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Title:
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF P. AERUGINOSA INFECTIONS USING COFORMYCIN ANALOGS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/043046
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Methods and devices are disclosed for treating or preventing infections in a subject due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using coformycin analogs and inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA).

Inventors:
SCHRAMM, Vern, L. (68 Hampton Oval, New Rochelle, NY, 10805, US)
TYLER, Peter, Charles (143 Creswick Terrace, Northland, 6012 Wellington, Wellington, NZ)
FROHLICH, Richard (Schöckelbachweg 33b, A 8045 Graz, Graz, AT)
Application Number:
US2013/058844
Publication Date:
March 20, 2014
Filing Date:
September 10, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY (1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY, 10461, US)
CALLAGHAN INNOVATION RESEARCH LIMITED (Gracefield Resarch Centre, 69 Gracefield RoadLower Hutt, 5040, 5040, NZ)
International Classes:
A61K31/20; C07H19/00
Foreign References:
US20090227532A12009-09-10
US5872104A1999-02-16
US20110190265A12011-08-04
Other References:
GUAN ET AL.: "Methylthioinosine Phosphorylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Structure and Annotation of a Novel Enzyme in Quorum Sensing", BIOCHEMISTRY, vol. 50, no. 7, 22 February 2011 (2011-02-22), pages 1247 - 1254, Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MILLER, Alan D. et al. (Amster, Rothstein & Ebenstein LLP90 Park Avenu, New York NY, 10016, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method of treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising administering to the subject a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject, wherein formula (I) is

wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein Q is C1-C3 alkyl.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein Q is methyl.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein Q is phenyl.

5. The method of any of claims 1-4, wherein Rl is H.

6. The method of any of claims 1-4, wherein Rl is OH.

553250.1

pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

9. The method of any of claims 1-8, wherein the compound is administered in an amount that is effective to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA).

553250.1

10. The method of any of claims 1-9, wherein the compound is administered in an amount that does not inhibit growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

1 1. The method of any of claims 1-10, wherein the compound is administered in an amount that is effective to inhibit quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

12. A composition for treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier,

wherein formula (I) is

wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

553250.1

pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof. The composition of claim 12, wherein the compound is

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

15. A method for determining whether or not a compound is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA) in a quorum sensing pathway, the method comprising determining whether or not the compound inhibits MTADA, wherein a compound that inhibits MTADA is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA

553250.1 in a quorum sensing pathway and wherein a compound that does not inhibit MTADA is not a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA in a quorum sensing pathway.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the bacterium is a species of Pseudomonas.

17. The method of claim 15, wherein the bacterium is Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

18. An implantable medical device, wherein at least a portion of the device is coated or impregnated with a compound of formula (I),

wherein formula (I) is

wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

19. The implantable medical device of claim 18, wherein the device is a catheter, a venous catheter, an arterial catheter, a transcutaneous catheter, a dialysis catheter, a urinary catheter, a tracheal catheter or a tracheal tube.

20. The implantable medical device of claim 18 or 19, wherein the device is for implantation in a blood vessel or a body cavity.

553250.1

Description:
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF P. AERUGINOSA INFECTIONS USING COFORMYCIN ANALOGS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/699,496, filed on September 11, 2012, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0002] This invention was made with government support under grant number GM41916 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The invention relates to treating and preventing infections due to P. aeruginosa using coformycin analogs and inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5'- methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA).

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0004] Throughout this application various publications are referred to in parentheses. Full citations for these references may be found at the end of the specification before the claims. The disclosures of these publications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties into the subject application to more fully describe the art to which the subject application pertains.

[0005] Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium and a major opportunistic human pathogen, accounting for approximately 15% of all hospital infections (1). Immunocompromised patients and patients with comorbid illnesses are especially susceptible to the infection (1, 2). P. aeruginosa has multiple antimicrobial resistance mechanisms making infections difficult to treat (3). High morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in P. aeruginosa infections, especially for late- onset ventilator associated pneumonia (4, 5). In P. aeruginosa, the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation are regulated by quorum sensing (QS) systems (6). QS involves bacterial cell-to-cell communication by small molecules. QS allows bacteria populations to adjust behavior in response to environmental conditions (4). Communication in QS relies on signaling molecules including the N-acyl- homoserine lactones (AHLs) found in P. aeruginosa and most other Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are synthesized as the bacterial cell density increases. When the concentrations of AHLs reach a critical threshold, the signal molecules bind to specific receptors and regulate target genes expression. A major QS system in P. aeruginosa includes las and rhl, which use 3-oxo-Ci2-homoserine lactone and C 4 - homoserine lactone as signaling molecules, respectively. QS signaling is correlated with the virulence of P. aeruginosa infections. Deletion of single or multiple QS genes in P. aeruginosa reduced virulence in several mouse models (5). The presence of QS signaling molecules and expression of QS-responsive genes in P. aeruginosa have been detected in sputum samples of cystic fibrosis patients. And most recently, production of QS-dependent virulence factors of P. aeruginosa have been linked to the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (6). Since inhibition of QS biosynthetic pathways does not affect cell growth, blocking QS synthesis has been proposed as a strategy to attenuate the virulence of bacterial infections without causing drug resistance (7).

[0006] AHL synthase catalyzes the production of AHL using S- adenosylmethionine (SAM) and acylated-acyl carrier protein as precursors. The reaction produces 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) as a product. MTA is also an important product from polyamine biosynthesis and is recycled by a SAM salvage pathway (8). In most bacteria, MTA is degraded by 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (ΜΤΑΝ) to adenine and 5-methylthio-a-D-ribose. Inhibition of E. coli and V. cholerae MTANs with transition state analogue inhibitors or by gene deletion, disrupts quorum sensing, and reduces biofilm formation, supporting MTAN as a target for QS in most Gram negative bacteria (8). Mammals do not express an MTAN, nor do they have QS pathways, giving species specificity to this target.

