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Title:
TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/183729
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to 2-(3 -indolyl)indolin-3 -one derivatives of the natural product isatisine A, synthesized from dual catalytic synthesis on metalocarbene-azide cascade chemistry, useful for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus, wherein the virus is from the family flaviviridae or paramyxoviridae.

Inventors:
WEST, Frederick Glenn (98 St. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1T7, T6G 1T7, CA)
MARCHANT, David J. (10th Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 2E5, T6H 2E5, CA)
ATIENZA, Bren Jordan P. (619 Layton Ct. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6R 2S9, T6R 2S9, CA)
JENSEN, Lionel D. (11 Ave NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G OAS, T6G OAS, CA)
Application Number:
CA2019/050380
Publication Date:
October 03, 2019
Filing Date:
March 27, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE GOVERNORS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA (4000 TEC Centre, Jasper AvenueEdmonton, Alberta T5J 4P6, T5J 4P6, CA)
International Classes:
C07D209/42; A61K31/404; A61P31/00; A61P31/12
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015154169A12015-10-15
WO2017055396A12017-04-06
Foreign References:
US20140179637A12014-06-26
US20110028564A12011-02-03
Other References:
BOTT, T. ET AL.: "Azide trapping of metallocarbenes: generation of reactive C-acylimines and domino trapping with nucleophiles", RSC ADVANCES, vol. 4, no. 60, 10 July 2014 (2014-07-10), pages 31955 - 31959, XP55641198, ISSN: 2046-2069
YARLAGADDA, S. ET AL.: "Oxidative asymmetric aza-friedel-crafts alkylation of indoles with 3-indolinone-2-carboxylates catalyzed by a BINOL phosphoric acid and promoted by DDQ", CHEMISTRY - AN ASIAN JOURNAL, vol. 13, no. 10, 25 March 2018 (2018-03-25), pages 1327 - 1334, XP55641203, ISSN: 1861-4728
JESSING, M. ET AL.: "Oxidative coupling of indoles with 3-oxindoles", HETEROCYCLES, vol. 82, no. 2, 1 January 2011 (2011-01-01), pages 1739 - 1745, XP055641272, ISSN: 0385-5414
ATIENZA, B. J. P . ET AL.: "Dual catalytic synthesis of antiviral compounds based on metallocarbene-azide cascade chemistry", J. ORG. CHEM., vol. 83, no. 13, 17 April 2018 (2018-04-17), pages 6829 - 6842, XP055641276, ISSN: 0022-3263
GREC I, L. ET AL.: "Radical cations: reactions of2-phenylindole with aromatic amines under anodic oxidation. beta-Scission of an amino alkoxy radical", J. CHEM. SOC., PERKIN TRANS., vol. 2, no. 8, 1 August 2000 (2000-08-01), pages 1749 - 1755, XP009161737, ISSN: 1470-1820, DOI: 10.1039/a909035e
HIGUCHI, K. ET AL.: "Preparation of 2,2-disubstituted 1,2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ones via oxidation of 2-substituted indoles andMannich-type reaction", TETRAHEDRON, vol. 66, no. 6, 6 February 2010 (2010-02-06), pages 1236 - 1243, XP026850833, ISSN: 0040-4020
LI, Y ET AL.: "Gold/Copper-co-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-alkynylanilines: A synthetic strategy for the C2-quaternary indolin-3-ones", ORGANIC LETTERS, vol. 19, no. 5, 20 February 2017 (2017-02-20), pages 1160 - 1163, XP55641458, ISSN: 1523-7052
BANERJI, A. ET AL.: "Metal reagents in organic reactions. Part VI. Oxidation of indoles with thallium(IIl) acetate", J. INDIAN CHEM. SOC., vol. 75, no. 10-12, 1 October 1998 (1998-10-01), pages 698 - 704, ISSN: 0019-4522
KE -QING, L.: "Synthesis of bulky 2,2-diaryl-1, 2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-ones via singlet oxygenation of2-arylindoles", SYNTHETIC COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 26, no. 1, 21 August 2006 (2006-08-21), pages 149 - 52, ISSN: 0039-7911
LING, K. ET AL.: "Singlet oxygenation of [2,3'-bi-1H-indol]-2(2H)-ones", YOUJI HUAXUE, vol. 16, no. 2, 1 January 1996 (1996-01-01), pages 152 - 156, ISSN: 0253-2786
BERTI, C. ET AL.: "Electrochemical, chemical, and ESR study of the reduction mechanism of substituted indoxyls in media with controlled proton availability", J. CHEM. RESEARCH , SYNOPSES, vol. 11, 1 January 1981 (1981-01-01), pages 340 - 1, ISSN: 0308-2342
COLONNA, M. ET AL.: "Reaction of 2-phenyl-3H-indol-3-one with indoles", GAZZETTA CHIMICA ITALIAN A, vol. 105, no. 9-10, 31 December 1975 (1975-12-31), pages 985 - 92, ISSN: 0016-5603
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 6, no. 6, 1984, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 53904-10-2, LING, K. ET AL.: "Sensitized photooxidative coupling of 2-arylindoles" page 518;
ASTOLFI, P.: "Radical intermediates in the peroxidation of indoles", J. CHEM. SOC., vol. 2, no. 9, 14 August 2001 (2001-08-14), Perkin Trans., pages 1634 - 1640, XP55641578, ISSN: 1472-779X
GUCHHAIT, S. ET AL.: "Oxidative dearomatization of indoles via Pd-catalyzed C-H oxygenation: An entry to C2-quaternary indolin-3-ones", ORGANIC LETTERS, vol. 18, no. 7, 17 March 2016 (2016-03-17), pages 1534 - 1537, XP55641579, ISSN: 1523-7052
SAITO, I. ET AL.: "Photoinduced reactions. LXV. Photosensitized oxygenation of 2-methylindoles", CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 1, no. 12, 5 December 1972 (1972-12-05), pages 1173 - 1176, XP55641581, ISSN: 0366-7022
BAYINDIR, S. ET AL.: "A facile one-pot method to synthesise 2-alkylated indole and 2,2'-bis(indolyl)methane derivatives using ketones as electrophiles and their anion sensing ability", RSC ADVANCES, vol. 6, no. 77, 27 July 2016 (2016-07-27), pages 72959 - 72967, XP55641583, ISSN: 2046-2069
YIN, Q. ET AL.: "Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzedFriedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of indoles with racemic spiro indolin-3-ones", CHEMICAL SCIENCE, vol. 2, no. 7, 10 May 2011 (2011-05-10), pages 1344 - 1348, XP55641585, ISSN: 2041-6520
PRECIADO, S. ET AL.: "Exploration of forbidden povarov processes as a source of unexpected reactivity: A multicomponent mannich-ritter transformation", ANGEW. CHEM. INT. ED., vol. 51, no. 28, 9 July 2012 (2012-07-09), pages 6874 - 6877, XP55641589, ISSN: 1433-7851
DING, W. ET AL.: "Photocatalytic aerobic oxidation/semipinacol rearrangement sequence: a concise route to the core of pseudoindoxyl alkaloids", TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 55, no. 33, 13 October 2014 (2014-10-13), pages 4648 - 4652, XP029040823, ISSN: 0040-4039, DOI: 10.1016/j.tetlet.2014.06.102
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, 1984, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 1639331-54-6, "2,4-Pyrrolidinedione, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(cyclopropylcarbonyl)- (CA INDEX NAME" XP055641607
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KINGWELL, Brian et al. (Gowling WLG LLP, 550 Burrard Street Suite 2300, Bentall, Vancouver British Columbia V6C 2B5, V6C 2B5, CA)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A compound of formula (I)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R1 is independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-

Cio alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R2 is independently aryl, benzyl, or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and R3 and R4 are each independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R3 and R4, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

2. The compound of claim 1, having the formula (II)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom; R1 is independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R3 and R4 are each independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R3 and R4, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R6 is independently absent, H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R6, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R6 is absent.

3 The compound of claim 1 or 2, having the formula (III)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y and Y’ are each independently C or a heteroatom;

R1 is independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R5 is independently absent, H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R5, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R6 is independently H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10- C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R6, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y’ is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R6 is absent.

4. The compound of claim 1, having the formula (IV)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof, wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R1 is independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-

Cio alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R5 is independently absent, H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R5, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R7 is independently absent, H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R7, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

5. The compound of claim 1, having the formula (V)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof, wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R1 is independently H, Ci-Cio alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R5 is independently absent, H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R5, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted;

R7 is independently absent, H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R7, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and,

R8 is independently H, C1-C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R8, together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

6 The compound of claim 1, having the formula (VI)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R1 is an ester;

R5 is a halo; and,

R8 is independently H, C1-C10 alkoxy, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted.

7. The compound of claim 1, having the structure

8 The compound of claim 1, having the structure

A method of synthesizing a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, comprising:

a) reacting an organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst

b) forming a metallocarbene from the reaction of the organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst;

c) generating an electrophilic C-acylimine from the metallocarbene; and d) reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein step d) further comprises reacting the electrophilic C- acylimine with a nucleophilic compound in the presence of a Bronsted acid catalyst.

11. The method of claim 9, wherein the transition metal catalyst is a Cu catalyst.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the transition metal catalyst is Cu(hfacac)2, Cu(OTf)2, or CuOTf*Ph(CH3).

13. The method of claim 9, wherein the nucleophilic compound is a heteroatom -containing compound.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the heteroatom -containing compound is a heterocycle or a cycle substituted with a heteroatom-containing moiety.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the heterocycle is pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole, benzofuran, benzothiphene, imidazole, or derivatives thereof, each of which is optionally substituted.

16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or vehicle.

17. A method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16.

18. A method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein said virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the virus is from the genera Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein said flavivirus is yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-bome encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

22. The method of claim 18, wherein said virus is from the family Paramyxoviridae .

23. The method of claim 22, wherein said virus is from the genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus .

24. The method of claim 23, wherein Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus.

25. The method of claim 23, wherein said Pneumovirus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

26. The method of claim 23, wherein said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

27. The method of claim 17, wherein said subject is a human, a domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non-human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

28. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16 for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

29. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

30. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16 for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

31. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of claims 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of claim 16 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspect of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

32. The use of claim 30 or 31, wherein said virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae.

33. The use of claim 32, wherein the virus is from the genera Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus.

34. The use of claim 33, wherein said flavivirus is yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-bome encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

35. The use of claim 30 or 31, wherein said virus is a virus from the family Paramyxoviridae .

36. The use of claim 35, wherein said virus is from the genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus.

37. The use of claim 36, wherein Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus.

38. The use of claim 36, wherein said Pneumovirus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

39. The use of claim 36, wherein said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

40. The use of any one of claims 28 to 39, wherein said subject is a human, a domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non-human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

41. A method of inhibiting an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of an RNA vims, the method comprising contacting the RdRP with a compound according to any one of claims 1-8.

Description:
TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE

CROSS-REFERENCE

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/649,220, filed March 28, 2018, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to the treatment of infectious disease.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Annually, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes an estimated 3.4 million severe lower respiratory infections requiring hospitalization in children under 5 years of agwe. Recent vaccine development efforts have not been fruitful, and no licensed efficacious therapeutics are available to treat infection. A viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRp), required for expression and replication of the viral genome, provides an attractive target for inhibition of the viral replication cycle. The absence of an X-ray crystal structure of this complex rules out in silico approaches for inhibitor development.

[0004] ZIKV infection, in contrast to RSV, has only recently been identified as an unmet therapeutic need. The most recent severe ZIKV outbreak to date occurred in Brazil, with an estimated incidence of 30,000 infections since first detection in May 2015. While primary symptoms are usually mild, the association of ZIKV infection with congenital microcephaly and its mosquito-based transmission underscore the importance of developing therapeutics against it, especially from a prophylactic vantage point. Currently no vaccine or specific antiviral treatments are available for ZIKV.

SUMMARY

[0005] In an aspect of the present application there is provided a compound of formula (I)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -

Cio alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, C1-C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 2 is independently aryl, benzyl, or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 - C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[0006] In another aspect, there is provided a compound having the formula (II)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom; R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 - C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[0007] In another aspect, there is provided a compound having the formula (III)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y and Y’ are each independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y’ is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[0008] In another aspect, there is provided a compound having the formula (IV)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C2- C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C2- C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 7 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C2- C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[0009] In another aspect, there is provided a compound having the formula (V)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 7 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and,

R 8 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 8 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted. [0010] In another aspect, there is provided a compound having the formula (VI)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is an ester;

R 5 is a halo; and,

R 8 is independently H, C1-C10 alkoxy, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted.

[0011] In an embodiment of the present application, there is provided a compound having the

structure

[0012] In another embodiment, there is provided a compound having the structure

[0013] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a method of synthesizing a compound as described herein, comprising: a) reacting an organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst; b) forming a metallocarbene from the reaction of the organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst;

c) generating an electrophilic C-acylimine from the metallocarbene; and, d) reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound.

[0014] In an embodiment of the present application, there is provided a method wherein step d) further comprises reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound in the presence of a Bronsted acid catalyst.

[0015] In another embodiment, there is provided a method wherein the transition metal catalyst is a Cu catalyst. In another embodiment, the transition metal catalyst is Cu(hfacac)2, Cu(OTf)2, or CuOTf*Ph(CH 3 ).

[0016] In another embodiment, there is provided a method wherein the nucleophilic compound is a heteroatom-containing compound. In another embodiment, the heteroatom-containing compound is a heterocycle or a cycle substituted with a heteroatom-containing moiety. In another embodiment, the heterocycle is pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole, benzofuran, benzothiphene, imidazole, or derivatives thereof, each of which is optionally substituted.

[0017] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or vehicle.

[0018] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a

therapeutically effective amount of a compound as described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein.

[0019] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a

therapeutically effective amount of a compound as described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[0020] In another embodiment of the present application, there is provided a method wherein said virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. In another embodiment, the virus is from the genera Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus. In another embodiment, Flavivirus is yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

[0021] In another embodiment, there is provided a method wherein said virus is from the family Paramyxoviridae . In another embodiment, said virus is from the genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus. In another embodiment, Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus. In another embodiment, Pneumovirus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In another embodiment, said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

[0022] In another embodiment, there is provided a method wherein said subject is a human, a

domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non-human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish. In some cases, the individual to be treated with a method of the present disclosure is a human. In some cases, the individual to be treated with a method of the present disclosure is an ungulate (e.g., a bovine; an ovine; a caprine; an equine; etc.).

[0023] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a use of a compound of as described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

[0024] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a use of a compound as

described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

[0025] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a use of a compound as

described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[0026] In another aspect of the present application, there is provided a use of a compound as

described herein, or a compound syntheized by the method as described herein, or a pharmaceutical composition as described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspect of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus. [0027] In another embodiment of the present application, there is provided a use wherein said virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. In another embodiment, the virus is from the genera Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus. In another embodiment, Flavivirus is yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

[0028] In another embodiment of the present application, there is provided a use wherein said virus is a virus from the family Paramyxoviridae . In another embodiment, said virus is from the genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus. In another embodiment,

Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus. In another embodiment, Pneumovirus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In another embodiment, said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

[0029] In another embodiment of the present application, there is provided a usewherein said subject is a human, a domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non-human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0030] Embodiments of the present disclosure will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the attached Figures.

