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Title:
TRI-SUBSTITUED 2-BENZHYDRYL-5-BENZLAMINO-TETRAHYDRO-PYRAN-4-OL AND 6-BENZHYDRYL-4-BENZYLAMINO-TETRAHYDRO-PYRAN-3-OL ANALOGUES, AND NOVEL 3,6-DISUBSTITUTED PYRAN DERIVATIVES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/105075
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Novel 3,6-disubstituted pyrans, optionally with a further substituent at the 4-position, are monoamine reuptake inhibitors with activity profiles of anti- depressants.

Inventors:
Dutta, Aloke K. (21835 Sunflower Road, Novi, MI, 48375, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/012748
Publication Date:
November 10, 2005
Filing Date:
April 15, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY (4043 Faculty/Administration Building, Detroit, MI, 48202, US)
Dutta, Aloke K. (21835 Sunflower Road, Novi, MI, 48375, US)
International Classes:
A61K31/351; A61K31/404; C07D309/10; C07D309/14; C07D405/12; C07D407/12; C07D493/04; (IPC1-7): A61K31/351; A61K31/404; C07D309/10; C07D309/14; C07D407/12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Conger, William G. (Brooks Kushman, 1000 Town Center Twenty-Second Floo, Southfield MI, 48075, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. L A 3,6substituted pyran groupcontaining compound having the structural formula: wherein A, A', and B are individually selected from the group of optionally substituted C4 C14 aryl and heteroaryl wherein heteroatoms of heteroaryl A and/or A' are selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S; Z is selected from the group consisting of a chemical bond and Y(CH2)o wherein Y is NH or O and o is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; R is H or C1.,, alkyl; W is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and OH; and n and m individually are 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, and wherein any carbon of (CH2)n may be substituted by OR4 wherein R4 is C18 alkyl, C218 alkylene, or COOR5 wherein R5 is C118 alkyl or C248 alkylene, or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative or salt thereof.
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein at least one of A and A' are selected from the group consisting of: where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C26 alkenyl, C26 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2.6 hydroxy alky nyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C148 alkyl, C5.10 cycloalkyl, C218 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C18 alkyl, C5.6 cycloalkyl, or C2.8 alkenyl.
3. The compound of claim 1 , wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C2.6 alkenyl, C2.6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2.6 hydroxy alkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C148 alkyl, C540 cycloalkyl, C248 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C18 alkyl, C5.6 cycloalkyl, or C2.8 alkenyl; and wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S.
4. The compound of claim 2, wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C2.6 alkenyl, C2.6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C26 hydroxy alkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C148 alkyl, C510 cycloalkyl, C248 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C18 alkyl, C56 cycloalkyl, or C28 alkenyl; and wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S.
5. The compound of claim 3, wherein A and A' are both unsubstituted phenyl.
6. The compound of claim 1, having the formula.
7. The compound of claim 2, having the formula.
8. The compound of claim 3, having the formula.
9. The compound of claim 1, having the formula.
10. The compound of claim 2, having the formula.
11. The compound of claim 3 , having the formula.
12. The compound of claim 1, having a formula selected from the group consisting of: I π V.
13. The compound of claim 2, having a formula selected from the group consisting of: V.
14. The compound of claim 3 , having a formula selected from the group consisting of: π V.
15. The compound of claim 5 , having a formula selected from the group consisting of: π .
16. The compound of claim 1, selected from the group consisting of: Synthesis of Cώ(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl)amine (16h); Synthesis of Cw(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(lHiodo5ylmetliyl)amine (16n); Synthesis of Cw(6benzhydryltetraliydropyran3yl)(4aminobenzyl)amine (16o); Synthesis of C/5(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(3,4dichlorobenzyl)amine (16i); Procedure E. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4methoxybenzylamino) tetrahydropyran4ol ()29a; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4fluorobenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol ()29b; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5benzylaminotetrahydropyran4ol ()29d; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(2,4dimethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4 ol ()29e; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(3,5dimethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4 ol ()29f; Procedure H. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4hydroxybenzylamino) tetrahydropyran4ol ()32a; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)amino]tetrahydropyran 4ol ()32b; Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5(4hydroxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol (+)32a; Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)amino]tetrahydropyran4 ol (+)32b; Synthesis of cis(3S, 6S)(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl)amine ()37a; and Synthesis of cis(3R, 6R)(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl) amine (+)37a.
17. The compound of claim 1, selected from the group consisting of: Procedure E. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4methoxybenzylamino) tetrahydropyran4ol ()29a; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4fluorobenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol ()29b; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5benzylaminotetrahydropyran4ol ()29d; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(2,4dimetlioxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4 ol ()29e; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(3,5dimethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4 ol ()29f; Procedure H. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4hydroxybenzylamino) tetrahydropyran4ol ()32a; Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)ami1αo]tetrahydropyran 4ol ()32b; Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5(4hydroxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol (+)32a; Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)amino] tetrahydropyran4ol (+)32b; Syntliesis of cis(3S, 6SH6berizhydrvltetrahvdropvran3vl)(4hvdroxvbenzyl)amine ()37a; and Synthesis of cis(3R, 6R)(6benzliydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl)amine (+)37a.
18. A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 1.
19. A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 2.
20. A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 12.
21. A method for the treatment of depression, comprising administering to a patient exhibiting signs of depression, a compound of claim 1 in an amount effective to inhibit reuptake of serotonin at the SERT and norepinephrine at the NET.
22. The method of claim 21 wherein the compound exhibits greater inhibition of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake than of dopamine reuptake.
23. A method for the treatment of depression, comprising administering to a patient exhibiting signs of depression, a compound of claim 1 in an amount effective to inhibit norepinephrine reuptake at the NET.
24. The method of claim 23 wherein said compound exhibits higher norepinephrine reuptake inhibition than serotonin reuptake inhibition and dopamine reuptake inhibition. AMENDED CLAIMS [received by the International Bureau on 10 October 2005 (10.10.2005); original claims, 16 and 17 amended; new claims 2529 added; remaining claims unchanged (16 pages)] 11 A 3,6substituted pyran groupcontaining compound having 2 the structural formula; 3 wherein 4 A, A', and B are individually selected from the group of optionally substituted C4 5 CN aryl and heteroaryl wherein heteroatoms of heteroaryl A and/or A' are selected 6 from the group consisting of O7 N, and S; 7 2 is selected from the group consisting of a chemical bond and Y(CH2)0 wherein S Y is NH or O and o is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; 9 R is H or C14 alkyl; 0 W is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and OH; and 1 n and m individually are 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, and wherein any carbon of (CHJn may 2 be substituted by OR4 wherein R4 is C18 alkyl, C2.]8 alkylene, or COOR5 wherein 3 R5 is C,.,8 alkyl or C2.]g alkylene, and when W is H, B is an optionally substituted 4 indolyl group, a 4hydroxybenzyl group, an iodophenyl group, or a 4aminobenzyl 5 group, 6 or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative or salt thereof.
