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Title:
TITANIUM-CONTAINING ZINC WROUGHT ALLOY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/007906
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a zinc wrought alloy with improved machinability as compared to known wrought alloys, as well as semifinished products, forgings, turned parts, locks, screw connections, locking cylinders, sleeves, fittings, pressed parts, pneumaticparts, hydraulic parts, mountings, valves and ball valves that comprise a zinc wrought alloy according to the invention.

Inventors:
HÜTTIG, Jan (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
MELZER, Armin (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
PRENGER, Frank (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
ROLLEZ, Didier (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
VAN WESEL, Markus (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
VON KRIES, Joanna (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
WISNIEWSKI, Jürgen (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/067808
Publication Date:
January 10, 2019
Filing Date:
July 02, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GRILLO-WERKE AG (Weseler Str. 1, Duisburg, 47169, DE)
International Classes:
C22C18/00; C22C18/02; C22F1/16
Foreign References:
EP2385148A12011-11-09
FR2102861A51972-04-07
EP2675971A12013-12-25
EP2385148A12011-11-09
US3734785A1973-05-22
US3880679A1975-04-29
EP0679198A11995-11-02
EP2657971A22013-10-30
Other References:
"Verordnung zur Novellierung der Trinkwasserverordnung vom", GERMAN FEDERAL LAW GAZETTE, 21 May 2001 (2001-05-21)
"Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of", OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, 18 September 2000 (2000-09-18)
"Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of January 27, 2003, on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment", OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, 27 January 2003 (2003-01-27)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DOMPATENT VON KREISLER SELTING WERNER - PARTNERSCHAFT VON PATENTANWÄLTEN UND RECHTSANWÄLTEN MBB (Deichmannhaus am Dom, Bahnhofsvorplatz 1, Köln, 50667, DE)
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Claims:
C L A I M S

1. A zinc wrought alloy having an Al content of from 5% by weight to 18% by weight, a Cu content of from 0.1% by weight to 4% by weight, an Mg content of from 0.001% by weight to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content of from 0.01% by weight to 1% by weight, wherein Zn is the balance to 100%, and wherein the alloy may contain impurities at a proportion of 0.07% by weight or less.

2. The zinc wrought alloy according to claim 1, characterized in that lead is not alloyed.

3. The zinc wrought alloy according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the content of Al is from 8% to 16% by weight, preferably from 10% to 14% by weight, preferably from 10% to 12% by weight, or from 14% to 16% by weight.

4. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the content of Ti is from 0.03% to 1% by weight, preferably from 0.05% to 1% by weight, especially from 0.06% to 1% by weight.

5. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the content of Cu is from 0.1% to 2.5% by weight, especially from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight.

6. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the content of Mg is from 0.003 % by weight to 0.05% by weight, especially from 0.003% by weight to 0.03% by weight.

7. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 6, characterized by containing silicon as an impurity, especially with a content from 0.005% to 0.02% by weight.

8. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 5% to 9% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, a magnesium content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a titanium content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

9. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 5% to 9% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, an Mg content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

10. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 10% to 12% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, an Mg content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

11. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 10% to 12% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, an Mg content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

12. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 14% to 16% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, an Mg content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

13. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 14% to 16% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, an Mg content from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

14. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 16% to 18% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, a magnesium content from 0.001% to 0.05% by weight, a titanium content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

15. The zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 7, having an Al content from 16% to 18% by weight, a Cu content from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, a magnesium content from 0.001% to 0.05% by weight, a titanium content from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

16. Use of the zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 15 for preparing semifinished products and/or articles.

17. The use according to claim 16, wherein said semifinished product is a billet, an extruded section, a drawn section, a wire, a strip, a powder, or a pressure die-cast alloy.

18. The use according to claim 16, wherein said article is a forging, turned part, lock, screw connection, locking cylinder, sleeve, fitting, pressed part, pneumatic part, hydraulic part, mounting, valve or ball valve.