[0031] FIG. 1 depicts a one-step synthesis of Isatisine A analogs;

[0032] FIG. 2 depicts redox activation of Cu(OTf)2 and dual catalysis;

[0033] FIG. 3 depicts asymmetric induction by chiral Bronsted acid;

[0034] FIG. 4 depicts an extension of coupling conditions to other 2-Indolylindolin-3-ones;

[0035] FIG. 5 depicts infectivity and cytotoxicity results;

[0036] FIG. 6 depicts a series of second generation 2-Indolylindan-3-ones;

[0037] FIG. 7 depicts differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data for compound la;

[0038] FIG. 8 depicts thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data for compound la;

[0039] FIG. 9 depicts an in-situ IR spectroscopic analysis of decomposition of compound la;

[0040] FIG. 10 depicts decomposition analysis of compound la, in the presence of Cu (I) catalyst, using NMR;

[0041] FIG. 11 depicts UV-VIS spectra of solution A (Example 2);

[0042] FIG. 12 depicts electrospray mass spectra of crude reaction mixture to make compound 2a; [0043] FIG. 13 depicts an ORTEP structure for compound la;

[0044] FIG. 14 depicts an ORTEP structure for compound 2a;

[0045] FIG. 15 depicts an ORTEP structure for compound 2o;

[0046] FIG. 16 depicts an ORTEP structure for compound 2za;

[0047] FIG. 17 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound lc;

[0048] FIG. 18 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound lf;

[0049] FIG. 19 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound lh;

[0050] FIG. 20 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound lj ;

[0051] FIG. 21 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound lk;

[0052] FIG. 22 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 11;

[0053] FIG. 23 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2a;

[0054] FIG. 24 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2b;

[0055] FIG. 25 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2c;

[0056] FIG. 26 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2d;

[0057] FIG. 27 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2e;

[0058] FIG. 28 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2f;

[0059] FIG. 29 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2h;

[0060] FIG. 30 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2i;

[0061] FIG. 31 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2j ;

[0062] FIG. 32 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2k;

[0063] FIG. 33 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 21;

[0064] FIG. 34 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2m;

[0065] FIG. 35 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2n;

[0066] FIG. 36 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2o;

[0067] FIG. 37 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2p;

[0068] FIG. 38 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2q;

[0069] FIG. 39 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2s;

[0070] FIG. 40 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2t;

[0071] FIG. 41 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2u;

[0072] FIG. 42 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2v;

[0073] FIG. 43 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2w; [0074] FIG. 44 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2xa:2xb;

[0075] FIG. 45 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2ya:2yb;

[0076] FIG. 46 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 2za;

[0077] FIG. 47 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5a;

[0078] FIG. 48 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5b;

[0079] FIG. 49 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5c;

[0080] FIG. 50 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5d;

[0081] FIG. 51 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5e;

[0082] FIG. 52 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5f;

[0083] FIG. 53 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5g; and

[0084] FIG. 54 depicts an NMR spectrum of compound 5h.

[0085] FIG. 55 depicts homology modelling of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) L protein based on the VSV L structure. Model of RSV L protein (left), Alignment of the RSV model with L protein of VSV. (VSV: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus).

[0086] FIG. 56 depicts molecular docking of an active compound (compound 5a) of the present disclosure into the active site of RSV L protein showing two hydrogen bonds to the catalytic ASP 686. Active site was defined using binding site map implanted in Schrodinger Small Molecule Discovery Suite.

[0087] FIG. 57A-57B provide an amino acid sequence of human RSV-L protein (SEQ ID NO: 1).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0088] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same

meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.

[0089] As used in the specification and claims, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0090] The term "comprising" as used herein will be understood to mean that the list following is non-exhaustive and may or may not include any other additional suitable items, for example one or more further feature(s), component(s) and/or ingredient(s) as appropriate.

[0091] As used herein, the term‘optionally substituted’ refers to being substituted or unsubstituted. [0092] As used herein, the term "unsubstituted" refers to any open valence of an atom being occupied by hydrogen. Also, if an occupant of an open valence position on an atom is not specified then it is hydrogen.

[0093] As used herein, the term "substituted" refers to having one or more substituents or substituent moieties whose presence either facilitates or improves a desired reaction/property, or does not impede a desired reaction/property. A "substituent" is an atom or group of bonded atoms that can be considered to have replaced one or more hydrogen atoms attached to a parent molecular entity; and, whose presence either facilitates or improves desired reactions, properties, and/or functions of an invention, or does not impede desired reactions, properties, and/or functions of an invention. Examples of substituents include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, polycyclic aryl, benzyl, polycyclic benzyl, fused aromatic rings, arylhalide, heteroaryl, polycyclic heteroaryl, fused heteroaromatic rings, cycloalkyl (non-aromatic ring), halo, alkoxyl, perfluoronated alkoxyl, amino, alkylamino, alkenylamino, amide, amidine, hydroxyl, thioether, alkylcarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxy,

aryloxycarbonyloxy, carbonate, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylthiocarbonyl, phosphate, phosphate ester, phosphonato, phosphinato, cyano, acylamino, imino, sulfhydryl, alkylthio, arylthio, thiocarboxylate, dithiocarboxylate, sulfate, sulfato, sulfonate, sulfamoyl, sulfonamide, Si(alkyl) 3 , Sifalkoxyf. nitro, nitrile, azido, heterocyclyl, ether, ester, silicon- containing moieties, thioester, or a combination thereof. The substituents may themselves be substituted. For instance, an amino substituent may itself be mono or independently disubstituted by further substituents provided above, such as alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, aryl halide, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl (non-aromatic ring).

[0094] As used herein, "alkyl" refers to a linear or branched saturated hydrocarbon moiety that

consists solely of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents. Examples of saturated straight or branched chain alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, 1 -propyl, 2-propyl, 1 -butyl, 2- butyl, 2-methyl- 1 -propyl, 2-methyl-2 -propyl, 1 -pentyl, 2-pentyl, 3 -pentyl, 2-methyl- 1 -butyl,

3 -methyl- 1 -butyl, 2-methyl-3 -butyl, 2,2-dimethyl- 1 -propyl, 1 -hexyl, 2-hexyl, 3 -hexyl, 2- methyl-l -pentyl, 3 -methyl- 1 -pentyl, 4-methyl- 1 -pentyl, 2-methyl -2 -pentyl, 3-methyl-2-pentyl,

4-methyl -2 -pentyl, 2,2-dimethyl- 1 -butyl, 3, 3 -dimethyl- 1 -butyl and 2-ethyl- 1 -butyl, l-heptyl, and 1 -octyl. [0095] As used herein, "alkenyl" refers to a linear or branched hydrocarbon moiety that comprises at least one carbon to carbon double bond, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents. "Alkynyl" refers to a linear or branched hydrocarbon moiety that comprises at least one carbon to carbon triple bond, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents.

[0096] The term "carbocycle" as used herein refers to a non-aromatic, saturated or partially saturated monocyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbon ring moiety containing at least 3 carbon atoms.

Examples of C 3 -C n carbocycles include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclooctyl, norbomyl, adamantyl, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2- enyl, and bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl.

[0097] As used herein, "aryl" and/or "aromatic ring" refers to an aromatic (unsaturated cyclic)

hydrocarbon moiety having 6 to 100 atoms, or 6 to 50 atoms, or 6 to 25 atoms, or 6 to 15 atoms, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents. The aromatic hydrocarbon moiety may be derived from benzene or a benzene derivative; may be monocyclic or polycyclic, where polycyclic may include a fused ring system. Examples include, but are not limited to, phenyl, naphthyl, xylene, phenyl ethane, substituted phenyl, substituted naphthyl, substituted xylene, substituted 4-ethylphenyl, benzyl, etc.

[0098] As used herein, "cycle" refers to an aromatic or nonaromatic monocyclic, polycyclic, or fused ring hydrocarbon moiety, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Included within the term "cycle" are carbocycles and aryls, as defined above.

[0099] As used herein, "heteroaryl" or "heteroaromatic" refers to an aryl (including fused aryl rings) that includes heteroatoms selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. A

"heteroatom" refers to an atom that is not carbon or hydrogen, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or phosphorus. Heteroaryl or heteroaromatic groups include, for example, furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, imidazoyl, benzamidazoyl, 1,2- or 1,3- oxazolyl, 1,2- or l,3-diazolyl, 1,2,3- or l,2,4-triazolyl, and the like.

[00100] As used herein, a "heterocycle" is an aromatic or nonaromatic monocyclic, polycyclic, or fused ring moiety of carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom, or 1 to 4 heteroatoms, or 1 to 10 heteroatoms. A "heteroatom" refers to an atom that is not carbon or hydrogen, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or phosphorus. Included within the term "heterocycle" is

“heteroaryl”, which refers to an aromatic (unsaturated cyclic) moiety of carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom, or 1 to 4 heteroatoms, or 1 to 10 heteroatoms, having a total of 6 to 100 atoms, or 6 to 50 atoms, or 6 to 25 atoms, or 6 to 15 atoms, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents. Also included within this term are monocyclic and bicyclic rings that include one or more double and/or triple bonds within the ring. Examples of 3- to 9- membered heterocycles include, but are not limited to, furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, imidazoyl, benzamidazoyl, 1,2- or l,3-oxazolyl, 1,2- or l,3-diazolyl, 1,2,3- or l,2,4-triazolyl, aziridinyl, oxiranyl, thiiranyl, azirinyl, diaziridinyl, diazirinyl, oxaziridinyl, azetidinyl, azetidinonyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, pyrrolyl, oxazinyl, thiazinyl, diazinyl, triazinyl, tetrazinyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, tetrazolyl, indolyl, isoquinolinyl, quinolinyl, quinazolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, purinyl, isoxazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, furanyl, furazanyl, pyridinyl, oxazolyl, benzoxazolyl, thiazolyl, benzthiazolyl, thiophenyl, pyrazolyl, triazolyl, benzodiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, pyrimidinyl, isoindolyl and indazolyl.

[00101] As used herein,“halo” refers to F, Cl, Br, I.

[00102] The term“subject”, as used herein, refers to an animal, and can include, for example, domesticated animals, such as cats, dogs, etc., livestock (e.g., cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.), laboratory animals (e.g., mouse, rabbit, rat, guinea pig, etc.), mammals, non-human mammals, primates, non-human primates, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and any other animal. In a specific example, the subject is a human.

[00103] The term“treatment”,“treat”, or“treating” as used herein, refers to obtaining

beneficial or desired results, including clinical results. Beneficial or desired clinical results can include, but are not limited to, alleviation or amelioration of one or more symptoms or conditions, diminishment of extent of disease, stabilized (i.e. not worsening) state of disease, preventing spread of disease, delay or slowing of disease progression, amelioration or palliation of the disease state, diminishment of the reoccurrence of disease, and remission (whether partial or total), whether detectable or undetectable. "Treating" and "Treatment" can also mean prolonging survival as compared to expected survival if not receiving treatment.

[00104] The term "amelioration" or "ameliorates" as used herein refers to a decrease, reduction or elimination of a condition, disease, disorder, or phenotype, including an abnormality or symptom.

[00105] The term“functional derivative” as used herein refers to a molecule that retains a biological activity (either function or structural) that is substantially similar to that of the original compound. A functional derivative or equivalent may be a natural derivative or is prepared synthetically. [00106] Also encompassed is prodrug or "physiologically functional derivative". The term

“physiologically functional derivative” as used herein refers to compounds which are not pharmaceutically active themselves but which are transformed into their pharmaceutically active form in vivo, i.e. in the subject to which the compound is administered. The term “prodrug” as used herein, refers to a derivative of a substance that, following administration, is metabolized in vivo, e.g. by hydrolysis or by processing through an enzyme, into an active metabolite.

[00107] In some cases, a compound of the present disclosure inhibits enzymatic activity of an

RNA polymerase (e.g., an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) encoded by an RNA virus. For example, in some cases, a compound of the present disclosure inhibits enzymatic activity of an RNA polymerase by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100%, compared to the enzymatic activity of the RNA polymerase in the absence of the compound.

[00108] An RNA polymerase (e.g., an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) that can be inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure can be an RNA polymerase encoded by any of the following RNA viruses: a Coronaviridae virus, a Picomaviridae virus, a Caliciviridae virus, a Flaviviridae virus, a Togaviridae virus, a Bomaviridae, a Filoviridae, a Paramyxoviridae, a Pneumoviridae, a Rhabdoviridae, an Arenaviridae, a Bunyaviridae, an Orthomyxoviridae, a Deltavirus, Coronavirus, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, Poliovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Norwalk virus, Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus, Rubella virus, Ross River virus, Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus, Boma disease virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Newcastle disease virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Rabies virus, Lassa virus, Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Influenza virus (e.g., swine influenza virus; avian influenza virus; H1N1, H3N2, H7N9, H5N1, etc.), porcine respiratory and reproductive disease syndrome virus (PRRSV), Seneca valley virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine delta coronavirus (PDCV), porcine circoviral associated diseases (PCVAD), and Hepatitis D virus. In some cases, the RNA polymerase that is inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure is encoded by Zika virus. In some cases, the RNA polymerase that is inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure is encoded by Ebola virus. In some cases, the RNA polymerase that is inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure is encoded by human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In some cases, the RNA polymerase that is inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure is encoded by bovine RSV.

[00109] RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRP) are known in the art. In some cases, an

RNA polymerase (e.g., an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) that is inhibited by a compound of the present disclosure comprises an amino acid sequence having at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100%, with the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 57A-57B. In some cases, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase comprises an Asp at a position corresponding to 686 of the amino acid sequence depicted in FIG. 57A-57B.

[00110] The present disclosure provides methods of treating a viral infection, the methods comprising administering to an individual having the viral infection a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present disclosure, or a composition comprising a compound of the present disclosure.

[00111] As used herein, the term“therapeutically effective amount” refers to an amount that is effective for preventing, ameliorating, or treating a disease or disorder (e.g., an infection disease, such as a viral disease).

[00112] In some cases, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present

disclosure is an amount that is effective to reduce the amount of virus in a tissue, organ, or fluid in an individual being treated. For example, in some cases, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present disclosure is an amount that is effective to reduce the amount of virus in a tissue, organ, or fluid in an individual being treated by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, or more than 80%, compared to the amount of virus present in the tissue, organ, or fluid in the individual before treatment with the compound.

[00113] In an aspect, there is described a compound, compositions, methods, and uses, for the treatment of a subject having, or suspected of having, an infectious disease.

[00114] In an example the infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[00115] Viral infections that can be treated with a method of the present disclosure include infections caused by any of the following: a Coronaviridae virus, a Picomaviridae virus, a Caliciviridae virus, a Flaviviridae virus, a Togaviridae virus, a Bomaviridae, a Filoviridae, a Paramyxoviridae, a Pneumoviridae, a Rhabdoviridae, an Arenaviridae, a Bunyaviridae, an Orthomyxoviridae, a Deltavirus, Coronavirus, SARS, Poliovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Norwalk virus, Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus, Rubella virus, Ross River virus, Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus, Boma disease virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Newcastle disease virus, Human respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Rabies virus, Lassa virus, Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo

hemorrhagic fever virus, Influenza virus (e.g., swine influenza virus; avian influenza virus; etc.), porcine respiratory and reproductive disease syndrome virus (PRRSV), Seneca valley virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine delta coronavirus (PDCV), porcine circoviral associated diseases (PCVAD), and Hepatitis D virus. In some cases, the viral infection is caused by a positive-strand RNA virus. In some cases, the viral infection is caused by a negative-strand RNA virus.

[00116] In an example, the virus is from the family Flaviviridae. In another example, the virus I from the genera Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus.

[00117] Non-limiting examples of flavivirus include yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese

encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-bome encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

[00118] In a specific example, the viral infection is Zika virus.

[00119] In an example, the virus is from the family of Paramyxoviridae. In another example, the virus is from the genera Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus.

[00120] Non-limiting example of paramyxovirus include parainfluenza virus and mumpus virus.

[00121] Non-limiting examples of Pneumovirus include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

[00122] Non-limiting examples of Morbillivirus include measles virus.

[00123] In a specific example, the viral infection is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). As one example, in some cases, the viral infection is human RSV. As another example, in some cases, the viral infection is bovine RSV.

[00124] In another aspect, there is described a compound of formula (I)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is independently H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 2 is independently aryl, benzyl, or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 - C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00125] In an example, there is described a compound having the formula (II)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 - C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently absent, H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[00126] In another example, there is described a compound having the formula (III)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y and Y’ are each independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -

C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -

C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y’ is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[00127] In another example, there is described a compound having the formula (IV)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2- C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 7 is independently absent, H, C1 -C10 alkyl, C10-C20 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C10-C20 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, C10-C20 alkynyl, C3-C20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C1 -C10 alkoxy, C10-C20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00128] In another example, there is described a compound having the formula (V)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 7 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and,

R 8 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 8 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00129] In another example, there is described a compound having the formula (VI)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is an ester;

R 5 is a halo; and,

R 8 is independently H, C1-C10 alkoxy, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00130] In some examples, the compounds as described herein have the structure

[00131] In some examples, the compounds as described herein have the structure

[00132] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, any alkyl or aryl with and without attached functional groups

[00133] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne

[00134] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine

alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne

[00135] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl group, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine

alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne X = NH, O, S

[00136] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, alkene, alkyne

[00137] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, alkene, alkyne

[00138] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne X = NH, O, S

[00139] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne

X = NH, O, S

[00140] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine

alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne

X = NH, O, S

[00141] In other examples, the compounds as described herein have any one of the structure

R = H, F, Cl, Br, I, any alkyl group, any aryl groups, any heteroaryl group, alcohol, thiol, amine

alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, ester, amide, carboxylic acid, nitro, cyano, alkene, alkyne

X = NH, O, S

[00142] In another example, the absolute stereochemistry of the quaternary stereocentre (chiral carbon) of the compounds as described herein may be R, S, or a mixture of R and S.