25. 2 The compound of claim 1 , wherein at least one of A and A ' are selected from the group consisting of: where R1 is selected from the group consisting of CM alkyl, C2i(3 alkenyl, C26 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C26 hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C118 alkyl, C510 cycloalkyl, C218 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C1S alkyl, C515 cycloalkyl, or C2.8 alkenyl. 3 The compound of claim 1, wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C26 alkenyl, C2.6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2.6 hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C,.B alkyl, C510 cycloalkyl, C218 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C,.s alkyl, Cw cycloalkyl, or C28 alkenyl; and wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S.
26. 4 The compound of claim 2, wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, CM alkenyl, C2.6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2.6 hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C113 alkyl, C510 cycloalkyl, C218 alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C18 alkyl, C5.6 cycloalkyl, or C28 alkenyl; and wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S.
27. 5 The compound of claim 3, wherein A and A' are both unsubstituted phenyl.
28. 6 The compound of claim 1, having the formula 7 The compound of claim 2, having the formula 8 The compound of claim 3, having the formula 9 The compound of claim 1 , having the formula 10 The compound of claim 2, having the formula 11 The compound of claim 3, having the formula 12 The compound of claim 1 , having a formula selected from the group consisting of: V 13. The compound of claim 2, having a formula selected from the group consisting of: 14 The compound of claim 3 , having a formula selected from the group consisting of: I Iϊ V 15. The compound of claim 5, having a formula selected from the group consisting of: π 16 The compound of claim 1, selected from the group consisting of: cW'(6benzhydryItetrahydropyran3yi)(4hydroxybenzyl)'amiiie; cz.?(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(lHiodo5ylmethyI)amine; c/s(6benzhydryitetrahydropyran3yl)(4amiiiobenzyl)amine; m(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3"y!)(354dichlorobenzyl)amine; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4methoxybenzylaiχiino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4fluorobenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryI5benzylarainotetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)"2benzhydryl5(2,4dimethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4o3; (2S, 4R, 5R)2beiizhydiyl5<3,5diπiethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryI5(4hydroxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4oI; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)amino]tetrahydropyran4ol; (2R, 4$, 5S)2'benzhydryl5(4hydroχybenzyIamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5[(lHindol5ylmethyl)amino,]tetrahydropyran4ol; czs(3S, 6S)(6ben2hydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxyben2yl)amine; and c«(3R, 6R)(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl)amine.
29. 17 The compound of claim 1 , selected from the group consisting of: (2S, 4RS 5R)2berLZhydryl5(4methoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(4fluorobenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4oI; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryϊ5benzyIaminotetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benzhydryl5(2,4dimethoxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R7 5R)2benzhydryl5(3,5dimethoxybenzyIamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2S, 4R1 5R)2ben2hydryl5'(4hydroxybenzylamino)tetrahydropyran4'Ol; (2S, 4R, 5R)2benj2hyc!ryl5[(l.Hindol5ylmethyl)amino]tetrahydropyran4ol; (2R, 4S, 5S)2benzhydryl5(4hydroxybenzyIamino)tetrahydropyran4ol; (2R, 4S1 5S)2beiizhydryl5[(lHindol5yImetliyl)amiiio]tetrahyciropyran4ol; cis~(3S, 6S)(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyl)amine; and cis(3Rs 6R)(6benzhydryltetrahydropyran3yl)(4hydroxybenzyI)amine. IS. A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 1 , 19 A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 2.
30. 20 A method of reducing monoamine reuptake in a mammalian species, comprising administering a binding amount of a monoamine receptor binder comprising a compound of claim 12.
31. 21 A method for the treatment of depression, comprising administering to a patient exhibiting signs of depression, a compound of claim 1 in an amount effective to inhibit reuptake of serotonin at the SERT and norepinephrine at the NET.
32. 22 The method of claim 21 wherein the compound exhibits greater inhibition of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake than of dopamine reuptake.
33. 23 A method for the treatment of depression, comprising administering to a patient exhibiting signs of depression, a compound of claim 1 in an amount effective to inhibit norepinephrine reuptake at the NET.
34. 90 24. The method of claim 23 wherein said compound exhibits higher norepinephrine reuptake inhibition than serotonin reuptake inhibition and dopamine reuptake inhibition.
35. 25 1. A 3, 6substituted pyran groupcontaining compound having the structural formula: wherein A, A' , and B are individually selected from the group of optionally substituted Q C14 aryl and heteroaryl wherein heteroatoms of heteroaryl A and/or A' are selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S; Z is selected from the group consisting of a chemical bond and Y(CH2)0 wherein Y is NH or O and o is 0, 1, 2, 37 or 4; R is H or Cus alkyl; n and m individually are 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, and wherein any carbon of (CH2)n may be substituted by OR4 wherein R4 is C18 alkyl, C2.lg alkylene, or COOR5 wherein R5 is Ci_]S alkyl or C2,i8 alkylene, or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative or salt thereof. 91 26. The compound of claim 25, having a formula selected from the group. consisting of: π 92 27. The compound of claim 25, having a formula selected from the group consisting of: ΪI wherein A is selected from the group consisting of: where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C26 alk;enyl4 C2.6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2.6 hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR7 where R is CWB alkyl, C^10 cycloalkyl, C2,ιβ alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is Cl>8 alkyl, C3^ cycloalkyl, or C28 alkenyl.
36. 93 28 , The compound of claim 25, , having a formula selected from the group consisting of: I π wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C2^ alkenyi, C26 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2^ hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R is C143 alkyl, C3.t0 cycloalkyl, C2,ls alkenyl, OH, NO2, NH2, OR2 where R2 is C18 ^1* Q.6 cycloalkyl, or C2.s aikenyl; and 94 wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S. 29. The compound of claim 27, having a formula selected form the group consisting of: π wherein B is selected from the group where R1 is selected from the group consisting of C14 alkyl, C2.6 aϊkeπyl, C2.6 optionally halogeπated attynyl, C26 hydroxyalkynyl, halo, CN, COOR, where R 95 is C,.18 alkyl, C5.10 cycloalkyl, C^18 alkenyl, OH, NO25 NH2, OR2 where R2 is C1^ alkyl, C56 cycloalkyl, or C2.8 alkenyl; and wherein R2 have the meaning of R1 and also a 5 or 6 membered heterocycle containing 1 or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, and S, and wherein X is N, O, or S. 96.
Description:
TRI-SUBSTITUED 2-BENZHYDRYL-S-BENZLAMINO-TETRAHYDRO- PYRAN-4-OL AND 6-BENZHYDRYL-^BENZYLAMINO-TETRAHYDRO- PYRAN-3-OL ANALOGUES, AND NOVEL 3,6-DISUBSTITUTED PYRAN DERIVATIVES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional application Serial No. 60/563,189, filed April 16, 2004, and copending U.S. application Serial No. 10/311,796, herein incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The invention pertains to pharmacologically active 3,6-disubstituted pyran compounds and similar compounds having additional substitution on the pyran ring. The compounds show high activity at monoamine transporters, and thus can be used to alter reuptake of monoamines in treatment of numerous diseases in mammalian species for which alteration of the monoamine transport system is indicated.

