Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TRANSCUTANEOUS DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/023311
Kind Code:
A2
Inventors:
SESARDIC, Dorothea (3 Belleview Road, Ealing, London W13 8DF, 8DF, GB)
PATERSON, Blake (1000 Fells St #318, Baltimore, MD, 21231, US)
Application Number:
US2008/062894
Publication Date:
February 19, 2009
Filing Date:
May 07, 2008
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
ALBA THERAPEUTICS CORPORATION (800 West Baltimore, Suite 400Baltimore, MD, 21201, US)
SESARDIC, Dorothea (3 Belleview Road, Ealing, London W13 8DF, 8DF, GB)
PATERSON, Blake (1000 Fells St #318, Baltimore, MD, 21231, US)
International Classes:
A61K39/12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HAYMAN, Mark L. et al. (Cooley Godward Kronish LLP, attn: Patent Group777 6th Street, NW,Suite 110, Washington DC, 20001, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:

What is claimed is:

1. A transcutaneous dosage composition comprising a therapeutic agent and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of:

(a) Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1);

(b) Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2);

(c) Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3);

(d) Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4);

(e) Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5); (0 Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6); (g) Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 7); (h) Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8); (i) Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9): G) Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10); (k) Xaal Cys lie GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 ); (1) Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 12); (m) Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13); (n) Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14); (o) Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15); (p) Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 16); (q) Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 17); (r) Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18); (s) Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 19); (t) Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20);

(u) Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 21); and

(v) Phe Cys lie GIy Xaa5 Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala. VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr. Asn. Ala, and GIn: Xaa.ϊ is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaaό is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

2. The dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein the peptide comprises from about 6 to about 10 amino acid residues.

3. The dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein the therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of antibiotics, antiinflammatories, analgesics, insulin, vaccines, small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and combinations thereof.

4. The dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein the composition is in a form selected form the group consisting of an aqueous solution and a saline solution.

5. The dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

6. The dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein the therapeutic agent is an antigen.

7. The dosage composition of claim 6, wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

8. The dosage composition of claim 6 further comprising an adjuvant.

9. A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin the dosage composition of claim 1.

10. The method of claim 8, wherein the animal is human.

1 1. A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin the dosage composition of claim 1 , wherein said therapeutic agent is insulin and/or a derivative thereof.

12. The method of claim 1 1 , wherein the animal is human.

13. A method of inducing an immune response in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin the dosage composition of claim 6.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the animal is human.

15. A method of inducing a protective immune response in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin the dosage composition of claim 6.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the animal is human.

Description:

TRANSCUTANEOUS DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS

STATEMENT CONCERNING RELATED APPLICATIONS

{0001 J This application claims benefit of 35 U.S.C. section 1 19(e) based on copending U.S. Provisional Applications Ser. No. 60/916,503, and 60/991 ,058, filed May 7, 2007, and November 29, 2007 respectively, and herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention provides materials and methods to facilitate the transcutaneous delivery of therapeutic agents. In some embodiments, agonists of biological pathways responsible for opening and closing tight junctions (e.g., tight junction agonists, zonulin agonists, ZOT agonists) are used in compositions to facilitate the uptake of therapeutic agents across the skin.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The skin provides a protective barrier against deleterious materials present in the environment. Since the skin has a large surface area and is readily accessible, it has been used as the site of therapeutic delivery. Administration to the skin avoids the difficulties of other routes of administration, for example, the acid environment of the stomach encountered when oral administration is used or the pain associated with piercing the skin in parenteral administration. Numerous examples of transcutaneous delivery systems are known in the art, for example. United States patent nos. 7,201 ,919, 7,097,853. and 6,946, 144 all disclose various compositions and devices for transcutaneous administration of agents. There remains a need in the art for methods and compositions to improve the uptake of therapeutic agents from the skin. This need and others are met by the present invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004| In one embodiment, the present invention provides transcutaneous dosage compositions. Such compositions may comprise one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists. As used herein, a "tight junction agonist" is a compound that mediates or facilitates or augments the physiological, transient opening of tight junctions, for example, the tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. An example of a tight junction agonist is zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), which is produced by Vibrio cholerae. A ZOT receptor agonist is a compound which is believed to mediate tight junction opening through the same receptor utilized by ZOT. In another embodiment, a tight junction agonist may comprise zonulin. In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist may comprise a peptide. In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist may be a fragment of ZOT and/or zonulin. In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist comprising a peptide may comprise the amino acid sequence FCIGRL (SEQ ID NO: 1 ). A tight junction agonist comprising a peptide may comprise from about 6 to about 50 amino acids, from about 6 to about 25 amino acids, or from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

[0005] A transcutaneous dosage composition according to the invention may comprise one or more therapeutic agents. Examples of suitable therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, analgesics, insulin and vaccines. Therapeutic agents for use in the invention may be of any type known to those of skill in the art, for example, small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and combinations thereof. (0006| Transcutaneous dosage compositions of the invention may be liquids (e.g., aqueous solutions, emulsions, suspensions and the like). In some embodiments, a transcutaneous dosage composition may be an aqueous solution, for example, a saline solution. [0007| Transcutaneous dosage compositions of the invention may also comprise one or more pharmaceutically

acceptable excipients. Typical excipients that may be included in the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, sugars, salts, buffer salts, stabilizers, surfactants, polymers, preservatives and the like. Any pharmaceutically acceptable excipient known to those of skill in the art may be used.

[000S| An example of a transcutaneous dosage composition of the invention is an aqueous solution comprising a tight junction agonist comprising a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and also comprising at least one antigen.

|0009] The present invention also provides methods for treating animals (e.g., mammals including humans) by administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonist. An example of a method of treating an animal is a method treating diabetes in an animal (e.g., a mammal such as a human) in need thereof, comprising administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or an insulin derivative and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonist. Compositions for use in methods of the invention may be liquids or aqueous solutions and may comprise one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients as described above.

[0010) In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inducing an immune response against an antigen in a mammal comprising administering a peptide having amino acid sequence FCIGRL (SEQ ID NO: 1) or a functional derivative thereof and the antigen to the skin of the animal, wherein the mammal raises the immune response against the antigen. Compositions for use in methods of inducing an immune response may further comprise one or more adjuvants (i.e., compounds that promote an enhanced immune response).

[0011| The present invention also provides immunogenic compositions. Such compositions may comprise one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists. Examples of antigens that may be included in immunogenic compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to. measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigens,

Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens. Such compositions may further comprise one or more adjuvants. Immunogenic compositions of the invention may be liquids and may comprise one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients as described above.

[0012] In another embodiment, the present invention provides compositions and methods for the transcutaneous delivery of vaccines. Vaccines of the invention may be formulated for transcutaneous delivery. Such vaccines may comprise one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists (e.g., a ZOT receptor agonist). Any antigen capable of inducing a protective immune response may be used in the vaccines of the invention. Examples of suitable antigens include, but are not limited to, measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens. Such vaccines may further comprise one or more adjuvants. Vaccines of the invention may be liquids and may comprise one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients as described above.

[0013| In particular embodiments the present invention provides:

[0014] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists.

[0015] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one agonist comprises a

peptide.

[0016] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL.

|0017] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phc Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6), and Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro. Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala. and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

|0018| A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaa l Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1), Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13). Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaa6 (SEQ IO NO: 21), and Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met. [0019] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

[0020| A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or . more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, analgesics, insulin and vaccines. |00211 A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein at least one therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and combinations thereof.

[0022] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein the composition is in aqueous solution. [0023] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein the composition is in a saline solution.

[0024| A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[0025] A transcutaneous dosage composition, comprising: one or more therapeutic agents; and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the composition is in aqueous solution and the composition comprises one or more therapeutic agents selected from the group consisting of small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and combinations thereof.

