such that many drones freely fly and operate to perform a single task in accord. Nevertheless, in those applications, the drones are not physically connected to each other because this method is not a good solution for heavy duty (carrying a heavy payload) applications. For instance, the physical connection helps to cancel out internal forces in the orthogonal direction relative to the payload. In a free state, each drone needs to resist the lateral forces by more thrust, which drains more energy and sometimes impossible to pursue. Moreover, a fully and rigidly physical connection, such as in US20120179308A1 , problems with maneuverability arise. Our invention, on the other hand, solves all of the preceding problems.

Brief Description of the Invention

The current invention proposes an aircraft composed of at least two systems in which each subsystem is capable of remotely controlled, stably taking off and landing vertically, and includes at least two propellers which are coordinated with the whole system. The developed aircraft includes a centrally located system (S) which is surrounded by at least one axis passing through the circumferential frame of which outside surfaces include minimum two assembly regions that allow at least two adjacent modules to be assembled in all three orthogonal planes of space and at least two Power transmission regions that coincide with the other modules Power transmission region that enables to share at least one energy source center by all modules. The invented aircraft is made of orthogonally and physically connected adjacent modules where each module is a stable aircraft that can vertically and horizontally fly, and each module has vertical take-off and landing capability and the rotational degrees of freedom with respect to its circumferential frame. These features enable the resulting assembled aircraft highly stable flying vehicle and flexible design that can be configured to have various 3D geometries in rectilinear box settings which improve the maneuverability by deliberately positioning the thrust vectors in the assembled vehicle powered by individual modules. Along with the maneuverability and reliability improvements, the proposed aircraft can adopt additional hardware to be assembled on the system via the readily available connection regions, which result in a truly functional and cost effective solution.

Objectives of the Invention

The objective of this invention is to build an unmanned vehicle that can be remotely controlled.

Another objective of this invention is to provide one module that can stably fly in all directions, can perform vertical take-off and landing.

Another objective of this invention is to obtain both 2D and 3D configurations of aircraft when the modules are attached.

Another objective of this invention is to develop a fail-safe aircraft obtained by attaching modules of which architecture also allows a safe flight following a failure of at least one of the modules during the flight.

Another objective of this invention is to obtain an efficient aircraft with increased endurance by sharing of energy sources among the modules.

Another objective of this invention is to obtain a highly versatile aircraft where individual systems can freely rotate relative to each other for providing thrust in any direction.

Another objective of this invention is to develop a highly maneuverable, cost-effective, customizable and safe aircraft. Another objective of this invention is to obtain an aircraft made of physically connected modules that form three-dimensionally customizable cage system that inherently cancels out all internal forces, provides better load distribution and increases the bending stiffness, which facilitates the system to be used in transporting heavy loads.

Another objective of this invention is to modularly construct an aircraft resembling a three- dimensional rigid system where the locations of constituent systems can be positioned to design a spatially distributed vector thrust field where an individual system can provide a thrust in any direction that can continuously change during the fight.

Another objective of this invention is to have a platform that facilitates a wide variety of additional electro-mechanical hardware

Explanations of Figures

Examples of several applications of the invention are presented in the following figures;

Figure 1 ; Perspective view of a single module of the invention

Figure 2; Perspective view of the invented aircraft formed by attachment of four modules providing a 3D flying assembly in a box configuration.

Figure 3; Perspective view of the invented aircraft formed by attachment of three modules and couple of specialized attached hardware.

Figure 4; Perspective view of the invented aircraft formed by attachment of ten modules and a large plate that create a versatile flying platform.

Figure 5; Perspective view of a single module of the invention with a circular secondary electrical power transmission region.

The parts in the figures are numbered and defined as follows;

Aircraft (V)

Module (M)

System (S)

Propeller beam (S1 )

Propeller (P)

Circumferential Frame (1 )

Rotatable piece (1 a)

Assembly region (1 b)

Electrical power transmission region (1 c)

Energy source (1 d) Secondary electrical power transmission region (1 e)

Additional rotatable beam (1 f)

Hardware (2)

Plate (3)

Description of the Invention

Rotor-based unmanned drones started to be widely used in transportation, emergency, and surveying operations. The drones should be in various configurations and have different capacities designed for different missions where the drones are specialized. In the prior art and publicly available products of drones, their applications are usually limited due to specialized design of the particular drone product. Hence, it is necessary to develop a customizable aircraft that can be modified according to the function, allowing a broad diversity of ameliorative features and adaptive to the conditions where the system operates. A physically and electrically connected system made of multiple freely rotatable and stable drone systems forming a 3D structure would be the core of this invention.