2. Background Art

The monoamine transporters terminate the action of released biogenic amines such as dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system (CNS) and are known as dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter(NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT), respectively.1 These transporters play a vital role in maintaining the extracellular concentration of biogenic amine neurotransmitters.2 Drugs binding to the DAT are typically regarded as stimulants. Cocaine- and amphetamine-related compounds are known to produce their action by binding to both DAT and SERT with cocaine acting as a blocker and amphetamine as a substrate.3'7 On the other hand, drugs binding to the SERT and NET are known to produce, among other effects, potent antidepressant activity.8"10 Major depression disorder is a significant health problem, and behind cardiovascular disease, depression is considered as the second most debilitating disease in the world. Unipolar depression is ranked number 1 before all other somatic and psychiatric illness. It is believed that more than 20% of individuals suffer from a depressive episode at least once in their lifetime. Depression is potentially fatal since many people suffering from depression contemplate suicide and other life threatening acts.

Selective monoamine uptake inhibitors have been implicated in the treatment of depression.11 In these classes specifically, serotonin and norepinephrine transporter blockers have been used in therapy for depression.12'13 Antidepressants are thought to elicit their therapeutic effects by increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synapse.14 Earlier developed tricyclic antidepressants acted by enhancing both serotonin and norepinephrine transmissions.15 However, due to their non-specific interactions with the other CNS receptors, they exhibited toxic side effects which have limited their clinical use.16'17 Development of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) alleviated many side effects exhibited by traditional trycyclic antidepressants and thus have proven to be more effective.18"20 However, the delayed onset action of SSRI sometime proved to have fatal consequences for patients afflicted with manic depression and in need of immediate help. SSRIs also have been implicated in number of other side effects which include insomnia, sexual dysfunction and nausea, etc. More recently, SSRIs have been implicated in suicide risk in adolescent population who were medicated with these drugs, raising some serious questions on the safety of SSRI. Lately, serotonin and norepinephrine dual uptake inhibitors have proven to be more efficacious in that regard. Fast onset of action associated with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) was found to be more desirable as there is a pressing need for more faster acting antidepressant agents with reduced undesirable side effects. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It has been surprisingly discovered that 3,6-disubstituted pyrans as hereinafter defined, and in particular 3,6-disubstituted pyrans also containing a further substituent on the pyran ring, exhibit potent activity on monoamine transport systems, and are thus useful in probing the effects of binding to monoamine transport systems and the corresponding relationships to various afflictions affecting the CNS, or as a treatment for various CNS-related disorders in which the monoamine transport system is implicated. It has been surprisingly and unexpectedly discovered that the novel 3,6-disubstituted and 2,5,-4-trisubstituted pyran molecules of the present invention operate as powerful blockers for monoamine transporters.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

3,6-disubstituted pyran derivatives have been discovered to be powerful agents targeting monoamine transporter systems. The pyran analogs are the bioisosteric versions of earlier structurally constrained cis-3,6-disubstituted piperidine derivatives which exhibited potent and selective affinities toward DAT in a stereo-selective manner, for Example compound Ib as shown below.21'22 The pyran series of compounds yielded results which indicate that the mode of interactions of these pyran molecules with monoamine transporters is different from their piperidine counterparts even though similar stereoselectivity, cis-configuration of most active piperidine Ia and pyran Ib, was maintained for optimal DAT activity in both cases.23'24 In general, there is a slight reduction of affinity in these pyran derivatives for the DAT compared to their piperidine counterparts (see Table I).21 This loss of affinity could be due to the replacement of the basic N-atom in the piperidine derivative by a less basic O-atom resulting in an altered mode of interactions. In this regard, the cis-3,6-disubstituted pyran derivatives, as shown in structure Ib above, actually represent pharmacophoric structures for DAT interaction, as either cis- or trans-2,4-disubstituted and trans~3,6-disubstituted compounds, shown as Ic, Id and Ie and Figure 2, were much weaker at DAT (see Table I).24 Interestingly, one of the notable features observed in pyran derivatives bearing a potential H-bonding hydroxyl or amino functionality in the aromatic ring, was their significant increase of activity towards NET which was not observed for the corresponding piperidine counterparts.22-24 This affinity for NET is attributed to a formation of H-bonding between the functional groups in the benzyl moiety of the pyran molecules and the NET. Support for this came from the design of a molecule in which the original potential H-bonding bearing functional hydroxyl group connected to a phenyl moiety was modified into a bio-isosteric equivalent indole substituent where an indole amino moiety effectively replaced the hydroxyl group. The resulting indole derivative was also potent at NET, thus, confirming the potential involvement of an H-bond interaction.

Table 1 Affinity of Drugs at Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norephinephrine Transporters in Rat Striatum

The present inventor contemplated that introduction of a hydroxyl group as a third substitutent in the inventive 3,6-disubstituted pyran templates could allow additional interaction with the monoamine transporter, potentially resulting in compounds with interesting activity and selectivity. While introducing such a hydroxy group in the pyran ring, it was also desired to explore the additional influence of stereospecificity and regioselectivity in the interaction of the pyran compounds with monoamine transporters. For this purpose, a novel asymmetric synthesis method via isomeric epoxide ring opening was used to introduce all three subsitutuents in a stereo- and regio-specific manner, followed by their biological evaluation at all three monoamine transporters.