19. Semifinished products, forgings, turned parts, locks, screw connections, locking cylinders, sleeves, fittings, pressed parts, pneumatic parts, hydraulic parts, mountings, valves and ball valves, characterized by comprising, especially consisting of, a zinc wrought alloy according to any of claims 1 to 15.

20. A process for preparing and/or reshaping and/or processing semifinished products, forgings, turned parts, locks, screw connections, locking cylinders, sleeves, fittings, pressed parts, pneumatic parts, hydraulic parts, mountings, valves and ball valves according to claim 19 by cold or hot reshaping .

21. The process according to claim 20, characterized in that said processing includes processing by forging or machining, especially turning, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, grinding or honing.

Description:
Titanium-Containing Zinc Wrought Alloy

The present invention relates to a zinc wrought alloy with improved machinability as compared to known wrought alloys, as well as semifinished products, forgings, turned parts, locks, screw connections, locking cylinders, sleeves, fittings, pressed parts, pneumatic parts, hydraulic parts, mountings, valves and ball valves that comprise a zinc wrought alloy according to the invention.

A wide variety of copper-zinc alloys (brass alloys) are known in the prior art. When objects are prepared from these alloys, they are processed with shaping, for example, by machining. Thus, machinability, i.e., the property of a material to be processable by machining, is an important characteristic of corresponding materials. To improve their machinability, brass alloys are often alloyed with lead, such as free-machining brass, CuZn39Pb3.

In recent years, the conditions to be met for the protection of health and environment have been tightened up significantly by the legislation in many fields. This affects, in particular, a ban or a drastic reduction of lead as an alloy component in copper alloys (see, for example, [1] Verordnung zur Novellierung der Trinkwasserverordnung vom 21. Mai 2001, German Federal Law Gazette, Issue 2001, Part I No. 24, issued in Bonn on May 28, 2001; [2] Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of September 18, 2000, on end-of-life vehicles, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 269/34, DE, October 21, 2000; or [3] Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of January 27, 2003, on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, Official Journal of the European Union, February 13, 2003, DE, L 37/19). Therefore, in view of these conditions to be met, low-lead brass alloys were developed, but which can still contain up to 0.25% lead .

In addition to brass alloys, zinc alloys have also been described in the prior art. Herein, low lead or even lead-free alloys are increasingly being developed . As an example, EP 2675971 A - "Accessory consisting of a lock accessory" may be mentioned. It discloses a zinc alloy with an Al content of from 13 to 25%, a Cu content of from 0.2 to 3.5%, and an Mg content of less than 0.1%, which is employed for lock accessories.

EP 2 385 148 A - "Zinc alloy with high creep resistance" relates to a zinc-aluminum alloy with an Al content of 10 to < 25%, a Cu content of 0.05 to 3%, an Mg content of from 0.001 to 0.1%, an Mn content of 0.05% to 1.0% and an Si content of from 0.05 to 1%. The disclosed alloy has a high creeping resistance and is suitable for the furnace brazing and normal brazing of heat exchangers.

US 3,734,785 - "Zinc forging alloy" claims a zinc-based alloy with an Al content of 9 to 22%, a Cu content of 0.5 to 1.5%, and an Mg content of 0.01 to 0.03%, which is particularly suitable for hot formability.

US 3,880,679 - "Method of forming zinc-aluminum alloys with good machinability" describes zinc-aluminum alloys with an Al content of 22 to 27%, a Cu content of 0 to 10%, an Mg content of 0.01 to 1%, and a Bi content of 0.01 to 3%.

EP 0 679 198 A - "Method for producing Zn-AI-Cu alloy articles by centrifugal or die casting" describes a zinc alloy with an Al content of 6.0 to 8.0%, a Cu content of 3.2 to 4.3%, for preparing articles by centrifugal casting in a rubber mold, or pressure die-casting in a metal mold.

