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Title:
TRANSITION METAL OXO, SULFIDO AND AMIDO COMPLEXES AS CATALYSTS OF NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/102707
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Methods are provided for carrying out nucleophilic addition reactions using oxo, sulfido or amido complexes of transition metals as reaction catalysts. Exemplary catalysts are oxo complexes of Group 7 transition metals, with rhenium (V) oxo complexes, including dioxo complexes, preferred. Nucleophilic addition reactions that can be catalyzed using the present methods include silylation, hydrosilylation, hydroamination, silylmetalation, carbometalation, aldol reactions, hydro- and carbometalation initiated cyclization/polymerization, and epoxide/aziridine opening. The invention also pertains to novel transition metal complexes that have utility in catalyzing such reactions.

Inventors:
Grubbs, Robert H. (1700 Spruce Street South Pasadena, CA, 91030, US)
Toste, Dean F. (696 Mira Monte Place #2 Pasadena, CA, 91101, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2002/016178
Publication Date:
December 27, 2002
Filing Date:
May 21, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (1200 East California Boulevard Pasadena, CA, 91125, US)
Grubbs, Robert H. (1700 Spruce Street South Pasadena, CA, 91030, US)
Toste, Dean F. (696 Mira Monte Place #2 Pasadena, CA, 91101, US)
International Classes:
B01J31/18; B01J31/22; B01J31/24; C07B53/00; C07C29/143; C07C41/20; C07C67/303; C07F13/00; B01J23/36; (IPC1-7): C01B/
Other References:
ARIAS ET AL.: 'Kinetics and mechanisms of catalytic oxygen atom transfer with oxorhenium (V) oxazoline complexes' INORGANIC CHEMISTRY vol. 40, 2001, pages 2185 - 2192, XP002959115
CHE ET AL.: 'Oxidation by hydrocarbons by lutherium-oxo complexes' PREPRINTS, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, DIVISION OF PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY vol. 35, no. 2, 1990, pages 179 - 186, XP002959116
DATABASE CAPLUS [Online] ZHESKO ET AL.: 'Hydrogenation of cyclododecatriene on rhenium complexes', XP002959117 Retrieved from STN Database accession no. 1980:197980 & SH. FIZ. KIM. vol. 54, no. 1, 1980, pages 202 - 203
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Reed, Dianne E. (Reed & Eberle LLP 800 Menlo Avenue, Suite 210 Menlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
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Claims:
WE CLAIM:
1. A method for catalyzing a nucleophilic addition reaction, comprising contacting (a) an electrophilic reactant containing an electrophilic sitin the form of an unsaturated bond between a carbon atom and a second atom Q, wherein Q is selected from O, S, N and C, with (b) a nucleophilic reactant, in the presence of (c) a catalytically effective amount of a transition metal oxo, sulfido or amido complex, under reaction conditions that provide for nucleophilic addition of the nucleophilic reactant to the electrophilic site of the electrophilic reactant.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure LmM (=Z) n wherein: m is an integer in the range of 2 to 5 inclusive; n is 1 or 2; the L groups are ligands, and may be the same or different; M is a transition metal ; and Z is O, S or NRl wherein R is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein M is a transition metal selected from Groups 6,7 and 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein M is Mo, W, Re, Ru or Os.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein Z is O.
6. The method of claim 2, wherein the complex is charged and associated with a counterion of opposite charge.
7. The method of claim 5, wherein m is 5, n is 1, M is Re, and the L groups are monodentate ligands.
8. The method of claim 5, wherein m is 4, n is 1, M is Re, one L group is a bidentate ligand, and three L groups are monodentate ligands.
9. The method of claim 5, wherein m is 2, n is 2, M is Re, the L groups are bidentate ligands, and the complex is positively charged and associated with an anionic counterion.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the nucleophilic reactant is a silane having the structure of formula (I) wherein: R', W and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl; and X is hydrogen, cyano, cyanato, azido, alkenyl, alkenyloxy, alkenylthio, or boronato.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein Rl, R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of ClC20 alkyl and CsC20 aryl.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein X is hydrogen, cyano, alkenyl, alkenyloxy, or boronato.
13. The method of claim 10, wherein the electrophilic reactant has the structure of formula (II) wherein: R4, R4A and RS are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and a functional group; a is an optional bond; and x, y, and z are zero or 1, with the provisos that (a) when Q is O or S, then a is absent, x is 1, and y and z are zero; (b) when Q is N, then a is absent, x and z are 1, and y is zero; (c) when Q is C and a is absent, then x, y and z are 1 ; and (d) when Q is C and a is present, then x and y are zero and z is 1.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein a is absent, such that the electrophilic reactant has the structure of formula (III) and nucleophilic addition of the silane reactant results in a reaction product having the structure of formula (IV).
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (V) wherein M is a Group 7 transition metal, L1 and L2 are neutral electron donor ligands, and R6, R' and R8 are anionic ligands, or R7 and R8 taken together fonn a second oxo moiety.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein: M is Re ; L1 and L2 are independently selected from the group consisting of phosphine, sulfonated phosphine, phosphite, phosphinite, phosphonite, arsine, stibine, ether, amine, amide, imine, sulfoxide, carboxyl, nitrosyl, pyridine, substituted pyridine, imidazole, substituted imidazole, pyrazine, and thioether; and R6, R7 and R8 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halide, ClC20 alkyl, CsC2o aryl, ClC20 alkoxy, CsC2o aryloxy, C3C20 alkyldiketonate, C5C20 aryldiketonate, C2C2o alkoxycarbonyl, CsC2o aryloxycarbonyl, C2C20 acyl, ClC2o alkylsulfonato, C5C20 arylsulfonato, ClC20 alkylsulfanyl, C5C20 arylsulfanyl, C1C20 alkylsulfinyl, or C5C20 arylsulfinyl, any of which, with the exception of halide, are optionally further substituted with one or more groups selected from halide, ClC6 alkyl, ClC6 8alkoxy, and phenyl, or R7 and R8 taken together form a second oxo moiety.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein: L1 and L2 are independently selected from phosphines of the formula PR3, where each R is independently aryl or C1C10 alkyl ; and R6, R7 and R8 are independently selected from the group consisting of halide and lower alkoxy, or R7 and R8 taken together form a second oxo moiety.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein: L1 and L2 are independently selected from the group consisting ofP (cyclohexyl) 3, P (cyclopentyl) 3,P (isopropyl) 3,P (phenyl) 3, P (phenyl) 3,P (phenyl) 2 (R9) and P(phenyl)(R9) 2, in which R9 is lower alkyl ; and R6, R7 and R8 are independently selected from the group consisting of halide, methoxy, ethoxy, or R7 and W taken together form a second oxo moiety.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein R7 and R8 together form a second oxo moiety.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein L1 and L2 areP (cyclohexyl) 3 orP (cyclopentyl) 3.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein R6 is halide.
22. The method of claim 18, wherein R6 R7 and R8 are independently selected from the group consisting of halide, methoxy and ethoxy.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein R6 is ethoxy or halide and R7 and R8 are halide.
24. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VI) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; yk is an anion bearing a charge ofk; either j and k are both 1, orj and k are both 2; p and q are independently zero or 1; Rl°, R", R12 and R"are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; al, a2, a3 and a4 are optional bonds; Xl, X2, X3 and X4 are independently selected from NR'4, NR15R16 and PRV, with the proviso that when any of X', X2, X3 and X4 are NR14, then the adjacent al, a2, a3 or a4 is present, and when any of X1, X2, X3 and X4 are NRl5Rl6 or PR17R18, then the adjacent al, a2, a3 or a4 is absent; and R14, Rl5, R16, R17 and R18 re independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R14, R15, R16, R17 and Rl8 may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VII) wherein: Ri9 R22, R23 and R26 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl; and R20,R21, R24 and R25 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R19, R20, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25 and R26 may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein M is Re, and j and k are 1.
27. The method of claim 25, wherein M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.
28. The method of claim 25, wherein R19 and R20, R21 and R22, R23 and R24, and R25 and R26 are linked to form cyclic groups, such that the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VIII) wherein R27, R28, R29, R30, R31, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, ClCl2 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R29 and Wo, R3' and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group.
29. The method of claim 25, wherein M is Re, and j and k are 1.
30. The method of claim 26, wherein M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.
31. The method of claim 28, wherein the complex has the structure of formula (VIIIA).
32. The method of claim 31, wherein M is Re, and j and k are 1.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.
34. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VIIIB) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; Yk is an anion bearing a charge ofk; either j and k are both 1, or j and k are both 2; p and q are independently zero or 1; Rl°, R", Rl2 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; and R27,R28, R29, R30, R30, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, ClCl2 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R29 and R30, R3 and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group.
35. The method of claim 24, wherein the complex has the structure of formula (IX) wherein: as and a6 are optional bonds; R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, R45 and R46 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl; and R37, R38, R43 and R44 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R35, R36, R37, R38, R39, R40, R41, R42, R43, R44 and may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
36. The method of claim 35, wherein M is Re, and j and k are 1.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.
38. The method of claim 35, wherein as and a6 are absent.
39. The method of claim 38, wherein R37, R38, R43 and R44 are hydrogen.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, R45 and R46 a4re aryl.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, R45 and R46 are phenyl.
42. The method of claim 35, wherein as and a6 are present.
43. The method of claim 42, wherein R37 and R33 taken together, and R43 and R44 taken together, are phenyl or naphthalenyl.
44. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (X) wherein : Zizis a cation; p and q are independently zero or 1; Rl°, R", R12 and R1 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; R47 and R48 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl; and R49 and Wo are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein either R47 and R49, orrez and R48 and/or R49 and Wo, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
45. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XI) (XI) wnerem : L3 is a neutral electron donor ligand; R and R are anionic ligands; R53, R54 and R55 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl; and R56 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein R53 and R54, and/or R55 and Rs6, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
46. The method of claim 45, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XII) wherein : L3 is P (cyclohexyl) 3 orP (cyclopentyl) 3; R51 and R52 are halide; and R"is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1C12alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl.
47. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XIII) wherein R58, R59 and Wo are halide, and R6'and R62 are aryl.
48. The method of claim 1, wherein the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XIV) wherein Rs8, Rs9 and Wo are halide, and R61, R62, R53 and R64 are aryl, or wherein R61 and R62, and/or R63 and R64, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
49. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (VII) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; Yis an anion; p and q are independently zero or 1 ; Rio, R", R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; Rl9, W2, R13 and R26 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl; and WO, R21, R24 and R25 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R19, R20, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25 and R26 may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
50. The complex of claim 49, wherein p and q are zero.
51. The complex of claim 49, wherein p and q are 1.
52. The complex of claim 51, wherein R'°, Rll, R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1C12alkyl, and cyano.
53. The complex of claim 52, wherein Rl° and Rl2 are hydrogen, and R11 and R13 are C1 C12alkyl.
54. The complex of claim 53, wherein R11 and R13 are methyl.
55. The complex of claim 52, wherein Rl° and R12 are hydrogen, and R11 and R13 are cyano.
56. The complex of claim 52, wherein Rl°, R", R 12 and R13 are C1C12 alkyl.
57. The complex of claim 52, wherein R10, R", R 12 and Rl3 are methyl.
58. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (VIIIB) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; Y'''is an anion bearing a charge ofk ; either j and k are both 1, or j and k are both 2; p and q are independently zero or 1 ; Rl°, R", Riz and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; and W7, R28, R29, R30, R31, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1C12 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R9 and R30, R31 and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group.
59. The complex of claim 49, wherein M is Re, j and k are 1, and Rl9 and R20, R21 and R22, R23 and R24, and R25 and R26 are linked to form cyclic groups, such that the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XVI) wherein W7, R28, W9, WO, WI, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, ClCl2 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R29 and R30, R31 and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group.
60. The complex of claim 59, having the structure of formula (XVII).
61. The complex of claim 60, wherein R28, R29, R32 and R33 are hydrogen.
62. The complex of claim 60, wherein R27, WO, R31 and R34 are aryl.
63. The complex of claim 62, wherein Ruz', R30, R31 and R34 are phenyl.
64. The complex of claim 62, wherein R27, R30, R31 and R34 are benzyl.
65. The complex of claim 60, wherein p and q are zero.
66. The complex of claim 60, wherein p and q are 1.
67. The complex of claim 66, wherein Y is halide and R10, Rll, R12 and R"are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, ClC12 alkyl, and cyano.
68. The complex of claim 67, wherein Rl° and Rl2 are hydrogen, and R11 and R13 are C1 C12 alkyl.
69. The complex of claim 67, wherein R11 and R13 are methyl.
70. The complex of claim 67, wherein R'° and R12 are hydrogen, and R11 and R13 are cyano.
71. The complex of claim 67, wherein R10, R", R12 and R13 are C1C12alkyl.
72. The complex of claim 71, wherein R10, R11, RIZ and R13 are methyl.
73. The complex of claim 60, wherein R27 and R28, R29 and R30, R31 and R32, and R33 and R34 are linked to form cyclic groups, such that the complex has the structure of formula (XVIII) wherein R65, R66, R67, R68, R69, R70, R71 and R72 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1C12alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R65 and R66, R67 and R68, R69 and R70, and R71 and R72 are linked to form cyclic goups.
74. The complex of claim 73, having the structure of formula (XIX).
75. The complex of claim 74, wherein Y is halide and R'°, R", R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, ClCl2 alkyl, and cyano.
76. The complex of claim 75, wherein Rl° and R12 are hydrogen, and R11 and r13 are C Cl2 alkyl.
77. The complex of claim 76, wherein R"and R"are methyl.
78. The complex of claim 75, wherein Rl° and R12 are hydrogen, and R"and R"are cyano.
79. The complex of claim 75, wherein Rl°, R", Rl2 and Rl3 are ClCl2 alkyl.
80. The complex of claim 79, wherein R'°, Roll, Rl2 and R13 are methyl.
81. A transition metal oxo complex having the structure of formula (IX) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; yk is an anion bearing a charge ofk; either j and k are both 1, or j and k are both 2; as and a6 are optional bonds; R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, 4R45 and R46 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl; and R37, R38, R43 and R44 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R35, R36, R37, R38, R39, R40, R41, R42, R43, R44 and RAS may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
82. The complex of claim 81, wherein M is Re, and j and k are 1.
83. The complex of claim 81, wherein M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.
84. The method of claim 81, wherein a5 and a6 are absent.
85. The method of claim 84, wherein R37, R38, R43 and R44 are hydrogen.
86. The method of claim 85, wherein R35, R36 R9, R40, R41, R2, Ras and R46 are aryl.
87. The method of claim 86, wherein R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, 4R45 andR 46 are phenyl.
88. The method of claim 81, wherein as and a6 are present.
89. The method of claim 88, wherein R37 and R38 taken together, and R43 and R44 taken together, are phenyl or naphthalenyl.
90. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (X) wherein: Z+ is a cation; p and q are independently zero or 1 ; Rl°, R", Rl2 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; w 7 and R48 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom containing hydrocarbyl; and R49 and Wo are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein either R47 and R49, or R47 and R48 and/or R49 and R50, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
91. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (XI) wherein: L3 is a neutral electron donor ligand; Ruz and R52 are anionic ligands; R53, R54 and R55 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl; and R56 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatomcontaining hydrocarbyl, and further wherein W'and W4, and/or R55 and R56, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
92. The complex of claim 91, having the structure of formula (XII) wherein: L3 is P (cyclohexyl) 3 orP (cyclopentyl) 3; R51 and R52 are halide; and Rs7 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1C12alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl.
93. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (XIII) wherein R58, R59 and R60 are halide, and R61 and R62 are aryl.
94. A transition metal complex having the structure of formula (XIV) wherein R58, R59 and R60 are halide, and R61M, R62, R63 and R64 are aryl, or wherein R6'and R62, and/or R63 and R64, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.
Description:
TRANSITION METAL OXO, SULFIDO AND AMIDO COMPLEXES AS CATALYSTS OF NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS TECHNICAL FIELD This invention relates generally to a catalytic method for the addition of nucleophilic reactants to an electrophilic substrate using transition metal oxo, sulfido and amido complexes as catalysts. More particularly, the invention relates to a catalytic method for the addition of silyl groups to unsaturated bonds, using a transition metal-oxo complex as a silylation catalyst for such a reaction.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Organosilicon compounds have utility in a wide range of commercial applications. For example, organosilanes are used as precursors to silicon-containing polymers, which, in turn, have numerous uses in the electronics, adhesives, and plastics industries. Organosilanes are also useful in a host of synthetic organic processes, typically as reducing agents and/or silylating agents.