[0007] In eukaryotes and archaea, MTA degradation is catalyzed by 5'- methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) which converts MTA and phosphate to adenine and 5-methylthio-a-D-ribose 1 -phosphate (9). P. aeruginosa was originally thought to be a bacterial anomaly, possessing an MTAP (PA3004 gene) instead of MTAN. The PA3004-encoded protein was recently characterized and found to prefer methylthioinosine (MTI) as substrate (10). It remains the only known example of a specific MTI phosphorylase (MTIP). The discovery of MTIP suggested that MTA must be deaminated in P. aeruginosa. MTA catabolism in P. aeruginosa was examined using [8- C]MTA. A MTA- MTI- hypoxanthine pathway was established and no significant MTAP or MTAN activity was observed (10). These results established a functional aMTIP in cells and extracts and implicated the existence of an MTA deaminase (MTADA) to convert MTA to MTI (Fig. 1). If MTADA is directly and solely responsible for MTA degradation in P. aeruginosa, inhibiton of aMTADA would be functionally similar to that of MTAN in other bacterial species, causing MTA product inhibition of AHL synthase and disruption of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa (11). This pathway is unprecedented in bacteria, but Plasmodium species also possess a similar two-step pathway of MTA degradation. In the case of Plasmodium species, both the purine nucleoside phosphorylase and the adenosine deaminase (ADA) are broad-specificity enzymes, capable of functioning as MTIP and MTADA, respectively. However, inosine and adenosine are preferred substrates and MTI and MTA are secondary substrates (12, 13).

[0008] Recently, the first specific MTA deaminase has been reported in Thermotoga martima (14). The TmMTADA can deaminate MTA, S- adenosylhomocysteine and adenosine but prefers MTA. TmMTADA was identified by using structure-based docking with high-energy forms of potential substrates and the activity validated by enzymatic assays with purified protein. A crystal structure of TmMTADA in complex with S-inosylhomocysteine, the product of SAH deamination, was determined in the same study, revealing the key residues for binding substrates in the active site (14). These findings on TmMTADA guided the search for aMTADA.

[0009] The present invention addresses the need for compounds that attenuate the virulence of infections due to P. aeruginosa without causing drug resistance.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] The invention provides methods of treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising administering to the subject a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject, wherein formula (I) is ; wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

[0011] The invention also provides compositions for treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0012] The invention provides implantable medical devices, wherein at least a portion of the device is coated or impregnated with a compound of formula (I).

[0013] The invention further provides methods for determining whether or not a compound is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA) in a quorum sensing pathway, the method comprising determining whether or not the compound inhibits MTADA, wherein a compound that inhibits MTADA is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA in a quorum sensing pathway and wherein a compound that does not inhibit MTADA is not a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA in a quorum sensing pathway.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] Figure 1. MTA degradation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The dashed line indicates the previous (and incorrect) annotation of MTA phosphorylase activity for P A3004 (in italics). The P A3004 protein is now identified as a MTI phosphorylase and the conversion of MTA to MTI requires the existence of MTA deaminase (10).

[0015] Figure 2. Inhibitors of aMTADA. Coformycin and 2'- deoxycoformycin are transition state analogues of adenosine deaminase. MTCF and other 5'-functionalized-2'-deoxycoformycins are transition state analogues of MTA deaminases (15). [0016] Figure 3. Sequence alignment of TmMTADA (2PLM) and putative MTADA sequences of P. aeruginosa PAOl. Based on the structural analysis of 2PLM, the residues interacting with Zn-, ribose-, adenine, and methylthio- groups are indicated, respectively in underlining, bold italic underlining, bold italic, and bold underlining. The two arginine residues of 2PLM are responsible for carboxylate binding of SAH and are indicated in double underlining. Sequences without interactions in the active site are not shown. Sequence ID Nos: PA0134 - SEQ ID NO: l ; PA1521 - SEQ ID NO:2; PA0142 - SEQ ID NO:3; PA3170 - SEQ ID NO:4; 2PLM - SEQ ID NO:5; PA2499 - SEQ ID NO:6; PA0437 - SEQ ID O:7; PAO l 48 - SEQ ID NO:8; PA3480 - SEQ ID O: .

[0017] Figure 4A-4C. Cellular PaMTADA activity and inhibition by MTCF. (A) Effect of MTCF on MTA metabolism in P. aeruginosa cell lysate. (B) Effect of MTCF in P. aeruginosa cell cultures (grown in LB medium). (C) Effect of MTCF in P. aeruginosa cell lysate (grown in LB medium containing MTCF). The activity of PaMTADA was monitored by the degradation of [8- 14 C]MTA. Related 14 C- metabolites were purified using HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. IC 50 values were calculated using concentrations of MTCF and the percentage of degraded [8- 14 C]MTA. (D) Code for the metabolites, from left to right in each cluster of 4 columns: MTA, MTI, Hypoxanthine, Adenine.

[0018] Figure 5A-5B. The structure of PaMTADA. (A) The homodimeric PaMTADA is shown. The Zn ions are shown as spheres and phosphate as sticks. (B) Two distinct domains are present in the PaMTADA monomers. MTCF is drawn as a black stick model to show the position of the active site.

[0019] Figure 6. Stereoview of the catalytic site of PaMTADA containing MTCF, Zn ion, and the adjacent amino acids. The Zn ion and water are drawn as spheres. The hydrogen bonds between MTCF and surrounding environment are shown as dashed lines. The Zn chelating amino acid contacts are shown as dashed lines. The ligand/Zn-omit F 0 -F c density map is shown as a mesh at a contour level of 5.0 σ.

