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Title:
TREATMENT OF COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/061263
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An improved fuel efficiency apparatus (1) that is adapted to be installed in the fuel line to an internal combustion engine is provided. The apparatus has a fuel chamber (7) and a vacuum chamber. The fuel chamber (7) has a rare earth magnet that imparts a magnet field of strength at least 0.4 Tesla on the fuel. The combination of ionised air from ion generator (5) and fuel exposed to a strong magnetic field leads to high fuel efficiencies and lower emissions.

Inventors:
Gardner, Anthony (74 Flinders Street East Maitland, New South Wales 2323, AU)
Application Number:
PCT/AU2002/000100
Publication Date:
August 08, 2002
Filing Date:
February 01, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
STAR SHINE TECHNOLOGY LIMITED (29th Floor Wing on Centre 111 Connaught Road Central Hong Kong, CN)
Gardner, Anthony (74 Flinders Street East Maitland, New South Wales 2323, AU)
International Classes:
F02B51/04; F02M27/04; F02B3/06; (IPC1-7): F02M27/04; F02B51/04
Foreign References:
EP0056570A1
US3893437A
CH580754A5
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Freehills, Carter Smith Beadle (Level 43 101 Collins Street Melbourne, Victoria 3000, AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims
1. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus adapted to be installed in the fuel line to an internal combustion engine, the fuel efficiency apparatus comprising a fuel chamber, a vacuum chamber, a means to induce a magnetic field in the fuel in the fuel chamber before it flows into a carburettor or fuel injection system of the internal combustion engine and wherein the fuel efficiency apparatus further comprises a means in the vacuum chamber to provide ionised air to the combustion chamber of the internal combustion chamber.
2. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein the means to induce the magnetic field is a rare earth magnetic.
3. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus as defined in claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the fuel is exposed to a magnetic field of strength at least 0.2 Tesla.
4. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus as defined in claim 3 wherein the fuel is exposed to a magnetic field of strength at least 0.4 Tesla.
5. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus as defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the means to provide ionised air is an ioniser that operates by applying a high voltage to pointed electrodes.
6. An improved fuel efficiency apparatus as defined in any one of claims 1 to 5 wherein the improved fuel efficiency apparatus includes a means to accelerate the flow rate of the fuel.
7. A fuel modification apparatus comprising a housing having a fuel inlet fitting and a fuel outlet fitting and a tubular connection between the inlet and outlet wherein the tube connection is configured internally to provide acceleration of the fuel flow and wherein a magnetic field is generated within the housing, and wherein the apparatus further comprises an air ionising chamber.
Description:
TREATMENT OF COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS Field of the Invention This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for treating combustible liquids used as fuel for internal combustion engines.

Background of the Invention Internal combustion engines are extensively used, particularly for powering automobiles. However, the environmental impact of automobile use has been significant and wide ranging. In contrast to trends with other air emissions, greenhouse gas and other emissions from the transport sector, particularly automobiles, continue to rise. This is primarily because travel growth has outpaced improvements in vehicle energy efficiency and emission controls.

Emission data show that motor vehicles are the largest source of man-made pollutant emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector are also the fastest growing emissions of any sector.

Internal combustion motor vehicle engines emit many types of pollutants.

These include nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulates, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, in the case of leaded fuels, lead. Collectively, vehicles represent a major source of air pollution.

The types and levels of emissions are related to the engine characteristics, particularly the fuel type and the temperature of combustion. If the engine is 100% efficient, then the products of combustion will be carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The impact of vehicle emissions on the environment include acid deposition as acid rain, human health effects, global climate change and noise pollution.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that is produced naturally through respiration, decay of plant and animal matter and natural forest fires. Man made sources of CO2 include fossil fuel combustion.

The optimum method to reduce the threat of global warming is to use less fuel, and consequently governments are promoting better fuel efficiency.

Fuel saving apparatus have been previously proposed where combustible fuel passes near a magnetic field. An example of such an apparatus is disclosed in EP

0791 746 Al. This apparatus uses an iron permanent magnet. Australian Patent 657434 discloses a field activation apparatus that imparts a rotation of the fuel as it passes through a magnetic field. An apparatus that achieves a similar fuel rotation within a magnetic field is disclosed in EP 0073077. Apparatus that results in an increased rate of fuel flow in a magnetic field are disclosed in Derwent Abstract 97- 539315/50 and AU-A-54239/95. Derwent Abstract 2000-449888/39 discloses apparatus whereby air is subjected to a magnetic field before being introduced into the combustion chamber of an engine. While these fuel saving apparatus have promised fuel savings and reduced emissions, these devices have not been accepted as producing economic improvements.