An example of the proposed aircraft (V) is shown in Figure 1 , where the aircraft (V) is capable of being remotely controlled or automatically controlled. The aircraft (V) is made of at least two systems (S) that can solely fly stably in both vertical and horizontal directions and each system (S) containing at least two thrust propellers (S1 ) coordinated with the remaining of the aircraft (V). The invented aircraft (V) is enclosed by at least one circumferential frame (1 ), expected to be made of light-weight carbon fiber reinforced composite materials (CFRP), which centers the system (S) and allowing a relative rotation to the enclosed system (S). To do that, the invented aircraft (V) embodies at least one rotatable piece (1 a) connected to the circumferential frame (1 ) that houses the plane of the rotation axis for the rotatable piece (1 a) which can freely rotate with respect to the circumferential frame (1 ). A circumferential frame (1 ) comprises at least two assembly regions (1 b) that face outside of the system (S) and used to physically attach at least one adjacent modules (M) which would eventually build 2D/3D structural cage system made of orthogonally assembled circumferential frames (1 ). The net thrust vector is produced by the individual but synchronized thrusts of each system (S) which can freely rotate with respect to the resulting aircraft (1 ) cage structure to maneuver. The circumferential frames (1 ) have at least two Power transmission regions (1 c) that transfer the power from the energy source (1 d) on the system (S). In that way, the total power is shared among the attached modules (M) of which assembly resembles a fully connected grid system made of multiple Power transmission regions (1 c) and energy sources (1 d). The successive assembly of modules (M) can be used to scale the systems (S) in all three orthogonal directions that create a 3D aircraft (V) which is structurally connected in terms of power, physical and information operands. The connections in all of the three orthogonal planes are enabled by the free rotation of the system (S) thanks to the rotatable piece (1 a) and allocation of the transfer regions (1 b, 1 c) in all outside faces of the circumferential frame (1 ). Each system (S) is expected to include conventional batteries, control systems, gyroscopes and electric motors that are expected to connect to the energy sources (1 d). The control computers of the modules (M) are expected to be in continuous wireless communication where the thrust and angle of systems can be synchronized. The synchronization of the module propellers (P) (thrusts) would be easier since the locations of the modules (M) are fixed due to the homogeneous distribution of the systems (S) inside the cage system formed by the circumferential frames (1 ).

An example of an application of the invention incorporates multiple modules (M) attached to each other via the assembly regions (1 b). At this condition, the power transmission regions (1 c) are also touching to each other, which also allows transferring the power from energy sources (1 d) via the power transmission regions (1 c) to the modules (M) that drain more energy. The resulting network of transmission regions (1 b, 1 c) and circumferential frames (1 ) can also be used to attach different electro-mechanical hardware (2) to the aircraft (V). The aircraft (V) formed by repetitive 3D attachment of the modules (M) includes freely rotatable systems (S) pivoting around the rotatable piece (1 a). The aircraft (V) made of translationally fixed but rotationally free stable systems (S) would result in highly maneuverable, fail-safe and heavy duty aircraft (V). The reason for the maneuverability is the free rotation, but fixed locations of drones. This mechanical and geometrical property assign different moment arms to each system (S) with respect to the center of mass of the aircraft (V). The fail-safety feature is due to the robust compensation of a failed system (S) by the remaining systems (S) since individually flyable system (S) having more than two propellers (P) can quickly adapt to the new dynamics of the aircraft (V) right after the failure. The ability to carry heavy loads is the summation of the thrusts provided by each system (S) while internal balancing of the secondary lateral loads throughout the cage system made of the circumferential frames (1 ). The critical feature is the involvement of the rotatable pieces (1 a) that facilitates independent rotation to each system (S) which can adjust its angle of rotation and thrusts in agreement with the other modules (M). Noting that, the system also employs the conventional rotation capability which is achieved by controlling the spinning of the propellers (P) that rotate the whole vehicle (V) with the conservation of angular momentum. The geometry of the aircraft (V) can be also configured by the different spatial combination of modules (M) that have the connection regions (1 b, 1 c) distributed along all of the edges of the circumferential frames (1 ). Theoretically, the maximum take-off weight or the maximum load carrying capacity of the aircraft (V) is proportional to the number of modules (M). Nevertheless, the air blows of the propellers (P) may reduce the carrying capacity of the systems (S) staying under the blow. The efficiency loss is caused by the disturbed aerodynamic airflow on the propellers (P) of the downside systems (S). The efficiency loss is not expected to be greater than 30% which has been studied extensively for contra-rotating propellers used in helicopters. In summary, even though the inclusion of extra modules certainly increases the load carrying capacity of the aircraft (V), it is not linearly dependent but increasing with an inefficiency factor based on the distance between the adjacent modules (M), propeller (P) size, thrust value and configuration. The major advantage of module (M) assembly is coming from the creation of a 3D truss system. A heavy point load carried under the center of gravity of the aircraft (V) would generate internal lateral forces as a result of different loading angles for the systems (S) staying outside of the center of the gravity. Such internal forces are canceled out inside the truss system. As mentioned in the first chapter, the conventional application of using multiple free drones to carry a load require employing extra thrust by propellers (P) to cancel out these lateral internal loads, which is inherently solved by the proposed invention.