[0020] Figure 7. 2D Distance map of PaMTADA active site. The hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions in the active site are shown as dashed lines. Distances are in angstroms. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0021] The invention provides a method of treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising administering to the subject a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject, wherein formula (I) is

; wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

[0022] Q can be C1-C6 alkyl, and is preferably C1-C3 alkyl, i.e., a methyl, ethyl, or propyl group. More preferably, Q is methyl.

[0023] Q can be aryl. As used herein, the term "aryl" means an aromatic radical having 6 to 12 carbon atoms and includes heteroaromatic radicals. Preferred aryls include those having 6 carbon atoms, e. g., phenyl.

[0024] Q can also be an aralkyl. The term "aralkyl" means an alkyl radical having an aryl substituent. Preferably, the alkyl is C1-C3. Preferably, the aryl is phenyl.

[0025] Q can be substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxy or halogen, such as CI, F, Br or I. Chlorine and fluorine are preferred halogens. The substitution can be at an ortho, meta or para position of an aryl or aralkyl.

[0026] Preferred compounds include those selected from the group consisting of

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

[0027] More preferred compounds are

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

[0028] Methods of preparing analogs of coformycin are described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US2009/0227532, published September 10, 2009, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0029] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" includes non-toxic salts derived from inorganic or organic acids, including, for example, the following acid salts: acetate, adipate, alginate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, citrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptanoate, glycerophosphate, glycolate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2 -hydroxy ethanesulfonate, lactate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oxalate, palmoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, p- toluenesulfonate, salicylate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, and undecanoate.

[0030] As used herein, to treat a P. aeruginosa bacterial infection in a subject means to reduce the virulence of the P. aeruginosa bacteria in the subject. The term P. aeruginosa "bacterial infection" shall mean any deleterious presence of P. aeruginosa bacteria in the subject.

[0031] The compounds of formula (I) of the present invention can also be used to treat a subject at risk for acquiring an infection due to P. aeruginosa, i.e., to prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject. Subjects at risk for acquiring a P. aeruginosa infection include for example, but are not limited to, cystic fibrosis patients, neutropenic patients, patients with necrotising enterocolitis, burn victims, patients with wound infections, and patients in a hospital setting, in particular surgical patients and patients being treated using an implantable medical device such as a catheter.

[0032] The invention also provides an implantable medical device, wherein at least a portion of the device is coated, co-formulated or impregnated with a compound of formula (I)

(I); wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof. The implantable medical device can be, for example, a catheter, a venous catheter, an arterial catheter, a transcutaneous catheter, a dialysis catheter, a urinary catheter, a tracheal catheter or a tracheal tube. The medical device can be, for example, for implantation in a blood vessel or a body cavity. Treatment and use of such medical devices can prevent biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa infection at the site where a subject is exposed to the device.

[0033] Preferably, the compound is administered to a subject or present in a composition or present in or on a medical device in an amount that is effective to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA). Preferably, the compound is administered or present in an amount that does not inhibit growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, i.e., the compound is administered or present in a "sub-growth inhibiting amount." Preferably, the compound is administered or present in an amount that is effective to inhibit quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

[0034] The term "sub-growth inhibiting amount" of a compound as used herein means an amount of the compound, which when contacted with a population of P. aeruginosa bacteria, does not reduce the growth of the bacterial population. Preferably, the sub-growth inhibiting amount of the compound inhibits quorum sensing in the P. aeruginosa bacteria. Preferably, the sub-growth inhibiting amount of the compound is effective to reduce virulence of the P. aeruginosa bacteria without promoting the development of resistance by the P. aeruginosa bacteria to the compound.

[0035] The term "quorum sensing" as used herein refers to the process by which bacteria produce and detect signaling molecules with which to coordinate gene expression and regulate processes beneficial to the microbial community. The term "inhibit quorum sensing" as used herein means altering this process such that coordination of gene expression and process regulation in microbial communities are impaired or prevented.

[0036] The compound can be administered to a subject by routes known in the art, such as, e.g., orally, parenterally, by inhalation, topically, rectally, nasally, buccally or via an implanted reservoir. The compound can be administered by means of sustained release.

[0037] For oral administration, the compound can be formulated into solid or liquid preparations, for example tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, suspensions and dispersions. The compound can be formulated with agents such as, e.g., lactose, sucrose, corn starch, gelatin, potato starch, alginic acid and/or magnesium stearate.

[0038] The compounds may also be administered by injection in a physiologically acceptable diluent such as, e.g., water or saline. The diluent may comprise one or more other ingredients such as, e.g., ethanol, propylene glycol, an oil or a pharmaceutically acceptable surfactant. [0039] The compounds may also be administered topically. Carriers for topical administration of the compounds of include, e.g., mineral oil, liquid petrolatum, white petrolatum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl ester wax, cetearyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol, benzyl alcohol and water.

[0040] The invention also provides compositions for treating or preventing a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in a subject comprising a compound of formula (I) in an amount effective to treat or prevent a P. aeruginosa infection in a subject and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, wherein formula (I) is

; wherein Rl is H or OH; and wherein Q is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl, wherein Q is optionally substituted with one or more methyl, hydroxyl or halogen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or an ester thereof.

[0041] As used herein, a "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" is (i) compatible with the other ingredients of the composition without rendering the composition unsuitable for its intended purpose, and (ii) suitable for use with subjects as provided herein without undue adverse side effects (such as toxicity, irritation, and allergic response). Side effects are "undue" when their risk outweighs the benefit provided by the composition. Non-limiting examples of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include any of the standard pharmaceutical carriers such as phosphate buffered saline solutions, water, and emulsions such as oil/water emulsions and microemulsions.

[0042] The invention further provides for the use a compound of formula (I) for the preparation of a medicament for treating or preventing a P. aeruginosa infection. The invention still further provides a compound of formula (I) for use for treating or preventing a P. aeruginosa infection.