Magnets or more particularly permanent magnets have been available for many years. However, rare earth magnets such as Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) and Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) magnets have only become available in relatively recent times. Rare earth permanent magnets are believed to be composed of small regions or domains each of which exhibit a net magnetic moment. An un- magnetised magnet will possess domains that are randomly oriented with respect to each other, providing a net magnetic moment. Thus a magnet when de-magnetised is only de-magnetised from the observer's point of view. Magnetising fields serve to align randomly oriented domains to give a net, externally observable field.

It would be desirable to increase the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines as well as reducing the normal pollutants associated with these engines.

Summary of the Invention This invention provides in one form an improved fuel efficiency apparatus adapted to be installed in the fuel line to an internal combustion engine, the fuel efficiency apparatus comprising a fuel chamber, a vacuum chamber, a means to induce a magnetic field in the fuel in the fuel chamber before it flows into a carburettor or fuel injection system of the internal combustion engine and wherein the fuel efficiency apparatus further comprises a means in the vacuum chamber to provide ionised air to the combustion chamber of the internal combustion chamber.

Preferably the means to induce the magnetic field is a rare earth magnetic.

Preferably the fuel is exposed to a magnetic field of strength at least 0.2

Tesla, more preferably at least 0.4 Tesla.

Preferably the means to provide ionised air is an ioniser that operates by applying a high voltage to pointed electrodes.

Preferably the improved fuel efficiency apparatus includes a means to accelerate the flow rate of the fuel.

In a further form the invention provides a fuel modification apparatus comprising a housing having a fuel inlet fitting and a fuel outlet fitting and a tubular connection between the inlet and outlet wherein the tube connection is configured internally to provide acceleration of the fuel flow and wherein a magnetic field is generated within the housing, and wherein the apparatus further comprises an air ionising chamber.

Preferably the tubular connection is arranged centrally relative to the magnetic field.

Preferably the tube has an internally rifled surface and/or a region of reduced diameter.

Preferably the magnetic field is generated by the use of a rare earth magnet.

Preferably the apparatus further includes an aeration system.

Preferably the aeration system includes a negative ion generator.

The invention provides in a preferred aspect a process of magnetising a high grade form of NdFeB and SmCo to the point of saturation and then slightly de- magnetising the magnet in a controlled manner ensuring that domains with the least commitment to orientation will be the first to lose their orientation, thereby leading to a more stabilised magnet. This will also result in the magnetic material being isotropic. It can be magnetised through any direction with very little or no loss of magnetic properties.

The magnetic material may be made using NdFeB and/or SmCo in powder form. The powder is then pulverised to very small micron sized particles. The particles are preferably sub micron. This micronised powder is then added to a film forming resin and made thinly enough to apply as a coating to a substrate. The film forming resin may be an alkyd resin, an epoxy resin or an acrylic latex or other suitable binders known in the art. A ceramic powder coating could then be applied

to the outside surface to withstand higher temperatures. Once the substrate is in place, it can be formed to the desired shape.

Detailed Description of the Invention The fuel efficiency apparatus of the present invention increases the fuel efficiency and reduces noxious emissions by modifying the air stream and fuel stream before combustion. Injecting ionised air, and ozone and/or singularly, into the air modifies the air stream. It is believed this increases the energy in the spark, and the amount of oxygen available for combustion. Ozone is also more reactive than normal oxygen molecules, helping reduce the generation of NOX including NO, NO2 and hexane gases, as well as CO. The fuel stream is modified by passing the fuel through a strong magnetic field which modifies the fuel molecules, leading to a greater calorific output per litre, thereby increasing the fuel efficiency.