Other organosilicon compounds such as hydrolyzable silyl ethers (also termed alkoxysilanes) are used in the manufacture of coatings, glasses, and binders, while less reactive, lower molecular weight silyl ethers find utility as lubricant, heat-transfer, and dielectric fluids.

A well known and widely used reaction for synthesizing organosilicon compounds is the hydrosilylation of olefins, in which a silane reactant R3Si-H is added to an unsaturated carbon- carbon bond in the presence of a catalyst selected to activate the Si-H bond in the silane precursor.

Hydrosilylation of olefins and carbonyl compounds has traditionally been achieved by employing low-valent late transition metal complexes as catalysts, e. g., palladium, platinum, rhodium, and iridium complexes. See Ojima et al.,"Recent Advances in the Hydrosilations and Related Reactions,"in The Chemistfy of Organic Silicon Conapounds, vol. 2 (New York: Wiley and Sons, 1998), at pages 1687-1792. Illustrative of such catalysts are platinum supported on carbon, chloroplatinic acid, complexes of platinic chloride and unsaturated organic compounds, and compounds and complexes of rhodium, as described, for example, in U. K. Patent Application No.

1,041,237. Also see Chalk (1971), Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci. 172 (13): 533-540, which describes hydrosilylation of olefins using iridium, platinum and rhodium complexes as hydrosilylation catalysts. Organosilicon compounds have also been synthesized by silylation of carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes and ketones, traditionally using Lewis acid metal complexes as catalysts.