In another application of the invention, the aircraft (V) includes flyable systems (S) in that at least three propellers (P) are joined via at least one propeller beam (S1 ) that connects the centers of the propellers (P). In this application, the energy source (1 d) is located at the center of the system (S) which is the place where the propellers (P) are met via their propeller beams (S1 ) that determines the center of gravity of that system (S). In another application of the aircraft (V), there are four propellers (P) that are located at the corners of a square that are all met at the center of the system (S) where the power source (1 d) is also located. Keeping the center of gravities near the geometric center of the circumferential frame (1 ) would help to obtain a more stable aircraft (V) once they are assembled. Noting that, it is expected to have at least one gear system between the propeller (P) and the motor that drives the spin speed.

In an application shown in Figure 3, at least one hardware (2) is attached to the connection regions (1 b, 1 c) which stays outside of the vehicle boundary while another extra hardware (2), such as an additional energy source (1 e), is located inside the vehicle (V), at the center of the system (S) of which constitutes, other than circumferential frame (1 ) and rotatable piece (1 a), are removed. These hardware (2) can be storage tank, battery, camera, spraying system or any electro-mechanical hardware. Due to the rotating pieces (1 a) and other modules (M) that are currently active to maneuver the aircraft (V), the current system would be very stable. Especially, the current invention would be highly demanded by movie makers as the aircraft (V) provides very stable flight, carrying heavy professional cameras and extra batteries. 3D geometric customization would enable to have combinations of hardware to be employed by the aircraft (V).

Another application of the invention is shown in Figure 4. The aircraft (V) has six vertically aligned and four horizontally aligned modules (M) that form an overall cubical structure. In this configuration, the systems (S) can rotate in orthogonal directions or only in a specified direction which can be defined by using single or multi-axis axis rotating pieces acting on two planes in the 3D space (1 a). The horizontally and vertically aligned modules help the aircraft to maneuver. Figure 4 also shows at least one plate (3) located at the top of the modules (M) and closing the whole assembly. The plate (3) can be utilized to carry large objects at different positions sitting on the top. For example, a person can be saved in an emergency operation where the person can jump over the plate (3) which is supported by the systems (S). Even though the weight of the object is far from the center of gravity of the aircraft creating an unbalancing torque for the aircraft (V), the systems (S) can roll along the rotatable pieces (1 a) and adjust the thrusts which provides a distributed vector thrusting throughout the aircraft that cancels out any unbalanced torques. The balancing actions of the systems (S) can keep the whole system or plate (3) in a fixed (e.g. horizontal) position under unbalanced dynamic conditions.

An alternative application of the aircraft (V) includes at least one energy resource (1 d) which provides power to the all systems (S). Sharing the resources enables a need-based energy distribution among the modules (M), where hard working modules (M) drains higher energy. This also enables a fail-safe solution for the batteries of which single failure does not lead to a catastrophic failure of the whole aircraft (V). Furthermore, the optimized usage of the restricted resources increases the overall flight range of the aircraft (V). Conversely, a single energy resource (1 d) can provide energy to all of the modules (M) in an assembled aircraft (V). In this case, a larger battery can be protected inside the aircraft (V) while the outside systems (S) flies the aircraft (V), which can be lighter. The rotatable piece (1 a) is, therefore, expected to transfer the electricity as well. The power should be transferred via rotatable piece (1 a), then via its power transmission region (1 c) and the power transmission region (1 c) of the other module (M) or hardware (2). The information sharing and the control of the whole system is kept aside of this invention because there are numerous solutions to control the drones in synchronized way.

