Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSFORMERS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/128968
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A transmission line transformer (10) having a time delay network (12) having a signal terminal (16) and a pair of output terminals (221, 222) connected to the signal terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements (TD1, TD2), the delay line elements having different time delays, a pair of transmission lines (TL1, TL2), each one having a pair of electrically coupled elements (C1, C2). A first one of the elements (C1) in one of the transmission lines has a first end (E1) connected to one of the pair of output terminals (221, 222). A second one of the elements (C2) in such one of the transmission lines has a second end (E2) connected to a second end (E2) of one of the pair of elements (C1, C2) in the other one of the transmission lines. The first one of the pair of elements (C1) in the other one of the pair of transmission lines is coupled to a second one of the pair of output terminals (221, 222).

Inventors:
LEONI, Robert, E. (15 Lexington Avenue, Somerville, Massachusetts, 02144, US)
REED, Thomas, B. (101 Lowell Road, Apt. 5North Reading, Massachusetts, 01864, US)
SORIC, Jason, C. (5301 Avalon Drive, Bedford, Massachusetts, 01730, US)
Application Number:
US2018/012037
Publication Date:
July 12, 2018
Filing Date:
January 02, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
RAYTHEON COMPANY (870 Winter Street, Waltham, Massachusetts, 02451-1449, US)
International Classes:
H01P5/12; H03H7/38; H03H7/42
Foreign References:
US20060006949A12006-01-12
US20100019857A12010-01-28
US2700129A1955-01-18
US7495525B22009-02-24
US6756874B22004-06-29
Other References:
NIKNEJAD A M ET AL: "Integrated circuit transmission-line transformer power combiner for millimetre-wave applications", ELECTRONICS LET, IEE STEVENAGE, GB, vol. 43, no. 5, 1 March 2007 (2007-03-01), pages 290 - 291, XP006028237, ISSN: 0013-5194, DOI: 10.1049/EL:20073503
C. L. RUTHROFF: "Some Broad-Band Transformers", PROCEEDINGS OF THE IREAUGUST, 1959
ANDREI GREBENNIKOV: "High Frequency Electronics", December 2007, SUMMIT TECHNICAL MEDIA, LLC., article "Power Combiners, Impedance Transformers and Directional Couplers"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MOFFORD, Donald, F. et al. (Daly, Crowley Mofford & Durkee, LLP,354A Turnpike St., Suite 301, Canton Massachusetts, 02021, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A transmission line transformer, comprising:

a time delay network having a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays;

a transmission line section comprising a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements, a first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines having a first end connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network, a second one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the transmission lines having a second end connected to a second end of the first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines.

2. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 1 wherein a second end of the first electrically coupled element of said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to an output of the transmission line transformer.

3. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 2 wherein one end of the second electrically coupled element in said second one of the pair of transmission lines is connected to a reference terminal of the transmission line transformer.

4. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 3 wherein a first end of the second electrically coupled element in said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal.

5. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 4 wherein a first end of the second electrically coupled element in said first one of the transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal.

6. A transmission line transformer, comprising:

a time delay network having: an first input terminal connected to a signal terminal; a second input terminal connected to a reference terminal; and a pair of output terminals, each one of the pair of output terminals being connected to the input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays;

a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements;

wherein a first one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the pair of the transmission lines has a first end connected to a first one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay line network and a second end coupled to a first one of the output terminals of the transmission line transformer;

wherein a second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has a first end connected to the reference terminal and a second end connected to a second end of a first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines; and

wherein the first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines is coupled to a second one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network.

7. A transmission line transformer, comprising:

a time delay network having a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays;

a transmission line section comprising a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having:

a pair of electrically coupled elements, each one of the pair of electrically coupled elements having an input end and an output end;

wherein:

a first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines has the input end thereof connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the network; the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to a first output terminal of the transmission line section; a second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to the output end of the first electrically coupled element of a second one of the pair of transmission lines; and

the output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the transmission lines is connected to a second output terminal of the transmission line section; and wherein the time delay element of each one of the pair of time delay provides a predetermined time delay selected to produce:

a voltage between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines and output end of the second one of the pair of transmission lines equal to, and in phase with, a voltage produced between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one pair of transmission lines and the output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines.

8. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 7 wherein the network includes a pair of amplifiers, each one of the pair of amplifiers being serially connected to a corresponding one of the pair of time delay elements.