[00143] In another example, when the compounds as described herein comprise two or more stereocentres (chiral carbons), the absolute stereochemistry may be any permutation of R and S, or a mixture of any permutation.

[00144] In another aspect, there is described a method of synthesizing the compounds as

described herein, the method comprising:

a) reacting an organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst; b) forming a metallocarbene from the reaction of the organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst;

c) generating an electrophilic C-acylimine from the metallocarbene; and, d) reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound.

[00145] In an example, of the method as described herein step d) further comprises reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound in the presence of a Bronsted acid catalyst.

[00146] In another example of the method as described herein, the transition metal catalyst is a

Cu catalyst. In another example, the transition metal catalyst is Cu(hfacac)2, Cu(OTf)2, or CuOTf*Ph(CH 3 ).

[00147] In another example of the method as described herein, the nucleophilic compound is a heteroatom-containing compound. In another example the heteroatom-containing compound is a heterocycle or a cycle substituted with a heteroatom-containing moiety. In another example, the heterocycle is pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole, benzofuran, benzothiphene, imidazole, or derivatives thereof, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00148] In some examples, the compounds as described herein are an enantiomer, a racemate, a tautomer, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof.

[00149] In some examples, there is described a composition comprising a compound as

described herein, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or vehicle.

[00150] A compound or composition may be administered alone or in combination with other treatments, either simultaneously or sequentially, dependent upon the condition to be treated.

[00151] In treating a subject, a therapeutically effective amount may be administered to the subject.

[00152] Formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods known in the art. Such methods include the step of bringing the active compound into association with a carrier, which may constitute one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active compound with liquid carriers or finely divided solid carriers or both, and then if necessary shaping the product.

[00153] The compounds and compositions may be administered to a subject by any convenient route of administration, whether systemically /peripherally or at the site of desired action, including but not limited to, oral (e.g. by ingestion); topical (including e.g. transdermal, intranasal, ocular, buccal, and sublingual); pulmonary (e.g. by inhalation or insufflation therapy using, e.g. an aerosol, e.g. through mouth or nose); rectal; vaginal; parenteral, for example, by injection, including subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intraarterial, intracardiac, intrathecal, intraspinal, intracapsular, subcapsular, intraorbital, intraperitoneal, intratracheal, subcuticular, intraarticular, subarachnoid, and intrastemal; by implant of a depot, for example, subcutaneously or intramuscularly.

[00154] Compounds and/or compositions comprising compounds disclosed herein may be used in the methods described herein in combination with standard treatment regimes, as would be known to the skilled worker.

[00155] Methods of the invention are conveniently practiced by providing the compounds and/or compositions used in such method in the form of a kit. Such kit preferably contains the composition. Such a kit preferably contains instructions for the use thereof.

Examples of Non-Limiting Aspects of the Disclosure

[00156] Aspects, including embodiments, of the present subject matter described above may be beneficial alone or in combination, with one or more other aspects or embodiments.

Without limiting the foregoing description, certain non-limiting aspects of the disclosure numbered 1-41 are provided below. As will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading this disclosure, each of the individually numbered aspects may be used or combined with any of the preceding or following individually numbered aspects. This is intended to provide support for all such combinations of aspects and is not limited to combinations of aspects explicitly provided below:

[00157] Aspect 1. A compound of formula (I)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 2 is independently aryl, benzyl, or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C3-C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00158] Aspect 2. The compound of aspect 1, having the formula (II)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C3-C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 3 and R 4 are each independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or R 3 and R 4 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[00159] Aspect 3. The compound of aspect 1 or 2, having the formula (III)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y and Y’ are each independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -

C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 6 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 - C 20 alkynyl, C3-C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 6 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and wherein one Y’ is bonded to Ci and the corresponding R 6 is absent.

[00160] Aspect 4. The compound of any one of aspects 1 to 3, having the formula (IV)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -

Cio alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C3-C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C3-C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and

R 7 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00161] Aspect 5. The compound of any one of aspects 1 to 4, having the formula (V)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

Y is independently C or a heteroatom;

R 1 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 5 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 5 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted;

R 7 is independently absent, H, C 1 -C 10 alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 - C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 7 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted; and,

R 8 is independently H, Ci-Cio alkyl, C 10 -C 20 alkyl, C 2 -C 10 alkenyl, C 10 -C 20 alkenyl, C 2 -C 10 alkynyl, C 10 -C 20 alkynyl, C 3 -C 20 carbocycle, aryl, benzyl, heterocycle, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, C 10 -C 20 alkoxy, alcohol, ether, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, thiol, thioether, amine, amide, carbamate, nitro, cyano, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted; or two of R 8 , together with the atoms to which they are attached, are connected to form a cycle or heterocycle, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00162] Aspect 6. The compound of any one of aspects 1 to 5, having the formula (VI)

a stereoisomer, a racemate, a tautomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a solvate, or a functional derivative thereof,

wherein:

R 1 is an ester;

R 5 is a halo; and,

R 8 is independently H, C 1 -C 10 alkoxy, or halo, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00163] Aspect 7. The compound of any one of aspects 1 to 6, having the structure

[00164] Aspect 8. The compound of any one of aspects 1 to 4, having the structure

[00165] Aspect 9. A method of synthesizing a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8,

comprising:

a) reacting an organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst

b) forming a metallocarbene from the reaction of the organoazide-dizaoketone compound with a transition metal catalyst;

c) generating an electrophilic C-acylimine from the metallocarbene; and d) reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound.

[00166] Aspect 10. The method of aspect 9, wherein step d) further comprises reacting the electrophilic C-acylimine with a nucleophilic compound in the presence of a Bronsted acid catalyst.

[00167] Aspect 11. The method of aspect 9 or 10, wherein the transition metal catalyst is a Cu catalyst.

[00168] Aspect 12. The method of aspect 11, wherein the transition metal catalyst is

Cu(hfacac)2, Cu(OTf)2, or CuOTf*Ph(C H ).

[00169] Aspect 13. The method of any one of aspects 9 to 12, wherein the nucleophilic

compound is a heteroatom-containing compound. [00170] Aspect 14. The method of aspect 13, wherein the heteroatom-containing compound is a heterocycle or a cycle substituted with a heteroatom-containing moiety.

[00171] Aspect 15. The method of aspect 14, wherein the heterocycle is pyrrole, furan,

thiophene, pyridine, indole, benzofuran, benzothiphene, imidazole, or derivatives thereof, each of which is optionally substituted.

[00172] Aspect 16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, or vehicle.

[00173] Aspect 17. A method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16.

[00174] Aspect 18. A method of treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, comprising: administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[00175] Aspect 19. The method of aspects 18, wherein said virus is a virus from the family

Flaviviridae.

[00176] Aspect 20. The method of aspect 19, wherein the virus is from the genera

Hepacivirus, Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus.

[00177] Aspect 21. The method of aspect 20, wherein said flavivirus is yellow fever virus

(YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

[00178] Aspect 22. The method of aspect 18, wherein said virus is from the family

Paramyxoviridae .

[00179] Aspect 23. The method of aspect 22, wherein said virus is from the genera

Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus.

[00180] Aspect 24. The method of aspect 23, wherein Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus.

[00181] Aspect 25. The method of aspect 23, wherein said Pneumovirus is respiratory

syncytial virus (RSV). [00182] Aspect 26. The method of aspect 23, wherein said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

[00183] Aspect 27. The method of any one of aspects 17 to 26, wherein said subject is a

human, a domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

[00184] Aspect 28. Use of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16 for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

[00185] Aspect 29. Use of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease.

[00186] Aspect 30. Use of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16 for treating a subject having or suspected of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[00187] Aspect 31. Use of a compound of any one of aspects 1 to 8, or a compound syntheized by the method of any one of aspects 8 to 15, or a pharmaceutical composition of aspect 16 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating a subject having or suspect of having an infectious disease, wherein said infectious disease is caused by a virus.

[00188] Aspect 32. The use of aspect 30 or 31, wherein said virus is a virus from the family

Flaviviridae.

[00189] Aspect 33. The use of aspect 32, wherein the virus is from the genera Hepacivirus,

Flavivirus, Pegivirus, or Pestivirus.

[00190] Aspect 34. The use of aspect 33, wherein said flavivirus is yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tick -borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), or any combination thereof.

[00191] Aspect 35. The use of aspect 30 or 31, wherein said virus is a virus from the family

Paramyxoviridae .

[00192] Aspect 36. The use of aspect 35, wherein said virus is from the genera. Paramyxovirus,

Pneumovirus, or Morbillivirus .

[00193] Aspect 37. The use of aspect 36, wherein Paramyxovirus is parainfluenza virus or mumpus virus. [00194] Aspect 38. The use of aspect 36, wherein said Pneumovirus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

[00195] Aspect 39. The use of aspect 36, wherein said Morbillivirus is measles virus.

[00196] Aspect 40. The use of any one of aspects 28 to 39, wherein said subject is a human, a domesticated animal, livestock, a laboratory animal, a non-human mammal, a non-human primate, a rodent, a bird, a reptile, an amphibian, or a fish.

[00197] Aspect 41. A method of inhibiting an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of an

RNA virus, the method comprising contacting the RdRP with a compound according to any one of aspects 1-8.

EXAMPLES

[00198] To gain a better understanding of the invention described herein, the following

examples are set forth. It should be understood that these examples are for illustrative purposes only. Therefore, they should not limit the scope of this invention in anyway.

[00199] Example 1 : Dual Catalytic Synthesis of Antiviral Compounds Based on Metal- locarbene-Azide Cascade Chemistry

[00200] Aryl azides trapped ortho metallocarbene intermediates to generate indolenones possessing a reactive C-acylimine moiety, which reacted with added indole nucleophiles to afford a 2-(3-indolyl)indolin-3-one scaffold found in antiviral natural product isatisine A. This overall process occurred through a dual catalytic sequence at room temperature. Redox activation of a Cu(OTf)2 precatalyst by indole resulted in catalytically competent Cu(I) required for azide -metallocarbene coupling. A Bronsted acid that formed from Cu(OTf)2 reduction was responsible for catalysis of the C-C bond-forming indole addition step. This modular method allowed for rapid assembly of bis(indole) libraries, several of which demonstrated anti-infective activity against respiratory syncytial virus and Zika virus.

[00201] Reaction sequences proceeding through high-energy reactive intermediates, generated catalytically, can offer an approach for rapid construction of structurally complex products. Metallocarbenes generated from diazoketone precursors can be intercepted by a variety of nucleophilic heteroatom-containing functionalities to afford ylide intermediates that then undergo rearrangement processes. Use of an organoazide functionality to trap metallocarbene intermediates presents an alternative approach for strategic assembly of substituted heterocyclics. This process is catalyzed by inexpensive copper catalysts, with two equivalents of nitrogen gas being the only by-products generated, and C-acylimines formed from this coupling are subject to further reaction via in situ intermolecular nucleophilic trapping to give highly substituted indolin-3-one products through a one-pot cascade process. This process delivers a nucleophilic addend adjacent to one or more carbonyl moieties in umpollung fashion. Indoles were found to be an especially effective class of traps, and it was noted that there are structural similarities between these bis(indole) adducts to isatisine A, a naturally occurring compound with antiviral properties.

[00202] Given the modular nature of the diazoketone ®metallocarbene®C-acylimine®indole adduct cascade sequence, construction of a library of unnatural Isatisine A-inspired bis(indole) compounds lacking a ribose-derived‘eastern’ fragment was undertaken (see FIG. 1). Such compounds were screened for their potential activity against viral diseases for which there are no effective chemotherapeutic treatments, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV; a well- studied and widely disseminated pathogen) and Zika Virus (ZIKV; an emerging pathogen of great concern).

Experimental Details

[00203] Reactions were carried out in oven (130 °C) or flame-dried glassware under a positive argon atmosphere unless otherwise stated. Transfer of anhydrous reagents was accomplished with oven-dried syringes or cannulae. Solvents were distilled before use: acetonitrile

(CH3CN), dichloromethane (DCM) and dichloroethane (DCE) from calcium hydride, toluene (PhMe) from sodium metal, diethyl ether (Et 2 0) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) from sodium metal/benzophenone ketyl. Thin layer chromatography was performed on glass plates pre coated with 0.25 mm silica gel with fluorescent indicator UV254 (Rose Scientific). Flash chromatography columns were packed with 230-400 mesh silica gel (Silacycle). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ( H NMR) were recorded at 400 MHz, or 500 MHz and coupling constants (./) are reported in Hertz (Hz). Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ( 13 C NMR) were recorded at 125 MHz, as proton decoupled or as attached proton test (APT). Chemical shifts are reported on a d scale (ppm) and referenced to residual solvent peaks: CDCE (7.26 ppm, 'H; 77.06 ppm, 13 C), t/ 6 -DMSO (2.49 ppm, 'H; 39.5 ppm, 13 C), and tfe- DCM (5.32 ppm, 'H; 53.5 ppm, 13 C).

[00204] All reagents were purchased from commercial suppliers: Sigma Aldrich, AK

Scientific, and Acres, at purity greater than (95%). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements (chemical shift, integration, coupling constants, relative peak intensity) were performed using Agilent 400 MHz, Varian 400 MHz, or Varian 500 MHz NMR instruments. Mass measurements were acquired using Agilent Technologies 1100 MSD (Single

Quadruple), Waters (Micromass) Q-TOF Premier (Quadruple TOF), Kratos Analytical MS- 50G, Agilent Technologies 6220 oaTOF, or AB Sciex QTRAP 2000 instruments. UV-VIS spectra were acquired using Cary UV-Vis, or Hewlett Packard 8453 UV-VIS Spectrometers. Elemental Analysis was performed using Thermo Flash 2000 Elemental Analyzer. Infrared spectra were acquired using Mattson Galaxy Series FT-IR 3000, Nicolet Magna 750 FTIR Spectrometer equipped a Nic-Plan FTIR Microscope, or Thermo Nicolet 8700 FTIR

Spectrometer equipped with a Continuum FTIR Microscope. Differential Scanning

Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analysis were performed using Perkin Elmer Pyris 1, or Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC instruments.

[00205] For virology procedures: MEM media (HyClone, GE Healthcare Life Sciences); Opti-

MEM media (Gibco, Thermofisher); fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, Thermofisher);

DMEM (HyClone, GE Healthcare Life Sciences); Methanol (HPLC Grade, Fisher Chemical); Acetone (ACS Certified, Fisher Chemical); Goat anti-RSV polyclonal antibody (Meridian Life Science B65860G); Alexafluor 647 (LifeTech A-21469); MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)); Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (Gibco, Thermofisher); Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (ACS Certified, Fisher Chemical); [a 32-P] UTP was purchased from PerkinElmer. All remaining reagents (actinomycin D, lysolecithin, Tris-acetate, Magnesium acetate, Potassium acetate, DTT, spermidine, creatine phosphatase, aprotinin, creatine phosphokinase, ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP, and RNaseH) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich at purity greater than (95%).

Substrate Preparation

[00206] Preparation of compounds la, lb, ld, and lg have been reported previously by Bott,

T. M.; Atienza, B. T; West, F. G. RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 31955-31959.

[00207] Compound lc:

[00208] Dichloromethane (DCM, 35 mL) was added to a conical flask containing 4,5- dimethoxy-2-azido benzoic acid (1.0 g, 4.5 mmol) and the suspension was cooled to 0 °C before addition of methyl acetate (1.0 equiv) and trichloroacetyl chloride (1.2 equiv). This solution was slowly transferred via cannula to a suspension of NaH (1.2 equiv) in DCM (10-

20 mL) at 0 °C. After stirring at 0 °C for 15 min, the solution was cooled to -45 °C before addition of l-methylimidazole (1.2 equiv). The solution was then stirred for an additional 10 min at -45 °C before slowly adding TiCU (3.4 equiv) followed by NEt3 (4.0 equiv). The dark red-brown solution was kept at -78 °C for 30 min before being warmed to 0 °C and kept for 1 h and subsequently quenched with water (30 mL). The organic layer was separated and aqueous layer was washed 3x with equal portions of DCM. The combined organic layers were washed with an equivalent volume of water and brine, dried over MgSCE, fdtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. Crude product was partially purified by flash chromatography to afford an orange oil whose R / was about 0.3 (7:3 hexanes :EtO Ac). The orange oil was concentrated and added to a stirred solution of triethylamine (1.2 equiv) in CH 3 CN (20 mL). Tosyl azide (1.0 equiv) in CH 3 CN (10 mL) was transferred via cannula into the flask and the reaction was left to stir overnight. Concentration under reduced pressure followed by purification via flash chromatography (silica gel, 8:2 hexanes:EtOAc®7:3 hexanes:EtOAc slowly added in gradient) furnished lc as a yellow oil in 50 % yield (from starting 4,5-dimethoxy-2-azidobenzoic acid).