Use of the platinum group metals as hydrosilylation catalysts is, however, problematic in several respects. Complexes of the platinum group metals are typically air-and moisture-

sensitive, and, therefore, any reactions catalyzed with such complexes cannot be carried out without taking precautions to avoid air and/or water contamination. These catalysts are also expensive, precluding widespread utility on an industrial scale. In addition, use of highly Lewis acidic complexes as catalysts for the silylation of carbonyl-containing compounds precludes the use of reactants that contain Lewis basic functional groups. Furthermore, in many cases the Lewis acid catalysts are highly intolerant to the presence of water.

Accordingly, there is a need in the art for a new method of catalyzing a silylation reaction that would not be associated with the aforementioned problems. Optimally, then, the catalyst used would be air-and moisture-insensitive, significantly less expensive than the platinum-group catalysts, and tolerant of a range of functional groups. It would also be desirable if such a catalyst were useful in catalyzing stereoselective, e. g., enantioselective, silylation reactions. Furthermore, an ideal catalyst would be useful not only in silylation, but would also be useful in catalyzing other nucleophilic addition reactions wherein a nucleophilic reactant is added to an electrophilic compound containing, as an electrophilic site, an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond, a carbonyl group, a thiocarbonyl group (C=S), or an imino (C=NH) group.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is addressed to the aforementioned need in the art, and provides a novel method for catalyzing a nucleophilic addition reaction wherein an electrophilic reactant containing an electrophilic site in the form of an unsaturated bond between a carbon atom and a second atom Q, wherein Q is selected. from O, S, N and C, is contacted with a nucleophilic reactant in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a transition metal oxo, sulfido or amido complex. The reaction is carried out under conditions that provide for nucleophilic addition of the nucleophilic reactant to the electrophilic site of the electrophilic reactant. The transition metal complex that serves as the catalyst has the structure LmM (=Z) n wherein: m is an integer in the range of 2 to 5 inclusive; n is 1 or 2 ; the L groups are ligands, and may be the same or different; M is a transition metal, preferably selected from Groups 6,7 and 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, with Mo, W, Re, Ru or Os particularly preferred; and Z is O, S or NRI wherein Rl is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl.

Preferred transition metal complexes are transition metal-oxo complexes in which Z is O.

Of the transition metal-oxo complexes, particularly preferred are those complexes wherein n is 2, such that the catalyst is a transition metal-dioxo complex. It will be appreciated that depending on the particular transition metal, number of ligands (m), nature of the ligands (monodentate,

bidentate, etc.), and number of (=Z) groups (i. e., n), the complex may be charged and associated with a counterion of opposite charge.

Particularly preferred transition metal complexes are d2-metal-dioxo complexes, which, in contrast to do-metal-dioxo complexes (e. g., (CH3) 3ReO3) provide for enhanced Lewis basicity of the oxo ligands, and enhanced Lewis, acidity at the metal center. In general, the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) of the present complexes is localized on the oxygen atom of the oxo moieties (or on the sulfur or nitrogen atoms of sulfido or amido moieties, when X is S or NH, respectively), while the LUMO (lowest occupied molecular orbital) is localized on the metal center. In this way, the complexes act as bifunctional catalysts in which the oxo (or sulfido or amido) ligand acts as a Lewis base catalyst and the metal acts as a Lewis acid catalyst. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the preferred d2-metal-dioxo complexes of the invention appear to function as catalysts of a wide variety of nucleophilic addition reactions, in general, by virtue of activating both the nucleophilic and the electrophilic reactants without oxidizing either component.

Such reactions include, by way of example, hydrosilylation and other hydrometalation reactions, hydroamination, silylmetalation, carbometalation, aldol reactions, hydro-and carbometalation initiated cyclization/polymerization, and epoxide/aziridine opening. Because the complexes disclosed herein are versatile catalysts useful in catalyzing a wide variety of reactions, it will be appreciated that they may also be used in catalyzing tandem reactions, wherein a first nucleophilic addition reaction results in a product that is also capable of undergoing such a reaction, with each reaction catalyzed by the same complex 0.

While the present method is, accordingly, useful in catalyzing nucleophilic addition reactions in general, a preferred application of the method is in silylation. In this embodiment, the nucleophilic reactant is a silane, and the electrophilic reactant is a compound containing an unsaturated C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-S bond, e. g., an alkene, an alkyne, an aldehyde, a ketone, a thioketone, or an imine.

In the aforementioned silylation reaction, the silane will generally have the structure of formula (I) wherein: R', R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl; and X is hydrogen, cyano, cyanato, azido, alkenyl, alkenyloxy,

alkenylthio, or boronato. The electrophilic reactant will generally have the structure of formula (II) wherein: R4, RA and Rs are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and a functional group; a is an optional bond; and x, y, and z are zero or 1, with the provisos that (a) when Q is O or S, then a is absent, x is 1, and y and z are zero; (b) when Q is N, then a is absent, x and z are 1, and y is zero; (c) when Q is C and a is absent, then x, y and z are 1; and (d) when Q is C and a is present, then x and y are zero and z is 1.

For example, when a is absent, such that the electrophilic reactant has the structure of formula (III) nucleophilic addition of the silane reactant using a complex of the invention as a catalyst results in a reaction product having the structure of formula (IV) In another embodiment, novel transition metal complexes are provided that are useful as catalysts, e. g., in the reaction described above. The novel complexes are transition metal dioxo complexes such as the rhenium (V) dioxo complex having the structure of formula (XV)

wherein: Y-is an anion; p and q are independently zero or 1; R10, R", R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; Ri9 R22, Rl and R26 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl; and WO, R21, R24 and R25 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R19, R20, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25 and R26 may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

In preferred such complexes, R19 and R20, R21 and R, R and R, and R and R are linked to form cyclic groups, such that the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (XVI) wherein R27, R28, R29, R30, R31, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, Cl-Cl2 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R29 and Wo, R3

and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group. The configuration of the R27, R23, R29, R30, WO, R32, R33 and R34 can be selected so as to provide a chiral complex, such that the complex may be used in catalyzing stereoselective, e. g., enantioselective, reactions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION I. DEFINITIONS AND NOMENCLATURE: It is to be understood that unless otherwise indicated this invention is not limited to specific reactants, reaction conditions, ligands, metal complexes, or the like, as such may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting.

As used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms"a,""an"and "the"include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to"a compound"encompasses a combination or mixture of different compounds as well as a single compound, reference to"a functional group"includes a single functional group as well as two or more functional groups that may or may not be the same, and the like.

In this specification and in the claims that follow, reference will be made to a number of terms, which shall be defined to have the following meanings: As used herein, the phrase"having the formula"or"having the structure"is not intended to be limiting and is used in the same way that the term"comprising"is commonly used.

The term"alkyl"as used herein refers to a linear, branched or cyclic saturated hydrocarbon group typically although not necessarily containing 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, octyl, decyl, and the like, as well as cycloalkyl groups such as cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and the like. Generally, although again not necessarily, alkyl groups herein contain 1 to about 12 carbon atoms. The term"lower alkyl"intends an alkyl group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and the specific term"cycloalkyl"intends a cyclic alkyl group, typically having 4 to 8, preferably 5 to 7, carbon atoms. The term"substituted alkyl"refers to alkyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms"heteroatom-containing alkyl" and"heteroalkyl"refer to alkyl in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. If not otherwise indicated, the terms"alkyl"and"lower alkyl"include linear, branched, cyclic, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom-containing alkyl and lower alkyl, respectively.

The term"alkylene"as used herein refers to a difunctional linear, branched or cyclic alkyl group, where"alkyl"is as defined above.

The term"alkenyl"as used herein refers to a linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbon group of 2 to 20 carbon atoms containing at least one double bond, such as ethenyl, n-propenyl,

isopropenyl, n-butenyl, isobutenyl, octenyl, decenyl, tetradecenyl, hexadecenyl, eicosenyl, tetracosenyl, and the like. Preferred alkenyl groups herein contain 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "lower alkenyl"intends an alkenyl group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms, and the specific term "cycloalkenyl"intends a cyclic alkenyl group, preferably having 5 to 8 carbon atoms. The term "substituted alkenyl"refers to alkenyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms"heteroatom-containing alkenyl"and"heteroalkenyl"refer to alkenyl in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. If not otherwise indicated, the terms"alkenyl"and "lower alkenyl"include linear, branched, cyclic, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom- containing alkenyl and lower alkenyl, respectively.

The term"alkenylene"as used herein refers to a difunctional linear, branched or cyclic alkenyl group, where"alkenyl"is as defined above.

The term"alkynyl"as used herein refers to a linear or branched hydrocarbon group of 2 to 20 carbon atoms containing at least one triple bond, such as ethynyl, n-propynyl, and the like.

Preferred alkynyl groups herein contain 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The term"lower alkynyl"intends an allcynyl group of 2 to 6 carbon atoms. The term"substituted alkynyl"refers to alkynyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms"heteroatom-containing alkynyl" and"heteroalkynyl"refer to alkynyl in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. If not otherwise indicated, the terms"alkynyl"and"lower alkynyl"include linear, branched, unsubstituted, substituted, and/or heteroatom-containing alkynyl and lower alkynyl, respectively.

The term"alkoxy"as used herein intends an alkyl group bound through a single, terminal ether linkage; that is, an"alkoxy"group may be represented as-O-alkyl where alkyl is as defined above. A"lower alkoxy"group intends an alkoxy group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms.