The results of the work described above was the generation of a novel trisubstituted pyran template based on 3,6-disubstituted pyran derivatives. These trisubstituted derivatives represent a unique molecular template with a pyranyl backbone structure as blockers for monoamine transporters. Successful design and asymmetric synthesis of these analogs has been accomplished. The results indicate a clear separation of activity between enantiomers and demonstrate the presence of (2S, 4R, 5R) absolute configuration in the most active enantiomer for interaction with NET and SERT. It has been further surprisingly discovered that there are interesting differences in the activity profiles of these compounds, depending on the nature of the substitution on the phenyl ring of an N-benzyl moiety.

The compounds defined herein may be synthesized by methods known to chemists, in general. However, certain of the synthesis steps leading to stereoisomers of the trisubstituted pyrans are novel, and their use is also claimed herein. Several general reaction schemes are worthy of some discussion. Details of the synthesis and a more complete description of reaction schemes follows.

The compounds described herein are all potent inhibitors of monoamine transport, and exhibit reversible but strong binding affinities for the various monoamine transporters. However, some of the compounds exhibited preferable binding to the NET and/or SERT. This binding behavior places these compounds in a different category than analogues not containing a 3,6-substituted pyran ring system such as piperidine compounds with otherwise similar structure.

For example, in vitro data, which has been shown by many studies to correlate with in vivo activity, indicates that (-) isomers of the present invention are potent blockers for serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters. Compounds (-)29a, (-)-29e-, (-)29f, (-)32b and (-)37a are dual transport blockers as they bind to both the SERT and NET. Compounds of this class are known to those skilled in the art as SNRI (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) and are considered potent anti-depressants. Compounds (-)29b, (-)29d, (-)32a, (+)32a, and (+)37a, are more selective for the NET and are known as NRI, also considered potent anti-depressants. Reboxetine, an NRI, was recently approved for use as an anti-depressant. SNRI are now considered to have favorable pharmokinetics as compared to SSRI (serotonin blocker only). Other disorders for which use of such compounds have been documented include panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The CNS-active compounds of the present invention correspond to those of the formula: These compounds contain a pyran ring which is substituted in the 3 and 6 positions, and in preferred embodiments further substituted by a hydroxyl group (or derivative thereof) in the 4 position. In the structure given above, the squiggle bonds between the pyran ring and the W and (CH)2 groups indicates that these groups may be bound at axial or equatorial positions. The AA'CHZ group may be bound in a similar manner.

In the above formula A5 A', and B are individually selected from the group of optionally substituted C4-C14 aryl and heteroaryl wherein heteroatoms of heteroaryl A and/or A' are selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S; Z is selected from the group consisting of a chemical bond and -Y-(CH2)0- wherein Y is NH or O and o is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; R is H or C1-8 alkyl; W is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and -OH; and n and m individually are 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, and wherein any carbon of -(CH2)n may be substituted by OR4 wherein R4 is C1-8 alkyl, C2-18 alkylene, or -COOR5 wherein R5 is C1-18 alkyl or C2-18 alkylene, or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative or salt thereof. A and A' are preferably aryl (inclusive of heteroaryl) groups optionally substituted by C14 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, C2-6 optionally halogenated alkynyl, C2-6 hydroxy alkynyl, halo, -CN, -COOR, where R is C1-18 alkyl, C5-10 cycloalkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -OH, -NO2, -NH2, -OR2 where R2 is C1-8 alkyl, C5-6 cycloalkyl, or C2-8 alkenyl, preferably an optionally substituted phenyl, napthyl, anthryl, furanyl, thienyl, or pridinyl group, and B may be selected from the same groups as well as a

moiety where X is N, O, or S. Most preferably, A is unsubstituted phenyl and A' is unsubstituted phenyl or mono- or disubstituted phenyl where substituents are preferably C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy or halo. B is preferably phenyl, most preferably phenyl substituted by halo, cyano, C1-4 alkoxy, or nitro, most preferably monosubstituted by halo, cyano, or nitro, or disubstituted by halo, preferably chloro and/or fluoro. • Preferred compounds are also those in which the -(CH2)-n group are bound equator ially or axially at the 3- position of the pyran ring. Most preferably, the compounds of formula 1 are (-)-isomers of 3,6-disubstituted pyrans also containing a hydroxyl substituent (or derivative thereof) at the 4 position. In these compounds, the meanings of A, A', B, etc., are the same as for the general formula previously given. Most preferred isomers are those depicted in Figures 7 - 11.

The subject invention compounds may be used as such or in the form of their pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives and/or salts. By the term "derivative" is meant a chemically modified form of the "base compound" which will liberate an active form of the base compound or metabolite thereof following administration, and does not include salts of the base compound. However, derivatives may also, when appropriate, also be used in the form of salts. The particular type of derivative is dependent, in most cases, on the nature of functional group(s) present on the base compound or its salt, and selection of a suitable derivative is within the skill of the art. For example, when hydroxyl groups are present, ethers or esters are common derivatives, especially the latter, as are also carbamates.

In general, the derivative is hydrolyzable to the base compound in vivo or is enzymatically converted, in one or more steps, to the base compound (or a salt thereof). In the case of primary or secondary amino groups, common derivatives include amides, imides, ureas, and the like. Preparation of all these derivatives may take place by standard methods of organic chemistry. Simple esters may be produced from hydroxyl groups by esterification with a carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid, etc. , a carboxylic acid anhydride, a carboxylic acid chloride, etc. Carbamates may be prepared by reaction with an organic isocyanate.

Further derivatives include inclusion compounds and clathrates, for example inclusion complexes formed from the contact of host molecules such as a, β, and γ-cyclodextrins, or chemically modified cyclodextrins well known to the art. Urea inclusion compounds are also derivatives. In these derivatives, the gurst molecules (base compounds) are not chemically bound, but are present due to molecular attraction, hydrogen bonding, surface energy effects, etc. In general, such complexes are stoichiometric, but non-stoichiometric complexes may also be used. Such complexes are easily prepared by one skilled in the art. For example, cyclodextrin complexes may be prepared by kneading together cyclodextrin and base compound in water followed by removal of free water.

