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Title:
A TILE FOR BUILDINGS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/020412
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A tile for use in the building sector comprising three or more layers (2) permanently associated between them, and among which there are: a first layer (3) constituted by a semi-finished building product intended to be the visible layer of the tile (1 ); a second mechanical reinforcement layer (4) of said first layer (3) having a mechanical strength to impacts against hard bodies and soft bodies, which is higher than the first layer's (3); a third layer (5) inserted between the first layer (3) and the second layer (4) and made of a soft adhesive so as to allow the second layer (5) to adhere to the first layer (3) and so as to constitute a binder for said first layer (3) so as to avoid, if said first layer broke, the breaking off of fragments.

Inventors:
CAPONE, Giovanni (Via Quadrelli 69, Ronco All'Adige, 37055, IT)
Application Number:
IB2017/054496
Publication Date:
February 01, 2018
Filing Date:
July 25, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CAPONE, Giovanni (Via Quadrelli 69, Ronco All'Adige, 37055, IT)
International Classes:
E04F15/02; E04F15/08
Foreign References:
EP2687366A12014-01-22
US20020081410A12002-06-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TRENTIN, Michele et al. (Via Monte Cengio 32, Vicenza, 36100, IT)
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Claims:
C L A I M S

1 . A tile for use in the building sector comprising three or more layers

(2) permanently associated between them, and among which there are:

at least one first layer (3) constituted by a semi-finished building product designed to be the visible layer of said tile (1 ).

at least one second mechanical reinforcement layer (4) of said first layer (3), said second layer (4) having a mechanical strength to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts, which is higher if compared to the mechanical strength of said first layer (3);

- at least one third layer (5) inserted between said first layer (3) and said second layer (4) and made of a soft adhesive having a thickness of at least one millimetre so as to allow said second layer (5) to adhere to said first layer

(3) and so as to constitute a binder for said first layer (3) so as to avoid, if said first layer (3) broke, the breaking off of fragments of said first layer (3).

2. Tile according to claim 1 , wherein said first layer (3) is made of ceramic material.

3. Tile according to claim 1 , wherein said first layer is made of marble.

4. Tile according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said second layer (4) is made of high density polyethylene.

5. Tile according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said third layer (5) is made of a soft adhesive bituminous mixture.

6. Tile according to claim 5, wherein said adhesive bituminous mixture is a bitumen-polymer mixture.

7. Tile according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said third layer (5) has a density of no less than 1 Kg/m2 so as to create a sound resistant mass.

8. A membrane intended to be permanently coupled with a semifinished building product and comprising:

at least one mechanical reinforcement layer of the semi-finished building product, said mechanical reinforcement layer having a mechanical strength to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts higher of the mechanical strength of the semi-finished building product; at least one of soft bituminous mixture adhesive layer having a thickness of at least 1 millimetre and intended to be inserted between said mechanical reinforcement layer and the semi-finished building product to permanently bond said mechanical reinforcement layer to the semi-finished building product and to constitute a binder for the semi-finished building product so as to avoid, if said first layer (3) broke, the breaking off of fragments of said first layer (3).

9. Membrane according to claim 7, comprising a protective film of the surface of said membrane intended to be coupled with the building semi- finished product in such a way as to preserve its adhesive characteristics.

10. Membrane according to claim 8, wherein said protective film is made of siliconised polyethylene.

1 1 . Membrane according to any one of the claims from 8 to 10, wherein said bituminous mixture layer has a density of no less than 1 Kg/m2 so as to create a sound resistant mass.

Description:
A TILE FOR BUILDINGS

D E S C R I P T I O N

Field of application

This invention is applicable to the sector of the building materials and is particularly focused on cladding materials used on floors, walls or ceilings.

More in detail, this invention refers to a tile that is particularly - however not exclusively - used to build raised floors.

State of the Art

Among the building materials, the cladding materials used on walls, ceilings or floors play a very important role, since they recreate their essential aesthetic appearance.

What is known are thus semi-finished building products constituted by tiles made of ceramic, marble, cement, terracotta and composite materials or other materials, which are laid, and permanently fixed, on the unrefined construction elements, i.e. walls, ceilings or floors, to clad them.