[0043] The invention further provides a method for determining whether or not a compound is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses 5'-methylthioadenosine deaminase (MTADA) in a quorum sensing pathway, the method comprising determining whether or not the compound inhibits MTADA, wherein a compound that inhibits MTADA is a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA in a quorum sensing pathway and wherein a compound that does not inhibit MTADA is not a candidate for treating or preventing an infection caused by bacterium that uses MTADA in a quorum sensing pathway. Examples of bacterium include species of Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Examples of methods of determining whether or not a compound inhibits MTADA are described and illustrated herein.

[0044] This invention will be better understood from the Experimental Details that follow. However, one skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the specific methods and results discussed are merely illustrative of the invention as described more fully in the claims that follow thereafter.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Overview

[0045] Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an unusual metabolic pathway for 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) involving deamination to 5'-methylthioinosine (MTI) followed by N-ribosyl phosphorolysis to hypoxanthine and 5-methylthio-a-D-ribose 1 -phosphate. The specific MTI phosphorylase of P. aeruginosa has been reported (10). The present studies characterized MTA deaminase from P. aeruginosa (PaMTADA). Genomic analysis indicated the PA3170 locus to be a candidate for MTA deaminase (MTADA). Protein encoded by PA3170 was expressed and shown to deaminate MTA and adenosine, with 40-fold greater catalytic efficiency for MTA. The k cat /K m value of 1.6 x 10 7 M ' V 1 for MTA is the highest catalytic efficiency known for an adenosine or an MTA deaminase. 5'-Methylthiocoformycin (MTCF) is a 4.8 pM transition state analogue causing no significant inhibition of human adenosine deaminase or MTA phosphorylase. MTCF is permeable to P. aeruginosa and exhibits an IC 50 of 3 nM on cellular PaMTADA activity. PaMTADA is the only activity in P. aeruginosa extracts to act on MTA. MTA and 5-Methylthio-a- -ribose are involved in quorum sensing pathways; thus, PaMTADA is a potential target for quorum sensing. Distinct pathways in P. aeruginosa may confer specificity. The crystal structure of PaMTADA in complex with MTCF shows the transition state mimic 8-R-hydroxyl group in contact with a catalytic site Zn 2+ , the 5'-methylthio group in a hydrophobic pocket and the NH transition state mimic of the diazepine ring in contact with a catalytic site Glu.

Materials and Methods

[0046] Chemicals. Coformycin (CF), 5'-methylthiocoformycin (MTCF), 2'- deoxycoformycin (DCF), 5'-methylthio-2'-deoxycoformycin (MTDCF), 5'- propylthio-2'-deoxycoformycin (PrTDCF) and 5'-phenylthio-2'-deoxycoformycin (PhTDCF) were synthesized by methods reported earlier (Fig. 2) (15). [8- 14 C]MTA was synthesized as described previously (16). All other chemicals and reagents were obtained from Sigma or Fisher Scientific, and were of reagent grade.

[0047] Plasmid construction. A synthetic gene was designed from the predicated protein sequence of gene PA3170 in Pseudomonas Genome Database (17). Gene PA3170 belongs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAOl and encodes a conserved hypothetical protein. The synthetic gene was purchased from DNA2.0 Inc. in a pJexpress414 expression vector. The encoded protein has an additional 14 amino acids at the N-terminus which includes a His 6 tag.

[0048] Enzyme purification and preparation. BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIPL E. coli were transformed with the synthetic plasmid and grown overnight at 37 °C in 100 mL of LB medium with 100 μg/mL Ampicillin. The culture was transferred into 1 L of LB/Ampicillin medium and growth continued at 37 °C to an O.D.600 of 0.7. Expression was induced for 4 hours at 37 °C by addition of 1 mM IPTG. The cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4500 g for 30 min. The cell pellet was suspended in 20 mL of 15 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl, and 50 mM phosphate, pH 8.0 (lysis buffer), with addition of 2 tablets of EDTA-free protease inhibitor (from Roche Diagnostics) and 20 mg lysozyme (from chicken egg). Cells were disrupted by two passes through a French pressure cell and centrifuged at 20,000 g for 30 min. The supernatant was loaded onto a 4 mL column of Ni-NTA Superflow resin equilibrated with 5 columns of lysis buffer. The column was washed with 5 volumes of 50 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl, and 50 mM phosphate, pH 8.0 (wash buffer), and the target protein was eluted with 3 volumes of 250 mM imidazole, 300 mM NaCl, and 50 mM phosphate, pH 8.0 (elution buffer). Eluted protein was immediately dialyzed against 300 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol, and 50 mM phosphate, pH 8.0 to remove the imidazole, followed by dialysis against 10% glycerol, and 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.4. The purified protein was concentrated to 7.8 mg/ml and was > 95% pure as judged by SDS-PAGE. Protein was stored at -80 °C. The extinction coefficient of PaMTADA is 48.93 mM " ^m " 1 at 280 nm, as calculated by the ProtParam program from ExPASy and was used to estimate protein concentration (ca.expasy.org/seqanalref/).

[0049] Enzymatic assays. Deaminase activity on MTA, adenosine, SAH, and adenine was measured by the absorbance change at 265 nm. The extinction coefficients are 8.1 mM^cm "1 for MTA and adenosine (14), and 6.7 mM cm for SAH and adenine (20). Deaminase activity on guanosine was measured at 260 nm with an extinction coefficient of 3.9 mM^cm "1 (18). HsMTAP and iscMTAN activity on MTA was determined by conversion of product adenine to 2,8-dihydroxyadenine using xanthine oxidase as the coupling enzyme (19). The extinction coefficient is 15.5 mM^cm "1 at 305 nm. Reactions of deaminase were carried out at 25 °C in 1 cm cuvettes. Assay mixtures of 1 mL contained 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl, 100 μg/mL BSA, variable concentrations of substrate, and appropriate amounts of purified PaMTADA. Reactions were initiated by addition of enzyme and the initial rates were monitored with a CARY 300 UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Control rates (no PaMTADA) were subtracted from initial rates. Kinetic parameters of PaMTADA were obtained by fitting initial rates to the Michaelis-Menten equation using GraFit 5 (Erithacus Software).