[00209] R f = 0.25 (7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 2978, 2134, 1711, 1695, 1565, 1292 cm 1 ; 'H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 6.87 (s, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.78 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 184.5, 161.2, 152.4, 146.4, 131.4, 121.9, 111.6, 101.5, 56.3, 56.2, 52.3; HRMS calc’d for C^HnNsOsNa [M+Na] + 328.0652, found 328.0651. ( N.B. : 1 3 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening.).

[00210] Compound le:

[00211] Prepared analogously to lc using 3-nitro-2-azido benzoic acid in place of 2-azido-4,5- dimethoxybenzoic acid. Isolated as a brown oil in 23% yield: R / = 0.19 (7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3022, 2141, 1732, 1694, 1637, 1567, 1293 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 8.14 (dd, J= 8.2, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J= 7.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J= 8.2, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 184.2, 160.5, 135.8, 132.7, 132.5, 132.4, 127.8, 125.8, 52.6; LC-MS calc’d for C10H7N6O5 [M+H] + 291.1, found 291.1. (N.B. : (a) preparation for this starting material was limited to 70-100 mg; (b) 13 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening).

[00212] Compound lf:

[00213] Prepared analogously to lc using 3-azido-2-napthoic acid in place of 2-azido-4,5- dimethoxybenzoic acid.

[00214] Isolated as a brown oil in 51% yield: R/= 0.68 (7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film)

2971, 2136, 1724, 1693, 1633, 1567, 1290 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.83-7.76 (m, 3H), 7.53 (br s, 1H), 7.54 (ddd, = 8.2, 6.9, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 185.6, 160.9, 135.2, 134.7, 130.3, 129.5, 128.9, 128.7, 128.4, 126.7, 126.2, 115.6, 52.3; HRMS calc’d for Ci 4 H 9 N 5 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 318.0597, found 318.0594. (NB. : 3 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening.).

[00215] Compound lh:

[00216] Prepared analogously to lc using vinyl acetate in place of methyl acetate, and using 2- azido benzoic acid in place of 2-azido-4,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid.

[00217] Isolated as a yellow oil in 46% yield: R f = 0.51 (7:3 hexanes :EtO Ac); IR (cast film)

2924, 2931, 2136, 1724, 1684 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.47 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.5, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.28-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.17-7.12 (m, 3H), 4.70 (dd, J= 13.9, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dd, J = 6.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 185.3, 157.7, 140.1, 137.9, 132.2, 130.2, 128.6, 124.8, 118.3, 98.5; HRMS calc’d for CnH 7 N 5 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 280.0441, found

280.0439. ( N.B. : 13 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening.).

[00218] Compound lj :

[00219] Prepared analogously to lc using (+)-menthyl acetate in place of methyl acetate, and using 2-azido-benzoic acid in place of 2-azido-4,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid. [00220] Isolated as a yellow oil in 48% yield: R^= 0.64 (7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); [a]D 20 : -67.76 (c = 0.52, DCM) IR (cast film) 2956, 2928, 2870, 2130, 1719, 1691, 1302, 958 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) 5 7.45 (ddd, = 8. l, 7.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.30-7.28 (m, 1H), 7.19-7.14 (m, 2H), 4.70 (ddd, J= 10.9, 10.9, 4.4, 1H), 2.00-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.71-1.58 (m, 3H), 1.44-1.36 (m, 1H), 1.15-0.93 (m, 2H), 0.87 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.87-0.83 (m, 2H), 0.72 (d, = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 185.9, 160.3, 137.6, 131.7, 130.8, 128.3, 124.7, 118.1, 75.9, 46.9, 40.9, 34.0, 31.3, 26.4, 23.4, 21.9, 20.7, 16.3; HRMS calc’d for Ci 9' H 23 N 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 392.1693, found 392.1692. (N.B.: 13 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening.).

[00221] Compound lk:

[00222] Prepared analogously to lc using 2-azido-3-bromo benzoic acid in place of 2-azido-

4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. Product was obtained in 43% yield (unoptimized due to procedure being run only once, on a sufficient scale to permit its use in multiple coupling experiments).

[00223] Isolated as a yellow oil: R = 0.64 (3:7, EtOAc: hexanes); IR (cast film) 3026, 2955,

2111, 1729, 1634, 1585, 1565 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.35-7.33 (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 184.7, 160.7, 139.2, 129.7, 129.2, 128.0, 125.7, 121.5, 52.4; HRMS calc’d for Ci 0 H 6 BrN 5 NaO 3 [M+Na] + 345.9546, found 345.9549. (N.B.: 13 C signal for the diazo carbon was not detected due to quadrupolar broadening.).

[00224] Compound 11:

[00225] A solution of LiHMDS (6.2 mL of 1M THF solution; 6.2 mmol) was added to a

solution of 2-azido-acetophenone (1.0 g, 6.2 mmol) in 10 mL THF at -78 °C. The mixture was allowed to stir for 30 min. Then, a solution of benzoyl cyanide (822 mg, 6.20 mmol, dissolved in 10 mL THF) was added dropwise. The mixture was allowed to stir for 1 h then quenched with saturated NFFCl (15 mL). The mixture was diluted with diethyl ether (10 mL). The organic layer was separated and washed with water (20 mL, 3x). The organic layer was washed with brine and dried with MgSC> 4 . The solution was concentrated under pressure to afford yellow oil. The yellow oil was purified using flash column chromatography eluting 10 % EtOAc in hexanes to furnish 1.13 g (69%) of intermediate b-diketone (isolated as an enol) as a yellow oil:

[00226] R f = 0.63 (7:3 hexanes: EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3064, 2420, 2125, 1599, 1281, 1604,

778, 1126, 750 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 8.01-7.87 (m, 3H), 7.59-7.48 (m, 4H), 7.28-6.99 (m, 2H), 7.00 (s, 1H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDC1 3 .) d 185.5, 184.4, 138.3, 135.4, 132.6, 132.5, 130.4, 128.7, 128.3, 127.3, 125.0, 119.3, 98.3; HRMS calc’ d for Ci 5 H„N 3 0 2 [M] + 265.0851, found: 294.0849. (NB. : enol H was not detected.)

[00227] Triethylamine (715 pL, 5.1 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of the intermediate diketone (500 mg, 1.89 mmol) in CH 3 CN (8 mL). Tosyl azide (400 mg, 2.00 mmol) in CH 3 CN (5 mL) was transferred via cannula into the flask and the reaction was left to stir overnight. Concentration under reduced pressure followed by purification via flash chromatography (silica gel, 7:3 hexanes: EtOAc) resulted in a quantitative yield of 11 (551 mg) as a pale yellow oil. To prevent decomposition, product was stored under Ar in a freezer in a foil wrapped flask. Under these conditions the compound was stable over several months.

[00228] R^= 0.71 (7:3 hexanes: EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3053, 2451, 2132, 1641, 1283, 1607,

779, 1136, 754 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ) d 7.55-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.43-7.28 (m, 5H),

7.13 (ddd, J= 7.6, 7.6, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 .) d 185.9, 184.9, 137.5, 136.7, 132.5, 132.5, 130.0, 129.5, 128.2, 128.0, 125.0, 118.2, 98.3; LC- MS calc’d for C15H9N5O2 [M+H] + 291.2, found: 291.2.

Dual-Catalytic Formation of Bis(indole) Products 2 and 5

[00229] Representative procedure for small-scale synthesis of 2a (Method A):

[00230] A solution of diazoazide la (0.250 g, 1.02 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) was added to a solution of indole (0.239 g, 2.04 mmol) and Cu(OTf)2 (37 mg, 0.102 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. The reaction mixture turned light green over 1-2 h and slowly turned dark brown over 24 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of la (for some diazoazide starting materials, the reaction mixture was heated further at reflux for 10-15 minutes to ensure completion). Upon consumption of la, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 7:3 hexanes: EtOAc), and recrystallization (MeOH) (See Example 2 for more details). Total isolated yield of 2a was 0.287 g (92 %), as a combined yellow amorphous powder and crystals. Suitable single crystals of 2a for X-ray diffraction were grown from 1: 1 MeOH-EtOAc via slow evaporation of solvent.

[00231] Representative procedure for gram-scale synthesis of 2a (Method B):

[00232] A solution of diazoazide la (5.00 g, 20.4 mmol) in DCM (150-250 mL) was added to a solution of indole (4.78 g, 40.8 mmol) and Cu(OTf)2 (740 mg, 2.04 mmol) in DCM (150- 250 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump. The reaction mixture turned light green over 2 h and slowly turned dark brown with suspended green solid over 24 h. The reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of la. Upon consumption of la, the suspended solid was filtered from the reaction mixture to afford green needles of 2a. The green needles were directly recrystallized with minimum amount of ethyl acetate (hot), followed by slow addition of pentane or hexane to furnish adduct 2a as a fine dark yellow solid in 74% (69-78%) yield. The mother liquor contained ca. 10% of the product and could still be purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 7:3 Hexanes :EtO Ac) to afford yellow oil, which precipitated when left standing at -4°C overnight.

Compound 2a:

[00234] Following Method A, 0.231 g (74%) of dark yellow crystalline 2a was isolated after recrystallization. Concentration of mother liquor afforded another 0.056 g (18%) of yellow/brown amorphous powder. Combined total of 2a was 0.287 g (92%), m.p. ~ 110 °C (typical for the yellow/brown powder), m.p. = 225-226 °C (crystals); IR (cast film) 3392, 3059, 2953, 1726, 1697, 1491, 1434, 1214, 748 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 8.22 (br s, 1H), 7.70 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (app td, J= 8.3, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.40 d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.37 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (app t, J= 7.2 Hz, lH), 7.l l (app t, = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (app t, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 5.73 (br s, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ) 193.3, 168.5, 159.5, 140.4, 136.5, 127.8, 125.3, 123.5, 122.8, 121.4, 120.5, 119.4, 115.1, 112.6, 111.7, 111.2, 73.0, 53.9; HRMS calc’d for

C18H15N2CE [M+H] + 307.1077, found 307.1078; Elemental analysis calc’d for C18H14N2CE: 70.58% C, 4.61% H, 9T5% N, 15.67% O, found, 70.48% C, 4.62% H, 9T3% N. 'H-NMR spectral data were in good agreement with those reported in the literature [Jessing, M.; Barran, P. S. Heterocycles 2011, 82, 1739-1745] 13 C-NMR spectral varied by up to 0.6 ppm for some 1 3 C NMR resonances. There were also additional three carbon resonances reported here not included in the earlier data. Similar to 1 H-NMR spectral characterizations, IR wavenumbers were likewise in good agreement.

[00235] Compound 2b:

[00236] (Method A) Isolated as yellow cubic crystals in 89% yield (using methanol as

crystallizing solvent): m.p. = 215-216 °C (reported for powder 82 °C [Jessing, M.; Barran,

P.S. Heterocycles 2011, 82, 1739-1745] and [Bott, T. M.; Atienza, B. J.; West, F. G. RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 31955-31959]); R/= 0.31 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3366, 3051, 1744, 1702, 1616, 1485, 1293, 742 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): d 7.73 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (app t, J= 6.5 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (d, J= 8.0 Hz,

1H), 7.30 (d, J= 5.5 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (app t , J= 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.14 (app t, J= 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.96 (app t, J= 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.34 (br s, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.77 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDC1 3 ): d 195.2, 169.1, 161.0, 137.9, 137.4, 128.0 126.0, 125.4, 122.3,

120.4, 120.0, 119.9, 119.5, 113.6, 109.8, 109.8, 72.4, 53.8, 32.9; HRMS calc’d for C I9 H I7 N 2 0 3 [M+H] + 321.1234, found 321.1233.

[00237] Compound 2c:

[00238] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow crystalline solid in 93% combined yield (Method B:

77-83% yield if direct recrystallization from crude reaction mixture using methanol as the solvent): m.p. = 181-183 °C; R/= 0.40 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3370, 3051, 2920, 1742, 1704, 1616, 1486, 743 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): d 7.72 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (s, 1H), 7.32 - 7.25 (m, 4H), 7.20 (app td, J= 8.3, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.15 - 7.11 (m, 3H), 7.02 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (app t, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 5.79 (br s, 1H), 5.30 (s, 2H), 3.83 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 194.7, 169.0, 161.0, 137.9, 137.0, 136.9, 128.8, 127.7, 127.6, 126.9, 126.3, 125.4, 122.4, 120.4, 120.2, 119.9, 119.8, 113.6, 110.5, 110.3, 72.4, 53.8, 50.4; HRMS calc’d for C 25 H 2 oN 2 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 419.1366, found: 419.1363; Fluorescent properties in methanol solution: excitation wavelengths at 290 nm and 395 nm, emission wavelength at 500 nm (both excitation wavelength).

[00239] Compound 2d:

[00240] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow microcrystals in 88% yield; m.p. = 127 °C

(decomp.); R/= 0.28 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3360, 3062, 2950, 1710, 1617, 1487, 1239, 748 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.29 (br s, 1H), 7.66 (br d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (ddd, J= 8.4, 7.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.48 - 7.46 (m, 2H), 7.42 - 7.37 (m, 3H), 7.35 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (d, = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (app t, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (br s, 1H), 3.24 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 195.1, 168.8, 160.8, 138.0, 137.9, 135.5, 132.5, 129.6, 128.8, 128.4, 126.8, 125.2, 122.7, 120.6, 120.4, 120.2, 119.7, 113.4, 111.2, 108.2, 73.3, 53.2; HRMS calc’d for C 24 Hi 9 N 2 0 3 [M+H] + 383.1390, found 383.1385.

[00241] Compound 2e:

[00242] (Method A) Isolated as a light green crystalline solid in 71% yield; m.p. = 242-243

°C; R = 0.23 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (microscope) 3365, 3006, 2953, 1726, 1706, 1610, 1488, 1219, 792 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, d 6 - DMSO): d 7.60 (br s, 1H), 7.55 (d, = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (app t, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (app t, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (d, = 8.3 Hz, lH), 6.8 l (app t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.61 (s, 3H) (Note: one NH proton was not detected); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, d 6 - DMSO): d 195.9, 169.9, 162.2, 138.6 (2x), 126.4, 125.1, 125.0, 124.0, 123.3, 118.9, 118.0, 114.0, 113.0, 112.1, 111.4, 72.4, 53.5; HRMS calc’d for Ci 8 Hi 4 79 BrN 2 0 3 [M+H] + 385.0182, found 385.0182; Elemental analysis calc’d for Ci 8 Hi 3 BrN 2 0 3 : 56.12% C, 3.40% H, 7.27% N; found, 55.98% C, 3.41% H, 7.24% N.

[00243] Compound 2f:

[00244] (Method A) Isolated as bright yellow crystals in 78% yield; m.p. = 186-188 °C; R =

0.11 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3301, 3060, 2947, 1742, 1685, 1487, 1232, 1218, 756 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.19 (br s, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J= 7.9, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (app td, = 8.3, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.30 - 7.26 (m, 2H), 7.06 - 7.04 (m, 2H), 6.98 (app t , J= 7.2 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, J= 8.8, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.71 (br s, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.77 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 194.9, 169.0, 161.0, 154.4, 137.9, 131.7, 125.8, 125.4, 124.3, 120.4, 120.0, 113.5, 112.7, 112.3, 111.2, 101.5, 72.4, 55.8, 53.7; HRMS calc’d for C19H17N2O4 [M+H] + 337.1183, found 337.1185.

[00245] Compound 2h:

[00246] (Method A, with following modification: after addition of diazo-azide la by syringe pump, reaction mixture was heated to reflux and stirred at that temperature until consumption of la was observed) Isolated as a yellow oil in 46% yield; R^= 0.40 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3363, 3065, 2954, 1748, 1711, 1617, 1488, 1242, 751 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.69 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (dd, J= 7.7, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (dd, J= 8.1, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (app td, J= 7.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H),

7.21 (app td, = 7.9, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (overlapped app td, J= 7.7, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (overlapped s, 1H), 5.74 (br s, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 191.3, 166.6, 161.2, 155.0, 150.9, 138.2, 127.7, 125.7, 124.9, 123.1, 121.6, 120.8, 119.3, 113.7, 111.3, 105.6, 71.9, 54.2; HRMS calc’d for Ci 8 Hi 3 N0 4 Na [M+Na] + 330.0737, found 330.0739.