Analogously,"alkenyloxy"and"lower alkenyloxy"respectively refer to an alkenyl and lower alkenyl group bound through a single, terminal ether linkage, and"alkynyloxy"and"lower allcynyloxy"respectively refer to an alkynyl and lower alkynyl group bound through a single, terminal ether linkage.

The term"aryl"as used herein, and unless otherwise specified, refers to an aromatic substituent containing a single aromatic ring or multiple aromatic rings that are fused together, directly linked, or indirectly linked (such that the different aromatic rings are bound to a common group such as a methylene or ethylene moiety). Preferred aryl groups contain one aromatic ring or 2 to 4 fused or linked aromatic rings, e. g., phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, and the like."Substituted aryl"refers to an aryl moiety substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms "heteroatom-containing aryl"and"heteroaryl"refer to aryl in which at least one carbon atom is

replaced with a heteroatom. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms"aromatic,""aryl,"and "arylene"include heteroaromatic, substituted aromatic, and substituted heteroaromatic species.

The term"aryloxy"as used herein refers to an aryl group bound through a single, terminal ether linkage. An"aryloxy"group may be represented as-O-aryl where aryl is as defined above.

The term"aralkyl"refers to an alkyl group with an aryl substituent, and the term "aralkylene"refers to an alkylene group with an aryl substituent; the term"alkaryl"refers to an aryl group that has an alkyl substituent, and the term"alkarylene"refers to an arylene group with an alkyl substituent.

The term"alicyclic"refers to an aliphatic cyclic moiety, which may or may not be bicyclic or polycyclic.

The terms"halo"and"halogen"are used in the conventional sense to refer to a chloro, bromo,'fluoro or iodo substituent. The terms"haloalkyl,""haloalkenyl"or"haloalkynyl" (or "halogenated alkyl,""halogenated alkenyl,"or"halogenated alkynyl") refers to an alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl group, respectively, in which at least one of the hydrogen atoms in the group has been replaced with a halogen atom.

"Hydrocarbyl"refers to univalent hydrocarbyl radicals containing 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, most preferably 1 to about 12 carbon atoms, including linear, branched, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated species, such as alkyl groups, alkenyl groups, aryl groups, and the like. The term"lower hydrocarbyl"intends a hydrocarbyl group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and the term"hydrocarbylene"intends a divalent hydrocarbyl moiety containing 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, most preferably 1 to about 12 carbon atoms, including linear, branched, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated species. The term"lower hydrocarbylene"intends a hydrocarbylene group of 1 to 6 carbon atoms."Substituted hydrocarbyl"refers to hydrocarbyl substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms "heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl"and"heterohydrocarbyl"refer to hydrocarbyl in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. Similarly,"substituted hydrocarbylene" refers to hydrocarbylene substituted with one or more substituent groups, and the terms "heteroatom-containing hydrocarbylene"and heterohydrocarbylene"refer to hydrocarbylene in which at least one carbon atom is replaced with a heteroatom. Unless otherwise indicated, the term"hydrocarbyl"and"hydrocarbylene"are to be interpreted as including substituted and/or heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl and hydrocarbylene moieties, respectively.

The term"heteroatom-containing"as in a"heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl group" refers to a hydrocarbon molecule or a hydrocarbyl molecular fragment in which one or more carbon atoms is replaced with an atom other than carbon, e. g., nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus or silicon, typically nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. Similarly, the term"heteroalkyl"refers

to an alkyl substituent that is heteroatom-containing, the term"heterocyclic"refers to a cyclic substituent that is heteroatom-containing, the terms"heteroaryl"and heteroaromatic"respectively refer to"aryl"and"aromatic"substituents that are heteroatom-containing, and the like. It should be noted that a"heterocyclic"group or compound may or may not be aromatic, and further that "heterocycles"may be monocyclic, bicyclic, or polycyclic as described above with respect to the term"aryl." By"substituted"as in"substituted hydrocarbyl,""substituted alkyl,""substituted aryl,"and the like, as alluded to in some of the aforementioned definitions, is meant that in the hydrocarbyl, alkyl, aryl, or other moiety, at least one hydrogen atom bound to a carbon (or other) atom is replaced with one or more non-hydrogen substituents. Examples of such substituents include, without limitation, functional groups such as: halo; hydroxyl; sulfhydryl; Cl-C20 alkoxy; C2-C20 alkenyloxy ; C2-C20 alkynyloxy; C5-C20 aryloxy; C2-C20 acyl, including C2-C20 alkylcarbonyl (-CO- alkyl) and C6-C20 arylcarbonyl (-CO-aryl); C2-C20 acyloxy, including C2-C20 alkoxycarbonyl (- (CO)-O-alkyl) and C6-C20 aryloxycarbonyl (-(CO)-O-aryl) ; halocarbonyl (-CO)-X where X is halo); carboxy (-COOH); carboxylato (-COO-) ; carbamoyl (-(CO)-NH2) ; C2-C2o alkylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-alkyl) ; C6-C20 arylcarbamoyl (-(CO)-NH-aryl) ; thiocarbamoyl (-(CS)-NH2) ; carbamido (-NH- (CO)-NH2) ; cyano (-C#N) ; isocyano (-N+--C-) ; cyanato (-O-C-N) ; isocyanato (-O-N+-C-) ; isothiocyanato (-S-C#N) ; azido (-N=N+=N-) ; formyl (- (CO)-H) ; thioformyl (- (CS)-H) ; amino, including primary amino (-NH2), mono-and di-(alkyl)-substituted amino, and mono-and di- (aryl)- substituted amino; C2-C20 alkylamido (-NH- (CO)-alkyl) ; C6-C20 arylamido (-NH-(CO)-aryl) ; C2- C20 imino (-CR=NH where R = hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.); C2-C20 alkylimino (-CR=N (alkyl), where R = hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.); arylimino (-CR=N (aryl), where R = hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkaryl, etc.); nitro (-NO2) ; nitroso (-NO); mercapto (-SH); sulfo (-SO2-OH) ; sulfonato (-S02-0) ; Cl-C20 alkylsulfanyl (-S-alkyl ; also termed"alkylthio"); C5-C20 arylsulfanyl (- S-aryl; also termed"arylthio"); Cl-C2o alkylsulfinyl (- (SO)-O-alkyl) ; Cs-C20 arylsulfinyl (- (SO)-O- aryl); C1-C20 alkylsulfonyl (-SO2-O-alkyl) ; C5-C20 arylsulfonyl (-SO2-O-aryl) ; thiocarbonyl (=S); boryl (-BH2) ; borono (-B (OH) 2); boronato (-B (OR) 2 where R is alkyl or other hydrocarbyl); phosphono (-P (O) (OH) 2); phosphonato (-P (O) (O-) 2) ; phosphinato (-P (O) (O-)) ; phospho (-P02) ; and phosphino (-PH2). Suitable substituents also include the hydrocarbyl moieties Cl-C20 alkyl (preferably C1-C12 alkyl, more preferably Cl-C6 alkyl), C2-C20 alkenyl (preferably C2-Cl2 alkenyl, more preferably C2-C6 alkenyl), C2-C24 alkynyl (preferably C2-C12 alkynyl, more preferably C2-C6 alkynyl), Cs-C20 aryl (preferably C5-Cl2 aryl), and C6-C20 aralkyl (preferably Cg-Ctz aralkyl).

In addition, the aforementioned hydrocarbyl moieties may be further substituted with one or more functional groups or additional hydrocarbyl moieties. Analogously, the above-mentioned functional groups may, if a particular group permits, be further substituted with one or more

additional functional groups or with one or more hydrocarbyl moieties such as those specifically enumerated above.

When the term"substituted"appears prior to a list of possible substituted groups, it is intended that the term apply to every member of that group. That is, the phrase"substituted alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl"is to be interpreted as"substituted alkyl, substituted alkenyl and substituted alkynyl."Similarly,"optionally substituted alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl"is to be interpreted as "optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl and optionally substituted alkynyl." The term"stereoselective"refers to a chemical reaction that preferentially results in one stereoisomer relative to a second stereoisomer, i. e., gives rise to a product of which the ratio of a desired stereoisomer to a less desired stereoisomer is greater than 1: 1. The term"enantioselective" refers to a stereoselective reaction in which the stereoisomers are enantiomers; that is, an enantioselective reaction preferentially results in one enantiomer relative to a second enantiomer.

"Optional"or"optionally"means that the subsequently described circumstance may or may not occur, so that the description includes instances where the circumstance occurs and instances where it does not. For example, the phrase"optionally substituted"means that a non- hydrogen substituent may or may not be present on a given atom, and, thus, the description includes structures wherein a non-hydrogen substituent is present and structures wherein a non- hydrogen substituent is not present.

In the molecular structures herein, the use of bold and dashed lines to denote particular conformation of groups follows the IUPAC convention. A bond indicated by a broken line indicates that the group in question is below the general plane of the molecule as drawn (the"a" configuration), and a bond indicated by a bold line indicates that the group at the position in question is above the general plane of the molecule as drawn (the" (3" configuration).