[0026] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist. [0027] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a mammal.

|0028) A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a human.

(0029| A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide.

[0030] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence FClGRL.

[0031] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy λrg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6). and Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, λsn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

[0032] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1), Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 21 ), and Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5

Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and

Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy. Ser, Thr. Tyr.

Asn. Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

|0033) A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

[0034] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories. analgesics, insulin and vaccines.

[0035| A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and combinations thereof.

|0036| A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in aqueous solution.

[0037J A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in a saline solution.

|0038] A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

|0039| A method of treating an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more therapeutic agents and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the composition is in aqueous solution and the composition comprises one or more therapeutic agents selected from the group consisting of small molecules, peptides, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and combinations thereof.

[0040| A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist.

[0041 ] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a mammal.

[0042] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a human.

[0043| A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a

tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide.

[U044] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence FClGRL. [0045| A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6), and Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser. Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met. [0046] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 ), Xaal Cys lie GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu(SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 21 ), and Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu. He, Pro. Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

[0047] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

[0048) A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in aqueous solution.

[0049] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in a saline solution.

[0050] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable

excipients.

[0051 ] A method of treating diabetes in an animal in need thereof, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising insulin and/or a derivative thereof and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the composition is in aqueous solution and the composition comprises human insulin and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof.

[0052] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist.

|0053| A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, further comprising administering an adjuvant.

[0054| A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition further comprises an adjuvant.

|0055| A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a mammal.

[0056| A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the animal is a human.

[0057] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide.

[0058] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL.

|0059| A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys He GIy λrg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg

Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys lie Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys lie GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6), and

Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu,

He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, lie, Pro, Trp, and Met.

[0060] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys l ie Xaa4

Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 ), Xaal Cys Hc GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID

NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 lie Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14). Phe Xaa2 lie GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 lie GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg

Leu(SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO:

19), Phe Cys Ue Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 21), and Phe Cys He

GIy Xaa5 Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro,

Trp : Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy,

Ser. Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala. and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His: Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

[0061] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

|0062] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one antigen is selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacteriwn diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens..

[0063] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in aqueous solution.

[0064] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in a saline solution.

[0065] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[0066] A method of inducing an immune response in an animal, comprising: administering to the animal's skin a composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the composition is in aqueous solution and the composition comprises one or more antigens selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacteriwn diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens. Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

[0067] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist.

[0068] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one antigen is selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis anligens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus

antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

[0069] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide.

[0070| An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence

FCIGRL.

[0071 ] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:

3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5). Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5

Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6), and Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr,

Tyr. Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met: Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro. Trp, and Met.

|0072] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID

NO: 9), Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys lie GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 ), Xaal Cys lie

GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ

ID NO: 14), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys

Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu(SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6

(SEQ ID NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 21 ). and Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaa l is selected from the group consisting of Ala. VaI.

Leu. He, Pro, Trp. Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy. Ser, Thr. Tyr, λsn. and GIn:

Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaa6 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

|0073] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 10 amino acids.

|0074] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in aqueous solution.

[0075] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition is in a saline solution.

[0076] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the composition further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

|0077] An immunogenic composition comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the composition is in aqueous solution and the composition comprises at least one antigen selected from the

group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Coiynebacierium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens.

Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

[0078] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist.

|0079] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one antigen is selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Coiynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens,

Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

[0080J A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide.

[0081 ] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising the sequence FClGRL.

[0082| A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3

GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys lie GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO:

6), and Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI,

Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn;

Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaaό is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met.

|0U83] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a light junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys

He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1), Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Xaaό

(SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14),

Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4

Arg Leu(SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID

NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 21 ), and Phe Cys

He GIy Xaa5 Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 22), wherein Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He. Pro,

Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy,

Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaaό is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, lie, Pro, Trp, and Met.

[0084) A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein at least one agonist comprises a peptide comprising from about 6 to about 15 amino acids.

[0085] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the vaccine is an aqueous solution.

[0U86] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight

junction agonist, wherein the vaccine is a saline solution.

[0087] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the vaccine further comprises one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. [0088] A vaccine comprising one or more antigens and a transcutaneous absorption enhancing amount of a tight junction agonist, wherein the tight junction agonist is a peptide comprising the sequence FCIGRL and the vaccine is an aqueous solution and the vaccine comprises at least one antigen selected from the group consisting of measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens, Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

BRIEF DESCRIPT[ON OF THE DRAWINGS

[0089] FIGURE 1 describes the immunization protocol used in experiments 1 and 2. Animals were immunized with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (TT; 25μg), cholera toxin (CT; 25μg); and/or AT-1002 (25μg or 75μg). The ten week schedule that included a primary immunization, a first and second boost after 4 and 8 weeks respectively, and a test bleed at 6 weeks. Terminal bleed and spleen harvesting was carried out at ten weeks, and samples were processed as indicated.

[0090| FIGURE 2 provides a summary of the characteristics of the AT1002 peptide (Phe-Cys-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu) used in experiment 1.

[0091 ) FIGURE 3 shows the immunization procedure as described in Example 1.

(0092] FIGURE 4A shows experiment 1 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELISA in test bleeds taken from individual animal at week 6.

[0093] FIGURE 4B shows experiment 1 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELISA in terminal bleeds taken from individual animal at week 10.

[0094] FIGURE 5 shows a summary of the experiment 1 tetanus IgG titer measurements in different treatment groups 6 and 10 weeks after the primary immunization. Data represent.the mean ± s.e.m. (n=5 for each group). * p<0.05 vesus TT at the same time point. Peptide AT 1002 significantly enhances the anti-tetanus response compared to tetanus toxoid alone. Higher dose of ATI 002 peptide does not increaser the anti-tetanus response.

|0095| FIGURE 6 shows the experiment 1 anti-tetanus IgG subclass titer measurements in treatment groups I O weeks after the primary immunization. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=5 for each group). No indication of a shift toward a Th I response using AT1002 as an adjuvant. Serum IgA was also measured in the same samples, and no measurable level was observed in any of the groups in this experiment.

|0096] FIGURE 7 shows the summarized proliferation of spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-100μg/ml) in experiment 1. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group), and they are expressed as a Stimulation Index relative to proliferation of cells grown in RPMl medium without restimulation. Results show a lack of proliferation in TT restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with TT + AT 1002 (25μg) indicating a potential technical problem with this assay.

|0097] FIGURE 8A shows the summarized production of InterIeukin-6 (1L-6) by spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-100μg/ml) in experiment 1. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group). ATI 002 does increase 1L-6 production compared to groups immunized with toxoid (TT) alone.

[0098] FIGURE 8B shows the summarized production of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-100μg/ml) in experiment 1. Data represent the

mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group). AT1002 does not increase IFN-γ production compared to groups immunized with toxoid (TT) alone. Levels of IL-5 and IL-IO were also measured following restimulation, and ATI 002 does not increase production of either one compared to groups immunized with toxoid (TT) alone. (0099) FIGURE 9 summarizes the conclusions from Experiment 1.

|0100| FIGURE 10 provides a summary of the characteristics of the AT1002 peptide (FClGRL) used in experiment 2.

|01011 FIGURE 1 1 λ shows experiment 2 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELlSA in test bleeds taken from individual animal at week 6.

|0102J FlGURF- 1 IB shows experiment 2 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELISA in test bleeds taken from individual animal at week 10.

|0103| FIGURE 12 shows a summary of the experiment 2 tetanus IgG titer measurements in different treatment groups 6 and 10 weeks after the primary immunization. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=5 for each group). * p<0.05 vesus TT at the same time point. Peptide AT1002 significantly enhances the anti-tetanus response in a dose- dependent manner compared to tetanus toxoid alone. There was high variability within each group. |0104| FIGURE 13 shows the summarized proliferation of spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-100μg/ml) in experiment 2. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group), and they are expressed as a Stimulation Index relative to proliferation of cells grown in RPMl medium without restimulation. * p<0.05 versus AT 1002 3μg and AT1002 300μg at the same tetanus toxin dosage. Results show that ATI 002 (30μg) induces the strongest cell proliferation response on restimulation with immunizing antigen.

|0105| FIGURE 14A shows the summarized production of Intcrleukin-6 (IL-6) by spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-100μg/ml) in experiment 2. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group). AT1002 does increase IL-6 production compared to groups immunized with toxoid (TT) alone.

|0106] FIGURE 14B shows the summarized production of lnterferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (0-I 00μg/ml) in experiment 2. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group).

|0107| FIGURE I S summarizes the conclusions derived from Experiment 2.