9. The transmission line transformer recited in claim 7 wherein each one of the each one of the transmission lines is a coaxial transmission line having a center conductor and an outer conductor, and; including a dielectric structure having a upper portion disposed above a lower portion, with an electrical connector on the upper portion and an electrical connector on the lower portion electrically interconnected with an electrically conductive via passing though the upper portion, and wherein the electrical connector on the upper portion is electrically connected to the center conductor of one coaxial transmission line and the electrical connector on the lower portion is electrically connected to the outer conductor of another coaxial transmission line.

Description:
TRANSMISSION LINE TRANSFORMERS

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This disclosure relates generally to transmission line transformers and more particularly to transmission line transformers for impedance transformation and balun applications.

BACKGROUND

[0002] As is known in the art, in many applications it is desired to transform an output impedance from an impedance, Zo to different impedance KZo, where K is an integer greater than 1. One device used to perform this impedance transformation is an impedance transformer. One type of impedance transformer uses concepts described in U. S. Patent No. 2,700,129, inventor G. GUANELLA issued Jan. 18, 1955; sometimes referred to an a Guanella transformer. Another type of impedance transformer i s a Ruthroff transformer; see a p aper entitl ed " Some Broad-B and

Transformers" by C . L. RUTHROFF, Proceedings of the IRE August 1959. The basic building block of the Guanella transformer, shown in FIG. 1 A, includes: a pair of transmission lines, TLi, TL2 each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements, Ci, C2 here shown schematically as a pair of mutual inductively coupled coils, Ci, C 2 . A first one of the coupled elements Ci in a first one of the pair of the transmission lines TLi has a first end Ei connected to an input terminal (IT) of the transformer and a second end E2 coupled to a first output terminal (OT1) of the transformer. A second one of the coupled elements C2 in the first one of the pair of transmission lines TLi has a first end Ei connected to a reference terminal (RT), here system ground, and a second end E2 connected to a second end E2 of a first one of the pair of coupled elements Ci in a second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2. The first one of the pair of coupled elements Ci in the second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 has the first end Ei connected to the input terminal (IT). The second one of the elements C2 of the second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 has a first end Ei connected to the reference terminal RT and a second end E2 connected to a second output terminal OT2, which may be ground potential. Ideally, voltages are applied between the coupled elements Ci, C2 in each transmission line TLi, TL2, and the transmission lines TLi, TL2 are interconnected together as shown to transform the input impedance Zo at the input of the transformer to an output impedance 4Zo. It is noted that at high frequency

applications, such as in microwave frequency applications, the transmission line TLi and TL2 may be coaxial transmission lines, as shown in FIG. IB. Here, the coupling elements Ci, and C2 are the inner and outer conductors Ci and C 2 , respectively, of the coaxial transmission line. Here the input, or first ends Ei of the inner conductors Ci are connected to the input terminal IT and the input, or first, ends Ei of the outer conductors C2 are connected to the reference terminal RT. The output, or second end E2 of the inner conductor Ci of transmission line TLi is connected to the first output terminal OT1 and the second end E2 of the outer conductor C2 of the second transmission line TL2 is connected to the second output terminal OT2. The second end E2 of the outer conductor C2 of the first transmission line TLi is connected to the inner conductor Ci of the second transmission line TL2, as shown. It is also noted that the basic building block can be used to form other networks such as baluns.

[0003] This basic building block can be multiplied and arranged to provide higher impedance transformers. For example, a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer providing a 25Zo impedance transformation (where Zo is the input impedance of the transformer) is shown in FIG. 1C. Here, the Guanella impedance transformer is fed by an amplifier having an output impedance Zo. The output of the amplifier is fed to a 5: 1 power divider or splitter having here, in this example, five output coupled to the inputs of five transmission lines, TL1-TL5, respectively, here represented as a pair of mutually inductively coupled coils, Ci, C 2 . More particularly, the upper one of coils, Ci, in each one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 has an input, or first, end Ei connected to the output of the amplifier and the lower one of the coils, C 2 , in each one of the transmission lines TLi- TL5 has an input, or first, end Ei connected to system ground. The output, or second, end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TLi is connected to an output end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission lines, here transmission line TL2; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL2 is connected to an output end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of transmission line, here transmission line TL3; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL3 is connected to an output end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission line, here transmission line TL4; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL4 is connected to an output end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission lines, here transmission line TL5. The second output end E2 of the upper coil Ci of transmission line TLi provides an output terminal of the Guanella impedance transformer and the second output end E2 of the lower coil C2 of transmission line TL5 is connected to system ground, as shown. The five outputs of the power divider are in-phase with each other; that is, they have the same electrical length or time delay from the output of the amplifier to the first end El of each the upper one of coils, Ci, in each one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5. With such an arrangement, the voltage produced across the outputs ends E2 of coils Ci, C2 of each of the transmission lines, TL1-TL5 will be V1-V5, respectively, as indicated. See also, for example : U. S. Patent No. 7,495,525, issued February 24, 2002, Ilkov et al ; U. S. Patent No. 6,756,874, Buckles et al., issued June 29, 2004 and, Power Combiners,