Also widely known are zinc pressure die-casting alloys, also referred to as ZAMAK ® . These consist of zinc-aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys, which cannot have the corresponding strength properties, however. Further, machining is clearly more problematic in zinc pressure die-casting alloys because of the higher porosity structure.

Proceeding from this prior art, it has been the object of the present invention to provide a zinc-based wrought alloy having an improved machinability as compared to the prior art. At the same time, the mechanical properties should not be adversely affected . The improved machinability is to be achieved without including lead in the alloy. Surprisingly, it has been found that titanium enables an improved machinability of zinc wrought alloys. "Alloying" basically means the preparation of an alloy by melting a metal together with at least one other metal or non-metal . If in the present application it is referred to the fact that a metal or non-metal is not alloyed to an alloy, this means that the metal or non-metal in question is not actively added .

Therefore, in a first embodiment, the object of the present invention is achieved by a zinc wrought alloy having an Al content of from 5% by weight to 18% by weight, a Cu content of from 0.1% by weight to 4% by weight, an Mg content of from 0.001% by weight to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content of from 0.01% by weight to 1% by weight, wherein Zn is the balance to 100%, and wherein the alloy may contain impurities at a proportion of 0.07% by weight or less.

This may be achieved, for example, by purposefully alloying with titanium in zinc- aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys, which may then be used in the preparation of a wide variety of semifinished products and articles, such as forgings, turned parts, locks, screw connections, locking cylinders, sleeves, fittings, pressed parts, pneumatic parts, hydraulic parts, mountings, valves or ball valves. Titanium is an extremely effective alloy element, strongly affecting the microstructure already in the ppm range because of its lattice structure. With it, a better machinability can be achieved. At the same time, the mechanical properties of the alloy are not adversely affected. Further, the zinc alloy according to the invention has very good hot formability properties.

If percentages are stated with respect to components contained in the alloy in the present application, they are percent by weight unless explicitly stated otherwise, respectively based on the total weight of the alloy. In particular, no further metals in addition to the metals mentioned are alloyed with the alloy when it is prepared. More preferably, the alloy according to the invention is free of zirconium.

Surprisingly, it has been found that an improved machinability, in particular, is achieved by selectively alloying titanium. Other zinc wrought alloys (as disclosed, for example, in EP 2675971 - "Accessory consisting of a lock accessory") have a poorer machinability (chip formation). Surprisingly, the machining index could be brought into the reference range of free-machining brass (CuZn39Pb3) by alloying with titanium, but without having to alloy with lead. In addition, very good drilling, milling and broaching properties are obtained . Further, processing may be dry or wet. Alloying with lead is not necessary. Preferably, lead is not alloyed. Preferred is a Pb content in the alloy according to the invention of <0.003% by weight, especially < 0.003% by weight, which is present in the alloy as an impurity of zinc, in particular, but not as an additional alloy component.

In addition, surprisingly, the microstructure (fineness of grain) can be influenced by alloying with titanium so that the forgeability is significantly improved . The proportion of titanium (Ti) in the alloy according to the invention is preferably from 0.01% to 1% by weight, especially from 0.03% to 1% by weight, specifically from 0.05% to 1% by weight, preferably from 0.06% to 1% by weight. It has been found that these proportions of titanium are sufficient to achieve the improved properties. Larger amounts are not necessary and also can be introduced only with difficulty without adversely affecting the microstructure of the alloy. Particularly preferred is a Ti content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight.

In addition to the mentioned components (Zn, Al, Cu, Mg, Ti), the alloy according to the invention may also comprise impurities resulting from the fact that these components (Zn, Al, Cu, Mg, Ti) are derived from recycling. However, for the usual sources of the components (Zn, Al, Cu, Mg, Ti), these are not critical. Common impurities are Cd, Pb, Sn and/or Fe. Preferably, these impurities are contained only in very small amounts, so that they do not affect the properties of the alloy according to the invention. Therefore, preferred is a Pb content of < 0.003% by weight, and/or a Cd content of < 0.003% by weight, especially < 0.0005% by weight, and/or an Sn content of < 0.001% by weight, especially of < 0.0005% by weight, and/or an Fe content of < 0.05% by weight. Preferably, the content of all stated impurities is below the mentioned values. Preferably, the content of all impurities is 0.07% by weight or less.