It is believed the apparatus works on the principle of magneto-hydrodynamic technology and negative ion air-stream injection, which is the effect of magnetic fields on fluids in motion as well as the ions to ignite and burn combustible fluids more rapidly and more effectively. The is placed on the inbound fuel line near the combustion chamber so that the strong magnetic field penetrates the fuel line perpendicular to the flow of the fuel. This abrupt magnetic field, energising and dispersing the hydrocarbon molecules in the fuel just before it is burned, enables more of hydrocarbon molecules to combine with oxygen, which yields more complete combustion of the fuel. The flowing fuel molecules then collide with extra and/or charged air stream to produce a much stronger combustion chamber explosion of the fuel. The result is more power from the same amount of fuel and fewer un-burned fuel molecules leaving the engine as exhaust. This means better fuel mileage, a cleaner engine, more power, and reduced pollution emissions; overall, significantly better engine performance.

The apparatus housing is designed around a CNC machined case to house the magnet stack and fuel chamber, ionising generator, and vacuum chamber. The vacuum chamber can be manufactured from acetyl plastic, to ensure the maximum quantity of ionised air reaches the combustion chamber. The enclosure for the magnet stack and ionising source may be made of alternative materials. A single

aluminium lid with a gasket of very low carbon content seals all of the chambers as one piece during assembly. This allows the apparatus to be manufactured as a one- piece assembly, potted at the same time as the negative ion generator. Potting all of the parts in one operation reduces the manufacturing steps required, and the potting compound forms the external case. This is a common method of manufacture for automotive electronic assemblies such as electronic ignition. One step potting of all of the components is a cost effective way of providing vibration protection and protection from solvents and grease, as well as ensuring a seal for the vacuum and fuel chambers.

The magnetic circuit of the fuel stream is designed to increase the average magnetic field strength, and reduce the volume (and hence the cost) of magnet material used. To quantitatively compare the differing designs the measure of effectiveness used, was the RMS (root of the mean of the square) of the magnitude of the flux density B. This gives a direct measure of the average strength of the magnetic field in the fuel volume. The RMS value is calculated from the energy stored in the air, as given by the FEM analysis.

The ioniser design operates by applying a high voltage to sharp electrodes (pins), the small radius at the tip of the pins creates field strength high enough to strip electrons from the air molecules (ionisation field strength), leaving them electrically charged. Since the high field is at the tip of the pins, there is not enough ionisation to create a complete breakdown between the electrode and earth. This effect is known as coronal discharge.

The quantity of ions produced is dependent on the atmospheric conditions such as pressure, and in particular, the humidity of the air.

The ion generator also leads to the production of ozone (03), which is created when oxygen passes through an ionising electric field, and the ionised oxygen molecules recombine. Ozone is a more reactive oxygen molecule than the common form of 02. It is also important to note that ozone is electrically neutral and overall contribution to the improvements in combustion from each of two the products of the ionised air.

The high voltage applied to the electrodes is currently generated by an oscillator, which feeds a transformer and voltage multiplier.

It is believed the combination between the ionising chamber and the magnetic treatment of the fuel produces the surprising improved fuel and emissions efficiencies.

The invention will be further described by reference to preferred embodiments described in the Figure.

Referring to Figure 1, the fuel efficiency device 1, has a cylindrical (200 mm x 75 mm diameter) housing 2, an inlet fitting 3 and outlet fitting 4. Located near the inlet fitting 3 within the housing 2 is a negative ion generator 5 and an air pump 6. The negative ion generator 5 has an air inlet 13 and outlet 14.

In operation, the fuel enters via the inlet fitting 3 and flows through a series of acceleration tubes 7 that accelerate the rate of flow of the fuel and lead to rapid fuel flow. The series of tubes is located centrally. The series of tubes acceleration 7 have internal diameter of 10 mm and length of 180 mm. They are connected by caps 13. As well as or instead of rifling a narrowing of the tube may be used to create a venturi type effect. Typically at this point the diameter of the tube can be halved. This also causes the fuel to accelerate. Rifling is preferably located after the venturi. The walls of the housing 2 are coated with a rare earth magnet such as NdFeB or SmCo. This is applied in the form of a micronised magnetic particle within an alkyd binder. The magnetic field has its North Pole towards the inlet 3 and south pole towards the outlet 4.. Rifling 11 is shown in one of the series of tubes 7 and this causes acceleration of flow rate. The rifling also leads to a spiralled flow effect which is considered to be desirable. The cap 13 maintains the flow of the liquid fuel from the acceleration tubes 7 to return tubes (not shown). The return tubes can be located in any position within the magnetic field. They can be conveniently located around, adjacent and coaxial to the acceleration tubes. The fuel exits the series of tubes 7 and then enters an aeration zone 8 which is fed air from the air pump 6. The direction of fuel flow is shown by arrows. An air pump inlet 9 and outlet 10 are located in the walls of the housing 2. The air pump outlet 10 sends negative ions to the aeration zone or tube 8 via a collection chamber 15. A

breather 12 is located in the air pump 6.