Impedance Transformers and Directional Couplers by Andrei Grebennikov, December 2007 High Frequency Electronics Copyright © 2007 Summit Technical Media, LLC.

[0004] Further, by properly adjusting, or minimizing, the time delays (TD1-TD5) of the connections (in effect the length of the connectors) between the second ends E2 of one of the transmission lines to second end E2 of the next one of the transmission lines,

VIN=VI=V2=V3=V4=V5 and thus, the output voltage of the transformer is 5*VIN. The current IIN is split equally among the ends Ei of coils Ci of TLi thru TL5 such that each current II=I2=I3=I4=I5=IOUT=IIN/5. AS a result, the output impedance of the amplifier, will be transformed by the Guanella impedance transformer to output impedance ZO,OUT=VOUT/IOUT=(5*VIN)/(IIN/5)=25ZO,IN. In many high frequency applications, such as in microwave applications, the transmission lines are coaxial transmission lines, as shown in FIG. ID. FIG. ID shows a coaxial transmission line implantation of the 5 : 1 Guanella impedance transformer shown in FIG. 1 C. In order to improve performance, primarily bandwidth, the coaxial transmission lines are enclosed in a ferrite core, not shown. The real world implementation of the transformer is impaired by certain real-world features in its layout; namely the above-mentioned time delays developed in the lines connecting the transmission line sections to one another.

SUMMARY

[0005] In accordance with the disclosure, a transmission line transformer is provided having a time delay network. The time delay network includes a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, each one of the time delay elements having a different time delay. The transmission line transformer includes a transmission line section having a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements. A first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines has a first end connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network. A second one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the transmission lines has a second end connected to a second end of the first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines.

[0006] In one embodiment, a second end of the first electrically coupled element of said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to an output of the transmission line transformer. [0007] In one embodiment, one end of the second electrically coupled element in said second one of the pair of transmission lines is connected to a reference terminal of the transmission line transformer.

[0008] In one embodiment, a first end of the second electrically coupled element in said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal.

[0009] In one embodiment, a first end of the second element in said second one of the transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal. [0010] In one embodiment, a transmission line transformer is provided having: a time delay network having: a first input terminal connected to a signal terminal; a second input terminal connected to a reference terminal; and a pair of output terminals, each one of the pair of output terminals being connected to the input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, each one of the time delay elements having a different time delay; a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements. A first one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the pair of the transmission lines has a first end connected to a first one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay line network and a second end coupled to a first one of the output terminals of the transmission line transformer. A second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has a first end connected to the reference terminal and a second end connected to a second end of a first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines. The first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines is coupled to a second one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network. [001 1] In one embodiment, a transmission line transformer is provided having: a time delay network having a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, each one of the time delay elements having a different time delay; and a transmission line section comprising a pair of transmission lines. Each one of the transmission lines includes a pair of electrically coupled elements, each one of the pair of electrically coupled elements having an input end and an output end. A first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines has the input end thereof connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the network. The first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to a first output terminal of the transmission line section. A second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to the output end of the first electrically coupled element of a second one of the pair of transmission lines. The output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the transmission lines is connected to a second output terminal of the transmission line section. The time delay element of each one of the pair of time delay provides a different predetermined time delay selected to produce a voltage between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines and output end of the second one of the pair of transmission lines equal to, and in phase with, a voltage produced between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one pair of transmission lines and the output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines.