[0108] FIGURE 16 shows anti-tetanus IgG titers after 6 and 10 weeks. Data represent the mean ± SEM (n=5 per group).

[0109] FIGURE 17 shows spleen cell proliferation following re-stimulation with TT (0-l OOμg/ml). Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group.

|01 10| FIGURE 18A shows production of IL-6 in splenocytes following re-stimulation with TT (0-100μg/ml). Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs TT alone. [01111 FIGURE 18B shows production of IFN-γ in splenocytes following re-stimulation with TT (0-100μg/ml). Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group.

|01 12| FIGURE 19A shows experiment 3 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELISA in test bleeds taken from individual animals at week 6. Animals were immunized transcutaneously with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (25μg) alone or in combination with peptide AT1002 (30μg): Phe-Allyl(Gly)-Ile,Gly-Arg-Leu (FaGIGRL (SEQ ID NO: 144); 30μg) or Phc-Gly-IIe-Gly-Arg-Leu (FGIGRL (SEQ ID NO:169); 30μg). Mice received 3 doses of antigen ι. adjuvant at weeks 0, 4 and 8, animals were bled at weeks 6 and 10, and spleens were harbested at week 10 to

measure proliferative responses on restimulatin with immunizing antigen (tetanus toxoid). Anti-tetanus IgG responses were measured by ELlSA as described. n=6 for all immunization groups except: Tl ' group n=5 (one animal excluded due to cut on abdomen after shaving); and FaGIGRL group n=3 (three animals excluded due to non-response to anesthesia).

[0113| FIGURE 19B shows experiment 3 tetanus IgG titers measured by ELISA in terminal bleeds taken from individual animal at week 10. Animals were immunized and samples were gathered as described above (Figure 21). Anti-tetanus IgG responses were measured by ELISA as described. n=6 for all immunization groups except: TT group n=5 (one animal excluded due to cut on abdomen after shaving); and FaGIGRL group n=3 (three animals excluded due to non-response to anesthesia).

[OI 141 FIGURE 20 shows a summary of the experiment 3 tetanus IgG titer measurements in different treatment groups 6 and 10 weeks after the primary immunization. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=6 for each group except as noted in Figure 21). * p<0.05 vesus test bleed titerin the same group (paired T-test). ANOVA analysis did not reveal any significant differences between immunization groups at either time point.

|01 15] FIGURE 21 shows the summarized proliferation of spleen cells isolated from immunized mice after restimulation with tetanus toxoid 02/126 (1 or lOOμg/ml) in experiment 3. Data represent the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 for each group), and they are expressed as a Stimulation Index relative to proliferation of cells grown in RPM I medium without restimulation.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions

|01 16| As used herein, "a" or "an" may mean one or more. As used herein in the claim(s), when used in conjunction with the word "comprising", the words "a" or "an" may mean one or more than one. As used herein

"another" may mean at least a second or more.

|01 17| As used herein, "adjuvant" refers to a compound that induces, enhances, and/or augments an immune response to an antigen.

|0118| As used herein, "antigen" refers to any compound that can elicit an immune response, for example, which can elicit production of an antibody that specifically binds to the antigen.

|01 19| As used herein, "immunogenic composition" refers to any composition comprising an antigen.

[0120] As used herein, "vaccine" refers to an immunogenic composition capable of eliciting a protective immune response when administered to a subject. A protective immune response is one that reduces the severity of disease when a vaccinated subject is contacted with the disease causing agent (e.g., virus, bacterium, etc). Examples of a reduction in severity of a disease include, prevention of disease, delay in onset of disease, decreased severity of symptoms, decreased morbidity, and delayed mortality.

[0121 ] As used herein, a "tight junction agonist" is a compound that mediates or facilitates or augments the physiological, transient opening of tight junctions. Tight junctions are structures that form a barrier between adjacent epithelial cells (Johnson and Quay, Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005 Mar;2(2):281 -98). An example of a tight junction agonist is zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), which is produced by Vibrio cholerue. A ZOT receptor agonist is a tight junction agonist which is believed to mediate tight junction opening through the same receptor utilized by

ZOT. Tight junction agonists also include zonulin.

Tight junction agonists

|0122| Compositions of the invention typically comprise one or more tight junction agonists. A tight junction agonist facilitates absorption of a therapeutic agent. Further, the absorption occurs through the skin. Thus, a tight

junction agonist as used herein is a compound that mediates the physiological, transient opening of tight junctions. In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist may operate by binding to the ZOT receptor, i.e., may be a ZOT receptor agonist.

[0123] In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist may comprise a peptide comprising the amino acid sequence FCIGRL and/or functional derivatives of this sequence. Functional derivatives of peptide FCIGRL include, for example, Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 2), Phe Xaa2 Ue GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 3), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 4), Phe Cys lie Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 5), Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 6), and Phe Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 7). Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, lie. Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr. Tyr, Asn. and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He. Pro, Trp, and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, AIa, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaaό is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met. In some embodiments, a tight junction agonist may consist of a peptide having the sequence FCIGRL and/or functional derivatives of this sequence as described herein.

[0124] Further, functional derivatives of peptide FClGRL include: Xaal Xaa2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 8), Xaal Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 9), Xaal Cys He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 10), Xaal Cys He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 1), Xaal Cys He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 12), Phe Xaa2 Xaa3 GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 13), Phe Xaa2 He Xaa4 Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14), Phe Xaa2 He GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 15). Phe Xaa2 He GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 16), Phe Cys Xaa3 Xaa4 Arg Leu(SEQ ID NO: 17), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 18), Phe Cys Xaa3 GIy Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 19), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Xaa5 Leu (SEQ ID NO: 20), Phe Cys He Xaa4 Arg Xaa6 (SEQ ID NO: 21), and Phe Cys He GIy Xaa5 Xaaό (SEQ ID NO: 22). Xaal is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, Tyr, and Met; Xaa2 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser. Thr, Tyr, Asn, and GIn; Xaa3 is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu. lie. Pro. Trp. and Met; Xaa4 is selected from the group consisting of GIy, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Asn, Ala, and GIn; Xaa5 is selected from the group consisting of Lys and His; Xaaό is selected from the group consisting of Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Pro, Trp, and Met. [0125] In further specific embodiments, a tight junction agonist may comprise a peptide comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:23); He GIy Arg Leu (SRQ ID NO:24); Phe Cys He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:25); Phe Cys He GIy (SEQ ID NO:26): Ala Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SIiQ ID NO:27); Phe Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:28); Phe Cys AIa GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:29); Phe Cys He Ala Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO:30); Phe Cys He GIy Ala Leu (SEQ ID NO:31); Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO:32); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:33); Pro Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:34); GIn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:35); GIy Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:36); Thr Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:37); Ser Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:38); Sar Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:39); Asn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:40); Arg Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:41); Cha Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:42); Aib Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:43); (t-Bu)Gly Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:44); Phe Thi He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:45); Phe Hse He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:46); Phe Thr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:47); Phe Abu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:48); Phe Ser He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:49); Phe Met(O) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:50); Phe Met(O)2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:51); Phe (d)Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:52): Phe Met He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:53); Nva Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:54); VaI Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:55); Hse Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:56); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:57); (d)Ala Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:58); Ala Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:59); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:60);