[00247] Compound 2i:

[00248] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow oil in 68% yield: R^= 0.34 (yellow spot, 7:3

hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3426, 3390, 3056, 2954, 1726, 1697, 1488, 1233, 751 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 9.43 (br s, 1H), 7.63 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (apparent (app) td, J = 7.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (app td, J= 7.2, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (app td, J = 2.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.33 (ddd, J= 3.5, 2.7, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.19 - 6.14 (m, 1H), 5.68 (br s, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.2, 167.6, 161.6, 138.0, 125.8, 124.8, 120.7, 119.2, 118.8, 113.6, 108.2, 106.3, 71.8, 53.9; HRMS calc’d for Ci 4 H 13 N 2 0 3 [M+H] + 257.0921, found 257.0915.

[00249] Compound 2j :

[00250] (Method A, with following modification: after addition of diazoazide la by syringe pump, the reaction mixture was heated to reflux and stirred at that temperature until consumption of la was observed) Isolated as a yellow oil in 48% yield; R^= 0.37 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3362, 3125, 2954, 1748, 1710, 1617, 1488, 1233, 751 cm '; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.69 (d, = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (app td, J= 7.2, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (dd, J= 1.8, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.96 (app t , J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.56 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (dd, = 3.3, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (br s, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR

(l25MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 191.8, 166.9, 161.1, 148.4, 143.3, 138.1, 125.7, 120.7, 119.3, 113.6, 110.7, 108.8, 71.7, 54.1; HRMS calc’d for C I4 H I2 N0 4 [M+H] + 258.0761, found 258.0764.

[00251] Compound 2k:

[00252] (Method A, with following modification: after addition of diazoazide la by syringe pump, reaction mixture was heated to reflux and stirred at that temperature until consumption of la was observed) Isolated as a yellow oil in 41% yield; R^= 0.42 (7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3360, 3071, 2952, 1747, 1709, 1616, 1486, 1231, 754 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCls): 5 7.62 (ddd, = 7.2, 1.4, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (ddd, J= 8.4, 7.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (dd, = 3.7, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (dd, = 5. l, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.07 (d, = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (dd, = 5. l, 3.7 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (app td, J= 7.9, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 5.79 (br s, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCls): 5 192.2, 167.4, 160.9, 138.8, 137.9, 127.6, 125.9, 125.7, 125.5, 121.1, 119.0, 113.7, 73.4, 54.1; HRMS calc’d for C14H12NSO3 [M+H] + 274.0532, found 274.0536.

[00253] Compound 21:

[00254] (Method A) Isolated as yellow crystals in 86% yield; m.p. = 192-193 °C; R^= 0.16

(yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR(cast film) 3371, 3057, 2952, 1739, 1702, 1608, 1459, 1238, 745 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 8.40 (br s, 1H), 7.58-7.55 (m, 2H), 7.37-7.31 (m, 3H), 7.18 (ddd, J= 7.9, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (app t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 5.53 (br s, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) 5 195.2, 169.2, 160.3, 138.0, 136.6, 125.5, 123.7, 122.8 (2x), 122.7, 120.6, 120.4, 119.5 (2x), 111.8, 111.7, 72.6, 53.8, 15.8; HRMS calc’d for C19H17N2O3 [M+H] + 321.1234, found: 321.1233.

[00255] Compound 2m:

[00256] (Method A) Isolated as yellow crystals in 84% yield (using MeOH as the

recrystallization solvent); m.p. = 170-171 °C; R / = 0.35 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR(cast film) 3359, 3055, 2950, 1746, 1705, 1608, 1460, 1241, 743 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) d 7.61 (2 overlapping app t, J= 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.39-7.26 (m, 4H), 7.15 (app t, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (app t , J= 7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.58 (br s, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 2.33 (s, 3H); 1 3 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 195.2, 169.2, 160.2, 137.9, 137.4, 128.1, 126.1, 122.8, 122.7, 122.2, 120.5, 119.9, 119.5, 119.5, 110.0, 109.8, 72.5, 53.8, 32.9, 15.8; HRMS calc’d for C20H19N2O3 [M+H] + 335.1390, found: 335.1388.

[00257] Compound 2n:

[00258] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow powder in 94% yield (using methanol as

recrystallization solvent): m.p. = 184-186 °C; R/= 0.16 (7:3 hexanes :EtO Ac); IR (cast fdm) 3349, 3015, 2942, 1748, 1712, 1623, 1451, 1239, 731 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 7.61 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (s, 1H), 7.28-7.09 (m, 10H), 6.48 (br s, 1H), 5.28 (s, 2H), 3.92 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 192.7, 169.4, 158.9 (2x), 145.2, 136.9 (2x), 128.7, 127.6 (2x), 126.8, 126.4, 122.3, 120.1, 119.5, 111.5, 110.8, 110.3, 104.5, 95.8, 73.0, 56.3, 56.2, 53.7, 50.3; HRMS calc’d for C27H25N2O3 [M+H] + 457.1685, found: 457.1683.

[00259] Compound 2o:

[00260] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow powder in 89% yield: m.p. = 236-238 °C; R^ = 0.19

(yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3364, 3052, 2952, 1746, 1711, 1610, 1242, 741 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.21 (br s, 1H), 7.61 (d, = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.40 - 7.37 (m, 2H), 7.22 (app t, = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (app t, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (d, J= 1.1 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (dd, = 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.77 (br s, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 193.2, 168.6, 161.2, 144.5, 136.5, 126.5, 125.3, 123.5, 122.9 121.2,

120.6, 119.4, 118.3, 113.4, 111.7, 111.3, 72.8, 53.9; HRMS calc’d for Ci 8 Hi 3 35 ClN 2 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 363.0507, found: 363.0508; Elemental analysis calc’d for Ci 8 Hi 3 ClN 2 0 3 : 63.45% C, 3.85% H, 8.22% N; found, 63.35% C, 3.87% H, 8.13% N.

[00261] Compound 2p:

[00262] (Method A) Isolated as bright yellow crystals in 76% yield (using methanol as

recrystallization solvent): m.p. = 194-195 °C; R / = 0.35 (7:3 hexanes :EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3364, 3052, 2952, 1746, 1711, 1610, 1242, 741 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.61 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (ddd, = 8.0, 1.8, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.31 (ddd, = 8.3, 1.8, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.26- 7.22 (m, 2H), 7.10 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (dd, J= 1.7, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, J =

8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H) 5.80 (br s, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.75 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d

193.3, 168.6, 161.1, 144.5, 137.3, 128.0, 126.4, 125.8, 122.3, 121.1, 120.1, 119.3, 118.1,

113.3, 109.8, 109.3, 72.7, 53.9, 32.9; HRMS calc’d for Ci 9 Hi6 35 ClN 2 03 [M+H] + 355.0844, found: 355.0846.

[00263] Compound 2q:

[00264] (Method A) Isolated as bright yellow crystals in 90% yield (80% yield from direct recrystallization of crude and using methanol as recrystallization solvent): m.p. = 174-175 °C; R = 0.42 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3364, 3052, 2952, 1746, 1711, 1610, 1242, 741 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.62 (app t, J= 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (s, 1H), 7.31-7.26 (m, 4H), 7.20 (app td, J= 7.0, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.14-7.11 (m, 3H), 6.97 (d, J= 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, J= 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H) 5.96 (br s, 1H), 5.26 (s, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCL) d 193.3, 168.6, 161.1, 144.4, 136.9, 136.8 128.8, 127.7, 127.6, 126.8, 126.4, 126.1, 122.5, 120.9, 120.2, 119.7, 118.0, 113.2, 110.4, 110.0, 72.8, 53.8, 50.3; HRMS calc’d for C 25 Hi 9 35 ClN 2 Na0 3 [M+Na] + 453.0976, found: 453.0984.

[00265] Compound 2r:

[00266] (Method A; Note: due to concerns about potential hazards associated with starting material, this reaction was carried out on 20 mg scale. As a result, only partial characterization was obtained.) Light yellow solid in ca. 14% yield (corrected for impurity from EtOAc and water present): R f = 0.24 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); IR (cast film) 3324, 3048, 2956, 1738, 1714, 1610, 1251, 731 cm 1 ; 'H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.38 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.01 (s, 1H), 8.00-7.98 (m, 2H), 7.56 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (br s, 1H), 7.29-7.12 (m, 5H), 6.95 (dd, J = 8.2, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.26 (s, 2H), 3.83 (s, 3H); LC-MS calc’d for

C 25 H 19 N 3 O 5 [M+H] + 442.1, found: 442.1. (Due to small scale, no 13 C NMR or HRMS data were obtained.)

[00267] Compound 2s:

5.76 (br s, 1H), 5.27 (s, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 195.7, 169.3, 153.7, 139.9, 137.1, 136.9, 130.8, 129.6, 128.8, 128.6, 127.7, 127.6, 127.2, 126.9, 126.7, 126.2, 123.7, 122.4, 121.8, 120.2, 120.1, 110.8, 110.3, 107.0, 72.7, 53.7, 50.4; HRMS calc’d for C 29 H 22 N 2 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 469.1523, found: 447.1530.

[00269] Compound 2t:

[00270] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow powder in 81% yield: m.p. = 158-159 °C; R^= 0.19

(yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3368, 3055, 2919, 1732, 1711, 1635, 1491, 1225, 757 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.36 (br s, 1H), 7.69 (ddd, J= 7.8, 1.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (d, = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (ddd, J= 8.4, 7.1, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (app t, J= 1.0 Hz, 1H) 7.17 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.1, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.08 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.1, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (dt, = 8.3, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (ddd, J= 7.9, 7.1, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 5.84 (tdd, J= 5.6, 10.5, 17.2 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (br s, 1H), 5.23 (tdd, J= 1.5, 1.5, 17.2 Hz, 1H), 5.16 (tdd, J= 1.3,

1.3, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 4.71-4.67 (m, 2H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3, ): d 194.8, 168.2, 161.1, 137.9, 136.5, 131.1, 125.4 (2x), 123.8, 122.6, 120.3 (2x), 119.8, 119.6, 119.2, 113.5, 111.7,

111.3, 72.6, 67.2; HRMS calc’d for C 2o Hi 7 N 2 0 3 [M+H] + 333.1234, found: 333.1232.

[00271] Compound 2u:

1H), 7.32-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.26 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (ddd, J= 8.0, 7.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (d, = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (app t, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.88 (ddt, J= 17.2, 10.5, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (br s, 1H), 5.29 (ddt, J= 17.2, 1.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 5.22 (ddt, J= 10.4, 1.2, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.75-4.71 (m, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3, ): d 194.7, 168.3, 161.0, 137.8, 137.4, 131.2, 128.1, 126.0, 125.4, 122.2, 120.2, 119.9(2c), 119.8, 119.1, 113.5, 109.8, 109.7, 72.5, 67.1, 32.9; HRMS calc’d for C21H19N2O3 [M+H] + 347.1390, found: 347.1393.

[00273] Compound 2v:

[00274] (Method A) Isolated as a yellow powder in 73% yield: m.p. = 193-195 °C; R^= 0.21

(yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3351, 3011, 2915, 1738, 1712, 1635, 1465, 1233, 758 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.25 (br s, 1H), 7.70 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (dd, = 8.1, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (d, = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.37 (app dt, J= 8.2, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (dd, J= 13.9, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.2, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.2, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (d, = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (app t, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.68 (br s, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J= 13.9, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (dd, J= 6.1, 2.0 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCI3 , ): d 194.0, 165.8, 160.9, 141.3, 138.0, 136.5, 125.5, 125.3, 123.7, 122.8, 120.5 (2x), 119.7, 119.6, 113.5, 111.6, 111.0, 100.0, 72.1; HRMS calc’d for CigH^OsNa [M+Na] + 318.1004, found: 318.1007.

[00275] Compound 2w:

1H), 7.01 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (app t , J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.26 (br s, 1H), 3.77 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 195.2, 193.6, 161.1, 137.8, 137.4, 134.2, 133.2, 131.3, 127.9,

127.6, 126.1, 125.2, 122.4, 120.5, 120.3, 120.1, 119.3, 114.0, 112.0, 109.8, 79.0, 33.0; LC-MS calc’d for C 24 H 19 N 2 O 2 [M+H] + 366.1, found: 366.1.

[00277] Compounds 2xa and 2xb:

[00278] (Method A) Isolated as bright yellow powder in 81% yield, inseparable mixture

(HPLC, ca. 1.3: 1 ratio of 2xa: 2xb, characterized as mixture of diastereomers) : R/ = 0.21 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3362, 3051, 2955, 1705, 1618, 1242, 739 cm 1 ; Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d (major isomer 2xa) 8.26 (br s, 1H), 7.69 (dddd, J= 7.8,

1.4, 0.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.59 - 7.58 (m, 1H), 7.51 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.4, 1H), 7.50 (ddd, J= 8.3, 7.2, 1.4, 1H), 7.37 (d, = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (ddd, J= 8.2, 0.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (dd, = 0.8, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (ddd, J= 7.1, 0.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 5.65 (br s, 1H) 4.77 (ddd, J= 10.9, 10.9, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 0.84 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H), 0.82 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.64 (d, J= 6.9 Hz, 3H), d (minor isomer 2xb) 8.24 (br s, 1H), 7.70 (dddd, J= 7.8, 1.4, 0.6,

0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.61 - 7.60 (m, 1H), 7.38 (d, J= 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (ddd, J= 8.1, 0.9, 0.9 Hz,

1H), 7.06 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (dd, = 0.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (ddd, J= 7.1,

0.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 5.76 (br s, 1H), 4.72 (ddd, = 11.0, 11.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 0.86 (d, = 6.5 Hz, 3H), 0.51 (d, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H), 0.43 (d, J= 6.9 Hz, 3H) (Note: some protons could not be properly assigned due to extensive spectral overlap); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl ) d 194.8, 194.6, 168.0 (2x), 161.2, 161.0, 137.7, 137.6, 136.6, 136.5, 125.7, 125.6, 125.4, 125.3, 123.7,

123.4, 122.6 (2x), 120.3, 120.2 (2x), 120.1 (3x), 120.0, 119.6, 113.7, 113.5, 111.9, 111.8,

111.5 (2x), 77.5, 77.4, 72.8, 72.7, 46.8, 46.7, 40.3, 40.2, 34.1 (2x), 31.5, 25.8, 25.5, 23.2, 23.0, 22.0, 20.8, 20.4, 15.9, 15.7 (Note: 2 aliphatic carbon resonances were not detected due to extensive spectral overlap); HRMS calc’d for C 27 H 31 N 2 O 3 [M+H] + 431.2329, found: 431.2332.

[00279] Compounds 2ya and 2yb:

[00280] (Method A) Isolated as bright yellow powder in 79% yield, inseparable mixture

(HPLC, co. 2.3: 1 ratio of 2ya:2yb, characterized as mixture of diastereomers): R / = 0.33 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexane s:EtO Ac); IR (cast film) 3362, 3051, 2955, 1704, 1618, 1242, 740 cm 1 ; 'H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d (major isomer 2ya) 7.58 (ddd, J= 8.0, 1.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (ddd, = 8.3, 7.1, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.1 Hz), 5.65 (br s, 1H), 4.77 (ddd, J = 10.8, 10.8, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 1.85 (sepd, J= 7.1, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 0.87 (d, = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.64 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), d (minor isomer 2yb) 7.59 (ddd, J = 8.0, 0.9, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (ddd, J= 8.4, 7.2, 1.4, 1H), 7.09 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H),

5.76 (br s, 1H), 4.73 (ddd, J= 10.9, 10.9, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 1.19 (sepd, J= 7.0, 2.9 Hz), 0.86 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.52 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.44 (d, J= 6.9 Hz, 3H) (Note: some protons could not be properly assigned due to extensive spectral overlap); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 194.9, 194.7, 168.1, 168.0, 161.2, 160.9, 137.7, 137.6, 137.3 (2x), 128.1, 127.9, 126.2, 126.0, 125.4, 125.3, 122.1 (2x), 120.2 (2x), 120.0 (3x), 119.7 (3x), 113.7, 113.5, 110.1, 110.0, 109.6, 109.5, 77.4, 77.3, 72.8, 72.7, 46.7, 46.6, 40.3, 40.2, 34.1 (2x), 32.9 (2x), 31.4, 25.7, 25.4, 23.1, 23.0, 21.9, 20.8, 20.4, 15.9, 15.7 (Note: two carbon resonances could not be found due to extensive overlap); HRMS calc’d for C 28 H 32 N 2 O 3 [M+H] + 445.2486, found: 445.2492.