[0012] In one embodiment, the network includes a pair of amplifiers, each one of the pair of amplifiers being serially connected to a corresponding one of the pair of time delay elements. [0013] With such an arrangement, time delays are independently selected rather than distributing the input signal through equal delays to the transmission lines from a single port. Thus, to compensate the time delays in interconnecting the transmission lines on the output of the transmission line transformer, the transmission line transformer input side is driven through an independently selectable compensating time delay. More particularly, the inventors have recognized that with such an arrangement, time delays between interconnected transmission lines need not be minimized; but rather may be compensated for by the time delay network preceding the transmission line section. For example, during a calibration/testing or simulation procedure, after construction of the transmission line section with the outputs of the transmission lines thereof electrically interconnected one to the other, the requisite time delay from the first end of first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines to the outputs of the transmission line section is determined. Once determined, the time delay network is constructed with predetermined time delays selected in accordance with the time delay determined during the calibration/testing or simulation procedure.

[0014] The details of one or more embodiments of the disclosure are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the disclosure will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0015] FIG. 1 A is a schematic diagram of a building block used in a transmission line transformer, according to the PRIOR ART; [0016] FIG. IB is a schematic diagram of a building block used in a transmission line transformer with coaxial transmission lines, according to the PRIOR ART;

[0017] FIG. 1C is a schematic diagram of a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer using the building block of FIG. 1A, according to the PRIOR ART;

[0018] FIG. ID is a schematic diagram of a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer using the building block of FIG. IB;

[0019] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a building block used in a transmission line transformer, according to the disclosure;

[0020] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer using the building block of FIG. 2, according to the disclosure; [0021] FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer using the building block of FIG. 2 implemented with coaxial transmission lines, according to the disclosure; [0022] FIG. 5 is a diagrammatical plane view of the 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer of FIG. 4, according to the disclosure;

[0023] FIG. 6 is a diagrammatical plane view of a transmission line section used in the 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer of FIG. 5 according to the disclosure;

[0024] FIG. 6A is a cross sectional sketch of an enlarged portion of the transmission line section of FIG. 6, such enlarged portion being indicated by a circled region labeled 6A- 6A in FIG. 6 according to the disclosure; and [0025] FIGS. 6B is a plan view of an enlarged portion of the transmission line section of FIG. 6, such enlarged portion being indicated by a circled region labeled 6B-6B in FIG. 6 according to the disclosure;

[0026] FIGS. 6C-6E are cross-sectional views of enlarged portions of the transmission line section of FIG. 6, such cross sections being taken along lines 6C-6C, 6D-6D and 6E-6E, respectively in FIG. 6; and

[0027] FIG. 7 is an isometric sketch of the transmission line section of FIG. 6 according to the disclosure.

[0028] Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0029] Referring now to FIG. 2, a transmission line transformer 10 is shown having: a time delay network 12 connected to an input terminal 14. The time delay network 12 includes: a signal terminal 16 connected to the input terminal 14; a reference terminal 18, here system ground; and a pair of output terminals 22i, 222, each one of the pair of output terminals 22i, 222 being connected to the input terminal 16 through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements TDi, TD2, as shown. Each one of a pair of amplifiers AMPi, AMP2, is connected to a corresponding one of the pair of time delay elements TDi, TD2, as shown.

[0030] The transmission line transformer 10 includes a transmission line section 23 having a pair of input ports 251, 252 connected to the outputs of the pair of amplifiers AMPi, AMP2, respectively, as shown. The transmission line section 23 includes a pair of transmission lines, TLi, TL2 each one of the transmission lines TLi, TL2 having a pair of electrically coupled elements Ci, C 2 , here shown as a pair of mutually coupled coils. A first one of the elements Ci in a first one of the pair of the transmission lines, here transmission line TLi has a first end Ei connected to a first one of the pair of output terminals 22i, 222, here output terminal 221 of the time delay line network 12 through amplifier AMPi and a second end E2 coupled to output terminal 28 of the transmission line transformer 10. A second one of the elements C2 in the first one of the pair of

transmission lines TLi has a first end Ei connected to the reference terminal and a second end E2 connected to a second end E2 of a first one of the pair of elements Ci in a second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 through a connector 32, as shown. The first one of the pair of elements Ci in the second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 is coupled to the one of the pair of output terminals 22i, 222, here output terminal 222 of the time delay network 12 through amplifier AMP2, as shown. A second end E2 of the second element C2 of second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 is connected to output 30 of the transmission line transformer 10, here to system ground. A first end Ei of the second element C2 in the second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 is also connected to system ground, as indicated. A first end Ei of the second element C2 the second one of the pair of transmission lines TL2 is connected to the system ground, as shown. The delay lines TDI and TD2 are selected so that the voltage Vi across the first transmission line TLi is equal to, and in phase with the voltage V2 across the second transmission line TL2. In that way, the output voltage across the output terminals 28, 30 equals V1+V2 ; where Vi=V 2 . As a result, the input impedance Zo of the transmission line transformer 10 across terminals 25, 18 will be transformed to an output impedance 4Zo across output terminals 28, 30.