(d)Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:61 ); Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:62); Phe Cys lie GIy Arg GIn (SEQ ID NO:63); Phe Cys lie GIy Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO:64); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Lys (SF.Q ID NO:65); Phe Cys lie GIy Arg (d)Ala (SEQ ID NO:66); Phe Cys He GIy Arg He (SEQ ID NO:67); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:68); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Nva (SEQ ID NO:69); Phe Cys He GIy Arg betaAla (SEQ ID NO:70); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Tie (SEQ ID NO:71); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Asp (SEQ ID NO:72); Phe Cys He GIy Arg MeAIa (SEQ ID NO:73); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Abu (SEQ ID NO:74); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIu (SEQ ID NO:75); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Aib (SEQ ID NO:76); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:77); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Asn (SEQ ID NO:78); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Pro (SEQ ID NO:79); GIu Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:80); Asp Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:81); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Cha (SEQ ID NO:82); Abu Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:83); Lys Cys lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:84); Orn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:85); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu Cys (SEQ ID NO:86); Leu GIy GIn GIn GIn Pro Phe Pro Pro GIn GIn Pro Tyr (SEQ ID NO:87); Phe Nva Hc GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:88); Phe NIc He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:89); Pro GIy Pro GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:90); Phe Cys He Pro GIy Pro (SEQ ID NO:91); Phe Cys Leu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:92); Phe Cys He GIy GIy VaI Leu VaI GIn Pro GIy (SEQ ID NO:93); GIy Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:94); Tyr Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:95); Phe Cys He GIy Cit Leu (SEQ ID NO:96); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:97); Trp Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:98); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:99); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO: 100): Phe(4- NO2) Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 101 ); Phe(4-Cl) Cys lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: I 02): Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Phe(4-Cl) (SEQ ID NO:103); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe(4-NO2) (SEQ ID NO:104); Ac Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO: 105); Tic Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 106); Ser Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 107); Leu Arg GIy lie Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 108); Leu Arg GIy He (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO:109); (d)Leu Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO:110); Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 1); Phe Cys He GIy (d)Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 12); Phe Cys Ile(nMe) GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 13); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Thi (SEQ ID NO: 1 14); Thi Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:115); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:1 16); (d)Phe (d)Cys He GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 17); (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)lle GIy Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 18); Phe Cys (d)lle GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:1 19); Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 120); (d)Phe Cys (d)IIe GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 121); Leu Arg GIy He Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 122); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 123); Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:124); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 125); (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:126); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 127); (d)Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 128); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 129); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO: 130); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO.131 ); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:132); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Tic (SEQ ID NO: 133); Phe Hse He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO: 134); Phe Cys(S-benzyl) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 135); Phe Cys(t-buthiol) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 136); Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 137); Phe Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 138); Phe Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 139); Phe Phg He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 140); Phe Pro He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO 14 I ); Phe (d)Val He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 142); Phe Cha He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 143); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Are Leu (SEQ ID NO: 144); Phe tBu(Gly) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:145); Phe Cys Ala GIy (SEQ ID NO: I46); Phe Cys GIy GIy (SEQ ID NO: 147); Phe Trp He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 148); Phe His He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 149); Phe Pro He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 150); Phe Asp He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 151 ); Phe Dab He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 152); Phe (d)Cys He GIy (d)Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO:153); (d)Leu Arg GIy lie Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 154); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 155); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 156); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 157); GIy Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:158); Phe Leu He

GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 159); Ac Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 160); Phe Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 161); Phe (cyclopropane)Pro He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NOI62:); Phe Dpr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: I 63); Phe Pen(Acm) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 164): Leu Arg GIy GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 165); (d)Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 166); (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 167); Phe Arg lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 168); Phe GIy Me GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:169): Phe GIn Hc GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO I 70); Phe GIu lie GIy Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO: 171 ); Phe Lys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 172); Phe Asn lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 173); Phe Tyr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 174); Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 175). Phe VaI He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 176); Phe He He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 177); Phe Hey He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 178); Ser Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 179); Phe Cys Ala GIy Met Ser (SEQ ID NO: 180); Phe Cys VaI GIy Met Ser (SEQ ID NO:181); Phe (2-pyridiyI)Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:182); Phe Leu (d)Ile GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 183); Ac Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 184); Phe (d)Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 185); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO: 186); Phe Abu(dimer) lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 187); Phe (Dehydro)Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 188); Leu Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO: 189); Ac Phe Hse lie GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 190); Phe Hse (d)Ile GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 191); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 192); Phe Leu lie GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 193); Phe Hse (d)lle GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 194); Phe (4-CN) Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 195); Phe (3-Me) Phe lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 196); Phe Cyclopropyl(Ala) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO.197); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:198); Phe (d)Allyl(Gly) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 199); Phe Pra He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:200); Phe AIIy](GIy) He Thr Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:201 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Leu Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:202); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He He Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:203); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Ala Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:204); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Pro Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:205); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Pro GIy Arg Leu (SKQ ID NO:206); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Phe GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:207); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Thr GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:208); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Leu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:209); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Ser GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:210); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Phe GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:21 1); Phe AlIyI(GIy) VaI GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:212); Phe AlIyI(GIy) GIy GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:213); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Ala GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:214); Met AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:215); GIn AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:216); Leu AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO.217); Ser AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:218); Thr AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:219); GIu AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:220); VaI AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:221); Tyr AUyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:222); GIy AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:223); Asp AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:224); Trp AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:225); Lys AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:226); Ala AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:227); His AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:228); Pro AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:229); Arg AlIyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:230); He AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:231 ); Met AHyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:232); Tyr He GIy Ser Arg (SEQ ID NO:233); Phe (2-furyl)Ala He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:234); Phe Thr He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:235); Phe StyrylGly He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:236); Phe HOCit He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:237); Phe Thr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:238); Phe (2-furyl)Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:239); Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:240); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:241 ); Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:242); GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:243); Leu Arg GIy He Leu (SEQ ID NO:244); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ilc Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:245); Leu Arg GIy Phe Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:246); Leu Arg GIy Leu Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:247); Leu Arg GIy He Leu (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:248); Leu Arg GIy He (d)Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:249); Leu (d)Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:250): (d)Leu Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:251 ); Phe Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:252); Leu Arg GIy He AlIyGIy Phe (SEQ ID NO:253); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg His (SEQ ID NO:254); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Asp (SEQ I D

NO:255); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Arg (SEQ ID NO:256); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:257); Phc AlIyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO:258); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:259); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIn (SEQ ID NO:260); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIu (SEQ ID NO:261 ); Phe AUyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg Thr (SEQ ID NO:262); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Tyr (SEQ ID NO:263); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:264); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Asn (SEQ ID NO:265); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Met (SEQ ID NO:266); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Lys (SEQ ID NO:267): Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg He (SEQ ID NO:268); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Trp (SEQ ID NO:269); Phe AUyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Pro (SEQ ID NO:270); Phe AIIyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg VaI (SEQ ID NO:271 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy His Leu (SEQ ID NO:272); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Asp Leu (SEQ ID NO:273); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy GIu Leu (SEQ ID NO:274); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy GIn Leu (SEQ ID NO:275); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy GIy Leu (SEQ ID NO:276); Phe AUyI(GIy) He GIy Ala Leu (SEQ ID NO:277); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Phe Leu (SEQ ID NO:278); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Lys Leu (SEQ ID NO:279); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Leu Leu (SEQ ID NO:280); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Met Leu (SEQ ID NO:281); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Asn Leu (SEQ ID NO:282); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Ser Leu (SEQ ID NO:283); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Tyr Leu (SEQ ID NO:284); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Thr Leu (SEQ ID NO:285); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy He Leu (SEQ I D NO:286): Phc AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Trp Leu (SEQ ID NO:287); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Pro Leu (SEQ ID NO:288); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy VaI Leu (SEQ ID NO:289); Phe N-AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:290); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Tyr GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:291 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) His GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:292); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Asn GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:293); Phe AHyI(GIy) Asp GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:294); Phe AlIyI(GIy) GIn GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO.295); Phe AlIyI(GIy) GIu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:296); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Lys GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:297); Phe AHyI(GIy) Arg GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:298); Phc AlIyI(GIy) He Arg Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:299); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Asn Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:300); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He His Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:301 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Lys Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:302); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIn Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:303); Phe AHyI(GIy) He Phe Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:304); Phe AlIyI(GIy) lie Ser Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:305); Phe AlIyI(GIy) lie VaI Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:306); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Asp Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:307); Phe AIIyI(GIy) lie GIu Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:308); Phe N-AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:309); Phe N-AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:310); Benzyl AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:31 1); c(Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu) (SEQ ID NO:312); GIy Phe GIy He Leu Arg (SEQ ID NO:313); and He GIy Phe Leu Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:314).