Salts are most useful forms of the subject invention compounds, and are formed by the neutralization of basic nitrogen atoms in the base compound by an organic or inorganic acid. Useful organic acids are in particular carboxylic acids and sulfonic acids. Examples of mono-, di-, and poly carboxylic acids which are useful include formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid, sulfosuccinic acid, tannic acid, and the like. An example of a sulfonic acid is toluene sulfonic acid. Examples of inorganic acids include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, polyphosphoric acid, molybdic acid, nitrous acid, sulfurous acid, and the like. The salts are prepared by simply neutralizing the base compound all or in part, generally in aqueous solution. In such cases, water of hydration may be a part of the salt thus produced.

The compounds may be administered by any suitable technique, including intravenous administration, but are preferably administered in solid form, for example as a tablet or capsule, optionally in conjunction with conventional pharmaceutical additives such as tableting aids, lubricants, fillers, pH-adjusting substances, pH-regulating substances (buffers), emulsifiers, dispersing aids, antioxidants, UV-stabilizers, etc. Such ingredients are well known. The compositions may also be administered in other forms, such as syrups, dispersions, etc.

The dosage to be administered to a mammalian species is dependent on numerous factors such as the particular species, its weight, the type of disorder, the desired degree of treatment, and the individual itself. Dosages can be readily determined by one skilled in the art by routine tests, for example time/serum level measurements, dose/response curves, etc. The dosages are in particular easy to range, as numerous monoamine transport-affecting drugs are commercially available, have extensive in vitro and in vivo results presented in the literature, or are in clinical trials. This is true for both human and non-human subjects, anti- anxiety medication being common for use in domestic dogs and cats, for example.

Dosage ranges which are useful also vary with respect to the activity of the individual compounds, for example the measured in vitro or in vivo activities reported in Tables 1 to 5 herein, as well as whether the compound is administered in a fast or slow release formulation, its solubility, its rate of transfer into the plasma or into the extracellular space, etc. Preferable serum concentrations range from 200 ng/mL to 80 ng/mL, more preferably 180 ng/mL to 85 ng/niL, with the foregoing constraints in mind. In non-slow-release formulations, dosages for the average mammal may range from 0.05 mg/Kg of body weight to about 10 mg/Kg of body weight, more preferably 0.1 mg/Kg to 5 mg/Kg. Slow release formulations will involve greater amounts of active ingredient.

Chemistry

Target compounds 7a,b and 16a-p were synthesized by following synthetic procedures shown in Scheme 1 to Scheme 5 depicted in Figures 1 - 5.

Synthesis of the target compounds 7a and 7b, shown in Scheme 1, was accomplished in high yields by following efficient synthetic routes. The basic pyranose ring structure in compound 2 was achieved by [4+2] Hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition (a) of Danishefsky's diene and aldehyde 1 in the presence of BF3-Et2O which produced 2 in 80% yield. Reduction of 2 with NaCNBH3 in presence of BF3-Et2O in THF (b) produced racemic cis- and trans-mixture of 3a and 3b (2.5: 1) in 96% yield. The two isomers were separated by careful flash chromatography, and their structures were assigned by NMR and NOE. Compounds 6a and 6b were synthesized from 3a and 3b respectively in high yields by three steps (c,d,e) which involve first mesylation with methanesulfonyl chloride in dry dichloromethane to produce 4a and 4b, followed by treatment with sodium azide in DMF with inversion of configuration to produce azides 5a and 5b. This azido displacement reaction resulted in production of the cis-isomer 5a from tfans-4a and the trans-isomer 5b from cis-4b. Finally, catalytic hydrogenation of the azides 5a and 5b with Pd/C produced the amine precursors 6a and 6b in good yield. Reductive animation (f) of 6a and 6b furnished 7a and 7b, respectively, in 72.6% and 54% yield.

Scheme 2 delineates the preparation of the key pyran 3,6- disubstituted intermediate 11 with trans-stereochemistry. Briefly, aldehyde 1 was converted (a) into 8 by reacting with an in situ prepared Grignard reagent prepared from 4-bromo-l-butene and magnesium in dry ether, in 91 % yield. O-vinyllation of 8 with ethyl vinyl ether (b) in the presence of Hg(OCOCF3)2 at room temperature produced 9 in 66% yield. Ring closing metathesis (c) of 9 in presence of a Grubb's catalyst in refluxing benzene afforded olefin 10 in 92.6% yield. Hydroboration of 10 with 9-BBN in THF, followed by oxidation (d) gave exclusively trαns-isomer 11 in 93.5% yield. Compound 11 was used next as a starting precursor for the synthesis of various derivatives with different substitutions at the exocyclic N-atom as shown in the scheme 3 and scheme 4.

First, as shown in scheme 3, compound 11 was subjected to a Swern oxidation reaction (a) which produced ketone 12 in 91 % yield. Reductive amination of 12 with 4-fluorobenzylamine (b) produced 16a as a major product in 45 % yield. As described in the synthesis of compound 6a-b in Scheme 1, compound 11 was next converted as shown in Scheme 4, into a cis-amine intermediate 15 via three steps consisting first, of mesylation with methanesulfonyl chloride in dry dichloromethane (a), followed by substitution with sodium azide in DMF (b), and finally, catalytic hydrogenation with Pd-C in methanol (c). Reductive amination of 15 with various aldehydes (d) furnished target compounds 16b-n in good yield (Scheme 4).

The synthesis of compounds 16o and 16p is described in Scheme 5. 16o was synthesized by the reduction of 16d with tin(II) chloride dihydrate in ethanol and ethyl acetate in 60% yield (a). Amide Intermediate 17 was obtained from the reaction of amino-compound 15 with 4-fluoro-phenylacetyl chloride (b). Reduction of 17 with freshly generated borohydrate (c) gave the target compound 16p.

Following synthesis of 2,4-disubstituted cis and trans compounds 7a and 7b, they were characterized in binding assays for the three monoamine transporters (Table 2). Note that Table 2 contains data from numerous compounds and is more extensive in this regard than Table 1. In Table 1, compounds Ic, Id, Ie, and Ib, are compounds 7a, 7b, 16a, and 16k of Table 2, respectively. Results indicated that the positional change from 3,6-disubstitution to 2,4-disubstitution adversely affected the binding activity of these two molecules. It is interesting to note that even though the activity of the 2,4-species was low, the preferential affinity for the DAT was still exhibited in the cis version. These results unexpectedly confirmed that the αs-S^-disubstituted pyran template is a basic pharmacophore requirement for interaction with DAT.