[0031] Referring now to FIG. 3, a transmission line transformer 10' is shown here arranged as a 5: 1 Guanella impedance transformer. The transmission line transformer 10' includes a time delay network 12'. The time delay network 12' includes: an first input terminal 14 connected to a signal terminal 16; a second input terminal 18 connected to a reference potential, here system ground; a plurality of N, where N is an integer greater than 1, here N=5 of time delay elements TD1-TD5; a plurality of N output terminals 22ι-, 225, respectively, each one of the five output terminals 22ι-, 22s being connected to the input terminal 16 through a corresponding one of the five time delay elements TD1-TD5, respectively, as shown. The output terminals 22ι-, 22s are connected to a corresponding one of five amplifiers AMP1-AMP5, respectively, as shown. The outputs of the amplifiers output terminals 25ι-, 25s are connected to a corresponding one of five amplifiers AMPi are connected to a transmission line section 23', here including five transmission lines, TL1-TL5 each one of the transmission lines TLi -TL5 having a pair of electrically coupled elements Ci, C 2 , here shown as a pair of mutually coupled coils. More particularly, the upper one of coils, Ci, in each one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 has a first, or input, end Ei connected to one of the output of the amplifier and the lower one of the coils, C 2 , in each one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 has a first end Ei connected to system ground. The second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TLi is connected to a second end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission lines, here transmission line TL2 through a connector 32i; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL2 is connected to a second end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of transmission line, here transmission line TL3 through a connector 322; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL3 is connected to a second end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission line, here transmission line TL4 through a connector 323; the second end, E 2 , of the lower coil, C2 in transmission line TL4 is connected to a second end E2 of the upper coil Ci in the next one of the transmission lines, here transmission line TL4 through a connector 324. The second end E2 of the upper coil Ci of transmission line TLi provides an output terminal of the Guanella impedance transformer and the second end E2 of the lower coil C2 of transmission line TL5 is connected to output terminal 30, here at system ground, as shown. With such an arrangement, the voltage produced across the output terminals of each of the transmission lines, TL1-TL5 will be V1-V5, respectively, as indicated. The delay lines TD1-TD5 are selected so that the voltage Vi across the first one of the transmission lines TLi is equal to, and in phase with the voltage V2 across the second one of the transmission line TL2; the voltage V3 across the third transmission line TL3 is equal to, and in phase with the voltage V2 across the second transmission lines TL2; the voltage V4 across the fourth transmission lines TL4 is equal to, and in phase with the voltage V3 across the third transmission lines TL3; the voltage V5 across the fifth transmission lines TL5 is equal to, and in phase with the voltage V4 across the fourth transmission lines TL4. In that way, the output voltage across the output terminals 28, 30 will equal V1+V2+V3+V4+V5; where Vi=V2= and the input impedance Zo of the transmission line transformer 10' across terminals 16, 18 will be transformed to an output impedance 25Zo across output terminals 28, 30. [0032] Referring to FIG. 4, here the transmission line transformer 10' of FIG. 3 is shown implemented with coaxial transmission line TL1-TL5. It is noted that the time delay elements TD1-TD5, may be placed either before or after the amplifiers AMP1-AMP5, respectively as indicated. A more detailed description of the transmission line transformer 10' of FIG. 5 is shown. Thus, as shown, the time delay network 12' is here a microstrip transmission line circuit having a dielectric board 30 having a ground plane conductor, not shown, on the bottom of the board 30 with a plurality of, here five strip conductors of different lengths to on the top of the board 30 to provide the five time delay elements TD1-TD5. The outputs of the five time delay elements TD1-TD5 are coupled to a corresponding one of the five amplifiers AMP1-AMP5, as shown. Here, each one of the five amplifiers AMP1-AMP5, is formed as a separate monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). That is, here each one of the five amplifiers AMP1-AMP5, is formed on a separate integrated circuit chip.