[00281] Compounds 2za and 2zb: [00282] (Method A) Isolated in 92% combined yield (2.7: 1 ratio of 2za:2zb).

[00283] Major diastereomer 2za (isolated as green needles from partial separation of mixture):

R / = 0.42 (yellow spot, 7:3 hexanes:EtOAc); [a]D 20 : +23.76 (c = 1.01, DCM); IR (cast film) cm 1 ; 'H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.68 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (ddd, = 8.3, 7.2, 1.3, 1H), 7.39 (s, 1H), 7.30-7.22 (m, 4H), 7.14 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.1, 1.1, 1H), 7.13-7.11 (m, 2H), 7.06 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.1, 1.0, 1H), 7.01 (d, = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (app t , = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (br s, 1H), 5.28 (app br s, 2H), 4.75 (ddd, = 11.0, 11.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 1.91- 1.88 (m, 1H), 1.81 (sepd, J= 7.0, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 1.66-1.61 (m, 2H), 1.45-1.39 (m, 2H), 1.03- 0.96 (m, 1H), 0.88 (app td, J= 12.2, 11.0 Hz, 1H) 0.87-0.70 (m, 1H), 0.84 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.81 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.62 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25MHz, CDCl 3 ) d 194.8, 167.9, 161.0, 137.6, 137.1, 137.0, 128.8, 127.7, 127.6, 127.0, 126.3, 125.4, 122.3, 120.3, 120.2,

120.1, 120.0, 113.5, 110.7, 110.1, 77.4, 72.8, 50.3, 46.8, 40.2, 34.1, 31.4, 25.8, 23.2, 22.0, 20.7, 15.9; HRMS calc’d for C 34 H 37 N 2 0 3 [M+H] + 521.2799, found: 521.2810.

[00284] Minor diastereomer 2zb (partial assignment based on deduction, using spectra of mixture of diastereomers and spectra of major diastereomer; multiplicity of some peaks could not be properly assigned due to substantial overlap): ' H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 7.68 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (ddd, J= 8.4, 7.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 7.30 - 7.22 (m, 4H), 7.15 (app t, J= 7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.12 - 7.11 (m, 3H), 7.02 (d, J= 8.16 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (app t, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.80 (br s, 1H), 5.28 (app br s, 2H), 4.72 (ddd, = 11.0, 10.9, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 1.95 - 1.92 (m, 1H), 1.66 - 1.55 (m, 2H), 1.47 - 1.33 (m, 2H), 1.15 (sepd, J= 6.9, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 0.87 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.48 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 0.40 (d, J= 6.9 Hz, 3H) (KB. : three protons in aliphatic region could not be properly assigned due to extensive spectral overlap); 13 C NMR (125MH z , CDCl 3 ) d 194.5, 168.1, 161.2, 137.7, 137.2, 136.9, 128.8, 127.7, 127.4, 126.7, 126.5, 125.4, 122.3, 120.3, 120.2, 120.0, 113.7, 110.9, 110.1, 77.4, 72.7, 50.3, 46.7, 40.3, 34.1, 31.4, 25.5, 23.0, 22.0, 20.4, 15.7 ( N.B one resonance 13 C was missing and could not be properly assigned due to extensive spectral overlap).

[00285] Compound 5a:

[00286] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow powder in 84% yield: m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); R/

= 0.32 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3345, 3015, 2960, 1744, 1712, 1617, 1465, 1234, 733 cm ·1 ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.41 (s, 1H), 7.50 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.40-7.28 (m, 6H), 7.21-7.16 (m, 2H), 7.05 (app. t, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (d, = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, = 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.73 (s, 1H), 3.22 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.7, 168.5, 160.8, 144.3, 138.0, 135.4, 132.4, 129.5, 128.8, 128.3, 126.7, 126.1, 122.6, 121.0, 120.6, 119.4, 118.4, 113.0, 111.3, 107.5, 73.6, 53.2; HRMS calc’d for C 24 H 17 35 ClN 2 Na0 3 [M+Na] + 439.0822, found 439.0822.

[00287] Compound 5b:

[00288] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow powder in 88% yield: m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); R/

= 0.17 (3:7, EtOAc: hexanes); IR (cast film) 3338, 3027, 2953, 1741, 1708, 1624, 1461, 1237, 747 cm ·1 Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.52 (d, = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.33-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.19-7.15 (m, 2H), 7.03 (ddd, J= 8.2, 7.2, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (dd, = 1.7, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89-6.85 (m, 3H), 5.63 (s, 1H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.31 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.7, 168.6, 160.8, 160.1, 144.3, 137.9, 135.3, 130.9, 126.8, 126.2, 124.7, 122.6, 121.0, 120.6, 119.4, 118.6, 113.8, 113.1, 111.2, 107.5, 73.6, 55.4; 53.4; HRMS calc’d for

C 2 5H2o 35 ClN 2 04 [M+H] + 447.1106, found 447.1105. [00289] Compound 5c:

[00290] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow powder in 67% yield: m.p. = l35°C (dec.), R

= 0.21 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3336, 3021, 2945, 1739, 1712, 1615, 1471, 1239, 749 cm ·1 : H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 8.15 (s, 1H), 7.51 (dd, = 8.2, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.43-7.40 (m, 2H), 7.36 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.22-7.18 (m, 2H), 7.07-7.04 (m, 3H), 6.98 (dd, J= 1.7, 0.5 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (dd, J= 8.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.62 (s, 1H), 3.35 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 193.4, 168.5, 163.1 (d, J= 249.5 Hz), 160.7, 144.5, 136.8, 135.4, 131.6 (d, = 8.3 Hz), 128.5, 126.7, 126.2, 123.0, 121.3, 120.9, 119.4, 118.6, 115.5 (d, J= 21.7 Hz), 113.1,

111.2, 108.2, 73.4, 53.5; 19 F NMR (469 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 -111.7 (br s); HRMS calc’d for C 24 Hi 7 35 ClFN 2 0 3 [M+H] + 435.0904, found 435.0906.

[00291] Compound 5d:

[00292] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow solid in 51% yield: m.p. = 148 °C (dec.), R =

0.30 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3344, 3039, 2957, 1729, 1712, 1659, 1464, 1239,

731 cm 1 ;’H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 8.17 (br s, 1H), 7.48 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (dd, J = 7.0, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.37 (d, J= 10.3 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (ddd, J= 6.8, 4.6, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.27-7.21 (m, 2H), 7.13-7.07 (m, 2H), 7.01 (d, = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.91 (dd, = 8.3, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (s, 1H), 3.48 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ): 5 193.2, 168.6, 163.0 (d, J= 249.5 Hz),

160.4, 157.4, 144.6, 135.5, 135.2, 132.0, 129.5 (d, = 19.9 Hz), 129.4, 126.8, 126.1, 123.3,

121.5, 121.0, 119.3, 118.7, 116.6 (d, J= 25.1 Hz), 113.2, 111.4, 108.9, 73.2, 53.6; 19 F NMR (469 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d -114.2 (br s); HRMS calc’d for C 24 Hi 5 Cl 2 FN 2 0 3 Na [M+Na] + 491.0336, found 491.0334.

[00293] Compound 5e:

[00294] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow powder in 74% yield; m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); R/

= 0.32 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3342, 3025, 2950, 1741, 1709, 1618, 1460, 1231, 733 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.32 (s, 1H), 7.42 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.26-7.39 (m, 6H), 7.14-7.19 (m, 2H), 7.10 (d, J= 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.01-7.05 (m, 2H), 5.67 (s, 1H), 3.21 (s, 3H); 1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.9, 168.4, 160.8, 138.0, 135.4, 133.3, 132.4, 129.5, 128.8, 128.4, 126.7, 126.2, 123.8 122.7, 120.6, 119.4, 118.8, 116.1, 111.3, 107.6, 73.5, 53.2. HRMS calc’d for C 24 H 18 BrN 2 0 3 [M+H] + 461.0495, found 461.0501.

[00295] Compound 5f:

[00296] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow solid in 76% yield; m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); R =

0.32 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3347, 3033, 2956, 1731, 1713, 1638, 1465, 1236, 713 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.12 (br s, 1H), 7.46 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.26-7.12 (m, 3H), 7.19-7.14 (m, 3H), 7.05-7.03 (m, 2H), 7.02-6.88 (m, 2H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 3.32 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (l25 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.9, 168.6, 160.8, 160.1, 138.0, 135.4, 133.3, 130.9, 126.8, 126.2, 124.7, 123.8, 121.0, 120.6, 119.4, 118.7, 116.1, 113.8, 111.2, 107.6, 73.5, 55.4, 53.4; HRMS calc’d for C 25 H 20 79 BrN 2 O 4 [M+H] + 491.0601, found 491.0605.

[00297] Compound 5g:

[00298] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow solid in 52% yield: m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); =

0.32 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3339, 3035, 2954, 1728, 1718, 1648, 1464, 1229, 728 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.17 (br s, 1H), 7.46 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.26-7.12 (m, 3H), 7.19-7.14 (m, 3H), 7.05-7.03 (m, 2H), 7.02-6.88 (m, 2H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 3.32 (s, 3H); 1 3 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.7, 168.4, 163.1 (d, J= 249.5 Hz), 160.7, 136.8, 135.4, 133.4, 131.6 (d, = 8.3 Hz), 128.5, 126.7, 126.2, 124.0, 123.0, 120.9, 119.4, 119.0, 116.2, 115.5 (d, = 21.6 Hz), 111.2, 108.1, 73.3, 53.5; 19 F NMR (469 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d -111.7 (br s); HRMS calc’d for C 24 Hi 7 79 BrFN 2 0 3 [M+Hf 479.0402, found 479.0404.

[00299] Compound 5h:

[00300] (Method A) Isolated as a bright yellow solid in 38% yield: m.p. = 120 °C (dec.); R =

0.30 (3:7, EtOAc:hexanes); IR(cast film) 3341, 3037, 2951, 1724, 1716, 1651, 1465, 1234, 737 cm 1 ; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 8.21 (br s, 1H), 7.46 (dd, J= 7.0, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (ddd, J= 6.8, 4.5, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.24-7.20 (m, 2H), 7.19 (dd, J= 1.5, 0.4 Hz, 1H), 7.11-7.06 (m, 3H), 5.66 (s, 1H), 3.48 (s, 3H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d 193.2, 168.6, 163.0 (d, J= 249.5 Hz), 160.4, 151.1, 142.0, 133.3, 133.2, 132.0, 129.5, 129.4 (d, = 19.9 Hz), 126.8, 126.1, 124.5, 123.2, 121.0, 119.3, 119.0, 116.6 (d, .7= 25.1 Hz), 116.3, 111.4, 108.9, 73.2, 53.6; 19 F NMR (469 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d -114.2 (br s); HRMS calc’d for C 24 Hi 6 79 Br 35 ClFN 2 0 3 [M+H] + 513.0012, found 513.0015.

[00301] Virology Procedures

[00302] Cells and virus. Hep-2 cells were grown in Opti-MEM media supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), lHAEo- cells were grown in MEM media supplemented with 10% FBS, and Hela cells grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. Infections were conducted using human RSV strain A2 or RSV-A2-GFP strain described previously [Hallak, L. K.; Spillmann, D.; Collins, P. L.; Peeples, M. E. J. Virol. 2000, 74, 10508-10513] A549 cells and Vero cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and used for experiments with ZIKV (Cambodia strain).

[00303] Structure activity relationship screens of antiviral activity. lHAEo- cells were seeded at 80% confluency and incubated overnight. In SAR1 cells were preincubated with compounds for one hour at 20mM prior to infection, followed by dilution to 10mM and infection with RSV-A2-GFP at an MOI of 1 for 2 hours. In SAR2 lHAEo- cells were infected with RSV-A2-GFP at an MOI of 0.5 for 2 hours without pre-incubation with compounds. At 2 hours post infection, infectious media was removed from wells to prevent carry over of infecting virus into progeny collections. Fresh media containing compounds at 10mM was added for remainder of 48 hour incubation. HeFa cells, used to titrate progeny virus, were plated at 80% confluency and incubated overnight. Progeny virus collected at 48 hours was immediately transferred to HeFa cells in duplicate technical replicates without dilution. At 2 hours post infection media was replaced with fresh compound-free media. Infection was stopped at 20 hours post infection, preventing cell to cell spread of virus, and infected cells were identified via indirect immunofluorescence assay.

[00304] Progeny virus quantification via indirect immunofluorescence. HeFa cells were fixed in 1: 1 methanol :acetone. incubated with goat anti-RSV polyclonal antibody (Meridian Fife Science B65860G) for 1 hour at room temperature, and then incubated with chicken anti -goat polyclonal antibody conjugated to Alexafluor 647 (FifeTech A-21469). Finally, cell nuclei were stained with DAPI. Total cells (identified by DAPI staining) and infected cells were counted via the Operetta high content imaging system at 20x objective magnification.

[00305] MTT cell viability assay. lHAEo- cells were grown in parallel with infected and compound treated cells in SAR and dose response experiments. 0.3mg/mF of MTT ((3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)) in PBS was added to wells and incubated for 1 hour. Precipitate was dissolved in DMSO and absorbance was measured at 570nm.

[00306] Cell extract-based in vitro inhibition of viral transcription. The protocol utilized to examine in vitro viral transcription was first developed for virus vesicular stomatitis virus [Canter, D. M.; Jackson, R. F.; Perrault, J. Virology 1993, 194, 518-529], and adapted for RSV as published previously [Noton, S. F.; Nagendra, K.; Dunn, E. F.; Mawhorter, M. E.; Yu, Q.; Feams, R. J. Virol. 2015, 89, 7786-7798] Briefly, HEp-2 cells were grown in 6 well plates ovemight to approximately 80% confluence and infected with RSV A2 at an MOI of 5 for 1 hour before incubating overnight in fresh media. Immediately before cell lysis, cells were incubated in 2pg/mL actinomycin D to block cellular transcription. Cells were lysed on ice via 1 minute treatment with lysolecithin, and cell extract was subsequently collected in transcription buffer containing 50mM Tris-acetate at pH 8, 8mM Mg acetate, 300mM K acetate, 2mM DTT, lmM spermidine, lOmM creatine phosphatase, lpg/mL aprotinin, 16 U creatine phosphokinase, lmM each of ATP, GTP, and CTP, 50mM UTP, and 2pg/mL actinomycin D. Cell debris was removed via refrigerated centrifugation. In vitro transcription reaction was performed by combining soluble cell extract, additional transcription buffer, RNase Inhibitor, compound 28 diluted in DMSO, and lOpCi [a 32-P] UTP, incubated at 30°C for 3 hours. RNA extraction was performed with Qiagen RNeasy kit as per manufacturer protocol to purify samples, followed by hybridization with oligo(dT) to facilitate RNaseH digestion of mRNA transcript poly(A) tails. Denaturing electrophoresis of samples was performed using 4% acrylamide containing 7 M urea gels. Gels were dried and

autoradiography captured during 4 day exposure. Viral RNA products were quantified by densitometry analysis following phosphorimaging (n=4).

[00307] Dose response experiments. lHAEo- cells were infected as described, progeny virus collected, and tittered on HeLa cells in duplicate as described in SAR 2. During initial infection in lHAEo- cells infectious media was replaced with media containing compounds at indicated concentrations at 2 hours post infection. Proportion of virus infected cells were quantified via indirect immunofluorescence assay.

[00308] Mutant escape assay. lHAEo- cells were infected with RSV-GFP-A2 at an initial MOI of 0.1 and serial passaged over incubation periods of 48-72 hours. Samples were collected during passaging and stored in liquid nitrogen for tittering via indirect

immunofluorescence assay. Ongoing low level viral infection during passaging was confirmed by identification of green fluorescence from GFP produced by the RSV-GFP in infected cells.