In the 3,6-disubstituted, replacement of a fluoro-substituent in the "B" aryl moiety by electron withdrawing substituents resulted in more potent compounds for the DAT as illustrated in the cyano-substituted molecule 16c and nitro-substituted molecule 16d. Nitro-substitution produced the most active compound among these synthesized analogs for the DAT (IC50 = 38.3 nM). Surprisingly, however, the electron donating methoxy substitutent in 16e produced comparable potency at the DAT (IC50 = 84 nM). Introduction of 3,4-difmoro substituents in 16j reduced potency at all three transporters compared to the 4-fluoro 16b. With the dichlorosubstituted compound 16i, no improvement in activity was observed compared to unsubstituted 16k, indicating no correlation with, and a different mode of binding interaction of, as compared to tropane- and methylphenidate-type of compounds. As far as other halogen derivatives are concerned, the bromo compound 161 exhibited somewhat higher activity at DAT compared to unsubstituted 16k whereas the iodo compound 16m displayed comparable potency.

Compared to the methoxy substituted compound 16e, the hydroxy substituted compound 16h retained the activity at DAT (IC50 = 78.4 nM for 16h and IC50 = 84nM for 16e), but its selectivity was shifted in favor of NET shown by the much higher activity at NET (IC50 = 22.6 nM for the NET, NET/DAT = 0.29) (Table 3). The amino-substituted compound 16o also exhibited high potency at NET. These two substitutents can act as both hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor site, although in different capacity. The big shift towards activity and selectivity at NET caused by these two polar substitutents might indicate a critical involvement of hydrogen bond in interaction with NET. Similar results were not observed in structurally constrained piperidine analogs, reflecting the existence of different interaction modes between these two templates, and again confirming the unpredictability as between these respective classes of compounds. Since a high degree of homogeneity has been demonstrated between the DAT and NET structural sequence, it is highly surprising to observe that a subtle change in pyran structure can induce differential interactions in favor of the NET.

The nature of hydrophobic interaction of the aromatic moiety, was investigated by replacing the phenyl aromatic moiety in the benzyl group by bioisosteric indole moieties. Thus, replacement with a 2- and 3 -indole moiety as illustrated in compounds 16g and 16f, led to moderate to diminished potency at DAT. Interestingly, the 2-indole substituted derivative 16g was 3.5 fold more active at DAT compared to the 3-substituted 16f (227 vs. 794 nM) and was also more active than the unsubstituted 16k. A similar increase in affinity for the NET was also observed for the 2-substituted indole compared to the 3-substituted compound (401 vs. 1860 nM). To assay the importance of the position of the indole N-atom along with hydrophobic interaction, the 5-substituted indole derivative 16n was designed and synthesized. In this regard, 5-substitution was chosen as it will assume the bioisosteric configuration of the p-hydroxyphenyl moiety of 16h. The binding results for 16n indicated high affinity, similar to 16h, for the NET, indicating the involvement of H-bonding with the indole amino moiety. This result further demonstrates the existence of an H-bond donor or acceptor site in the NET which, when oriented correctly with respect to ligand's H-bond forming functionality, can provide potent interaction. In compound 16p, the fluorobenzyl moiety was replaced by a 4- fluorophenylethyl moiety which did not result, surprisingly, in decreased activity at DAT compared to 16b, in contrast to the results observed in constrained piperidine counterparts where a drop in DAT activity resulted from such modification. This result likely indicates that a different pharmacophoric orientation is required, probably via a distance geometry approach, to produce optimum activity in the pyran template. As we expected, exocyclic-N-substituion with an aromatic moiety is necessary in pyran derivatives for their activity at the monoamine transporter systems, as compound 15 exhibited little or no activity at the DAT.

Selected compounds with relatively higher activity at the DAT were tested in the DA uptake assay. For the most part no differential uptake and binding activity was observed with the exception of compound 16d which showed a three fold higher potency in inhibiting binding than uptake.

In order to demonstrate a difference in spatial distribution in the lowest energy conformers between 3,6-disubstituted and 2,4-disubstituted pyran derivatives, a preliminary molecular modeling study was performed. 2,4- Disubstituted compound 7a and the 3,6-disubstituted compound 16b were chosen for this study. Compounds were minimized first with the SYBYL molecular modeling program (version 6.9, 2002, Tripos Associates, Inc. , St. Louis, MO), On a Silicon Graphics Octane IRIX 6.5 workstation. Minimized molecules obtained from this operation were next subjected to a grid search protocol to search for the lowest energy conformer.

First, each structure was fully minimized using standard Tripos force field with a distance dependent dielectric function, a 0.05 Kcal/mol A energy gradient convergence criterion was used and the six-membered pyran ring was treated as an aggregate. The Powell method was used during minimization, and charges were computed using the Gasteiger-Huckel method within Sybyl 6.9. The number of iterations was 1000. After minimization the energy for 2,4-disubstituted molecule 7a was 5.85 Kcal/mol and the energy for 3,6-disubstituted molecule 16b

In the next step, using grid search protocol, the conformational search on each minimized molecule was performed by rotating the torsion angle of compounds 7a and 16b formed by atoms α-β-γ-δ (see Figure 3) from 0° to 360° by 10° increments. This method was used to perform a simple systematic search such that each specified torsion angle is varied over a grid of equally spaced values. While searching for the lowest energy conformer, a cutoff value of 8 Kcal/mol was specified relative to the lowest conformer, and charges were computed using the Gasteiger-Hϋckel method. Also, the six-membered pyran ring was treated as an aggregate. For compound 7a, a conformer with torsional angle 77.80C was found to have lowest energy, 3.16 Kcal/mol, whereas compound 16b produced lowest energy 5.61 Kcal/mol with a torsion angle 300°. These two lowest energy conformer s were used next for overlapping.

In the final step, the two minimized structures were overlapped. During overlapping, the alignment program within Sybyl6.9 was employed, and the method used was common structure method. The compound 16b was used as template molecule and the six-membered pyran ring was used as common substructure for overlapping.