[0033] One method which may be used to determine the time delays TD1-TD5 is as follows: During a calibration/testing or simulation procedure, after construction of the transmission line section 23' with the outputs of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 electrically interconnected one to the other as shown and as described above, the requisite time delay from the first end El of first one of the electrically coupled elements CI in each one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 to the output 28 of the transmission line section 23' is determined. Once determined, the time delay network 30 is constructed with the time delays TD1-TD5 having a proper physical length such that the time delays produce predetermined time delays determined during the calibration/testing procedure. It is noted that time delays TD1-TD5 here, in this example, have different electrical lengths;

however, the electrical lengths from the input port 14 to the first ends El of the first elements CI of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 are proper to produce the proper output voltage across the output terminals 28, 30; that is V1+V2+V3+V4+V5; where Vi=V2=

as shown in FIG. 3. The outputs of the five amplifiers AMP1-AMP5 are fed to the transmission line section 23'. The transmission line section 23', shown in more detail in FIGS. 6 and 6A, includes a pair of microstrip transmission line sections 34, 36.

Microstrip transmission line section 34 includes a dielectric board 38 having a ground plane conductor, not shown, on the bottom of the board 38, a plurality strip conductors on the top of the board 38 to provide the input ports 251- 25s, and a conductor 39 which is connected to a ground plane conductor 54 which extends from the bottom of the board 38. Microstrip transmission line section 36 includes a dielectric board 40 having a ground plane conductor, not shown, on the bottom of the board 40 with two strip conductor layers, one on the top of the board 40 and one embedded in board 40. The top layer provides output port 28.

[0034] Disposed between the pair of microstrip transmission line sections 34, 36 are the transmission lines TL1-TL5, here each one being a coaxial transmission line having a pair of coupling elements. Ci, C 2 , element Ci being the inner conductor of the coaxial transmission line and element C2 being the outer conductor of the coaxial transmission line. Each one of the first ends Ei of the elements Ci is connected to a corresponding one of the input ports 251- 25s, and each one of the first ends Ei of the elements C2 is connect to the conductor 39. It is noted that the conductor 39 is electrically isolated from the input ports 251- 255 by the dielectric board 38, as shown more clearly in FIGS. 6 and 6A, where FIG. 6A shows an exemplary one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5, here transmission line TL5. The second end E2 of coupling elements Ci of transmission line TLi is connected to output port 28, as shown. The second end E2 of coupling elements C2 of transmission line TLi is connected to the second end E2 of coupling element Ci of transmission line TL2 by a conductor 32i disposed on the dielectric board 40. The second end E2 of coupling elements C2 of transmission line TL2 is connected to the second end E2 of coupling element Ci of transmission line TL3 by a conductor 322 disposed on the dielectric board 40. The second end E2 of coupling elements C2 of transmission line TL3 is connected to the second end E2 of coupling element Ci of transmission line TL4 by a conductor 323 disposed on the dielectric board 40. The second end E2 of coupling elements C2 of transmission line TL4 is connected to the second end E2 of coupling element Ci of transmission line TL5 by a conductor 324 disposed on the dielectric board 40. The second end E2 of coupling elements C2 of transmission line TL5 is connected to a conductor 41 on the top of dielectric 40; the conductor 41 being electrically isolated from output port 28, and the conductors 32i-324 by portions of the dielectric board 40. Conductors 39 and 41 are both connected to system ground. Here, the transmission lines TLi and TL2 are disposed within a hollow ferrite core 50i and transmission lines TL3 and TL4 are disposed within a hollow ferrite core 502, as shown. [0035] FIG. 6 A shows the first end El of the coupling elements Ci and C2 of an exemplary one of the transmission lines TL1-TL5, here transmission line TL5. The first end El of coupling element Ci, here the center conductor of the coaxial conductor of transmission line TL5 is connected input port 25s of the transmission line section 23' and the first end El of the coupling element C 2 , here the outer conductor of the coaxial conductor of TL5 is connected to conductor 54 on dielectrics board 38. It is noted that the center conductor, coupling element CI is physically separated by a dielectric 51 from the coupling element C2; however at microwave frequencies the center conductor coupling element Ci and outer conductor coupling element C2 are electrically coupled by the electric field of the microwave energy passing through the coaxial transmission line. It is noted that the conductor 39 is electrically isolated from the port 25s by region 52. It is also noted that the ground plane conductor on the bottom of dielectric 38, mention above, is here shown as conductor 54 and is connected to conductor 39. [0036] More details of the connections of the center conductor coupling elements C I to the outer conductor coupling element C2 of the transmission lines TL1-TL5 are shown in FIGS. 6B through 6E. It is first noted that because the center conductor coupling elements CI and the outer conductor coupling element C2 are at two different elevations; the a dielectric board 40 is constructed has an upper portion 40U and a lower portion 40L as indicated in FIG. 6B and that the connectors 32i-324 each has two sections 32a, 32b; section 32a being on top of board 40U and section 32b being on board 40L, the two sections 32a and 32b being electrically connected by conductive vias 32c, as shown more clearly in FIG. 6E. Thus, sections 32a are connected to the center conductor coupling elements C I ; sections 32b are connected to the outer conductor coupling element C2 and the two are electrically connected by the conductive vias 32c. Also the outer conductor coupling element C2 of transmission line TL5 is connected to the ground plane conductor 54 through a conductor 60 and conductive vias 62, as shown in FIG. 6D.