|0126| In further particular embodiments, a tight junction agonist may consist of a peptide having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:23); He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:24); Phe Cys He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:25); Phe Cys He GIy (SEQ ID NO:26); Ala Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:27); Phe Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:28); Phe Cys Ala GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:29); Phe Cys He Ala Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO:30); Phe Cys He GIy Ala Leu (SEQ ID NO:31); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO:32): Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:33); Pro Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:34); GIn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:35); GIy Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:36); Thr Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:37); Ser Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:38); Sar Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:39); Asn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:40); Arg Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:4I ); Cha Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:42); Aib Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:43); (t-Bu)Gly Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:44); Phe Thi He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:45); Phe Hse He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:46); Phe Thr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:47); Phe Abu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:48); Phe Ser He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:49); Phe Met(O) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:50); Phe Met(O)2 He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:51); Phe (d)Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:52); Phe Met He GIy Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO:53); Nva Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:54); VaI Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID

NO:55); Hse Cys lie GIy λrg Leu (SEQ ID NO:56); Phe Cys He GIy λrg GIy (SEQ ID NO:57); (d)Ala Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:58); Ala Cys lie GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:59); Phe Cys Ue GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:60); (d)Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:61); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:62); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIn (SEQ ID NO:63); Phe Cys He GIy Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO:64); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Lys (SEQ ID NO:65); Phe Cys He GIy Arg (d)Ala (SEQ ID NO:66); Phe Cys He GIy Arg He (SEQ ID NO.67); Phe Cys He GIy λrg GIy (SEQ I D NO:68); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Nva (SEQ ID NO:69); Phe Cys He GIy Arg betaAla (SEQ ID NO:70); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Tie (SEQ ID NO:71); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Asp (SEQ ID NO:72); Phe Cys He GIy Arg MeAIa (SEQ ID NO:73); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Abu (SEQ ID NO:74); Phe Cys He GIy Arg GIu (SEQ ID NO:75); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Aib (SEQ ID NO:76); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:77); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Asn (SEQ ID NO:78): Phe Cys He GIy Arg Pro (SEQ ID NO:79); GIu Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:80); Asp Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO-81 ); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Cha (SEQ ID NO:82); Abu Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:83): Lys Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:84); Orn Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:85); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu Cys (SEQ ID NO:86): Leu GIy GIn GIn GIn Pro Phe Pro Pro GIn GIn Pro Tyr (SEQ ID NO:87); Phe Nva lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:88); Phe NIe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:89); Pro GIy Pro GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:90); Phe Cys He Pro GIy Pro (SEQ ID NO:91 ); Phe Cys Leu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:92); Phe Cys lie GIy GIy VaI Leu VaI GIn Pro GIy (SEQ ID NO:93); GIy Cys He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:94); Tyr Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:95); Phe Cys He GIy Cit Leu (SEQ ID NO:96); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:97); Trp Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:98); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:99); Ac Ala Cys He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO: 100); Phe(4- NO2) Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 101); Phe(4-CI) Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: I 02); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe(4-Cl) (SEQ ID NO: 103); Phe Cys He GIy Arg ' Phe(4-NO2) (SEQ ID NO: 104); Ac Phe Cys He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:105); Tic Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:106); Ser Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 107); Leu Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 108); Leu Arg GIy He (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 109): (d)Leu Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 110); Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 1 1 1); Phe Cys He GIy (d)Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 12): Phe Cys Ile(nMe) GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 13): Phe Cys He GIy Arg Thi (SEQ ID NO: 1 14); Thi Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 15); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)lle (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 1 16): (d)Phe (d)Cys He GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 17): (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 18); Phe Cys (d)lle GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 1 19); Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg (d)Leιι (SEQ ID NO: 120); (d)Phe Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO:121); Leu Arg GIy He Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 122); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)lle Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 123); Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:124); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 125); (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: I26); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 127); (d)l.eu Arg GIy (d)lle (d)Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:128); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy (d)Ile (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 129); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO: 130); Ac Phe Hse He GIy λrg Ser (SEQ ID NO: 131 ); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:132); Phe Cys He GIy Arg Tic (SEQ ID NO:133); Phe Hse He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:134); Phe Cys(S-benzyl) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 135); Phe Cys(t-buthiol) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 136): Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 137); Phe Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 138); Phe Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:139); Phe Phg He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 140); Phe Pro He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 14 I); Phe (d)Val He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 142); Phe Cha He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:143); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 144); Phe tBu(Gly) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 145); Phe Cys Ala GIy (SEQ ID NO: 146); Phe Cys GIy GIy (SEQ ID NO: 147); Phe Trp He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 148); Phe His He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 149); Phe Pro He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 150); Phe Asp He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO.15 I ); Phe Dab lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: I 52); Phe (d)Cys He GIy (d)Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 153); (d)Leu Arg GIy lie Cys Phe (SEQ ID

NO: 154); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 155); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy He Cys (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO: 156); (d)Leu (d)Arg GIy lie (d)Cys Phe (SEQ ID NO: 157); GIy Phe Cys lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 158); Phe Leu lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 159); Ac Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 160); Phe Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID N0: 161); Phe (cyclopropane)Pro lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO162:): Phe Dpr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 163); Phe Peπ(Acm) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 164); Leu Arg GIy GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 165); (d)Phe Cys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 166); (d)Phe (d)Cys (d)Ile GIy (d)Arg (d)Leu (SEQ ID NO: 167); Phe Arg He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:168); Phe GIy He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:169); Phe GIn He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:170); Phe GIu lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID N0:171 ); Phe Lys He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:172); Phe λsn lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 173); Phe Tyr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 174); Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 175); Phe VaI He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 176); Phe He He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 177); Phe Hey He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 178); Ser Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 179); Phe Cys Ala GIy Met Ser (SEQ ID NO.180): Phe Cys VaI GIy Met Ser (SEQ ID N0: 181 ); Phe (2-pyridiyl)Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 182): Phe Leu Cd)Uc GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 183); Ac Phe Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 184); Phe (d)Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 185); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO: 186); Phe Abu(dimer) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 187); Phe (Dehydro)Leu He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 188); Leu Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO: 189); Ac Phe Hse He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 190); Phe Hse (d)Ile GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:191 ); Ac Phe Hsc He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 192); Phe Leu He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO.193); Phe Hsc (d)Ile GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 194); Phe (4-CN) Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 195); Phe (3-Me) Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 196); Phe Cyclopropyl(Ala) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO: 197); Phe λllyl(Gly) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 198); Phe (d)Allyl(Gly) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO: 199); Phe Pra He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:200); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Thr Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:201 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Leu Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:202); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He He Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:203); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Ala Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:204); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Pro Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:205); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Pro GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:206); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Phe GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:207); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Thr GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:208); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Leu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:209); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Ser GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:210); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Phe GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:21 1 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) VaI GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:212); Phe AIIyI(GIy) GIy GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:213); Phe AlIyI(GIy) Ala GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:214); Met AlIyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:215); GIn AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:216); Leu AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:217); Ser AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:218); Thr AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:219); GIu AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:220); VaI AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:221 ); Tyr AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:222); GIy AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:223); Asp AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:224); Trp AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:225); Lys AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:226); Ala AHyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:227); His AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:228): Pro AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:229); Arg AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:230); He AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:231); Met AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:232); Tyr He GIy Ser Arg (SEQ ID NO:233); Phe (2-furyl)Ala He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:234); Phe Thr He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:235); Phe StyrylGly He GIy Arg Uu (SEQ ID NO:236); Phe HOCit He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:237); Phe Thr He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:238); Phe (2-furyl)Ala He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:239); Phe He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:240); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:241 ); Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:242); GIy lie Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:243); Leu Arg GIy He Leu (SEQ ID NO:244); Leu Arg GIy (d)Ile Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:245); Leu Arg GIy Phe Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:246); Leu Arg GIy Leu Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:247); Leu Arg GIy He Leu (d)Phe (SEQ ID NO:248); Leu Arg GIy He (d)Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:249); Leu (d)Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:250); (d)Leu

Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:251); Phe Arg GIy He Leu Phe (SEQ ID NO:252); Leu Arg GIy He AlIyGIy Phe (SEQ ID NO:253); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg His (SEQ ID NO:254); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Asp (SEQ ID NO:255); Phe AIIyI(GIy) lie GIy Arg Arg (SEQ ID NO:256); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Phe (SEQ ID NO:257), Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Ala (SEQ ID NO:258); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:259); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIn (SEQ ID NO:260); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg GIu (SEQ ID NO:261); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Thr (SEQ ID NO:262); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Tyr (SEQ ID NO:263); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Ser (SEQ ID NO:264): Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Asn (SEQ ID NO.265); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Met (SEQ ID NO:266); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Lys (SEQ ID NO:267); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg He (SEQ ID NO:268); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Trp (SEQ ID NO:269); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Pro (SEQ ID NO:270); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg VaI (SEQ ID NO:271); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy His Leu (SEQ ID NO:272); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Asp Leu (SEQ ID NO:273); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy GIu Uu (SEQ ID NO:274); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy GIn Leu (SEQ ID NO:275); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy GIy Leu (SEQ ID NO:276); Phe AUyI(GIy) He GIy Ala Leu (SEQ ID NO:277); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Phe Leu (SEQ ID NO:278); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Lys Leu (SEQ ID NO:279); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Leu Leu (SEQ ID NO:280); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Met Leu (SEQ ID NO:281); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Asn Leu (SEQ ID NO:282); Phe AUyI(GIy) He GIy Ser Leu (SEQ ID NO:283); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Tyr Leu (SEQ ID NO:284); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Thr Leu (SEQ ID NO:285); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy He Leu (SEQ ID NO:286); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Trp Leu (SEQ ID NO:287); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Pro Leu (SEQ ID NO:288); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He GIy VaI Leu (SEQ ID NO:289); Phe N-AIIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:290); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Tyr GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:291 ); Phe AIIyI(GIy) His GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:292); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Asn GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:293); Phe λllyl(Gly) Asp GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:294); Phe AlIyI(GIy) GIn GIy Arg Leu (SFQ ID NO:295); Phe AIIyI(GIy) GIu GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:296); Phe AIIyI(GIy) Lys GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:297): Phe AlIyI(GIy) Arg GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:298); Phe AIIyI(GIy) lie Arg Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:299); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Asn Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:300); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He His Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:301 ); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He Lys Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:302); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIn Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:303); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Phe Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:304); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He Ser Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:305); Phe AIIyI(GIy) He VaI Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:306); Phe AHyI(GIy) He Asp Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:307); Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIu Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:308); Phe N-AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg (SEQ ID NO:309); Phe N-AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:3 I 0); Benzyl AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu (SEQ ID NO:31 1); c(Phe AlIyI(GIy) He GIy Arg Leu) (SEQ ID NO:312): GIy Phe GIy He Leu Arg (SEQ ID NO:313); and He GIy Phe Leu Arg GIy (SEQ ID NO:314).

JOl 27] When the tight junction agonist is a peptide, any length of peptide may be used. For example, an agonist may be about 3, about 4, about 5, about 6, about 7, about 8, about 9, about 10, about 1 1 , about 12, about 13, about 14 or about 15 amino acids in length. In some embodiments, a peptide tight junction agonist may be from about 3 to about 12, from about 4 to about 12, from about 5 to about 12, from about 6 to about 12, from about 7 to about 12, from about 8 to about 12, from about 9 to about 12, from about 10 to about 12, from about 3 to about 10, from about 4 to about 10, from about 5 to about 10, from about 6 to about 10, from about 7 to about 10, from about 8 to about 10, from about 9 to about 10 amino acids in length. In some embodiments, a peptide tight junction agonist may be 9 amino acids or less in length. In some embodiments of the invention, peptides do not encompass full length ZOT or zonulin.

|0128| Peptide agonists can be chemically synthesized and purified using well-known techniques, such as described in High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Peptides and Proteins: Separation Analysis and Conformation, Eds. Mant el al., C.R.C. Press (1991 ), and a peptide synthesizer, such as Symphony (Protein

Technologies, Inc.); or by using recombinant DNA techniques, i.e., where the nucleotide sequence encoding the peptide is inserted in an appropriate expression vector, e.g., an E. coli or yeast expression vector, expressed in the respective host cell, and purified from the cells using well-known techniques.

Therapeutic agents

|0129] Compositions of the invention typically comprise one or more therapeutic agents and/or immunogenic agents. Therapeutic agents that can be used in the compositions include agents that act on any organ of the body, such as heart, brain, intestine, or kidneys. Examples of suitable therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, glucose metabolism agents (e.g., insulin), antibiotics, antineoplastics, antihypertensives, antiepileptics, central nervous system agents, and immune system suppressants.

|0130| The particular therapeutic and/or immunogenic agent used in the compositions of the invention can be any small molecule compound, biologically active peptide, vaccine, or any other moiety. In some embodiments, therapeutic agents for use in the invention may be those that, in the absence of a tight junction agonist, are not adequately absorbed into the bloodstream through the skin.

[01311 Examples of drug compounds which can be employed as therapeutic agents in the present invention include, but are not limited to, drugs which act on the cardiovascular system, drugs which act on the central nervous system, antineoplastic drugs and antibiotics. Examples of drugs which act on the cardiovascular system include, but are not limited to, antihypertensives, statins, adenosine, dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phentolamine. Others as are known in the art can also be used.

[0132] Examples of drugs which act on the central nervous system include, but arc not limited to, doxapram, alfentanil. dezocin, nalbuphine, buprcnorphine, naloxone, ketorolac, midazolam, and propofol. Other examples include, but are not limited to, antipsychotics, antidepressents, antiepileptics, and drugs used to treat Alzheimers disease. Others as are known in the art can also be used.

[0133] Examples of antineoplastic drugs include, but are not limited to, cytarabine, mitomycin, doxorubicin. vincristine and vinblastine, carboplatin,. cisplatin, oxaloplatin, vinorelbine, docetaxel, paclitaxel, taxane. 5- fluoiouridine related drugs, xeloda, germcitabine, and anthracline. Additional examples include, but are not limited to, Erbitux, Herceptin®, Avastin™, and estrogen receptor antagonists and agonists. Others as are known in the art can also be used.

[0134] Examples of antibiotics include, but are not limited to, methicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefonicid, cefinetazole and aztreonam. Others as are known in the art can also be used.