[0050] Inhibition assays. Inhibition assays for PaMTADA were carried out by adding 0.15 nM PaMTADA into reaction mixtures at 25 °C containing 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl, 100 μΜ MTA, 100 μg/mL BSA, and variable concentrations of inhibitor. Inhibition assays of HsMTAP were carried out at 25 °C by adding 0.8 nM enzyme into reaction mixtures containing 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 100 mM phosphate, pH 7.4, 100 μΜ MTA, 1 mM DTT, 1 unit of XOD, and variable concentrations of MTCF. Inhibition assays of iscMTAN were carried out at 25 °C by adding 0.15 nM enzyme into reaction mixtures containing 100 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl, pH 7.4, 50 μΜ MTA, 1 mM DTT, 1 unit of XOD, and variable concentrations of MTCF. Controls having no enzyme and no inhibitor were included in all of the inhibition assays. The inhibition constant was obtained by fitting initial rates with variable inhibitor concentrations to equation (1) using GraFit 5 (Erithacus Software): where v z - is the initial rate in the presence of inhibitor, v 0 is the initial rate in the absence of inhibitor, K m is the Michaelis constant for MTA, [S] and [I] are MTA and inhibitor concentrations, respectively, and K{ is the inhibition constant. The inhibitor concentration was corrected using equation (2) when it was less than 10 times of the enzyme concentr (20): ?

where [I] ' is the effective inhibitor concentration, [I] is the inhibitor concentration in the reaction mixture, E t is the total enzyme concentration.

[0051] Crystallization, data collection, and structure determination of PaMTADA in complex with MTCF. To obtain the PaMTADA : MTCF complex, the PaMTADA was concentrated to 35 mg/ml in 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, and 10% glycerol followed by incubation with 1.2 mM MTCF. The PaMTADA:MTCF complex crystallized in 1.26 M sodium phosphate (monobasic) and 0.14 M potassium phosphate (dibasic) at a final pH of 5.6 at 18°C using hanging drop or sitting drop vapor diffusion method. Crystals were transferred to mother liquor supplemented with 20% glycerol and flash-cooled in liquid 2 prior to data collection. X-ray diffraction data were collected at the X29A beamline of Brookhaven National Laboratory on an ADSC Q315 detector at 100K. Data were processed using HKL2000 program suite and summarized in Table 1 (21).

[0052] The structure of PaMTADA:MTCF complex was determined by molecular replacement with the program Molrep (22), using the crystal structure of the amidohydrolase family protein OLEI061672_1_465 from Oleispira antarctica (PDB ID: 3LNP), without bound ligand as the search model. Models without inhibitor were iteratively rebuilt in COOT and refined in Refmac5 (23, 24). Manual inhibitor building was initiated only after the R free decreased below 30% and was guided by clear ligand density in F 0 - F c electron density maps contoured at 3σ. Data processing and refinement statistics are summarized in Table 1.

[0053] Inhibition of cellular PaMTADA activity. Inhibtion of PaMTADA activity in cell lysates was carried out as follows. P. aeruginosa PAOl (ATCC number: 15692) was grown at 37 °C to stationary phase in LB medium for 16 hours. Cells were collected by centrifugation at 16, 100 g and washed three times with 100 mM phosphate, pH 7.4. Cells were lysed using BugBuster reagent (Novagen). Cleared lysate (47 μΐ,) was incubated with and without 1-1000 nM of MTCF and [8- 14 C]MTA (15 μΐ, containing approximately 0.1 μθί C) in 100 mM phosphate, pH 7.4, for 20 min, with a total volume of 80 μί. Reaction mixtures were quenched with perchloric acid (1.8 M final concentration) and neutralized with potassium hydroxide. Precipitates were removed by centrifugation and carrier hypoxanthine, adenine, MTI, and MTA were added to the supernatant. Separation of the metabolites was carried out on a Ci 8 Luna HPLC column (Phenomenex) with a gradient of 5 to 52.8% acetonitrile in 20 mM triethylamine acetate, pH 5.2. The UV absorbance at 260 nm was monitored. The retention times were 5.1 min (hypoxanthine), 7.5 min (adenine), 20.4 min (MTI), and 21.9 min (MTA), respectively. Fractions were collected in scintillation vials, dried, reconstituted in 200 μί deionized water prior to addition of 10 mL ULTIMA GOLD LSC-Cocktail scintillation fluid. The cpm of 14 C was counted at 20 min per cycle for three cycles using a Tri-Carb 2910TR liquid scintillation analyzer. Cell lysate was replaced by lysis buffer in reaction mixtures in control experiments. Inhibition of cellular aMTADA was investigated with addition of MTCF to the LB medium instead of addition to the cell lysate. The final concentrations of MTCF used in the LB varied from 0 to 1000 nM. Culture growth in the presence of MTCF used 1% inoculums by volume in all cultures. All other procedures were the same as described above. A third experiment was carried out with addition of 500 nM MTCF in LB medium and addition of 0 or 100 nM MTCF to the cell lysate after the BugBuster lysis. The IC5 0 for MTCF was obtained by fitting the percentage of degraded MTA to the concentration of MTCF using equation (4) and the Software):

where y is the percentage of degraded MTA at certain [I] (inhibitor concentration), yo is the percentage of degraded MTA at zero [I], c is the maximum difference between y and yo, and IC5 0 is the inhibitor concentration giving half maximal inhibition.