[00309] Zika Virus antiviral screen. Vero cells were pre-treated with bis(indole) compounds at

10mM for 4 hours before infection with ZIKV at an MOI of 1. After 48 hour infection progeny ZIKV was collected, serial diluted over 6 logs, and transferred onto fresh Vero cell monolayers and incubated for 4 days. Vero cell monolayers were then fixed with 10% formaldehyde and stained with crystal violet; viral infection was quantified via plaque assay. Results and Discussion

[00310] Conditions originally employed for the cascade process utilized 10 mol % Cu(hfacac)2 and heating (toluene at reflux). Catalytic generation of copper metallocarbenes from diazoketone precursors is generally accepted to require the Cu(I) oxidation state, necessitating in situ reduction of the starting Cu(II) salt by added reductant or a sacrificial quantity of the diazo substrate. Once tthe C-acylimine was formed, it was considered that nucleophilic trapping involved activation of the imine nitrogen atom by either Cu(I) or unreduced Cu(II). Using substrate la and indole as the trap, only moderate yields of the desired adduct 2a were observed under standard conditions, complicated by varying amounts of the regioisomer resulting from Friedel-Crafts trapping at C-2 (Table 1, entry 1). Attempts to improve selectivity by reducing reaction temperature were not fruitful, providing only traces of 2a after 24 h, which was attributed to slow production of catalytically competent Cu(I) (entry 2). Cu(OTf) * PhCFl·, in DCM at rt afforded 2a in only 12 % yield, although la was consumed quickly (Table 1, entry 3). In contrast, use of 10 mol % Cu(OTf)2 required extended stirring in DCM at rt, but ultimately provided 2a in 92 % yield (Table 1, entry 4), and these conditions were scalable (Table 1, entry 5). Induction time was consistent with a pre -activation step to generate CuOTf, but the high yield in this case (in contrast to entry 3) suggested a requirement for another component besides Cu(I) to attain efficient production of indole adduct 2a.

[00311] Species responsible for reduction of Cu(OTf)2 was not clear. As noted above, diazo compounds are known to play this role, but the presence of excess indole suggested an alternative possibility. Gaunt and co-workers have shown that direct C-3 arylation of indoles can be accomplished using catalytic Cu(OTf) 2 , involving C-3 cupration of the indole by a Cu(III) intermediate, ArCu(OTf)2, which is formed via CuOTf insertion to an aryliodonium salt [Phipps, R. T; Grimster, N. P.; Gaunt, M. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8172-8174] In the present context, it was considered that indole C-3 cupration by Cu(OTf)2 could form organocopper(II) complex 3, which could furnish CuOTf through hemolytic cleavage of the weak C-Cu bond (See FIG. 2). Alternatively, it was considered that disproportionation of 3 with another molecule of Cu(OTf)2 would afford the required CuOTf along with a Cu(III) complex. It was noted that la was recovered unconsumed after stirring for 72 h at rt in the presence of Cu(OTf)2 in the absence of indole (Table 1, entry 6), whereas la was rapidly consumed to give mostly uncharacterizable products when stirred at rt with CuOTf· PhCFF. Thus, it was considered that Cu(I) may be necessary for consumption of the diazo substrate, and that the diazo compound was not sufficient for reduction of Cu(II), at least at rt. Copper(O) was ineffective at catalyzing the process (Table 1, entry 7), and other solvents gave results inferior to those using DCM (Table 1, entries 8-10). Use of a lower reaction temperature (Table 1, entry 11) or addition of a bidentate bis(oxazoline) ligand (Table 1, entry 12) suppressed consumption of la.

[00312] One equivalent of the strong Bronsted acid TfOH was produced along with each

equivalent of CuOTf, and its presence appeared to be required for clean trapping by indole to furnish 2a. Thus, while treatment of la with 10 mol % CuOTfiPhMe gave minor amounts of 2a despite complete consumption of starting material (Table 1, entry 3), when 10 mol % Cu(OTf)2 was pretreated with 0.2 equiv indole and stirred for 2 h (green solution) then added to a solution of la and 1.8 equiv indole, 2a was obtained in 83% yield. The exact nature of the Bronsted acid catalyst responsible for indole addition was unclear, but the indolylindoline triflate salt 4 was considered a feasible candidate. This dimeric product is readily formed from indole in the presence of Bronsted or Lewis acid and various electrophilic reagents, and evidence for its formation was observed during the indole/copper(II) redox process (see Example 2). Overall, the cascade process was considered to involve a dual catalytic cycle involving Cu(I) -catalyzed conversion of la to the cyclized indolen-3-one intermediate, followed by Bronsted acid activation of the imine (and concomitant turnover of Cu(I)) for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole to afford 2a (see FIG. 2).

[00313] Direct involvement of Bronsted acid in the indole addition step is borne out by the observation of an enantiomeric excess of 36% when the reaction was carried out in the presence of (+)-camphorsulfonic acid (see FIG. 3). In this case, it was assumed that (+)-CSA competes effectively with the indolinium triflate Bronsted acid to catalyze indole trapping with asymmetric induction occurring via the chiral counterion. The modest enantiomeric excess may arise from a competing racemic background process, or from weak asymmetric induction by the camphorsulfonate.

[00314] To test the scope of the dual catalytic process, other indole derivatives with varying steric and electronic properties were subjected to the optimal reaction conditions (see FIG. 4). Use of a simple N-methyl or an N-benzyl protected indole as a trap did not appear to significantly affect the reaction rate, and adducts 2b and 2c were produced in excellent yields. The presence of a bulky substituent at C-2 position of the indole did not appear to impede the C-acy limine trapping process, as exemplified by formation of 2d in high yield (93%) over the standard reaction time. Consistent with the proposed electrophilic metalation activation mechanism, 4-bromoindole was compatible with the reaction conditions and produced 2e in reasonable yield, albeit with a longer reaction time (> 24 h) than when an unsubstituted indole was used. Electron-rich 5-methoxyindole produced 2f in good yield and in a relatively short reaction time. Other types of heteroaromatics such as pyrrole, thiophene, furan and benzofiiran were amenable to the reaction conditions and afforded adducts 2h-k in moderate yields, although heating the reaction mixture to reflux was required to drive the reaction to completion. Deactivated A'-acyl indoles were found to be unreactive (e.g., no formation of 2g).

[00315] Effects of substitution on the diazoazide partner were also examined. Substitution with an electron donating methyl or methoxy group gave better yields of adducts 21-n (84- 94%) than the electron-withdrawing nitro group (2o, 14% along with 68-76% recovered starting material). The presence of halogen substituent (chloro) meta to the azide or extending the aromatic system were tolerated, furnishing adducts 2p-s in good yields. Allyl, vinyl, or menthyl esters adjacent to the diazo group were tolerated, as was phenyl ketone, affording 2t- 2z in good to excellent yields.

[00316] With rapid access to a library of truncated isatasine A analogues available, their

potential antiviral activity against RSV was investigated. An initial library consisting of a select group of the compounds depicted in FIG. 4 and one new compound 5a (SAR 1) was screened at 10 mM concentration in cultured human airway epithelial cells (lHAEo-) cells for both antiviral activity and cytotoxicity (see FIG. 5a: screening for inhibition of RSV infection and cell viability as a measure of compound toxicity in the presence of indicated compounds at 10mM concentration; lHAEo- bronchial airway cells were infected with RSV; inoculum media was removed and media containing compounds at 10mM was added 2 hours after infection; two days after infection progeny virus produced by the lHAEo- cells was collected and Hela indicator cells were infected; percentage of virus infected HeLa cells was determined by indirect immunofluorescence the following day). From this initial group, compound 5a was identified as a promising candidate, displaying antiviral activity comparable to that of the known antiviral guanosine-analogue drug ribavirin, with no cytotoxicity. This result guided the selection of compounds for a second focused library (SAR 2), several examples of which included 2-aryl substitution at the 2-position of the indole nucleophile, and from which several compounds with improved antiviral activity and minimal toxicity were identified (see FIG. 6 for structures of 5a-h). [00317] While numerous fusion inhibitors for RSV have been identified, including the prophylactic monoclonal antibody Palivizumab, they have yet to translate into therapy for the treatment of established RSV infections. This may be due to the nature of Palivizumab targeting only the entry step of the viral replication cycle. Therefore inhibiting the RSV replication complex after RSV has entered a cell was considered a desirable mechanism of action to block the spread of existing infection. To elucidate a mechanism of antiviral activity, root antiviral compound 5a was assayed for activity against the RSV viral replication complex that serves as a marker of RSV replication in the host cell. Decreasing viral transcription from the RSV replication complex was observed in a dose dependent manner in the presence of compound 5a in vitro (see FIG. 5b: (Left) in vitro RSV transcription was inhibited by compound 5a; one day after RSV infection lHAEo- cells were lysed in transcription buffer containing 32 P labelled uridine; viral transcripts for RSV Fusion (F), Nucleoprotein (N),

Matrix (M) and Phospho (P) proteins were separated on a sequencing gel and the signal was measured after 3-5 days of exposure; (Right) results for 4 independent experiments).

[00318] To further assess the therapeutic potential of compounds identified in SAR 1 and SAR

2, a therapeutic index (TI) of each compound was identified (e.g., ratio of effective concentration at which viral replication is reduced by half (EC50) to cytotoxic concentration at which cell viability is reduced by half (CC50)). Compound 2p was included as a cytotoxicity control, having demonstrated cytotoxicity in SAR 1. Cell viability decreased rapidly with increasing concentration of compound 2p, with a CC50 value of 22.8 mM, while viral replication was not diminished at compound concentrations tolerated by the host cell. In contrast, compound 5a and the 5 series of compounds derived from 5a consistently inhibited viral replication at concentrations tolerated by the host cell. In SAR 2, addition of OMe at R 1 decreased the toxicity of these compounds, with CC50 values increasing from 42.5mM for compound 5a, to 59.2 mM and 93.5 mM for compounds 5b and 5f respectively. Overall, the TI was increased from 4.1 for compound 5a to 12.3 with compound 5f. These increases in TI suggested that the compounds were capable of interfering with viral replication at

concentrations tolerated by the host cell.

[00319] An established challenge to development of antiviral pharmaceuticals is the evolution of antiviral resistance. This is pronounced for viruses with RNA genome due to an inherent error-prone process of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replication of a viral genome. Error prone replication results in a high mutation rate of RNA viruses that leads to development of antiviral resistance. As such, development of resistant mutants to compounds 5a and 5f was undertaken, as the site of mutations could provide further insights into the nature of the viral target. However, despite development of resistance against other transcription inhibitors in 6-8 passages, 14 serial passages over five weeks did not result in the development of viruses resistant to either compound (see FIG. 5c: no resistance emerged during serial passage ofRSV in compounds 5a and 5f; lHAEo- cells infected with RSV; two hours after infection inoculum media were removed and replaced with media containing compound 5a or 5f; two to three days after infection, the progeny virus was collected from the cells and transferred onto a new lHAEo- monolayer; an aliquot was stored in liquid nitrogen for quantification via indirect immunofluorescence). This may suggest that the burden of resistant mutations to evade these compounds is too great, reducing RSV virulence due to mutagenic catastrophe.

[00320] ZIKV constitutes a virus distinct from RSV with a markedly different intracellular replication strategy. Both viruses encode a viral RdRp essential to viral replication; however, the structure and function of RSV RdRp and ZIKV RdRp are quite different. RSV is a Pneumoviridae family virus with a negative sense RNA genome, and hence RSV RdRp must be packaged with an infecting virion for transcription to occur. RSV polymerase recognizes cis-acting‘gene start’ and‘gene end’ elements of the viral genome to produce subgenomic mRNAs enabling translation of viral proteins. In contrast, ZIKV is a Flaviviridae family virus having a positive sense RNA genome. Therefore, the ZIKV genome can be directly translated into one large viral polyprotein by host ribosomes without a need for production of viral subgenomic mRNAs. Thus the primary function of ZIKV RdRp is to facilitate genome replication through a negative sense antigenome intermediate. As RSV and ZIKV represent taxonomically distinct viruses, antiviral activity of the isatisine A-inspired bis(indole) compounds were examined against ZIKV to determine whether their antiviral activities may be broadly acting. ZIKV infection was screened in the presence of compounds 2d, 2o, 5a, and 5a derivatives (5b-5h) in VERO cells. Significant inhibition of ZIKV by compound 5a and all 5a derivatives was observed (see FIG. 5d and e: screening for inhibition of ZIKV infection and cell viability as a measure of compound toxicity at IOmM; A549 cells were infected with ZIKV; inoculum media were removed and media containing the compounds at a concentration of IOmM were added four hours after infection; progeny virus was collected and quantified on Vero cells by titering plaque assay, n=3). These data suggested that compound 5a and derivatives may hold broad spectrum antiviral activity, providing a broader array of root compounds from which lead compounds can be developed.

[00321] As such, a dual catalytic cascade process was discovered that rapidly assembles drug like bis(indole) scaffolds under mild, convenient conditions whose only by-products are 2 equiv of N2. Indole trapping agents served to activate a Cu(OTf)2 precatalyst, while also producing a Bronsted acid catalyst required for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles by the intermediate C-acylimines. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that added chiral acids afforded moderate enantioselectivity. Some of the bis(indole) products showed promising antiviral activity against important pathogens RSV and ZIKV. The modular nature of the synthetic transformation may allow for the development of improved analogues against these and other undesirable pathogens.

[00322] Table 1. Survey of Reaction Conditions catalyst

conditions;

indole (2 equiv)

Entry _ Conditions _ Yield (%) 2a

1 10 mol % Cu(hfacac)2; PhMe; reflux 42°

2 10 mol % Cu(hfacac)2; PhMe; rt trace

3 10 mol % CuOTEPhMe; DCM; rt 12 b

4 10 mol % Cu(OTf) 2 , DCM, rt, 24 h 92

5 as above, gram-scale 83 (74) c

6. 10 mol % Cu(OTf)2, DCM, rt, no indole, 72 h 0

7 10 mol % Cu(0) powder, DCM, rt NR

8 10 mol % Cu(OTf) 2 , PhMe, rt, 24 h 26

9 10 mol % Cu(OTf)2, Et 2 0, rt, 24 h trace

10 10 mol % Cu(OTf) 2 , CHC1 3 , rt, 24 h 68 d

11 10 mol % Cu(OTf) 2 , DCM, 0 °C, 24 h trace

12 C _ 10 mol % Cu(OTf) 2 , L*, PhMe, rt, 24 h_ trace

Troduct isolated as a mixture of regioisomers. 1 a was rapidly consumed with formation of multiple colored products. c Gram-scale reaction with direct recrystallization of crude product. d Multiple colored products were observed. e L* = bis(oxazoline) ligands shown above. [00323] Example 2: Further Experimental Details on Dual Catalytic Synthesis of Antiviral

Compounds Based on Metallocarbene-Azide Cascade Chemistry

Compound Stability Studies

[00324] Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC): An example of a DSC experiment for compound la is depicted in FIG. 7. These data show the temperature at which crystals of la began to melt (endotherm, positive peak, 75.5 °C) and began to decompose (exotherm, negative peak, 127 °C to 168 °C). Heat released after decomposition was about 1730 J/g material.

[00325] Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): The decomposition pattern was further monitored using a TGA experiment. An example of a TGA experiment for compound la is shown in FIG. 8. It was found that dicarbonyl stabilized diazo crystals of la generally exhibited one sharp inflection point, starting at temperatures around 130 °C, in agreement with the DSC experiment. No substantial mass change was noticed during the solid to liquid phase transition, indicative of no decomposition of material during melting phase transition.

[00326] Both of these experiments shed some light on the thermal stability of la. These

experiments provided evidence that the metal catalyzed transformation, associated with the starting material la, at ambient temperature (22 °C to 40 °C), described in the next section ( vide infra), was not merely heat driven as the starting material la was stable at this temperature range. Moreover, using the DSC data, it was anticipated that there would be less risk of detonation, due to thermal runaway, associated with compound la, or analogous diazoazides, provided the material was stored at freezer temperature (< 0 °C) when not in use. Long-term storage (> 1 week) is generally not advisable for compound la, especially for a large-scale preparation, but it was noticed that compound la and the other analogues survived with little or no decomposition during storage at freezer temperature (-20 °C) for >3 months (monitored weekly using 'H NMR).

[00327] These experiments (DSC and TGA) alone should not, however, be taken as an

indication that the material is completely safe for handling. Other parameters, for example potential shock sensitivity, are equally important. Attempts to carry out a hammer test for compound la (ca. 0.5 mg) to evaluate its shock sensitivity were inconclusive. A small spark was observed, but in the absence of a reliable benchmark, it was not possible to draw any conclusions regarding the shock sensitivity of la. Similar to other common potentially explosive materials used in organic synthesis laboratories, such as peroxides, it is cautioned to potential users to treat the starting material la and analogues with due care and respect. Any unanticipated detonation of these diazo azide starting materials was not observed, and most large-scale reactions involving these substrates were performed in a well-ventilated fume hood equipped with a blast shield. It is recommended to wear a Kevlar® apron and safety gloves and using earplugs as added safety precautions, especially for large-scale reactions.