Once the fuel is contained in the aeration zone further improvements to the fuel quality take place. From when the fluid first enters the apparatus it undergoes a continual process of change until it leaves the apparatus. Because of the strong magnetic field generated, the combustible fuel is changed by an"implosion-like" effect. This increases the oxygen in the combustible liquid and through the influence of its magnetic field it improves the molecular structure of the combustible fluid and dissolves pollutants. This leads to better atomisation and hence a much cleaner burn of the combustible fuel.

The negative ion and ozone generation aspects of the device are important.

The ozone and negative ion generation device is a standard device which operates from any 12 volt DC source. The ozone output should be approximately . 067 parts per million. The generator produces the ozone and negative ions which are then pumped, via a small marine pump to an in built aerator within the housing.

The ozone and negative ions further break down pollutants and increase oxygen in the fuel. This leads to the fuel having an even cleaner combustion. The excess ozone and negative ions then flow to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine.

Another form of the invention involves the internally coated walls of the cylindrical housing being split exactly in half and then each half of the substrate being magnetised to saturation in such a way that each North Pole and South Pole would be directly facing each other so as to have an opposing centre field. After saturation of the substrate the both halves are then forced together, such that the air gap does not exceed 10 mm.

Data from a six cylinder motor vehicle before and after attachment of the device according to the present invention are set out below.

The equipment used in all tests consists of a Dyno Dynamics edycurrent retarder dynamometer, which uses load cell technology for repeatable performance.

All gas measurements were taken using a combination of three separate gas benches. Base values were taken on a SUN MEA infra red 4 gas unit with a 5 gas CODA infra red unit used to back up data for comparison, a further high speed

AUTRONIC air meter was used to feed information directly into the dyno via an interface cable. Calibration of the MEA is carried out by Petroject services of Sydney on a 6-week cycle and thé ou sensor in the AUTRONIC high speed unit was renewed for the tests. All tests were conducted using a base load of 8. 8 kW and vacuum readings were monitored to verify compliance.

Test vehicle: The test vehicle was a Holden Commodore VT model with V6 engine and automatic transmission.

Test report before fitment of devices:

Test Test type Speed CO% C02% HCppm Oz% Vac 1 Idle 0. 22 13. 1 270 5. 4 20. 4 2 Cruise 60. 16 13. 7 222 5. 0 14. 6 3 Cruise 70. 13 12. 62 202 5. 0 14. 8 4 Cruise 80. 13 12. 36 206 4. 3 12. 4 5 Cruise 90. 13 12. 44 204 4. 3 12. 4 f Cruise 100. 13 12. 45 202 4. 3 12. 4 Test report after fitment of device 1 (fuel unit) Test Cruise Speed CO% C02% HCppm 02% Vac 1 Idle 0. 25 13. 04 103 2. 1 20. 0 2 Cruise 60. 35 13. 12 109 3. 7 15. 4 3 Cruise 70. 09 14. 05 53 7. 3 15. 4 4 Cruise 80 0. 012.99 46 7. 2 12. 2 5 Cruise 90 0. 012.98 48 6. 6 12. 2 6 Cruise 100 0. 0 13. 05 49 6. 1 12. 5

Report on device 1 After fitment and some amount of driving the Commodore was put through the same test protocol and results were evident not only on the gas emissions but a

notable change to power and torque. City and country drive cycle testing was conducted around the Newcastle area (using the CODA 5 gas analyser) to confirm the gas readings achieved on the dyno wee in fact true and repeatable values in a normal driving situation.

Since modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention may be readily effected by persons skilled in the art, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the particular embodiment described, by way of example, hereinabove. For example, while the preferred embodiment is described with reference to petrol, similar improvement can be obtained with other fuels, including diesel.