At the same time, such tiles must be safe, since if they break or are damaged, they might be dangerous for users. Such breaks are clearly due to excessive mechanical stress leading to the fragmentation of the tiles, which sometimes explode. In such a case, what is clear is that the aesthetic effect is irreparably compromised, and the resulting fragments might be dangerous for users, who might have an accident.

Therefore, raised floors and ventilated walls are of the essence. What is known is that - in such cases - the floors and walls are clad by a support structure supporting the tiles at a predefined distance from the unrefined element. The space between the construction elements that is thus created plays various roles: thermal and sound insulation, ventilation, or laying of utilities.

In such cases, tiles might be broken more easily in case of excessive loads and hard bodies impacts. If one of these breaks, a potentially dangerous situation is then created, since fragments might - as it was already said - injure users because of the explosion projecting them in all directions, and because the tile caves in and creates a hole, which users might stumble on, and where the biggest fragments are and they also might injure users.

Therefore, tiles having a below reinforced surface are known and a rigid material is used to increase their mechanical resistance to stress. Such rigid material is usually glued to the tile so as to produce a compact element.

However, some semi-finished building products, such as ceramics, marble, cement and composite materials, are not suitable to be glued, so the joint between them and the stiffening layer deteriorates over time. Moreover, this does not prevent the semi-finished building product to explode, resulting in dangerous fragments breaking off from it.

What is then known are tiles whose mechanical reinforcement layer is made of materials constantly and uniformly adhering to the semi-finished building product. An example of this is what is described in the patent document FR 2 517 728 A1 where the tile comprises a first layer consisting of the semi- finished building product and the next layer is made of a bituminous compound reinforced by drowning glass fibre, which then stiffens the bituminous layer so that it becomes a mechanical reinforcement layer for the tile. One of the features of the bituminous layer is that it perfectly and constantly adheres to all semi-finished building products over time, including ceramics and glass.

If, on the one hand, this allows to increase the mechanical ultimate tensile strength of the tile, such procedure does not prevent the semi-finished product from breaking and possibly exploding, causing fragments to break off.

However, in the same document, what is described is the use of a third soft layer to provide for sound insulation. However, it is placed below the reinforcement layer, thereby compromising the insulation effect due to the echo box created between the two rigid layers, i.e. the semi-finished building product layer and the reinforced bituminous layer.

Presentation of the invention

Object of the present invention is to at least partially overcome the drawbacks outlined above by providing a tile which allows to use, as cladding layers, all known semi-finished building products.

Another object is that this tile has a mechanical strength to stresses higher than that of the semi-finished building product used to provide mechanical support even if the semi-finished building product breaks.

A further object is that the reinforcement layers and the semi-finished building layer are constantly and permanently bound to increase the mechanical strength of the tile.

Another object is that, if the semi-finished building product does break, the tile is shaped so as to avoid its explosion or, in any case, to avoid the breaking off of fragments from the semi-finished product.

Another purpose is that the tile guarantees the same level of sound proofing as the known similar tiles.

Said objects, as well as others which will become clearer below, are achieved by a tile to be used as a building product according to one or more of the following claims, which are an integral part of this patent.

In particular, the tile comprises three or more layers permanently associated with each other. Among these, there is at least one first layer made of a semi-finished building product intended to be the visible layer of the tile, and at least one second mechanical reinforcement layer having mechanical strength to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts higher then the mechanical strength of the first layer.

In this way, advantageously, the mechanical support of the tile is guaranteed even if the semi-finished building product does break.

However, according to one aspect of the invention, there is at least a third layer inserted between the first layer and the second layer, and it is made up of a soft adhesive. This advantageously allows not only to permanently join the third layer to the first layer, but such third layer, since it is a soft layer, also works as a binder for the first layer so as to avoid, if breaking occurs, the breaking off of fragments from that first layer.

According to that, the third layer is at least one millimetre thick, thinner thickness cannot be guarantee said characteristic.

Even more advantageously, the softness of the adhesive allows sound proofing to the semi-finished building product, so maximizing its effects if compared to the sound proofing solutions of the similar known tiles. According to another aspect of the invention, the third layer consists of a soft adhesive bituminous mixture. As it has been said, this is an adhesive for glueing the second layer to the first. However, advantageously, this kind of adhesive is suitable for several types of semi-finished building products. In particular, and still advantageously, such materials as ceramic, marble, cement, composite materials and the like cannot be properly coupled with adhesives. However, if bituminous mixtures are used, these materials are perfectly and fully coupled to the former over time.