00328] Mechanistic Considerations

[00329] Copper Oxidation State in the Catalytic Cycle

00330] Conversion Studies (% Recovery):

[00331] Copper (II) oxidation state:

Cu(OTf) 2 (0.1 equiv)

no substantial decomposition

DCM (0.02 M), rt of 1a

[00332] A solution of diazo-azide la (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added to a solution of Cu(OTf)2 (7.3 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of the diazo-azide starting material. After 24 h, the solution was extracted with water (10 mL, 3x) to remove the copper salt, and the DCM solution was dried with MgS04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude oil was purified using silica gel flash column chromatography eluting with 20% EtO Ac/Hexanes. This procedure resulted in recovery of diazo-azide la, in 81-93% (three repeats). Using identical conditions but allowing the mixture to stir for 5 d instead of 24 h resulted in recovery of 73-84% (three repeats) starting material la. Analysis of TLC and NMR spectra of the crude mixture revealed the presence of starting material, and a faint spot on the baseline using 20% EtO Ac/Hexanes as the eluent (TLC).

[00333] Copper (I) oxidation state:

Cu(OTf) (0.1 equiv)

complete consumption

DCM (0.02 M), rt of 1a.

short-lived and unstable

[00334] A solution of diazo-azide la (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added to a solution of Cu(OTf)(PhMe) (10 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of the diazo-azide starting material. After 24 h, the solution was extracted with water (10 mL, 3x) to remove the copper salt, the DCM solution was dried with MgSCft, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude oil was purified using silica gel flash column chromatography eluting with 20% EtO Ac/Hexanes. This procedure resulted in recovery of trace amount of la (< 5%). Analysis of a TLC chromatogram of the crude mixture revealed the presence of multiple colored spots. A crude NMR spectra revealed an intractable mixture of multiple compounds.

00335] Conversion Studies ( in-situ IR analysis and 'H-NMR spectroscopy)

[00336] Copper (II) oxidation state:

00337] Using IR spectroscopy:

Cu(OTf) 2 (0-1 equiv)

no substantial decomposition

DCM (0.02 M), rt of 1a

[00338] A solution of diazo-azide la (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added to a solution of Cu(OTf)2 (7.6 mg, 0.02 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of the diazo-azide starting material. An aliquot of the stirred solution (0.5 mL), was taken after ca. 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 24 h of stirring, each aliquot was diluted with DCM (1 mL). The diluted solution was analyzed using IR spectroscopy and plotted as overlaid spectra (TIG. 9a).

[00339] Copper (I) oxidation state:

Cu(OTf) (0.1 equiv)

complete consumption

DCM (0.02 M), rt of 1a.

short-lived and unstable

[00340] A solution of diazo-azide la (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added to a solution of Cu(OTf)(PhMe) (10 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of the diazo-azide starting material. An aliquot of the stirred solution (0.5 mL), was taken after ca. 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 24 h of stirring, each aliquot was diluted with DCM (1 mL). The diluted solution was analyzed using IR spectroscopy and plotted as overlaid spectra (PIG. 9b). [00341] A complete absence of a broad peak at 2137 cm 1 indicated complete decomposition of the diazoketone and the azide functional groups. An increase in the absorbance and broadening of signal around 1730 cm 1 was noticed on diazo-azide starting material upon exposure with copper (II) triflate over 24 h, indicative of carbonyl interaction (dative bond) with copper (II), which did not progress to substantial diazo-ketone decomposition (notice continued substantial absorbance at 2137 cm-l). However, a notable decrease in the absorbance of the signal around 2137 cm 1 was noticed on diazo-azide starting material upon exposure with copper (I) triflate over 24 h, indicative of complete decomposition of diazoketone and azide over a 24 h period. This time period is within the observed optimized reaction time (16-36 h, depending on substitution of indole substrate) for azide -metallocarbene coupling, followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with indole. This pair of experiments, together with the recovery analysis, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy ( vide infra) provided a distinction between the catalytic behaviors of the two copper oxidation states.

[00342] Using‘H-NMR spectroscopy: Cu(OTf) (0.1 equiv)

_ _ complete consumption

DCM (0.02 M), rt of 1a.

short-lived and unstable

[00343] In a 2.0 mL vial, a solution of diazo-azide la (10 mg, 0.040 mmol) in deuterated

DCM (0.5 mL) at room temperature was added to Cu(OTf)(PhMe) (ca. 2.0 mg, 0.0039 mmol) as a solid. The solution was quickly transferred in an NMRtube, capped with septum, and purged with argon. NMR spectra (400 MHz) were acquired once per hour over a 10 h period. The array of spectra was plotted. After 8-10 h, the starting material la was completely consumed. These data, corroborated with the IR results, provided evidence that copper (I) was the kinetically competent oxidation state during conversion of diazoazide into C-acylimine (see FIG. 10).

[00344] After extensive analysis of the copper oxidation state necessary for decomposition of starting material la, it was posited that copper (I) was the kinetically competent oxidation state. This, however, was not expected since the initially loaded catalyst was copper (II) triflate.

[00345] Formation of Active Copper (I) Catalyst from Copper (II) Precatalyst

[00346] Using UV spectroscopy, formation of a new s-copper indole complex:

[00347] Solution A: A solution of indole (55 mg, 0.20 mmol) was added to Cu(OTf)2 (7.3 mg,

0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature. Once addition was complete, formation of light green solution occurred after 1 h. An aliquot of this solution (1 mL) was diluted with 5 mL of DCM and was subjected to UV spectroscopy. Solution B: An aliquot (1 mL) of a solution of indole dissolved in DCM (0.02 M, 10 mL) at room temperature was also subjected to UV spectroscopy. Solution C: An aliquot (1 mL) of a solution of Cu(OTf)2 dissolved in DCM (0.02 M, 10 mL) at room temperature was also subjected to UV spectroscopy. Further dilution was necessary until peaks (> 300 nm) could be seen. After analysis of the three spectra, formation a broad new peak at 395 nm was seen from Solution A, indicating formation of a new colored complex (FIG. 11). This new peak at 395 nm did not persist and generally had low relative concentration. Hence, a concentrated reaction mixture was needed to observe the absorption at 395 nm. Notably, similar copper-indole species was detected by Toste et. al. upon mixing of Cu(II) chiral phosphate and indole [Rauniyar, V.; Wang, Z. L; Burks, H. E.; Toste, F. D. J Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 8486-8489]

[00348] Using ESI-MS, detection of the mass fragments corresponding to the dimer and the copper-indole complex:

Primary reaction

[00349] A solution of indole (55 mg, 0.20 mmol) was added to Cu(OTf)2 (7.3 mg, 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature. Once addition was done, formation of light green solution occurred after one hour. An aliquot of this solution (1 mL) was diluted with acetonitrile and directly subjected to ESI-MS analysis. After analysis of the ESI-MS (FIG.

12), the following fragments were detected and partially ascribed to the formation: A HRMS calc’d for CTLCuFsNOsS [M] + 327.9316, found 327.9645 (fleeting), for B HRMS calc’d for C16H14N2O [M+H] + 235.1230, found 235.1230, and protonated and sodiated 2a. N.B. :

Compound B was likewise detected in crude reaction mixture to make 2a.

[00350] Given an apparent reaction between the indole and copper (II) triflate to afford an initially colored complex, the absorption detected through UV-VIS spectroscopy, and literature precedent [Rauniyar, V.; Wang, Z. L; Burks, H. E.; Toste, F. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 8486-8489], it was posited reduction of copper (II) triflate through the initially formed metallated indole, followed by disproportionation reaction. This disproportation reaction could theoretically generate copper (I) triflate, and copper (III) triflate indole complex. The latter could reductive ly eliminate to copper (I) triflate and indole triflate. Based on these experiments, the kinetically competent copper (I) triflate was proposed to result from a redox process involving copper (II) precatalyst and indole. However, this proposal on its own could not explain the substantial difference in isolated yield of 2a between Cu(OTf)2 and CuOTf. An additional component in the reaction, presumably derived from the activation reaction of Cu(OTf)2 and indole, was necessary for efficient Friedel Crafts alkylation with indole. It was proposed that a Bronsted acid catalyst, either TfOH or its salt with indole dimer B, acted to catalyze Friedel-Crafts addition of indole to the intermediate C-acylimine formed from metallocarbene-azide coupling.

[00351] Evidence for Bronsted Acid Catalysis of Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

[00352] NOTE: Since the putative C-acylimine occuring in the Cu(I) -catalyzed coupling step was transient and could not be isolated, isolable C-acylimine 6 was used as a model to help understand the second catalytic cycle.

[00353] Stirring C-acylimine 6 with Indole in the Presence of Cu(OTf)(PhMe):

[00354] A solution of C-acylimine 6 (50 mg, 0.19 mmol) and indole (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) was added to Cu(OTf)(PhMe) (9.7 mg, ca 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature. Once addition was complete, the solution was allowed to stir overnight. After stirring for 16 h, the solution was extracted with water (5 mL, 2x), and the organic layer was dried with MgS04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. Analysis of crude reaction mixture indicated that substantial quantities of 6 were present. Upon purification via a short pad of silica (20% EtO Ac/Hexanes), ca. 91% of 6 was recovered. This model reaction showed that, although copper (I) triflate could convert la to the C-acylimine (see previous experiments), copper (I) could not efficiently catalyze the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction with indole.

[00355] Stirring C-acylimine 6 with Indole in the Presence of TfOH:

[00356] A solution of C-acylimine 6 (50 mg, 0.19 mmol) and indole (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) was mixed with excess TfOH (ca. 50 pL. ca. 0.57 mmol) in DCM (5 mF) at room temperature. Once mixing was complete, within 5 minutes a change in color was noticed, from deep purple to light orange. The solution was diluted with water (5 mF) and extracted with DCM (5 mF, 3x). The organic layer was dried using MgSCU concentrated under reduced pressure. Analysis of the crude mixture indicated that 6 was completely consumed, and adduct 7 can be detected using crude NMR. Purification of 7, however, was hampered by the presence of several side products.

[00357] Stirring C-acylimine 6 with Indole in the Presence of CSA:

[00358] A solution of C-acylimine 6 (50 mg, 0.19 mmol) and indole (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) was mixed with camphorsulfonic acid CSA (4.0 mg, ca. 0.020 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature. Once addition was complete, the solution gradually (overnight) changed color from deep purple to a yellow suspension. Analysis of the TLC indicated that 6 was completely consumed. The suspension was filtered. The filtered solid was dissolved in deuterated DMSO and was analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of the spectra revealed that the 2: 1 adduct, 7, (indole:indol-3-one), along with water and DMSO, were the only detectable components present in solution.

[00359] These results indicates that Bronsted acid, produced during the reduction of copper

(II) triflate by indole, could activate the C-acylimine towards Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction.

[00360] Using a (+)-Camphorsulfonic Acid as a Chiral Co-catalyst:

[00361] A solution of diazo-azide la (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added to a solution of indole (46 mg, 0.39 mmol), Cu(OTf) 2 (7.3 mg, 0.020 mmol), and the (+)-CSA (4.0 mg, ca. 0.02 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) at room temperature via syringe pump over 1 h. The reaction mixture turned light green over 2 h, then slowly turned dark brown over 24 h. Once addition was complete, the reaction was monitored by TLC for consumption of la. Upon consumption of la, the reaction mixture was poured in an Erlenmeyer flask, thoroughly dissolved in ethyl acetate (ca 10 mL), dried over MgS0 4 , filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure and purified by flash chromatography. (N.B. : crude mixture after concentration was insoluble in DCM. In this case, necessarily, ethyl acetate was used as a solvent to load the sample onto silica gel (silica gel, 7:3 hexanes :EtO Ac). All pure fractions of 2a were concentrated together to afford yellow oil. Upon standing for at least 24 hours, this oil slowly formed a yellow solid. Analysis of the yellow oil using chiral HPLC revealed that the product was formed in a 68:32 enantiomeric ratio. HPLC condition: Chiralpak AD-H, 80:20,

Hexanes: /-PrOH, rt, retention time = 33.77 min (major), 37.71 min (minor).

[00362] X-ray Crystallographic Data

[00363] The X-ray crystallographic data depicted in FIG. 13-16 entails ORTEP structures of select compounds:

[00364] ORTEP structure for compound la (FIG. 13): Compound - Methyl 2-diazo-3-(2- azido-3-methylphenyl)-3-oxopropanoate; Formula - C11H9N5O3

[00365] ORTEP Structure for compound 2a (FIG. 14): Compound - Methyl 3 -oxo- 1,3- dihydro-l77, 277-2, 3’-biindole-2 -carboxylate; Formula - C18H14N2O3

[00366] ORTEP Structure for compound 2o (FIG. 15): Compound - Methyl 6-chloro-3- oxo-l, 3 -dihydro- G77, 277-2, 3’-biindole-2 carboxylate; Formula - C18H13CIN2O3

[00367] ORTEP Structure for compound 2za (FIG. 16): Compound - (-)-Menthyl (2//)- 1 - benzyl-3 -oxo- 1,3 -dihydro- 177, 277-2, 3’-biindole-2 -carboxylate; Formula - C34H36N2O3

[00368] NMR spectra of the starting materials and products

[00369] Please see FIG. 17 - 54.

[00370] The presence of significant signals for residual water in the 1 H NMR spectra of 2a, 2e,

21, 2o, 2t and 2v may raise questions about proof of purity. It should be noted that the presence of one or more heavy halogen atoms and/or an unprotected indole nitrogen atom rendered these compounds only sparingly soluble in common deuterated NMR solvents (CDCf, CD 2 CI 2 , CeD 6 , C 3 D 6 O, CD 3 OD, and C 2 D 6 SO). Consequently, minor amounts of water contaminant in these solvents may appear to have anomalously enhanced signals relative to those of the compounds of interest. 'H NMR spectra of these compounds were not representative of the bulk material, and cannot be used as the sole judge or proof of purity.

[00371] However, the following observations from data presented above were reasonable proof of purity, apart from the 1 H-N R spectra presented in the next section: (i) reasonable accuracy of experimental elemental analysis (C, H, and N) compared to theoretical value

(0.05-0.34%) in those cases where combustion analysis was performed; (ii) sharp (1-3 °C) and high (> 100 °C) melting points; (iii) substantially higher melting points compared to reported literature value (2a and 2b) [Jessing, M.; Barran, P. S. Heterocycles 2011, 82, 1739-1745]; and, high degree of crystallinity, and with X-ray crystal structures and measurements for 2a, 2o, and 2za.

Example 3

[00372] A model of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) L protein was built, using SWISS- MODEL (on the internet at swissmodel(dot)expasy(dot)org). Figures obtained using Chimera and Pymol.

[00373] RSV L protein is an RNA-directed RNA polymerase.

[00374] Molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to refine the model using NAMD on

Graham clusters (Compute Canada). Molecular docking experiments were performed using the Schrodinger Small Molecule Discovery Suite and figures obtained using Pymol. The results are depicted in FIG. 55 and FIG. 56.

[00375] FIG. 55 depicts homology modelling of the RSV L protein based off the VSV L

structure. Model of RSV L protein (left), Alignment of the RSV model with L protein of VSV. (VSV: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus).

[00376] FIG. 56 depicts molecular docking of the active compound (compound 5a) into the active site of RSV L protein showing two hydrogen bonds to the catalytic ASP 686. The active site was defined using binding site map implanted in Schrodinger Small Molecule Discovery Suite.

[00377] References

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[00387] (10) Despite the high nitrogen content of substrate la, we have not observed explosive decomposition under standard conditions. Analysis by DSC and TGA indicate thermal instability above 127 °C (See Supporting Information). Nonetheless, use of a blast shield and appropriate protective wear (earplugs, Kevlar lab coat and gloves) is recommended for gram- scale reactions.

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Virol. 2015, 89, 7786-7798. [00402] The embodiments described herein are intended to be examples only. Alterations, modifications and variations can be effected to the particular embodiments by those of skill in the art. The scope of the claims should not be limited by the particular embodiments set forth herein, but should be construed in a manner consistent with the specification as a whole.

[00403] All publications, patents and patent applications mentioned in this Specification are indicative of the level of skill those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains and are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

[00404] The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modification as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.