Results and Discussion

[0054] The hunt for PaMTADA. There is no gene annotated as MTA deaminase in Pseudomonas, but the previous discovery of the pathway from MTA to hypoxanthine via MTI indicated the existence of a MTA deaminase in P. aerguinosa (10). The active site of MTA deaminase was expected to contain Zinc, purine and methylthioribose binding sites. The Pseudomonas genome database contains several genes annotated as deaminases based on Zinc binding motif. These included PA0134 (guanine deaminase), PA1521 (guanine deaminase), PA0142 (guanine deaminse), PA0148 (adenosine deaminase), PA2499 (unspecified deaminse), PA3480 (deoxycytidine triphosphate deaminase), PA0437 (cytosine deaminase), and PA3170 (guanine deaminase). All of the corresponding protein sequences were searched against the PDB database. One of the hits was MTA deaminase from Thermotoga maritima (TmMTADA; PDB ID: 1J6P). TmMTADA also deaminates SAH and adenosine but favors MTA as the substrate (14). The crystal structure (PDB ID: 2PLM) of TmMTADA in complex with S-inosyl homocysteine (SIH) revealed catalytic site residues for recognition of ribosyl and homocysteine moieties of SIH. Glu84 interacts with the ribosyl group by forming two hydrogen bonds with 2' and 3 ' hydroxyl group. Met 1 14, Try 1 15, and Phel l6 create a hydrophobic pocket surrounding the methythio group of homocysteine. Argl36 and Argl48 are involved in the binding of carboxylate group of homocysteine. Multiple sequence alignments show Glu84, Metl 14, Try 115 and Phel 16 to be conserved in PA3170 but Argl36 and Argl48 are not (Fig. 3). Hisl73 and Glu203 of TmMTADA interact with the adenine base and are conserved in PA3170. The analysis supports assignment of PA3170 as a MTA deaminase with differences in the ability to use SAH as a substrate.

[0055] MTA deaminase activity ofPA3170. The recombinant PA3170 protein was purified and tested for substrate specificity (Table 2). The recombinant protein deaminated MTA and adenosine but was inactive with adenine, SAH and guanosine, suggesting a high specificity for both sugar and purine base. MTA is the most favorable substrate with a k cat of 24.6 s "1 and K m of 1.5 μΜ (k cat /K m of 1.6 x 10 7 M " Y l ). The enzyme is less efficient with adenosine. Although the k cat is 17 s "1 , the K m of 46 μΜ is 30 times higher than that for MTA, causing most of the 40-fold lower catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) on adenosine (3.7 x 10 5

M ' V 1 ). The 30-fold lower K m with MTA supports an important role of the 5'- methylthio-group for MTA binding. The substrate specificity reveals PA3170 protein to be a specific MTA deaminase. The catalytic efficiency of 1.6 x 10 7 M ' V 1 is the highest of known adenosine or MTA deaminase reactions.

[0056] Deaminase activity on MTA has been reported in malarial ADAs and T. maritime MTADA (12-14). The known MTADA enzymes have catalytic efficiency in the range of 1.4 x 10 4 M ' V 1 to 1.4 x 10 5 M ' V 1 , which are over 100-fold less than that of aMTADA. Their catalytic efficiency on adenosine is also low and comparable with the ability of PaMTADA to use adenosine, in the range of 9.2 x 10 3 M ' Y 1 to 8.2 x 10 4 M ' V 1 . Human and bovine AD As do not utilize MTA as substrate and their k cat /K m values for adenosine are 1.6 x 10 6 MV and 1.1 x 10 6 M ' Y 1 , respectively (12, 15). PaMTADA has a similar k cai /K m values on adenosine as other ADAs, suggesting this enzyme has the catalytic capacity to act as both ADA and MTADA in biological conditions.

[0057] Expression of PaMTADA supports the catabolism of MTA in P. aeruginosa in the two step pathway of MTA- MTI- hypoxanthine that was proposed recently on the basis of the existence of MTI phosphorylase and the catabolism of 14 C-labeled MTA (10).

[0058] Picomolar Inhibitors of PaMTADA. Coformycin (CF) and 2'- deoxycoformycin (DCF) are natural product transition state analogue inhibitors of adenosine deaminases with picomolar affinity (25). Their 8-R-hydroxyl group mimics the attacking hydroxyl group at the transition state and the 7-membered diazepine ring is protonated at N6, which mimics the Nl protonation proposed to occur with adenosine or MTA at the transition state (26). The molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the coformycins closely resemble the geometry and charge distribution of the transition states of adenosine deaminases from human, bovine, and Plasmodim falciparum. MTCF and MTDCF possess the transition state features of coformycin and the unique substrate specificity determinants of this enzyme for the 5'-methylthio group (15). MTCF and MTDCF were originally developed as transition-state analogue inhibitors of P ADA, involved in both adenosine and MTA deamination and a potential target for purine salvage in malaria (12). MTCF and MTDCF inhibit PfADA with equilibrium dissociation constants of 400 pM and 700 pM, respectively, but they have no inhibitory effect on human ADA. Inhibition of human ADA is known to cause central nervous system dysfunction and the genetic deficiency of human ADA causes severe immune deficiency disorders (27-29).