[0037] FIG. 7 is an isometric view of the transmission line transformer 10.

[0038] It should now be appreciated a transmission line transformer according to the disclosure includes: a time delay network having a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays; a transmission line section comprising a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements, a first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines having a first end connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network, a second one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the transmission lines having a second end connected to a second end of the first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines. The transmission line transformer may include one or more of the following features independently of in combination with another feature to include:

wherein a second end of the first electrically coupled element of said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to an output of the transmission line transformer; wherein one end of the second electrically coupled element in said second one of the pair of transmission lines is connected to a reference terminal of the transmission line

transformer; wherein a first end of the second electrically coupled element in said first of the pair of transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal; wherein a first end of the second electrically coupled element in said first one of the transmission lines is connected to the reference terminal.

[0039] It should now also be appreciated a transmission line transformer according to the disclosure includes: a time delay network having: an first input terminal connected to a signal terminal, a second input terminal connected to a reference terminal, and a pair of output terminals, each one of the pair of output terminals being connected to the input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays; a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having a pair of electrically coupled elements; wherein a first one of the electrically coupled elements in a first one of the pair of the transmission lines has a first end connected to a first one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay line network and a second end coupled to a first one of the output terminals of the transmission line transformer; wherein a second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has a first end connected to the reference terminal and a second end connected to a second end of a first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in a second one of the pair of transmission lines; and wherein the first one of the pair of electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines is coupled to a second one of the pair of output terminals of the time delay network.

[0040] It should now also be appreciated a transmission line transformer according to the disclosure includes: a time delay network having a pair of output terminals connected to an input terminal through a corresponding one of a pair of time delay elements, the delay line elements having different time delays; a transmission line section comprising a pair of transmission lines, each one of the transmission lines having: a pair of electrically coupled elements, each one of the pair of electrically coupled elements having an input end and an output end; wherein: a first one of the electrically coupled elements in each one of the pair of transmission lines has the input end thereof connected to a corresponding one of the pair of output terminals of the network; the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to a first output terminal of the transmission line section; a second one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the transmission lines has the output end thereof connected to the output end of the first electrically coupled element of a second one of the pair of transmission lines; and the output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the transmission lines is connected to a second output terminal of the transmission line section; and wherein the time delay element of each one of the pair of time delay provides a predetermined time delay selected to produce: a voltage between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the first one of the pair of transmission lines and output end of the second one of the pair of transmission lines equal to, and in phase with, a voltage produced between the output end of the first one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one pair of transmission lines and the output end of the second one of the electrically coupled elements in the second one of the pair of transmission lines. The transmission line transformer may also include one or more of the following features independently of in combination with another feature to include: wherein the network includes a pair of amplifiers, each one of the pair of amplifiers being serially connected to a corresponding one of the pair of time delay elements; wherein each one of the each one of the transmission lines is a coaxial transmission line having a center conductor and an outer conductor, and including a dielectric structure having a upper portion disposed above a lower portion, with an electrical connector on the upper portion and an electrical connector on the lower portion electrically interconnected with an electrically conductive via passing though the upper portion, and wherein the electrical connector on the upper portion is electrically connected to the center conductor of one coaxial transmission line and the electrical connector on the lower portion is electrically connected to the outer conductor of another coaxial transmission line. [0041] Anumber of embodiments of the disclosure have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. For example, in some applications, the ferrite cores need not be required. Further, the number of transmission line sections may be greater or less than 5. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.