The alloys according to the invention are suitable for surface treatments (for example, electroplating, PVD, CVD, passivation, painting, cathodic dip painting/coating, powder coating).

Particularly preferred is a zinc wrought alloy with a content of aluminum (Al) of from 5 % by weight to 18 % by weight, especially from 8% to 18% by weight, preferably from 10% to 16% by weight, more preferably from 5 % to 9% by weight, preferably from 10% to 12% by weight, more preferably from 14% to 16% by weight, especially from 16% to 18% by weight. These ranges are preferred because all alloys are supereutectic therein, and there is a first beta phase in the crystal structure. This beta phase is preferred because it recrystallizes at room temperature very slowly (> 10 years), so that the properties of the alloy are retained .

Particularly preferred is a zinc wrought alloy with a content of copper (Cu) of from 0.1% to 2.5% by weight, especially from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight. This range is preferred to achieve the maximum mechanical strength, and to avoid the risk of forming of a brittle epsilon phase in the crystal structure.

Particularly preferred is a zinc wrought alloy with a content of magnesium (Mg) of from 0.003 % by weight to 0.05 % by weight, especially from 0.003% to 0.03% by weight. This range serves as a precaution to prevent intercrystalline corrosion by the residual traces of impurities.

The titanium content of at most 1% in the zinc alloy is limited by the solubility of titanium.

The zinc wrought alloy according to the invention may further contain silicon as an impurity. If it contains silicon, the content of silicon in the alloy is within a range of from 0.005% by weight to 0.02% by weight, in particular. The silicon content is determined by the selection of Al, because silicon is an impurity in aluminum.

It has been found that an alloy having an Al content of from 10% to 12% by weight, a Cu content of from 0.5% by weight to 1.5% by weight, an Mg content of from 0.003% by weight to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight, has particularly good properties with respect to machinability. At the same time, mechanical properties, such as strength or hardness, are not adversely affected. Therefore, such an alloy is preferred .

Particularly preferred according to the invention is a zinc wrought alloy with an Al content of from 14% to 16% by weight, a Cu content of from 0.5% by weight to 1.5% by weight, an Mg content of from 0.003% by weight to 0.05% by weight, a Ti content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight. Corresponding alloys have good properties with respect to machinability and in addition have a good processabiiity. Herein, mechanical properties of the alloy, such as strength or hardness, are not adversely affected .

Further preferred alloys have the following compositions: aluminum content of from 5% to 9% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; aluminum content of from 5% to 9% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; aluminum content of from 10% to 12% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; aluminum content of from 10% to 12% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; aluminum content of from 14% to 16% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; aluminum content of from 14% to 16% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.003% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight; • aluminum content of from 16% to 18% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.001% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight;

• aluminum content of from 16% to 18% by weight, copper content of from 0.5% to 1.5% by weight, magnesium content of from 0.001% to 0.05% by weight, titanium content of from 0.05% to 1% by weight, with zinc as the balance to reach 100% by weight.

The present invention further relates to the use of the titanium-containing zinc wrought alloy according to the invention for preparing semifinished products and articles with improved machining properties. Further included according to the invention is a semifinished product or article obtainable by processing the zinc wrought alloy according to the invention. This semifinished product may be, in particular, a billet, an extruded section, a drawn section, a wire, a strip, a powder, or a pressure die-cast alloy. In particular, the article may be a forging, turned part, lock, screw connection, locking cylinder, sleeve, fitting, pressed part, pneumatic part, hydraulic part, mounting, valve or ball valve.