II. CATALYSTS: The reactions of the invention are carried out catalytically, using a transition metal oxo, sulfido or amido complex as a catalyst. The transition metal complex that serves as the catalyst has the structure LmM (=Z) n wherein: m is an integer in the range of 2 to 5 inclusive; n is 1 or 2 ; the L groups are ligands, and may be the same or different; M is a transition metal, preferably selected from Groups 6,7 and 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, with Mo, W, Re, Ru or Os particularly preferred; and Z is O, S or NRl wherein Rl is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl, and preferred Z moieties are O, such that the complex is a transition metal oxo complex.

The complex may be charged and associated with a counterion of opposite charge, depending on the particular transition metal, number of ligands (m), nature of the ligands (monodentate, bidentate, etc.), and number of (=Z) groups (i. e., n). For example, rhenium (V) complexes are electronically neutral when m is 3, n is 2, and the L groups are monodentate ligands, but bear a positive charge when m is 2, n is 2, and the L groups are bidentate diimine ligands. In the latter case, the complex will be in the form of a salt, i. e., associated with a halide ion or other anion. In one group of preferred complexes: (1) m is 5, n is 1, M is Re, and the L groups are monodentate ligands; (2) m is 4, n is 1, M is Re, one L group is a bidentate ligand, and three L groups are monodentate ligands; and (3) m is 2, n is 2, M is Re, the L groups are bidentate diimine ligands, and the complex is positively charged and associated with an anionic counterion.

Exemplary transition metal complexes for use in conjunction with the methods of the invention have the structure of formula (V) wherein the various substituents are as follows: M is a Group 7 transition metal, with Re (V) particularly preferred.

Ll and L2 are neutral electron donor ligands, and may be the same or different. Examples of suitable Ll and L2 moieties include, without limitation, phosphine, sulfonate phosphine, phosphite, phosphinite, phosphonite, arsine, stibine, ether (including cyclic ethers), amine, amide, imine, sulfoxide, carboxyl, nitrosyl, pyridine, substituted pyridine (e. g., halogenated pyridine), imidazole, substituted imidazole (e. g., halogenated imidazole), pyrazine (e. g., substituted pyrazine), and thioether. In more preferred embodiments, Ll and L2 are phosphines of the formula PR3, where each R is independently aryl or Cl-Cl0 alkyl, particularly primary alkyl, secondary alkyl or cycloalkyl. In the most preferred embodiments, L is selected from the group consisting of - P (cyclohexyl) 3,-P (cyclopentyl) 3,-P (isopropyl) 3,-P (phenyl) 3,-P (phenyl) 2 (RA) and - P (phenyl) (RA) 2, in which RA is alkyl, typically lower alkyl. Also preferred are weaker ligands such as the nitrogen-containing heterocycles, which enhance catalytic activity presumably because of the requirement that the L ligand dissociate for initiation to occur.

R6, R and Rs are anionic ligands, and may be the same or different, or any two of R6, R7 and R3 may be linked together to form a cyclic group, typically although not necessarily a five-to eight-membered ring, or may be taken together to form a second oxo group =O. In preferred embodiments, R6, R7 and R8 are each independently hydrogen, halide, or one of the following

groups: Cl-C20 alkyl, C5-C20 aryl, Cl-C20 alkoxy, C5-C20 aryloxy, C3-C20 alkyldiketonate, C5-C20 aryldiketonate, C2-C20 alkoxycarbonyl, C5-C20 aryloxycarbonyl, C2-C20 acyl, Cl-C2o alkylsulfonato, C5-C20 arylsulfonato, Cl-C20 alkylsulfanyl, C5-C20 arylsulfanyl, C-C20 alkylsulfinyl, or C5-C20 arylsulfinyl. In more preferred embodiments, R6, R7 and R8 are halide, benzoate, C2-C6 acyl, C2-C6 alkoxycarbonyl, Cl-C6 alkyl, phenoxy, Cl-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6alkylsulfanyl, aryl, or Cl-C6 alkylsulfonyl. In even more preferred embodiments, R6, R7 and R8 are each halide, CF3CO2, CH3C02, CFH2CO2, (CH3) 3CO, (CF3) 2 (CH3) CO, (CF3) (CH3) 2CO, phenoxy, methoxy, ethoxy, tosylate, mesylate, or trifluoromethanesulfonate. In the most preferred embodiments, R6, R7 and R8 are each methoxy, ethoxy, chloride or iodide. Optionally, R6, R7 and R8 may be substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C1-C12alkyl, C1-C12 alkoxy, C5-C20 aryl, and halide, which may, in turn, with the exception of halide, be further substituted with one or more groups selected from halide, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy, and phenyl. In other preferred embodiments, one of R6, R'and R8 is as just defined and the other two together form a second oxo moiety.

In another embodiment, the transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VI) wherein : M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal; y-k is an anion bearing a charge of-k; either j and k are both 1, or j and k are both 2; p and q are independently zero or 1; R10, R", R12 and R'3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; al, a2, a3 and a4 are optional bonds; X', X2, X3 and X4 are independently selected from NR'4, NR15R16 and PR17R18, with the proviso that when any of Xl, Xz, X3 and X4 are NR14, then the adjacent α1,α2,α3 or a4 is present, and when any of X1, X2, X3 and X4 are NR'5R'6 or PR17R18, then the adjacent α1,α2,α3 or a4 is absent; and

R14, Rl5, R16, R16, and and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R, R, R, R and R's may be taken together, optionally with any of R'°, R", R'2 and R'3, to form a cyclic group.

In preferred complexes of formula (VI), M is Re, in which case j and k are 1, or M is Ru or Os, in which case j and k are 2.

It should be appreciated that although the complex of formula (VI) is drawn as a trans- dioxo complex, the structure is intended to encompass cis-dioxo complexes as well, which, technically, have the structure (VIA) A transition metal complex of formula (VI) containing bidentate diimine ligands will have the structure of formula (VII) wherein: Ri9 R22, Rl and R26 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl; and R20, R21, R24 and Wus are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R, R, R, R, R, R, R and Ru may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

In preferred complexes of formula (VII), when p and q are 1, R°, Rll, R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, Cl-Cl2 alkyl, and cyano. For

example, R10 and R12 may be hydrogen, and R11 and R13 may be cyano or Cl-Cl2 alkyl, e. g., methyl. As another example R10, R", R 12 and R13 may all be C1-C12alkyl, e. g., methyl.

In these complexes, when R'9 and Wo, R21 and R22, R23 and R24, and R25 and R26 are linked to form cyclic groups, those cyclic groups may be five-or six-membered rings, or may comprise two or three five-or six-membered rings, which may be either fused or linked. The cyclic groups may be aliphatic or aromatic, and may contain one or more heteroatoms in addition to the nitrogen atoms shown in the structure. In one preferred embodiment, the cyclic groups formed are oxazole groups, with 4,5-dihydrooxazole groups particularly preferred. Such transition metal complex has the structure of formula (VIII) wherein R2', R28 R29, Wo, R31, R32, R33 and R34 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R27 and R28, R29 and Wo, W' and R32, and/or R33 and R34 are linked to form a cyclic group.

The complex may or not be chiral, depending on the stereochemical configuration of R27, R28, R29, R30, R3', R32, R33 and R34. To catalyze stereoselective reactions, and enantioselective reactions in particular, the various substituents have the stereochemical configurations indicated in the structure of formula (VIIIA) In a variation on such complexes, the ligands are mono-anionic, and instead of a second oxo ligand, a water molecule occupies the remaining coordination site, as shown in the structure of formula (VIIIB):

In an exemplary complex of formula (IX), M is Re, R'°, R", Rl2 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12alkyl, and cyano, R28, R29, R32 and R33 are hydrogen, and W7, WO, F31 and R34 are aryl, e. g., phenyl or benzyl.

In another exemplary complex of formula (IX), M is Re, Rt°, R", Rl2 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12alkyl, and cyano, and R27 and R28, R29 and R30, R31 and R32, and R33 and R34 are linked to form cyclic groups, such that the complex has the structure of formula (XVIII)

wherein R65, R66, R67, R68, RT69, R70, R71 and R72 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, Cl-C12 alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl, or wherein R65 and R66, R67 and R68, R69 and R70, and R71 and R72 are linked to form cyclic groups. One example of such a complex is that having the structure of formula (XIX) Complexes of formula (VI) are not necessarily diimine-containing complexes, however.

As indicated by the definitions of X1, X2, X3 and X4, the ligands may also contain phosphorus and/or oxygen atoms that coordinate to the metal center. In one such complex, X', X2, X3 and X4 are phosphorus atoms in two bidentate phosphine ligands. Such complexes have the structure of formula (IX) wherein: M is a Group 7 or Group 8 transition metal, preferably a Group 7 transition metal; yk is an anion bearing a charge of-k; either j and k are both 1, or j and k are both 2; as and a6 are optional bonds;

R R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, R45 and R46 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl; and R37, R38, R43 and R44 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and further wherein any two or more of R35, R36, R37, R38, R39, R40, R41, R42, R43, R44 and R4s may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

In a preferred embodiment, M is Re, and j and k are 1, or M is Os or Ru, and j and k are 2.