[0059] Six coformycin-based transition state analogue inhibitors (Fig. 2) were tested with PaMTADA and gave K{ values ranging from 4.8 pM to 90 nM (Table 3). Coformycin inhibits PaMTADA with a K{ value of 90 nM. MTCF, however, exhibits more potent inhibition with a 4.8 pM dissociation constant. Thus, MTCF binds to PaMTADA 18,800 times better than CF, and 312,500 times better than the substrate MTA as judged by The 2 '-hydroxyl group has a small effect on the affinity of CF and MTCF. 2'-Deoxycoformycin and MTDCF have K { values of 37 nM and 8 M, respectively. Coformycins are transition state analogue for adenosine deaminases, while MTCF is specific for MTA deaminase. PaMTADA has 30 times higher affinity and 40 times higher catalytic efficiency for MTA than for adenosine, which contributes to the more potent inhibition of MTCF than CF. However, the difference in inhibitor affinity is 18,800 times, which cannot be solely attributed to the difference in substrate specificity of the enzymes. The MTCF appears to more precisely capture the transition state features of PaMTADA. Since the transition state features on the purine base are similar in CF and MTCF, the 5'-methylthio group is likely to play a critical role in organizing the substrate and enzyme to an efficient geometry resembling the transition state. However, a detailed transition state structure for PaMTADA has not yet been established. 5 '-Propylthiol-2'-deoxycoformycin (PrTDCF) binds PaMTADA 8 times weaker than MTDCF with a K { value of 67 pM. Similarly, PhTDCF binds 16 times weaker with a K{ value of 130 pM. These results suggest that PaMTADA can accommodate larger hydrophobic group at the 5'- position of the inhibitor, but prefers the methylthio group.

[0060] Inhibitor specificity of PaMTADA can be compared to that of P/ADA since both enzymes have adenosine and MTA deaminase activities. MTCF, MTDCF, PrTDCF, and PhTDCF bind P ADA with respective K, values of 400 pM, 700 pM, 12 nM, and 60 nM, representing 5, 9, 150, and 750 times weaker binding affinity than that of CF for the same enzyme (15). 2'-Deoxycoformycin binds slightly tighter than CF with a Kj of 38 pM. The preference of P ADA for binding of CF and DCF relative to MTCF and other 5'-functionalized-2'-deoxycoformycins are the opposite of that found for PaMTADA. This establishes the distinct substrate specificity preferences for adenosine and MTA with these enzymes. P/ADA prefers adenosine and PaMTADA prefers MTA. In addition, MTCF and 5 '-functionalized-2'- deoxycoformycins bind PaMTADA more tightly than P/ADA, suggested by the > 80- fold lower Ki, which may be attributed to the 160 times higher catalytic efficiency of PaMTADA on MTA than that of P/ADA. Binding of transition state analogues is proportional to catalytic rate enhancement, and the behavior of PaMTADA provides another example of this phenomenon. The preference of MTCF and 5 '-functionalized- 2'-deoxycoformycins as transition state analogue inhibitor of PaMTADA emphasizes substrate specificity as an essential factor in inhibitor design in addition to transition state features. [0061] MTCF and other 5'-functionalized-2'-deoxycoformycins have no inhibitory effects on human ADA, suggesting an approach to target P. aerguinosa with minimal side effects to human hosts. MTCF was examined to test if it might be metabolized by other enzymes related to MTA metabolism, namely by human MTA phosphorylase (MTAP) and E. coli MTA nucleosidase (MTAN). No significant degradation of MTCF was observed for either of these enzymes (k 0 bs < 0.001 s "1 ).

[0062] MTCF was tested for its ability to inhibit human MTAP and E. coli MTAN. MTCF binds to human MTAP 625,000 times weaker than to PaMTADA, with a Ki of 3 μΜ. The K{ of E. coli MTAN is > 5 μΜ. These results demonstrate the high specificity of MTCF for MTADA activity with minimal interactions with related enzymes.

[0063] Inhibition of cellular PaMTADA activity. MTCF exhibits tight binding to PaMTADA in enzymatic assays with a 4.8 pM dissociation constant. Its inhibition of PaMTADA was tested in intact P. aerguinosa cells and cell lysate. The inhibition was evaluated by the decrease of MTA degradation. MTA degradation was monitored by tracking the decrease of 14 C-label in [8- 14 C]MTA or its increase in hypoxanthine, adenine, and MTI. Varied concentrations of MTCF were added to P. aeruginosa cell lysates (Fig. 4A). In the absence of MTCF, conversion of [8- 14 C]MTA to downstream metabolites was nearly complete, indicating that PaMTADA and PaMTIP are functional under these experimental conditions. The degradation of MTA was completely blocked at 50 nM inhibitor, indicating that the deamination of MTA is the only pathway for MTA catabolism in P. aeruginosa extracts. The IC 50 was 4 nM, demonstrating the inhibitory potency of MTCF in whole cell lysates.

[0064] The cellular permeability and in vivo inhibition of PaMTADA by MTCF was examined by the effect of the inhibitor added to LB medium during cell growth (Fig. 4B). The growth of P. aeruginosa PAOl was monitored with or without MTCF (up to 1 μΜ) for 36 hours at 37 °C. There was no effect of MTCF on cell growth based on OD 6 oo values. Cells were harvested, wash free of exogenous inhibitor and PaMTADA activity determined by [8- 14 C]MTA metabolism in cell extracts. MTA metabolism was clearly inhibited at the PaMTADA step by the growth of cells in the presence of MTCF in LB medium. Maximal inhibition was achieved at a concentration of 10 nM MTCF. However, a small, residual PaMTADA activity was observed independent of the MTCF concentration during growth, even at 1 μΜ. Two hypotheses were considered for this activity. First, growth on MTCF may induce a deaminase activity resistant to MTCF. Second, the residual activity might arise from diffusional release of the inhibitor during the dilution (and incubation) of a small volume of cell extract into the larger volume of lysis buffer and other incubation buffer. To test these hypotheses, cells were cultured as above in LB medium containing 500 nM MTCF. After preparation of cell extracts at the start of the MTA degradation experiment, either 0 or 100 nM MTCF was added and the degradation of the [8- 14 C]MTA was monitored (Fig. 4C). If the residual PaMTADA activity arises from a resistant deaminase, the degradation of [8- 14 C]MTA would be unchanged. If the residual MTA metabolism is due to diffusional loss of inhibitor during extract work-up and incubation, addition of inhibitor in cell lysate would completely quench the residual activity. All PaMTADA activity was inhibited in the experiment. Thus, the residual activity of PaMTADA, clearly present before addition of MTCF to the cell lystate, is a result of slow diffusional loss of inhibitor from the enzyme in cell lysate. Correcting for this residual activity, the IC5 0 of PaMTADA in LB medium was then calculated to be 3 nM, similar to the 4 nM IC5 0 of MTCF in cell lysate. These results indicate that MTCF is permeable to P. aeruginosa cells. The cellular PaMTADA concentration can also be estimated in the range of 10-50 nM as this concentration of MTCF is required to titrate extracts to zero catalytic activity.