The pharmcophoric activity of the cis~3,6-disubstituted tetrahydro- pyran template at monoamine transporter systems was thus confirmed by SAR exploration with this template with various substituents on the exocyclic N-atom, producing potent activities at both DAT and NET. Compound 16d with the electron withdrawing nitro-substituent turned out to be the most active for the DAT. Interestingly, the compounds 16h and the 16o with para-hydroxy and para-amino substituents exhibited high potency for the NET, indicating formation of H-bonding. This was further confirmed by the bioisosteric version 16n which exhibited strong selective potency at NET. The SAR results for the current pyran molecules do not correspond with those for otherwise analogous piperidine derivatives, indicating differential interaction modes with monoamine transporters. Experimental Details

Reagents and solvents were obtained from commercial suppliers and used as received unless otherwise indicated. Dry solvent was prepared according to the standard procedure as described by Vogel. All reactions were performed under inert atmosphere (N2) unless otherwise noted. Analytical silica gel-coated TLC plates (Si 250F) were purchased from Baker, Inc. and were visualized with UV light or by treatment with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA). Flash chromatography was carried out on Baker Silica Gel 40 mM. 1H NMR spectra were routinely obtained with GE300 MHz and 400 MHz FT NMR. The NMR solvent used was CDCl3 as indicated. TMS was used as an internal standard. Elemental analyses were performed by Atlantic Microlab, Inc and were within + 0.4% of the theoretical value, but are not reported herein for reasons of brevity.

[3H]WIN 35,428 (86.0 Ci/mmol), [3H]nisoxetine (80.0 Ci/mmol) and [3H]dopamine (48.2 Ci/mmol) were obtained from Dupont-New England Nuclear (Boston, MA, U. S. A). [3H]citalopram (85.0 Ci/mmol) was from Amersham Pharmacia Biotech Inc. (Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A.). Cocaine hydrochloride was purchased from Mallinckrodt Chemical Corp. (St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.). WIN 35,428 napthalene sulfonate was purchased from Research Biochemicals, Inc. (Natick, MA, U.S.A.). (-)-Cocaine HCl was obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. GBR 12909 Dihydrochloride (l-[2-[bis(4-Fluorophenyl)- methoxy]ethyl]-4-[3-phenylpropyl]piperazine) was purchased from SIGMA- ALDRICH (#D-052; St. Louis, MO).

Synthesis of 2-benzhydrvI-2,3-dihvdro-4H-pyran-4-one (2)

A solution of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (7.8 g, 55 mmol) in dry ether (50 ml) was added to a stirred mixture of E-l-methoxy-3- trimethylsilyloxybuta-l,3-diene(8.3 g, 48 mmol), diphenylacetaldehyde 1 (11.4 g, 58 mmol) and dry ether (300 ml) cooled to -78°C . After one hour, the mixture was allowed to reach 0°C for three hours. The deep red reaction mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, and the mixture was allowed to come to room temperature. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ether (3x70 ml). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of solvent under reduced pressure and purification of the crude product by chromatography (hexane/ethyl acetate 8:2) gave 2-diphenylmethyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one 2 (10.2 g, 80.2 % , yield) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR(400Mhz, CDCl3) 2.38(dd, J=3.2Hz, 16.8Hz, IH, H-3) 2.51(m, IH, H-3) 4.23(d, J=9.2Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 5.15(dt, J=3.2Hz, 8.8Hz, IH, H-2) 5.44(d, J=6.4Hz, IH, H-5), 7.16-7.38(m, HH, H-6, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of Cis and Tran,s-2-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-4-ol 3a and 3b

NaCNBH3 (0.75 g, 12 mmol) was added portionwise to a mixture of 2-diphenylmethyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one 2 (1.05 g, 4 mmol) and boron trifluoride etherate(1.99 g, 14 mmol) in dry THF(50 ml) cooled to -780C. The reaction mixture was allowed to reach room temperature and the reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (30 ml). The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl ether (3 x 20 ml). The organic phases were combined and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of the solvent under reduced pressure, and purification by flash chromatography (hexane/ethyl acetate 7:3) first afforded £rø»s-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol 3a (0.73 g, 68% yield).

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.22(q, J = 12Hz, IH, H-3ax) 1.46(dq, J=4.8Hz, 12 Hz, IH, H-5ax) 1.74-1.86(m, 2H, H-3eq, H-5eq) 3.40(dt, J=2Hz, 12Hz, IH, H-6ax) 3.707(m, IH, H-4) 3.941-4.039(m, 2H, H-6eq, (Ph)2CH) 7.15- 7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Eluted second was cw-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, 3b (0.3 g, 28.1 % yield). 1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.5-1.58(m, 4H, H-3, H-5eq, OH) 1.84(m, IH, H-5ax) 3.79(m, IH, H-6eq) 3.876(d, J=8.8Hz, (Ph)2CH) 3.908(dt, J=3.2Hz, 111.2Hz, IH, H-6ax) 4.184(m, IH, H-4eq) 4.524(dt, J=4Hz, 8.8Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Procedure A. Synthesis of methanesulfonic acid rrαws-2-benzhydryI-tetrahydropyran-4-yl ester 4a

Methanesulfonyl chloride (0.62 g, 5.41 mmol) in dry methylene chloride (10 ml) was added drop wise to a mixture of tran.s-2-diphenylmefhyl-4- hydroxypyran 3a (0.73 g, 2.70 mmol), triethylamine (0.41 g, 4.06 mmol) in methylene chloride (10 ml) and was cooled to 0°C. After one hour, the reaction was gradually allowed to reach room temperature over a period of four hours. Additional methylene chloride (20 ml) was added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was washed in turn with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, brine and water, then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and purification by flash chromatography gave compound 4a (0.93 g, 99.9% yield) as an oil.

1H NMR (30OmHz, CDCl3): 1.54 (m, IH, H-3ax) 1.82 (m, IH, H- 5ax) 1.95(m, IH, H-3eq) 2.1(m,lH, H-5eq) 2.95(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.46(dt, IH, H- 6ax) 3.96(d, IH, (Ph)2CH) 4.1(m, 2H, H-2, H-6eq) 4.83(m, IH, H-4) 7.15- 7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of methanesulfonic acid m-2-benzhvdrvI— tetrahvdropyran-4-ylester 4b

Cw-2-diphenylmethyl-4-hydroxy-pyran 3b (0.3 g, 1.12 mmol) was reacted with methanesulfonyl chloride (0.26 g, 2.24 mmol) (Procedure A) to give compound 4b (0.38 g, 98%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3): 1.609(m, IH, H-3ax) 1.8-1.96(m, 4H, -OH, H-3eq, H-5) 2.96(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.8-3.94(m, 3H, H-6, (Ph)2CH) 4.46(dt, J=2Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 5.1(m, IH, H-4) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). Procedure B. Synthesis of CE"s-4-azido-2-benzhvdryl-tetrahydropγran (5a)