Particularly preferred complexes of formula (IX) are those wherein aS and a6 are present, and R37 and R38 taken together, and R43 and R44 taken together, are phenyl or naphthalenyl. In another preferred embodiment, aS and ag are absent, R37, R38, R43 and R44 are hydrogen, and R35, R36, R39, R40, R41, R42, R45 and R46 are aryl, e. g., phenyl.

Other complexes of formula (VI) are Re (V) complexes that contain a coordinating oxygen atom at two or more of Xl, X2, X3 and X4. Exemplary such complexes have the structure of formula (X) wherein: Z+ is a cation; p and q are independently zero or 1; R°, R", R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and functional groups; R47 and R43 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl; and R49 and R50 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl,

and further wherein either R47 and R49, orrez and R48 and/or R49 and Ros°, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

As discussed above with respect to complexes of formulae (VII) and (VIII), when R47 and R49, or R47 and R48 and/or R49 and Ros°, are linked to form cyclic groups, those cyclic groups may be five-or six-membered rings, or may comprise two or three five-or six-membered rings, which may be either fused or linked. The cyclic groups may be aliphatic or aromatic, and may contain one or more heteroatoms in addition to the nitrogen atoms shown in the structure. In one preferred embodiment, the cyclic groups formed are oxazole groups, with 4,5-dihydrooxazole groups particularly preferred.

Still other transition metal oxo complexes useful in the present methods are rhenium complexes having the structure of formula (XI) wherein: L3 is a neutral electron donor ligand, and is defined as for Li and L2 ; R51 and R52 are anionic ligands, and are defined as for R6, R7 and R8 ; R53, Rs4 and R55 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl; and R56 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and further wherein R3 and R54, and/or R55 and R56, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

In exemplary complexes of formula (XI), W'and R14 together form a phenyl ring, and R55 and R56 together form a 4,5-dihydrooxazole ring optionally substituted at the 4-position, such that the structure has the formula (XII)

wherein: L3 is P (cyclohexyl) 3 or-P (cyclopentyl) 3; R1 and R52 are halide; and Rs7 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C12alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl.

Still another transition metal oxo complex useful in the present catalytic methods have the structure of formula (XIII) wherein R58, R59 and R60 are halide, and R6'and R62 are aryl, and the structure of formula (XIV) wherein R58, R59 and Wo are halide, and R6', R62, R63 and R64 are aryl, or wherein R6'and R62, and/or R63 and R64, may be taken together to form a cyclic group.

Complexes of formulae (VII), (VIII), (VIIIA), (VIIIB), (X) through (XIV), (XVIII) and (XIX) are new chemical entities. Particularly preferred novel complexes herein are the dioxo complexes having the structures of formulae (VII), (VIII), and (VIIIA), wherein M is rhenium (V), as follows : -

In the foregoing structures, j, k, p, q, Y, and the various R groups are as defined herein with respect to the complexes of formulae (VII), (VIII), and (VIIIA).

Those complexes described in this section that are not new chemical entities may be purchased from commercial sources, e. g., Aldrich (Milwaukee WI) or Strem Chemicals, Inc.

(Newburyport, MA). The novel complexes can be synthesized using the general procedures described in the experimental section herein, in Examples 4,5 and 6, or modifications thereof, as will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art.

III. REACTIONS: Prior catalytic applications of transition metal oxo complexes, and transition metal dioxo complexes in particular, involved functional group oxidation and oxygen transfer reactions such as epoxidations and dihydroxylation. In contrast, the transition metal complexes of the invention are now used in the catalysis of nucleophilic addition reactions, wherein the complex serves as a

bifunctional catalyst, with the oxo (or sulfido or amido) ligand acting as a Lewis base catalyst and the metal center acting as a Lewis acid catalyst. As such, the complexes of the invention find utility in catalyzing a host of nucleophilic addition reactions, including, but not limited to, hydrosilylation and other hydrometalation reactions, hydroamination, silylmetalation, carbometalation, aldol reactions, hydro-and carbometalation initiated cyclization/polymerization, and epoxide/aziridine opening.

Hydrosilylation and other lzydrometalation reactions : Hydride reduction of carbonyl groups represents one of the simplest and most often used reactions in organic chemistry. In many cases, the alcohol produced from the reaction is subsequently protected as a silyl ether. Despite the fact that hydrosilylation of ketones and aldehydes should provide the opportunity to accomplish this transformation in a single operation, those working in the field have encountered numerous obstacles to development of a suitable reaction. Many hydrosilylation reactions have employed low-valent late transition metal catalysts that, by virtue of their low oxidation state, are often air-and moisture-sensitive. Low valent early transition metal metallocene catalysts, which have also been used, suffer from similar problems as well as being incompatible with a variety of Lewis basic functional groups. Furthermore, prior catalytic systems often use polyhydridic silanes and therefore the alcohol and not the silyl ether is isolated. By contrast, the methodology of the invention provides a catalyst system that is air-and moisture-insensitive, has high functional group tolerance, and provides synthetically useful silyl ethers (e. g., t-butyldimethylsilyl, or"TBDMS").

In hydrosilylation, the nucleophilic reactant is a silane, and the electrophilic reactant is a compound containing an unsaturated C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-S bond, e. g., an alkene, an alkyne, an aldehyde, a ketone, a thioketone, or an imine. In hydrosilylation reactions, the silane will generally have the structure of formula (I) wherein R', R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, and substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and X is hydrogen. The electrophilic reactant has the structure of formula (II)

wherein: R4, R4A and Rs are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbyl, substituted heteroatom- containing hydrocarbyl, and a functional group; a is an optional bond; and x, y, and z are zero or 1, with the provisos that (a) when Q is O or S, then a is absent, x is 1, and y and z are zero; (b) when Q is N, then a is absent, x and z are 1, and y is zero; (c) when Q is C and a is absent, then x, y and z are 1 ; and (d) when Q is C and a is present, then x and y are zero and z is 1.

When a is absent, such that the electrophilic reactant has the structure of formula (III) nucleophilic addition of the silane reactant using a complex of the invention as a catalyst results in a reaction product having the structure of formula (IV) It will be appreciated that the reaction is not necessarily limited to hydrosilylation, however, and that other silylation reactions wherein X is other than hydrogen, e. g., cyano, cyanato, azido, alkenyl, alkenyloxy, alkenylthio, or boronato, are also possible, as will be discussed in detail below. Furthermore, the aforementioned reaction is not limited to silicon-containing nucleophiles, and that analogous hydrostannylation and hydroboration reactions will be similarly catalyzed using the present catalysts.

Hydroamination : Transition metal catalyzed hydroamination of olefins and alkynes continues to receive considerable attention. In general, two approaches have been employed: (1) activation of the olefin by complexation to electrophilic transition metals (e. g., Pd (II), Pt (II)), and (2) N-H bond activation by early transition metal, lanthanides and actinides. The methodology of

the invention now allows for activation of both an unsaturated reactant and the amine in a hydroamination reaction. Such a reaction will typically involve a silylazide, e. g., a trialkylsilylazide, and an unsaturated reactant in the form of an alkene or alkyne. That is, the silane reactant will have the structure of formula (I), wherein X is azido (-N3) and R', W and R3 are Cl-Cl2 alkyl, preferably lower alkyl, and the unsaturated electrophilic reactant will have the structure of formula (II) wherein R4, R4A and Rs are as defined previously, a is an optional bond, and when a is absent, then x, y and z are 1, and a is present, then x and y are zero and z is 1.

Reaction with an olefin can serve as an initial step toward the formation of a primary amine, as follows: The initial catalytic reaction adding a trialkylsilylazide such as trimethylsilylazide (TMS-N3) provides a ß-azidoalkylsilane, which can then undergo protodesilylation and reduction of the azide to the amine. Alternatively, oxidation of the C-Si bond (e. g., via the Tamao-Fleming reaction) followed by reduction of the azide provides a 8-amino alcohol: Reaction of an alkyne substrate with a trialkylsilylazide produces a vinyl silane that can be further employed in a cross-coupling reaction, in which reduction of the azide intermediate is followed by hydrolysis of the resultant imine to give a ketone, effectively performing a regioselective hydration of a disubstituted alkyne. This reaction may be illustrated as follows: H T SiR1 R2R3 R R C LmM (=Z) n cross-coupling 1. reduction III 2R3S) p 1 0. II RRFt3Si-N3 2. hydrolysis L R4 Ru

Silylmetalation : The present invention is also useful in the silylmetalation of unsaturated compounds, particularly olefins and carbonyl compounds. The adducts formed upon silylmetalation are useful as intermediates in the further synthesis of a variety of compounds. For example, silylboration of a ketone produces a silyl ether containing a quaternary carbon-boron bond, and subsequent Suzuki cross coupling allows for the introduction of a variety of aryl, vinyl and alkyl halides: SjR1R2R3 SjR1R2R3 LmM (=Z)" Q cross-coupling Q JX R1R2R3Si-B (oR) 2/RX X/\ 4/ 4A 4 x R R R4 I B (OR) 2 R I R Rqp R4A Similarly, silylstannylation produces an alkylstannane that can be further utilized to produce organolithium reagents: SjR1R2R3 SjR1R2R3 Q LmM (=Z) n Q Li-Sn exchange R RRs R R4 x FR R A R4 I SnR3 R4A R4A Therefore, the silylmetalation of carbonyl compounds allows for the normal electrophilic behavior of the carbonyl carbon to be reversed, such that this carbon is now reacting with electrophiles.