[0065] The structure of PaMTADA and MTCF interaction. The crystal structure of PaMTADA in complex with MTCF was determined to 2.0 A resolution. PaMTADA forms a homodimer with two zinc ions and two phosphate ions located at the dimer interface (Fig. 5a). The N-terminal 14 amino acids include the His 6 tag, are disordered and are distant from the active site. The protein folds into two domains. The core of the larger domain consists of an (α/β) 8 TIM barrel, whereas the smaller domain, including the first 67 amino acid residues and the residues from 361 to 419, is organized into a β sandwich (Fig. 5b).

[0066] The 8-(R)-hydroxydiazepine moiety of MTCF mimics some features of the transition state for N6-deamination of the adenine base. The 8-(R)-hydroxy group at a sp 3 -bonded center of MTCF mimics the nucleophilic water adding to the sp 2 C6 center of the purine ring to create a sp 3 transition state. The structure of PaMTADA resembles that of the Plasmodium vivax ADA:MTCF complex reported earlier, where, the Nl, N4 and N6 of diazepine ring form hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues or a water molecule (Figs. 6,7) (13). The Nl forms hydrogen bonds to the amide of Gly310 and the side chain of Ser313 via a water molecule. The N4 and N6 form hydrogen bonds to side chains of His 194 and Glu224, respectively. Both 2' and 3 ' hydroxyl groups of ribose moiety form hydrogen bonds with the side chain of GlulOl, consistent with other structures and the predicted sequence analysis (Fig. 6). The 5'- methylthio group resides in a hydrophobic pocket surrounded by Metl32, Phel34, Prol55, Leul57, Prol93 and His l94 (Fig. 6), explaining the binding advantage afforded by the 5'-methylthio group in MTCF compared to the 5 '-hydroxyl group in CF. Transition state features of MTCF include the protonation at N6 and the (R)- hydroxyl with sp 3 geometry at C8. The protonated N6 mimics the transition state and forms a hydrogen bond with Glu224 and (R)-hydroxyl group forms an ionic bond with the Zn ion, a mimic of the Zn-OH " nucleophile at the transition state of the normal aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction. These interactions from the transition state features provide significant binding energy to the inhibitor and thus contribute to the 4.8 pM affinity of MTCF.

[0067] Implications for Quorum Sensing. Six transition state analogue inhibitors have been identified for PaMTADA with picomolar dissociation constants. MTCF is the most potent inhibitor with a 4.8 pM K{ in in vitro assays and an IC 50 of 3 nM in in vivo studies. It is specific to the MTA deminase activity and has no significant inhibitory effects on human ADA and human MTAP. MTCF is thus a suitable candidate for blocking PaMTADA activity. In P. aeruginosa, MTA degradation follows a unique two-step pathway of MTA→ MTI→ hypoxanthine, where MTADA is the only enzyme responsible for the first step. Most bacteria utilize MTA nucleosidase for MTA degradation, catalyzing the hydrolysis of MTA to adenine. Inhibition of PaMTADA is expected to increase cellular MTA level and block quorum sensing of P. aeruginosa, similar to the effects of MTAN inhibition in other bacteria. This study assigns the identity of the PA3170 protein as an unusual and specific MTADA and confirms the two-step pathway of MTA metabolism in P. aeruginosa. Transition state analogue inhibitors are identified for PaMTADA with powerful activity and cellular permeability to provide new tools to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa and other organisms with this unusual pathway. Table 1. Data collection and refinement statistics.

aMTAD A : MTCF complex

PDB code 4GBD

Data collection

Space group C2

Cell dimension

a, b, c (A) 119.8, 120.3, 77.3 α, β, γ (°) 90.0, 108.0, 90.0

50.00-2.00

Resolutions (A)

(2.07-2.00)

Ι / σΙ 11.5 (1.7)

Completeness

97.6 (98.3)

(%)

Redundancy 3.7 (3.6)

Refinement

Resolution (A) 50.00-2.00

No. unique

70236

reflections

^work ¾ee (%) 19.6/23.5

B-factors (A 2 )

Protein

(main chain) 40.8

(side chain) 46.2

Water 44.5

Ligand 42.3

No. of Atoms

Protein 6694

Water 243

Ligand 44

R.m.s deviations

Bond lengths (A) 0.012

Bond angles (°) 1.61

Ramanchran analysis

favored region 96.5%

allowed region 3.1%

disallowed region 0.4%

Coordinate Error

by Luzzati plot 0.24

(A)

Numbers in parentheses are for the highest-resolution shell. One crystal was used for each data set.

Table 2. Substrate Specificity of PaMTADA, PfADA, and Human ADA on

Adenosine and MTA.

aP ADA and human ADA values are from Ting et al. and Tyler et al. , respectively (12, 15). b PaMTADA shows no activity on adenine, guanosine or SAH (fc obs < 0.001 s 1 ).

Table 3. Summary of K values for PaMTADA, P ADA, and human ADA

aThe values of P ADA and human ADA are from Tyler et al. (15). h is an equilibrium dissociation constant. It is the K in competitive inhibition and K* in slow-onset inhibition.

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