The semifinished product according to the invention, especially the billet, can be prepared, for example, by casting the zinc wrought alloy according to the invention into a mold . When the alloy according to the invention has been formed into a billet shape, for example, a section can be prepared therefrom by reshaping by means of extrusion. Further, the zinc wrought alloy according to the invention can be processed by different reshaping methods. Such reshaping methods include, in particular, rolling, forging, drawing. The articles according to the invention are excellently suitable for being subjected to machining methods.

The zinc wrought alloy according to the invention and the articles prepared therefrom exhibit an improved machinability as compared to conventional ZnAI/ZnAICu/ZnAICuMg alloys.

The requirement for the invention is to enhance the processability of zinc wrought alloys. This object was achieved by alloying with titanium. There may be mentioned, in particular, the machining properties that were significantly improved thereby, so that a machining index within the reference range of free-machining brass (CuZn39Pb3) can be achieved . In the experiments, it is found that the titanium content leads to ideal chip shapes. Surprisingly, increased cutting speeds could be achieved additionally, which significantly enhances productivity.

The prepared products made of the titanium-containing zinc wrought alloy according to the invention are more cost-effective than comparably lead-free brass materials. This results from a lower density and an excellent processability caused by the optimum composition of zinc, aluminum, copper, magnesium and titanium.

In the following Examples, the present invention is further explained in a non- limiting way, and advantages over the prior art are pointed out.

Examples

The zinc wrought alloy according to the invention was compared with the following materials:

Table 1 : Comparative material (comparative experiments)

A zinc wrought alloy as described in EP 2 675 971 was used as a comparative material (information in column "zinc alloy" in Table 1). The qualification of the zinc wrought alloy according to the invention is based on four methods delimited from one another, which are set forth in the following. They are the basis of the determination of the claimed composition boundaries. If one of the compositions showed defects, this led to exclusion.

From a zinc alloy as described in Table 1 as well as from the following alloys according to the invention, billets having a diameter of 135 mm were prepared, which served as a starting point for the qualification :

Table 2 : Alloys according to the invention

Both the billets/alloys according to the invention and the comparative alloys/billets were analyzed by the following methods relating to different mechanical properties as well as machinability (qualification) :

Method 1 (reshaping method ' ) :

The billet was heated at 250 °C in an oven. Thereafter, the billet was extruded into a round section . Further, the extruded round rod was drawn to a final dimension of 26 mm. The testing requirements were considered to be met if no signs of surface cracks or blisters have formed .

Method 2 (tensile test) :

As the second method, a tensile test was performed. The exact realization, the definition of the measurable characteristics and the specimen shape are defined in DIN EN ISO 6892-1 : 2017.

A section of the drawn round rod having a diameter of 26 mm was lathe-turned into a specimen for tensile testing as shown in Figure 1. It was clamped into the tensile testing machine and exposed to a uniaxial load until the specimen broke. Meanwhile, the force, width and length were continuously measured electronically, whereby the stress-strain curve (Figure 2) could be determined.

Method 3 (creep tendency) :

Further, the creep tendency or creep strength according to DIN EN ISO 204: 2009 was tested as a third method. A specimen as shown in Figure 1 was subjected to a long-acting uniaxial tensile force at a constant test temperature. In this case, the specimen was loaded constantly with 100 MPa at room temperature. Meanwhile, the axial strain was measured.

Method 4 (shape of chip) :

In the fourth method, a section of the drawn round rod was clamped into a turning machine. A turned part having rotational symmetry with five recessed grooves having widths of 3 mm and depths of 3 mm was prepared therefrom. The testing requirements were considered to be met if the chip shape corresponds to industrial custom.

Results:

At first, the different alloy ranges were tested with respect to aluminum content, because the latter represents the major alloy component. In the following Table 3, the mechanical characteristics of the alloys according to the invention (samples 1 to 4 according to Table 2) are shown. They were determined by the above described methods 2 and 3.

Table 3 : Mechanical characteristics of the alloys according to the invention (methods 2 and 3)

Surprisingly, the selective alloying with titanium did not have a negative impact on the mechanical characteristics. In the comparison with the comparative material (zinc alloy from Table 1), no significant differences could be seen.