The third layer, however, being soft and at least one millimetre thick, makes an excellent bonding layer for the semi-finished building product that if it breaks, does not explode, i.e. fragments that are potentially dangerous to users do not break off.

According to another aspect of the invention, the third layer has a density of at least 1 Kg/m 2 so as to provide an adhesive sound resistant mass. Such features allow the third layer not only to dampen induced vibrations, so the effect due to the laying of the first rigid layer onto the second rigid layer is crossed out, but also to provide a support system made of a rigid layer (first layer), a spring layer (third layer), a rigid layer (second layer).

At the same time, the third layer can also reduce airborne noise due to different densities and elasticity.

As a consequence of all the above, what is clear is that said objects are also achieved by a membrane intended to be permanently coupled with a semifinished building product and comprising:

at least one mechanical reinforcement layer of the semi-finished building product, said mechanical reinforcement layer having a mechanical strength to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts higher to the mechanical strength of the semi-finished building product;

at least one layer of soft adhesive bituminous mixture having a thickness of at least one millimetre intended to be inserted between said mechanical reinforcement layer and the semi-finished building product to permanently bond said mechanical reinforcement layer to the semi-finished building product and to create a binder for the semi-finished building product so avoiding, if the semi-finished building product breaks, its fragments break off.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Further features and advantages of the invention will be more evident considering the detailed description of a preferred, but not exclusive, embodiment of a tile for use in the building sector according to the invention, illustrated by way of a non-limiting example with the aid of the accompanying drawings, wherein FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of a tile according to the invention.

Detailed description of a few preferred embodiment examples With reference to the mentioned figure, a tile 1 is described, which is particularly suitable for use in the building sector. As described, the tile is used for cladding ceilings, walls or floors. However, as it will be seen later on, the tile is particularly suitable to be used for cladding by means of raised floors and ventilated walls or fagades.

Tile 1 comprises three layers 2 permanently joined between them.

Among these there is a first layer 3 constituted by a semi-finished building product intended to be the visible layer of tile 1.

In this sense, the semi-finished building product is typically, but not necessarily, made of terracotta, ceramic, marble, cement, glass, composite materials or the like.

Among the three above mentioned layers 2, there is also a second layer 4 used as a mechanical reinforcement layer. In this regard, it especially has an increased mechanical resistance to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts if compared to the mechanical strength of the first layer 3.

In this way, advantageously, the mechanical support of the tile 1 is guaranteed even if the first layer 3, i.e. the semi-finished building product, does break. In this case, the tile 1 does not cave in, but remains intact due to the presence of the second layer 4. It is thus apparent that this aspect is essential in the case of raised floors since the breaking of the first layer 3 does not cause, in the case of tile 1 of the invention, a hole or depression in the floor that would be a serious danger to users, as well as a potential risk of breakdown for utilities that are usually located in the space between the raised floor and the ventilated wall.

According to one aspect of the invention, between the three layers 2 of the tile 1 there is also a third layer 5 inserted between the first layer 3 and the second layer 4. It is made up of a soft adhesive thus allowing the permanent coupling between the first layer 3 and the second layer 4. However, the third layer 5, being soft and at least one millimetre thick, has an intrinsic elasticity allowing it to advantageously perform its bonding function for the first layer 3 so as to avoid, if said layer broke, the breaking off of fragments, i.e. their explosion.

This aspect, from the point of view of the security of claddings, in case of hard and soft bodies impacts, is of the essence since the explosion of the first layer 3 usually causes the breaking off of fragment and splinters in all directions, such splinters and fragments are typically very sharp, since they come from semi-finished building products. However, this explosion is particularly favoured in the case of raised floors.

According to another aspect of the invention, the third layer 5 consists of a soft adhesive bituminous mixture. This choice is particularly advantageous as the bituminous mixture is an ideal adhesive for all semi-finished building products and, in particular, for ceramics, marble, cement and composite materials, which it can perfectly couple with, and this coupling last a long time if compared to the other known adhesives. Moreover, since it stays soft, and therefore it is not reinforced as it happens in the prior art, it makes an elastic binder for the first layer 3 thus obtaining the above outlined advantages.