Another alternative application of the invention provided in Figure 5 presents an aircraft (V) in which the system (S) is connected to the circumferential frame (1 ) via a rotatable piece (1 a) and at least one additional rotatable link (1 f). This additional rotatable piece (1 f) frees the other axes of rotations on the top of the original rotation axis provided by the rotatable piece (1 a). Hence, the system (S) can freely rotate along more than one axis relative to the circumferential frame (1 ). In this application, the additional rotating link (1 f) should not interfere with the propellers (P) such that the components should never clash with the other parts during the rotations. A similar application would be to connect the system (S) to the rotatable piece (1 a) and additional rotating link (1 f) over a spherical joint, which overall allows 360 rotation around all three Cartesian axes. These connections can be found in the conventional systems that do not require detailed explanation. However, the important point is to allow the system (S) to rotate around a predefined axis which can be a type of customization to the system or more than one axes. Noting that, more the rotating piece, it's harder to sustain the electrical connectivity that should also be considered by the operator.

A preferred application of the invention has at least one power transmission region (1 c) and at least one assembly region (1 b) which are in close vicinity to each other that allows easier and safer electrical and physical connections between the modules (M). The physical assembly of the aircraft (V) can be also performed by conventional fasteners suitable to withstand the loads occurring during the flight. The systems (S) include flight computers (not shown in the figures) that operate the aircraft (V) in synchronization. The computer can understand the modular configuration of the aircraft (V) and includes different mission definitions that handle the synchronization. In this case, the computer on one of the modules (M) or each can take its defined roles that harmonizes the individual system (S) behavior. Besides, the mission characteristics, such as surveying, transportation or emergency tasks, would be also defined in the software of the computers that apply the required characteristic behaviors. The key part in the control of the invention is that each system (S) is expected to have its own computer that is also used for coordinating and harmonizing the actions of each system (S) forming the aircraft (V) controlled automatically or remotely by a human operator.

One of the most important features of the invented aircraft (V) is the formation of three- dimensional structural box system made of circumferential frames (1 ). An application of the concept can be achieved by using a polygonal shape for the circumferential frame (1 ). The aircraft (V) shown in Figure 2 forms a box structure system formed by many modules (M), where each has square shaped circumferential frames (1 ). Box structures are widely used in aerospace and civil engineering designs due to its superior load carrying capacity within a lightweight and simple solution. In a heavy-duty transportation mission, the aircraft (V) would have adequate stiffness and rigidity within the lightest weight, a vital feature for all flying vehicles, that would allow higher load carrying capacity and range. As mentioned in the previous chapters, the truss system in the box structure cancels out the secondary internal loads induced inside the aircraft (V). Moreover, some of the internal loads can be kept away from the systems (S) because the major load flows are handled by the relatively stiff cage system made of circumferential frames (1 ). The rotational piece (1 a) should possess enough tolerance at the connection point with the circumferential frame (1 ), which helps to reduce the transfer of the loads along the rotation axis as the controlled looseness keeps some translational loads away from the system (S). On the other hand, the system (S) continue providing operational loads in the thrust direction or the inertial forces due to the conservation of angular momentum to the aircraft via rotational piece (1 a) and then circumferential frame (1 ) while the system (S) can freely rotate around the rotational piece (1 a). In short, the scalable box system achieved by the invention provides a scalable, lightweight solution for heavy load transportation missions. If the distance between the systems (S) in the aircraft (v) is too short, the aerodynamics at the adjacent systems (A) under downwash will have a reduced thrust efficiency and may yield vibrations. The distance between the systems (S) should also concern this effect of inter-modular aerodynamic effect. This distance also determines the size of the circumferential frame (1 ), and therefore, the weight of the overall aircraft (V). Hence, it becomes an optimization problem where the distance between the modules should be kept as large as possible while not yielding an over-weight solution. The distance is mainly a function of exiting air velocity and diameter of the propellers (P) and should be determined for each design case.

In the invention, each system (S) in the aircraft (V) is capable of performing a stable flight on its own. This feature highly enhances the safety of the aircraft (V) since a loss of a constituent system (S) does not directly lead to a catastrophic failure of the whole assembly. This is due to the fact that the invented aircraft (V) is made of stable systems of which superposition leads to a stable system. This feature also opens the way to build relatively random shapes, including many asymmetric shapes, in designing the overall aircraft (V). Using stable systems also enhances the maneuverability of the aircraft (V) due to having more options while customizing the aircraft (V) design.