Furthermore, when ketones and 1, l-disubstituted olefins are employed this reaction sequence constitutes a new method for the formation of quaternary centers.

Carbofnetalation : The addition of silyl cyanides and allyl silanes to carbonyl compounds has been most often accomplished by Lewis acid catalyzed activation of the carbonyl partner (as in the Sakurai reaction). However, the use of Lewis acids excludes the use of substrates that contain Lewis basic functional groups, and the catalysts are often very moisture-sensitive. The complexes and methods of the invention lack these constraints. Furthermore, unlike the Lewis acid catalysts, the present catalysts do not require a Lewis basic carbonyl oxygen to promote the reactions.

Therefore, the present invention enables the extension of reactions that have traditionally been limited to addition to the carbonyl to other types of unsaturated substrates. For example, transition metal dioxo catalyzed reaction of trimethylsilyl cyanide with olefins, followed by protodesilylation, produces the equivalent of a Markovnikov hydrocyanation reaction, illustrated in the following scheme:

Reduction of the cyano group to the aldehyde affords the equivalent of a hydroformylation reaction in which the regioselectivity of addition has been reversed. When the analogous reaction is carried out employing an alkyne, a vinyl silane is obtained: H I SIRIR2R3 R C mMOZ) n I cross-coupling III =-_ C RRR3Si-CN R CN R4 CN Ru Transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling using the catalysts and methods of the invention thus provides a stereoselective synthetic route to trisubstituted olefins.

Similar reactions can be conducted with allyl silanes in which the activation of the silicon- carbon bond produces a siloxymetal allyl intermediate that can further react with a variety of functional groups. For example, reaction of allyl silanes with olefins, followed by protodesilylation, produces the equivalent of a chemo-and regioselective"ene"reaction :

Furthermore, oxidative cleavage of the remaining olefin, as shown above, affords the product which would be derived from a conjugate addition to an a, (3-unsaturated aldehyde. Sequential alkyne allylsilylation and cross-coupling provides for regio-and stereoselective entry into 1,4- dienes.

Aldol reactions : The addition of silyl enol ethers to aldehydes (Mukaiyama aldol) has previously been catalyzed by either Lewis acid catalyzed activation of the aldehyde (Sawamura et al., in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis 2nd ed., Ojima, Ed., Wiley-VCH, New York, 2000, Chapter 8B1 ; Carreira, in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis 2nd ed., Ojima, Ed., Wiley-VCH, New York, 2000, Chapter 8B), transition metal catalyzed activation of the enol ether (niger et al. (1998) J.

Am. Cliem. Soc. 120: 837; Sodeoka et al. (1995) J. Org. Chenil. 60: 2648), or Lewis base catalyzed activation of trichlorosilylenol ethers (Denmark (2000) Acc. CZl em. Res. 33: 432). These methods suffer from air and moisture sensitivity as well as functional group incompatibility. The present methodology overcomes these limitations in the art by employing air-and moisture-insensitive transition metal complexes as catalysts that are also tolerant of most functional groups. The following scheme illustrates such a reaction in which a transition metal complex of the invention activates the Si-O bond of a silyl enol ether to afford novel metal enolates: Coordination of aldehydes, ketones and imines to the metal center promotes the addition of these enolates. Therefore, in these aldol reactions the transition metal complex serves as a bifunctional catalyst to activate both the enolate and the electrophile. The methodology readily extends to the three-component coupling of a silane, an enone and an aldehyde, providing a new route to aldol adducts. The hydrosilylation of an enone produces a metal enolate that can subsequently undergo reaction with aldehydes, ketones and imines: Hydro-and carbometalation initiated cyclizationlpolynaerization : The transition metal complexes provided herein additionally serve as well-defined and tunable catalysts for olefin polymerizations, illustrated in the following schemes: LmM (=X),, Rx ex Zur x R = H, lower alkyl R R R LmM (=X) n (RX) 3Si Zur R = H, lower alkyl R R R Y

Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is proposed that the addition of a trialkyl metal complex such as trimethylaluminum to a transition metal-dioxo complex will form an aluminoxymetal alkyl, such that coordination of the olefin to the metal center precedes insertion of the olefin into the metal-carbon bond. Furthermore, coordination of a second equivalent of organoaluminum to the remaining oxo-ligand, which would decrease the n-donation from the oxo to the metal, further facilitates the insertion reaction. Alternatively, olefin polymerization may be initiated by the previously discussed hydrosilylation reaction. The principles applied in the polymerization reactions may also be applied in cyclization reactions. The cyclization reaction may be initiated by a number of the reactions that have previously been discussed. For example, hydro-, azido-, boryl- or cyano-metalation of an alkyne or olefin produces an alkyl metal intermediate. Insertion of pendant unsaturation (e. g. an aldehyde, imine or olefin) into the alkylmetal bond followed by silyl transfer produces the cyclized products, illustrated as follows: In allylmetalation, the alkylmetal intermediate generated from the first cyclization reaction can undergo further reaction with the allyl moiety to provide bicyclic products. This represents a novel utility for allylsilanes in which they serve as one of the partners in a [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction.

Epoxide/aziridine Ope71i7lg : Epoxides are some of the most versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. As such, methods for enantioselective additions of nucleophiles, including water, to epoxides are highly desirable. The present invention encompasses such reactions,

wherein nucleophilic reactants are activated by the oxo (or sulfido or amido) moiety of a transition metal complex as provided herein, and the epoxide or aziridine ring is activated by coordination to the Lewis acid metal center.

It will be appreciated that the foregoing reactions are merely illustrative of the many types of nucleophilic addition reactions enabled by the present catalytic method, and the invention is not limited with respect to the specifically exemplified reactions above.

EXPERIMENTAL: All aldehydes, ketones, imines, olefins and silanes (triethylsilane, dimethylphenylsilane, t- butyldimethyl silane, trimethylsilylcyanide and the silyl enol ethers) were purchased from Aldrich and used without further purification. The bis-oxazoline ligands were purchased from Aldrich (Milwaukee, WI), the bis-phosphine ligands were purchased from Strem Chemicals Inc.

(Newburyport, MA), and the oxazolylphenol ligands were prepared from 2-cyanophenol (Bolm et al. (1991) Chem. Ber. 124: 1173). Iodo [bis (triphenylphosphine)] dioxorhenium (V) was prepared from potassium perrhenate by a modification of Ciani et al. (1983) Inorg. Chim. Acta. 72: 29, bis (triphenylarsine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride was prepared according to Fonatine et al. (1991) J.

Che7n. Soc., Dalton Trans, 1519, and bis (triphenylphosphine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride was prepared according to Chatt et al. (1962) J. Chem. Soc., 4019. Unless otherwise specified, all other reagents were also purchased from commercial suppliers and used without further purification. All solvents were purified by passage through a solvent column (containing activated A-2 alumina; see Pangborn et al. (1996) Organometallics 15: 1518-1520.). Analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed using silica gel 60 F254 precoated plates (0.25 mm thickness) with a fluorescent indicator. Flash column chromatography was performed using silica gel 60 (230-400 mesh) from EM Science. lH, 13C, and 31p NMR speckra were obtained on a Varian 300 MHz Fourier Transform spectrometer (300 MHz lH, 75.4 MHz 13C, 121.4 MHz 31p).

All chemical shift values are given in parts-per million (8) and are referenced with respect to residual solvent ('H and 13C) or phosphoric acid (31P).

EXAMPLE1 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR REDUCTION OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

In a 5 mL flask opened to the air, to a clear solution of 4-bromobenzaldehyde (91 mg, 0.492 mmol) in benzene (0. 5mL) was added dimethylphenylsilane (Me2PhSiH) (91 uL, 0.590 mmol). The flask was placed in a 60°C bath and iodo [bis (triphenylphosphine)] dioxorhenium (V) (9 mg, 0.010 mmol) was added. The resulting brown solution was heated at 60°C for 2 hours. The crude reaction mixture was directly applied to a Si02 column and chromatographed eluting with 99: 1 hexanes: diethyl ether to afford dimethylphenylsilyl protected 4-bromobenzylalcohol (145 mg, 92% yield) as a colorless liquid.

The reaction was repeated using different aldehydes and silanes, including triethylsilane (Et3SiH), t-butyldimethylsilane (t-BuMezSiH), and triisopropylsilane ((i-Pr) 3SiH). The reaction conditions, mole % catalyst, and isolated yield are indicated in Table 1.