Still further advantageously, the softness of the bituminous mixture also makes it possible to achieve sound proofing whose effects are maximized if compared to the sound proofing solutions of the known similar tiles, since the third layer 5 is in direct contact with both the first layer 3 and the second layer 4.

Typically, the bituminous mixture consists of a soft bitumen-polymer mixture where the bitumen component provides the required softness, but this should not be considered a limitation for the invention. In the same way, the number of layers - it can be any number provided that it's higher than three - or the number of mechanical reinforcement or soft adhesive layers should not be considered as a limiting feature. According to a further aspect of the invention, the third layer 5 has a density of at least 1 Kg/m 2 so as to provide an adhesive sound proofing mass. Such features allow the third layer 5 not only to dampen induced vibrations, so the effect due to the laying of the first 3 rigid layer onto the second 4 rigid layer is crossed out, but also to provide a support system made of a rigid layer (first layer 3), a spring layer (third layer 5), a rigid layer (second layer 4).

At the same time, the third layer 5 can also reduce airborne noise due to different densities and elasticity.

As for the second layer 4, according to one aspect of the invention, it is made of high density polyethylene, also known as HDPE, but this aspect too should not be considered a limiting feature of the invention. As a matter of fact, different embodiments envisage that it is made of polypropylene, polyester, metal, TNT polyester, glass fabrics and the like. What can be observed, in any case, is that it is adjacent to the third layer 5 and not immersed therein, thus ensuring that the third layer 5 remains perfectly soft.

Having said the above, it is clear that the object of the invention is also a membrane, not shown in the figures, intended to be permanently coupled with a semi-finished building product and comprising a mechanical reinforcement layer of the semi-finished building product. Such reinforcement layer has an increased mechanical resistance to hard bodies and soft bodies impacts if compared to the mechanical strength of the semi-finished building product.

According to an aspect of the invention, the membrane also comprises a layer of soft, adhesive bituminous mixture, at least one millimetre thick and designed to be inserted between the mechanical reinforcement layer and the semi-finished building product in order to permanently bind them in one single tile. This layer of bituminous mixture, in particular, not only acts as an adhesive between the semi-finished building product and the mechanical reinforcement layer, but its softness and elasticity makes it a binder for the semi-finished building product, thus avoiding, if the latter broke, the breaking off of fragments.

This membrane is not here fully described since such a description would obviously repeat what has already been said regarding the tile 1 of the invention. However, according to another aspect of the invention, on the surface of the membrane that has to be coupled with the semi-finished building product, i.e. on the visible surface of the bitumen mixture layer, a siliconised polyethylene film is applied. This film acts as a protecting layer of the bituminous mixture layer thus preserving its adhering features to the semifinished building product.

Considering what has been mentioned above, it will be understood that the tile of the invention, and hence also the membrane of the invention, achieve the desired aims.

In particular, the use of an adhesive bituminous mixture allows the use of any semi-finished building product without risking that the joint between the building product and the mechanical reinforcement layer caves in over time.

Moreover, the tile of the invention shows a mechanical resistance to stresses higher than that of the semi-finished building product used thanks to the reinforcement layer allowing to preserve the integrity of the tile, even in the case of mechanical tensile strength that may cause the semi-finished building product to break, in order to ensure the mechanical support even if the semifinished building product breaks.

A further object is constantly and permanently binding the reinforcement layers to the semi-finished building product to increase the mechanical strength of the tile.

Moreover, the soft adhesive layer, thanks to its binder function, prevents the semi-finished building product from exploding, or its fragments from breaking off, if the building product caves in.

As noted above, the tile of the invention provides optimized sound proofing with respect to the similar tiles of the prior art.

The tile of the invention can be widely modified and changed, and these changes all fall within the invention concept described in the appended claims. Moreover, all the details may furthermore be replaced by other technically equivalent elements, and the materials may be different depending on the needs, without departing from the scope of the invention.

Although the tile of the invention has been described with particular reference to the accompanying figures, the reference numbers used in the description and in the claims, are used to improve the intelligence of the invention and do not constitute any limitation to the claimed scope of protection.