Results of method 4 (shapes of chips ' ) - specimens 1, 2, 3 and 4: a) Specimens 1 to 4 according to the invention were processed as described above under method 4 with the following parameters:

Table 4 : Machining parameters (high cutting speed)

Photographs of the chip shapes and the specimens that were processed are shown in Figure 3. From the results, it can be readily seen that all ranges of the present invention showed a good machinability. This was shown by the spiral chips produced by each of the four specimens. Spiral chips are advantageous, in particular, for automated production processes. The high cutting speed achieved increases efficiency and is thus also very advantageous. b) Specimens 1 to 4 according to the invention were processed as described above under method 4 with the following parameters:

Table 5 : Machining parameters (medium cutting speed)

Photographs of the chip shapes and the specimens that were processed are shown in Figure 4. At a medium cutting speed, all the specimens showed a good machinability. Both spiral chips and conical helical chips were produced.

Other alloys according to the invention - specimens 3a to 3d

Further, different titanium contents were tested for determining a preferred composition by means of specimen 3 :

Table 6: Specimens with different titanium contents (alloy according to the invention) :

Results of methods 2 and 3 - specimens 3a, 3b and 3c:

The following Table 7 shows the results of the mechanical properties of the specimens (results of methods 2 and 3).

Table 7 : Mechanical properties of the specimens with different titanium contents (methods 2 and 3) Properties Unit Specimen 3a Specimen 3 Specimen 3b Specimen 3c

Tensile MPa 401 411 409 410 strength

Yield strength MPa 365 372 370 369

Brinell HB 129 132 133 131 hardness (2.5/62.5)

Creep % 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 tendency

(Af RT ioo.i)

Surprisingly, the titanium content in different amounts does not show any negative impact on the mechanical properties.

Results of method 4 (shapes of chips ' ) - specimens 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d :

The machining parameters of Tables 4 and 5 remained identical. Photographs of the chip shapes and the specimens that were processed are shown in Figures 5 (parameters according to Table 4) and 6 (parameters according to Table 5).

In the comparison in Figure 5, it can be readily seen that the machining properties were improved as the titanium content increased . The chips achieved good chip shapes, which clearly enhances productivity in the processing in a turning machine. These include, but are not limited to, short helical chips, spiral chips, and long helical chips. Further, it was found that the alloy having a Ti content of 0.1% by weight is particularly process-safe. It constantly produced long helical chips, while the chip length varied more with the other titanium contents.

The results from Figure 6 are similar to those of Figure 5 and also show good machining properties. Short helical chips were produced in most cases.

In the last step, the alloy 3 according to the invention was compared with the comparative material from EP 2 657 971.

Results of method 4 (shapes of chips ' ) - specimen 3 vs. zinc alloy according to EP

2 675 971 : The machining parameters of Tables 4 and 5 remained identical. Photographs of the chip shapes and the specimen that was processed are shown in Figures 7 (parameters according to Table 4) and 8 (parameters according to Table 5).

In the comparison in Figure 7, the extent of improvement of the chip shapes by the zinc alloy according to the invention can be readily seen. At a cutting speed of 210 m/min, long entangled chips were produced with the zinc alloy from the prior art (as mentioned in EP 2 675 971, Comparative Example). Surprisingly, a clearly better chip shape could be achieved by selectively alloying with titanium. Such chip shape of the inventive alloys are ideal for processing in a turning machine, avoiding risks and disruptions in the cutting process, such as the chip becoming wound up around the workpiece or the tool . A high cutting speed is also desirable, and is also possible with the alloy according to the invention, because the process speed of the semifinished products in the turning machine can be increased. Surprisingly, the high cutting speed can be achieved by the present invention .

Also at lower cutting speeds, as shown in Figure 8, the zinc alloy according to the invention achieved chip shapes that are better for turning processing as compared to those obtained with the comparative zinc alloy as described in EP 2 675 971.