Table 1. Rhenium (V) catalyzed hydrosilation ofaldehydes mol% aldehyde silane (PPh3) Re (O) 21 time/temp. isolated yield X = CH30 Et3SiH 5% 15 min./60'91% Et3SiH 5% 2h/60° 95% Et3SiH 2% 18 h/rt 93% Me2PhSiH 2% 2 Wrt 94% n t-BuMe2SiH 5% 2h/60° 89% (i-Pr) 3SiH 5% 3h/60° 0% = (CH3) 2N Me2PhSiH 5% 30 min./60° 86% = H Me2PhSiH 2% 2h/60° 94% = Br Me2PhSiH 2% 2h/60° 92% = NO2 Me2PhSiH 2% 2h/60° 90% o Et3SiH 2% 2h/60° 95% CH3 OC H3 H Et3SiH 1% 2h/600 83% n O Et3SiH 1 % 2h/60° 57% (30%) a Me2PhSiH 1 % 2h/60° 69% (24%) H H Me2PhSiH 1 % 2h/60° 87% (5%) a /O a Isolated yield of alcohol in parenthesis

The reaction was then carried out using additional electrophilic reactants, including a variety of ketones, and, as nucleophiles, the silanes Et3SiH and Me2PhSiH. The reaction conditions, mole % catalyst, and isolated yield are indicated in Table 2.

Table 2. Rhenium (V) catalyzed hydrosilation of ketones Aldehyde silane catalysta time/temp. isolated yield X = H Et3SiH 5% A 6h/80° 79% =CN Me2PhSiH 5% A 14h/80° 82% 0 EtO2CA Me2PhSiH 5% A 5h/60° 63% (6%) b EtOC' Me2PhSiH 5% A 8h/80° $1 % (9: 1 tans : cis) Me2PhSiH 5% A 14h/80° 21 % (60%) b F3C o X =H Me2PhSiH 5% A 5h/80° 57% CH3 Me2PhSiH 5% A 5h/80° 0% R 0 Me2PhSiH 5% A 10h/80° 0% Me2PhSiH 5% B 10h/80° 0% (38%) b (3.2: 1 trans : cis) I b Me2PhSiH 5% A 4h/80° d Me2PhSi0 OH 73% (1.1: 1 dr) catalyst A (PPh3)2Re(O)2I B (PPh3) 2Re (O) CI3 b isolatedyield of alcohol in parenthesis EXAMPLE 2 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR REDUCTION OF IMINES H NSO2Ph 5% (PPh3) 2Re (0) 21, PhMe2SiH, C6H6, 2h/\rSO2Ph then CF3CO2H, CH30H CH R 3 86%

In a 5 mL flask opened to the air, to a clear solution of N-benzylidenebenzene sulfonamide (100 mg, 0.408 mmol) in benzene (0.4mL) was added dimethylphenylsilane (125 N, L, 0.816 mmol). The flask was placed in a 60°C bath and iodo [bis (triphenylphosphine)] oxorhenium (V) (18 mg, 0.021 mmol) was added. The resulting brown solution was heated at 60°C for 2 hours. To the reaction mixture was added methanol (0.4mL) followed by trifluoroacetic acid (35 pL), and heating continued for an additional 2h. The crude reaction mixture was directly applied to a Si02 column and chromatographed eluting with 1: 1 hexanes: diethyl ether to afford N- phenylsulfonylbenzylamine (87 mg, 86% yield) as a slightly yellow solid.

EXAMPLE 3 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR HYDROGENATION OF OLEFINS In a 5 mL flask opened to the air, to a clear solution of 3, 4-dimethoxystyrene (100 uL, 0.755 mmol) in benzene (0. 8mL) was added triethylsilane (240 uL, 0.816 mmol). The flask was placed in a 60°C bath and iodo [bis (triphenylphosphine)] dioxorhenium (V) (32 mg, 0.037 mmol) was added. The resulting brown solution was heated at 60°C for 12 hours. The crude reaction mixture was directly applied to a Si02 column and chromatographed eluting with 4: 1 hexanes: diethyl ether to afford 3,4-dimethoxyethylbenzene (52 mg, 57% yield) as a colorless liquid. The reaction was repeated using pent-2-enal and t-butyl acrylate as the electrophilic reactants, as indicated in the first two schemes above (wherein"TES"represents triethylsilyl).

EXAMPLE 4 REPRESENTATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SYNTHESIS OF RHENIUM ( DIOXO COMPLEXES

To a yellow suspension of bis (triphenylarsine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride (2.7g, 2.93 mmol) in methylene chloride (60 mL) was added (4S)- (+)-phenyl-a- [ (4S)-phenyloxazolin-2- oxazoline-2-acetonitrile (1.0 g, 3.02 mmol). The resulting brown/green reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for lh, then diluted with diethyl ether (150 mL). The precipitated green solid was collected and washed with diethyl ether (3 x 50 mL) to afford the desired complex (1.82g, 68%) as a grass green solid.'H-NMR (CD2CI2) : 8 7.42 (m 20H), 5.56 (br s, 4H), 5.23 (br t, 4H), 4.68 (br t, 4H). MS: 915.1034 and 917.0946 (M+C1-), 879.1611 and 881.1560 (M).

An analogous procedure was carried out to prepare the following complexes from bis (triphenylarsine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride and an appropriately substituted 2-oxazolidin-2- ylidenemethyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole: +ci-+ ci- ; 0 H, vR , O 0 0 0 N- rye," ",". NOOOOO' dR R, . O O J..,, O H H 4 R = iso-propyl, benzyl, tert-butyl

EXAMPLE 5 REPRESENTATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SYNTHESIS OF RHENIUM (V) PHENOXY-OXAZOLIDINE COMPLEXES To a clear solution of the 2- (2-hydroxyphenyl)- (4S)-isopropyloxazolidine (3.7g, 18.0 mmol) in benzene (150 mL), at reflux, was added bis (triphenylphosphine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride (1. 5g, 1.80 mmol). The resulting green solution was refluxed for 2h, cooled to room temperature and concentrated to approximately 50 mL. The green precipitate was collected and washed with diethyl ether (3 x 50 mL), to afford the chiral rhenium complex (l. lOg, 83%) as a green solid.'H-NMR (CDzCl2) : 8 7.60-7.37 (m, 19H), 7.12 (ddq, J = 8.2,7.1 and 1.8 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (td, J = 7.1 and 1.8 Hz, 1H), 6.63 (dd, J = 8.2 and 0.8 Hz), 4.48 (dd, J = 9.8 and 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (t, J = 9.8 Hz, 1H), 3.57 (ddd, J = 9.8,4.0 and 2.8 Hz, 1H), 2.92 (m, 1H), 1.00 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.82 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H). 3'P-NMR (CD2C12) :-18.5. An analogous procedure was carried out to synthesize the benzyloxazolidine analogue using 2- (2-hydroxyphenyl)- (4S)-benzyloxazolidine as a starting material.

EXAMPLE 6 REPRESENTATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SYNTHESIS OF CHIRAL BISPHOSPHINE RHENIUM m COMPLEXES

To a yellow suspension of bis (triphenylarsine) oxorhenium (V) trichloride (1.3g, 1.41 mmol) in methylene chloride (40 mL) was added 1, 2-bis ((2S, 5S)-2, 5-diethylphospholano) benzene ( (S, S)-Et-DUPHOS, obtained from Strem Chemicals Inc., Newburyport, MA) (500 mg, 1.38 mmol), as shown in the first scheme above. The resulting green reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10h, then filtered to remove some white precipitate. The filtrate was concentrated to approximately 10 mL and then diluted with diethyl ether (150 mL). The precipitated green solid was collected and washed with diethyl ether (3 x 50 mL) to afford the desired complex (1.08g, 81%) as a green solid. IH-NMR (CD2C12) : 8 8.0 (m, 2H), 7.8 (m, 2H), 3.0-2.0 (m, 8H), 2.0-1.0 (m, 24H). 3lP-NMR (CD2C12) : 40. 20, 31.73. An analogous procedure was used to prepare the rhenium complex shown in the second scheme above, substituting 2,2'- bis (diphenylphosphino)-1, 1'-binaphthyl (BINAP) for ( (S, S)-Et-DUPHOS.

EXAMPLE 7 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR ENANTIOSELECTIVE REDUCTION OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

In a 5 mL flask opened to the air, to a clear solution of acetophenone (100 mg, 0.832 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (0.8mL) was added dimethylphenylsilane (91 uL, 0.590 mmol) followed by the chiral dioxorhenium (V) complex (25 mg, 0.042 mmol). The resulting brown solution was heated at room temperature for 18 hours. The crude reaction mixture was directly applied to a Si02 column and chromatographed eluting with 98: 2 hexanes: diethyl ether to afford dimethylphenylsilyl protected 4-bromobenzylalcohol (176 mg, 83% yield) as a colorless liquid.

'H-NMR (C6D6) : 8 7.54 (m, 2H), 7.25-7.02 (m, 8H), 4.74 (q, J = 6.3Hz, 1H), 1.33 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H), 0.27 (s, 3H), 0.21 (s, 3H)."C-NMR (C6D6) : 8 146.7,138.4,133.9,129.8,128.5,128.1,127.2, 125.7,71.6,27.4,-0.5,-1.0.

The reaction was repeated using: (a) acetophenone and diphenylsilane; (b) 2- bromoacetophenone and dimethylphenylsilane; and (c) 4-phenyl-butan-2-one and dimethylphenylsilane, as indicated in the above schemes. Enantiomeric excess ("ee") was

determined by deprotection of the silyl ether with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) to afford the alcohol. Enantiomers of the alcohol were separated by gas chromatography using a chiral (G- TA) column. Retention times: minor enantiomer 24.83 min.; major enantiomer 24.98 min.