10135) Any type of therapeutic and/or immunogenic agent can be used in the practice of the invention. Examples of specific types of agents include, but are not limited to, RNAi, treatment aptamers. antivirals (e.g., amantadine, rimantadine, zanamavir and oseltamivir), immune suppressants (e.g., cyclosporine A), HIV fusion inhibitors (e.g.. enfijvirtide), and HIV protease inhibitors, (e.g., ritonavir, saquinavir, indinavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, entricitabine, and fosamprenavir calcium).

[0136] Examples of biologically active peptides that may be used as therapeutic agents in the practice of the present invention include, but are not limited to, hormones, lymphokines, globulins, and albumins. Examples of hormones which can be employed in the present invention include: testosterone, nandrolene, menotropins, insulin and urofolltropin. Other examples of biologically active peptides include: insulin modified by chemical or enzymatic means (including mutations introduced using recombinant DNA technology), parathyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone antagonist, calcitonin, vasopressin, renin, prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, corticotropin, corticotropin-releasing factor, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic

gonadotropin, atrial peptides, interferon, tissue plasminogen activator, gammaglobulins, Factor VIl. Factor VIII, growth hormone releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, somatostatin and cholecystokinins.

Others as are known in the art can also be used. If the biologically active ingredient is insulin and/or an insulin derivative, the transcutaneous dosage composition is useful for the treatment of diabetes.

|0137| Examples of lymphokines which can be employed in the present invention include interferon-α, interferon- β, interferon-γ, interleukin-1 , interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-8.

[0138] Examples of globulins include α-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins (immunoglobulin). Examples of immunoglobulins which can be employed in the present invention include polyvalent IgG or specific IgG, IgA and

IgM, e.g., anti-tetanus antibodies. An example of albumin which can be used is human serum albumin. Others as are known in the art can also be used.

|0139| Examples of antigens that can be used in the compositions of the invention (e.g.. immunogenic and/or vaccine compositions) include peptides, proteins, microorganisms (e.g., attenuated and/or recombinant microorganisms), cells (e.g., cancer cells and/or recombinant cells) and viruses (e.g., attenuated and/or recombinant viruses). Examples of peptide antigens include the B subunit of the heat labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic E. coli. the B subunit of cholera toxin, capsular antigens of enteric pathogens, fimbriae or pili of enteric pathogens, HIV surface antigens, cancer antigens (e.g., cancer cells comprising antigens, isolated antigens, etc.), dust allergens, and acari allergens. Other immunogenic compounds as are known in the art can also be used.

[0140] Examples of attenuated microorganisms and viruses that can be used in the compositions of the invention

(e.g., vaccine compositions) include those of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli,

Vibrio cholerae. Shigella βexneri, Salmonella typhi and rotavirus (Fasano et al, In: Le Vaccinazioni in Pediatria,

Eds. Vierucci et al, CSH, Milan, pages 109-121 (1991 ); Guandalini et al, In: Management of Digestive and Liver

Disorders in Infants and Children, Elsevior, Eds. Butz et al, Amsterdam, Chapter 25 (1993): Levine et al, Sem. Ped.

Infect. Dis., 5.243-250 (1994); and Kaper et al, Clin. Micrbiol. Rev., 8:48-86 ( 1995), each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety).

[0141 ] Any antigen capable of inducing a protective immune response may be used in the vaccines of the invention. Examples of suitable antigens include, but are not limited to. measles virus antigens, mumps virus antigens, rubella virus antigens, Coiynebacterium diphtheriae antigens, Bordetella pertussis antigens. Clostridium tetani antigens, Bacillus anthracis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae antigens, smallpox virus antigens, and influenza virus antigens.

Formulations

(0142] Compositions of the invention may formulated for transcutaneous delivery (e.g., may be transcutaneous dosage forms). Typically such compositions may be provided as topical solutions and/or gels. Those of skill in the art are aware of many different methods and devices for the formation of topical medications, for example, those disclosed by Block, Medicated Topicals, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th Ed., Chapter

44, Gennaro et al. Eds., Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins Publishing Co., (2000).

|0143| Typically, compositions comprising a tight junction agonist (e.g., peptide agonist) comprise a pharmaceutically effective amount of the agonist. The pharmaceutically effective amount of agonist (e.g., peptide agonist) employed may vary according to factors such as the disease state, age, sex, and weight of the individual.

Dosage regimens may be adjusted to provide the optimum therapeutic response. For example, a single bolus may be administered, several divided doses may be administered over time or the dose may be proportionally reduced or increased as indicated by the exigencies of the therapeutic situation.

|0144| Compositions of the invention may comprise one or tight junction agonist at a level of from about 0.000001 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 35 wr%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 20 wt%. from about 0.000001 wt% to about 15 wt%. from about 0.000001 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 1 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 0.1 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 0.01 vvr%, from about 0.000001 \vt% to about 0.001 wt%, from about 0.000001 wt% to about 0.0001 wt%. from about 0.000001 wt% to about 0.00005 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 35 wt%. from about 0.0001 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 0.0001 \vt% to about 15 wt%, from about 0.0001 \vt% to about 10 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 2.5 wτ%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 1 wt%. from about 0.0001 wt% to about 0.1 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 0.01 wt%, from about 0.0001 wt% to about 0.001 wt%, from about 0.0001 vvt% to about 0.0005 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 45 wt%. from about 0.1 wt% to about 40 \vt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 35 vvt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 0.1 \vt% to about 1 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 0.5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 0 2 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 50 wt%. from about 1 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 1 wt% to aboul 40 wι%. from about 1 wt% to about 35 vvt%, from about 1 \vt% to about 30 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 25 wt%. from about 1 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about I vvt% to about 10 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 9 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 8 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 7 wt%, or from about 5 wt% to about 6 wt% of the total weight of the composition. Compositions of the invention may comprise one or more tight junction agonists at a level of about 0.00001 wt%, about 0.00005 wt%, about 0.0001 wt%, about 0.0005 wt%, about 0.001 wt%, about 0.005 wt%, about 0.01 wt%, about 0.05 wt%, about 0.1 wt%, about 0.5 wt%, about 1 wt%, about 5 wt%, about 10 wt%, about 15 wt%, about 20 wt%, about 25 wt%, about 30 wt%, about 35 wt%, about 40 wt%, about 45 wt%, or about 50 wt% based on the total weight of the composition.

[0145] Compositions of the invention may comprise one or more therapeutic agents and/or immunogenic agents at a concentration sufficient to cause the desired biological response (e.g., at a pharmaceutically effective concentration). Compositions of the invention may comprise one or therapeutic and/or immunogenic agents at a level of from about 0.1 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 40 wt%. from about wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to aboul 25 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 1 wt%. from about 0.1 wt% to about 0.5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 0.2 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 50 wt%. from about 1 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 1

wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 9 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 8 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 7 wt%, or from about 5 wt% to about 6 \vt% of the total weight of the composition. Compositions of the invention may comprise one or more therapeutic and/or immunogenic agents at a level of about 0.1 wt%, about 1 wt%, about 5 wt%, about 10 wt%, about 15 wt%, about 20 wt%, about 25 wt%, about 30 wt%, about 35 wt%, about 40 wt%. about 45 wt%. or about 50 wt% based on the total weight of the composition.

[0146 J Compositions of the invention may comprise one or pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at a level of from about 0.1 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 40 wi%, from about wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 10 wt%. from about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 1 wt%. from about 0.1 wt% to about 0.5 wt%, from about 0.1 wt% to about 0.2 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 25 \vt%, from about 1 wt% to about 20 wt%. from about I wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 5 wt%, from about 1 wt% to about 2.5 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 50 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 45 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 40 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 35 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 30 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 25 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 20 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 15 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 10 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 9 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 8 wt%, from about 5 wt% to about 7 wt%, or from about 5 wt% to about 6 wt% of the total weight of the composition. Compositions of the invention may comprise one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at a level of about 0.1 wt%, about I wt%, about 5 wt%, about 10 wt%, about 15 wt%, about 20 wt%, about 25 wt%, about 30 wt%, about 35 wt%, about 40 wt%, about 45 wt%, or about 50 wt% based on the total weight of the composition. Methods of use

|0 I 47| The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention can be used for treating, ameliorating, and/or preventing a disease. Any disease may be treated using the compositions of the invention by selection of an appropriate therapeutic and/or immunogenic agent. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating diabetes by administering a composition comprising one or more tight junction agonist and one or more insulin and/or derivative thereof to the skin of a subject in need of the treatment.

[0148] Examples of diseases that can be treated using the compositions of the invention include, but are not limited to, cancer, autoimmune diseases, vascular disease, bacterial infections, gastritis, gastric cancer, collagnenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, food allergy, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. For example, to treat cancer of the colon or rectal area, a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of Erbitux (Cetuximab) and an absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists may be administered to the skin of a patient in need thereof, to treat breast cancer, a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of Herceptin (Trastuzumab) and an absorption enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonists may be administered to the skin of a patient in need thereof, and to treat various types of cancer, a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of Avastin (Bevacizumab) and an absorption

enhancing amount of one or more tight junction agonist may be administered to the skin of a patient in need thereof. Further examples include treatment of osteoporosis using a composition comprising one or more tight junction agonists and a therapeutically effective amount of Fosamax (Alendronate) administered to the skin of a subject in need thereof, treatment of transplant rejection using a composition comprising one or more tight junction agonists and a therapeutically effective amount of Cyclosporin A administered to the skin of a subject in need thereof, treatment of anemia using a composition comprising one or more tight junction agonists and a therapeutically effective amount of erythropoietin administered to the skin of a subject in need thereof, and treatment of hemophilia using a composition comprising one or more tight junction agonists and a therapeutically effective amount of Factor VIIl administered to the skin of a subject in need thereof.

|0149| The following examples are provided for illustrative purposes only, and are in no way intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

EXAMPLES

|0150| The experiments described in the attached figures were performed with tight junction agonist peptide FCIGRL also known as AT1002. EXAMPLE 1

|015 l | Transcutaneous Immunization (TCI)

|0152] Groups of 5 female Balb/c mice (8-10 weeks) were immunized transcutaneously at 0, 4 and 8 weeks with TT alone (25 μg/dose) or together with AT-1002 (0.03-300 μg/dose). For TCI, mice were anesthetized intraperitoneally, for approximately 1 hour, with a ketamine-xylazine mixture to prevent self grooming. A small surface area of the abdomen was shaved and the hair was then completely removed by application of a depilatory cream (Nair) for 2 minutes. The cream was removed with cotton wool soaked in warm water and the prepared skin surface was hydrated with PBS for 5 minutes. 50-100μl of immunizing solution was applied evenly over the exposed skin and left for up to l hr to absorb through the skin. The mice were then washed thoroughly with lukewarm water and patted dry. EXAMPLE 2 |0153| Antibody Assay

|0154] Total IgG antibody levels against TT were determined using an in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay. Results were analyzed using parallel-line analysis and antibody levels were expressed in IU/ml against in- house standard 98/572 (Tetanus potency 3.5 iU/ml). FIGURES 4A and 4B show anti-tetanus IgG titers in individual animals in experiment 1 after 6 and 10 weeks respectively. FIGURE 5 shows anti-tetanus IgG titers of pooled sera for each immunization group after 6 and 10 weeks in experiment I . Data represent the mean ± SEM (n=5 per group). IgGl and lgG2a subclasses were measured in a similar manner by comparison with appropriate purified mouse immunoglobulins, and their levels were expressed as μg/ml. FIGURE 6 shows anti-tetanus IgG l and IgG2a titers of pooled sera for each immunization group after 6 and 10 weeks in experiment 1. FIGURES 1 I A and 1 I B show anti-tetanus IgG titers in individual animals in experiment 2 after 6 and 10 weeks respectively. FIGURE 12 shows anti-tetanus IgG titres of pooled sera for each immunization group after 6 and 10 weeks in experiment 2. Data represent the mean ± SEM (n=5 per group).

|0155] FIGURES 19A and 19B shows anti-tetanus IgG titers in individual animals in experiment 1 after 6 and 10 weeks respectively. FIGURE 20 shows anti-tetanus IgG titres of pooled sera for each immunization group after 6 and 10 weeks in experiment 3. Data represent the mean ± SEM (n=6 per group except for TT group (n=5)).

EXAMPLE 3

[0156| In Vivo Toxin Neutralization (TNT) Assay

[0157] The neutralizing capacity of anti-TT antibodies in pooled sera was measured in mice, using onset of paralysis as an endpoint. The neutralizing potency of the serum samples was expressed in IU/ml, measured against the WHO International Standard TE-3 antitoxin. The results from cxperiemtns 1 and 2 are shown in

Tables 1 and 2 respectively.

[0158] Table 1 - In vivo toxin neutralization assay - Experiment 1

|0159] Neutralizing antibody titers were determined by challenge with tetanus toxin in vivo as descroibed above. Each data point rerpresents the measurement for the pooled sera from the terminal bleed samples (week 10) obtained for each immunization treatment group. Mouse model of paralysis was used with International Standards of IU.

(016OJ Immunization with TT in combination with AT1002 (25μg) increased the protective antibody levels sixfold compared to TT treatment alone. This response was approximately 200-fold higher than the minimal protective level (0.01 IU/ml is considered protective). [0161 ] Table 2 - In vivo toxin neutralization assay - Experiment 2

* End point not established.

[0162] AT-1002 (top dose) increased protective antibody levels compared to immunization with TT alone.

Response to immunization with TT + AT1002 (300μg) -100 fold higher than minimum protctive level (0.01

IU/ml considered protective).

EXAMPLE 4

[0163| Spleen Cell Proliferation Assay

5

(0164] Single cell suspensions were prepared from spleens of individual mice and viable splenocytes (2 x 10 per well, 96 well plate) were re-stimulated with TT (0.1 - l OOμg/ml). After 4 days, cells were pulsed with 0.5mCi/well

[ H]-thymidine and harvested onto glass fibre filter mats. Antigen-specific proliferation was determined by measuring the radioactivity incorporated into cellular DNA. Results were expressed as stimulation indices (SI) of the mean cpm obtained from triplicate cultures in the presence of specific antigen divided by the mean cpm of triplicate cultures incubated in medium only. A SI >2 is considered positive. FIGURE 7. 13, 17 and 2 ! shows spleen cell proliferation following re-stimulation with TT in experiemtns 1 , 2 and 3. Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group. EXAMPLE 5 [0165] Cytokine Assay

6

|0166] Spleen cells (2 x 10 per well, 24 well plate) were cultured overnight prior to re-stimulation with TT for a further 72 hrs. Concentrations of IFN-γ and 1L-6 in culture supernatants were measured using ELISA kits (BD Biosciences), as per the manufactures instructions. Cytokine levels were expressed as pg/ml as measured against relevant cytokine standards. FIGURES 8 A, I 4A and 18A show production of 1L-6 in splenocytes following re- stimulation with TT (0-lOOμg/ml). Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs TT alone. FIGURES 8B, 14B and 18B show production of IFN-γ in splenocytes following re- stimulation with TT (0-100μg/ml) after immunization of mice with TT in the presence and absence of adjuvant. Data represent the mean ± SEM from three spleen cell cultures per group.

[0167] While the invention has been described in detail, and with reference to specific embodiments thereof, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and such changes and modifications may be practiced within the scope of the appended claims. All patents and publications herein are incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in their entirety.




 
Previous Patent: BARRIER

Next Patent: HYBRID COMPOSITE PANEL SYSTEMS AND METHODS