Into a solution of traπjι-2-diphenylinethylpyraii-4-yl methanesulfonate 4a (0.33 g, 0.95 mmol) in dry DMF (40 ml) was added sodium azide (0.18 g, 2.85 mmol). The mixture was heated to 100° C and stirred for 4 hr. The mixture was diluted with ethyl ether, washed with 2M aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of the solvent and purification by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate 9: 1) afforded compound 5a (0.23 g, 82.7% yield) as a liquid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.5-1.68 (m, 3H, H-3, H-5eq) 1.855(m, IH, H-5ax) 3.74-3.86(m, 2H, H-6) 3.87(d, J=9.2Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 4.02(m, IH, H-4) 4.393(dt, J=3.2Hz, 13Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16~7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of lraras-4-azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran 5b

Cw-2-diphenylmethylpyran-4-yl methanesulfonate 4b (0.38 g, 4.10 mmol) was reacted with sodium azide (0.29 g, 4.4 mmol) in dry DMF (Procedure B) to yield compound 5b (0.26 g, 80%) as a liquid.

1H NMR(500MHz, CDCl3) 1.32(q, J= IlHz, IH, H-3ax) 1.61(dq, J=5.5Hz, 13Hz, IH, H-5ax) 1.82(m, IH, H-3eq) 1.90(m, IH, H-5eq) 3.44-3.50(m, 2H, H-4, H-6ax) 3.96(d, J=8.5Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 4.03(dt, J=2Hz, 9Hz, IH, H-2) 4.08(ddd, J=2Hz, 5.5Hz, 12.5Hz, IH, H-6eq) 7.16-7.38(m,10H, aromatic-CH).

Procedure C. Synthesis of c/s-(2-benzhydryI-tetrahydropyran-4-yl)-amine (6a)

Cw-4-azido-2-diphenyhnethyltetrahydropyran 5a (0.23 g, 0.78 mmol) was hydrogenated (60 psi) in the presence of 10% Pd-C (0.02 g, 10%wt) for 4hr. The reaction mixture was filtered through a short bed of celite, and removal of the solvent afforded 0.21 g (quantitative yield) of product. This product was pure enough to continue to the next reaction step. 1H NMR(SOOMHZ, CDCl3) 1.21-1.4(m, 4H, H-3, NH2) 1.59(m, IH, H-5ax) 1.87(m, IH, H-5eq) 3.37(m, IH, H-4) 3.77(m, IH, H-6eq) 3.91(dt, J=2.4Hz, 11.7Hz, IH, H-6ax) 3.94(d, J=9.3Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 4.56(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.2Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of rra/*s-(2-benzhvdryHetrahvdropyran-4-yl)-amine (6b)

Trans— 4-azido-2-diphenylmethyltetrahydropyran 5b (0.26 g, 0.89 mmol) was hydrogenated (Procedure C) to yield compound 6b (0.24 g, quantitative).

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.154.25(m, IH, H-3) 1.4-1.52(m, IH, H-3) 1.7-1.88(m, 2H, H-5) 2.99(m, IH, H-4) 3.41(dt, J=2Hz, 12.4Hz, IH, H-6ax) 3.9-4.06(m, 3H, H-2, H-6ax, (Ph)2CH) 4.7(bs, 2H, NH2) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Procedure D. Syntheis of ds-(2-benzhydryl- tetrahydropyran-4-yl)-(4-fluorobenzvI)-amine (7a)

To a solution of diM-amino-2-diphenylmethyl pyran 6a (0.2 g, 0.75 mmol), 4-flurobenzaldehyde (0.83 g, 0.67 mmol) and glacial acetic acid (0.45 g, 0.75 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), was added portion wise NaCNBH3 (0.57 g, 0.9 mmol) dissolved in methanol (5 ml). After 4hr, water was added to quench the reaction and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at O0C. Then the mixture was made basic with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and extracted thrice with methylene chloride (3 x 30 ml). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, water and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Solvent was removed in vacuo to collect the crude residue, which was purified by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate/Triethylamine 3:2:0.2) to give cw-2-diphenylmethyl-4-(4- flurobenzylamino)-tetrahydropyran 7a (0.20 g, 72.6%) as a liquid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.24(bs, IH, -NH) 1.28(m, IH, H-3) 1.45-1.58(m, 2H, H-3, H-5eq) 1.83(tt, J=4Hz, 13Hz, IH, H-5ax) 3.07(m, IH, H- 4) 3.65(s, 2H, (F)Ph-CH2) 3.75(m, IH, H-6eq) 3.91(d, J=9.6Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 3.94(dt, J=2.4Hz, 12Hz, IH, H-6ax) 4.59(dt, J=3.2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-2) 6.9- 7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

The free base 7a was converted into its oxalate salt: mp 177-1810C. C,H,N Anal: [C25H26NOF-(COOH)2].

Synthesis of trfl»s-(2-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-4-yl)-(4-fluro-benzyl) -amine 7b

tranir-4-Amino-2-diphenylmethyl pyran 6b (0.24 g, 0.90 mmol) was reacted with 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (0.11 g, 0.90 mmol) in presence of acetic acid (0.05 g, 0.9 mmol), and then reduced with NaCNBH3 (0.07 g, 1.08 mmol) to yield compound 7b (0.18 g, 54%) (Procedure D).

1H NMR(500MHz, CDCl3) 1.13(q, J = 10.5Hz, IH, H-3ax) 1.32(broad, NH) 1.38(dq, J=5Hz, 12.5Hz, IH, H-5ax) 1.74(m, IH, H-3eq) 1.87(m, IH, H-5eq) 2.722(tt, J=4Hz, 11.5Hz, IH, H-4) 3.444(dt, J=2Hz, 12Hz, IH, H-6ax) 3.683(d, J= 13.5Hz, IH, (F)Ph-CH) 3.754(d, J= 13Hz, IH, (F)Ph-CH) 3.936(d, J=9Hz, IH, (Ph)2CH) 4.0-4.08(m, 2H, H-2, H-6eq) 6.9-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

Free base was converted into its oxalate salt: mp 185-1870C. C5H5N Anal: [C25H26NOF-(COOH)2].

Synthesis of l,l-diphenyl-hex-5-en-2-ol (8)

A dry three-neck, round-bottom flask fitted with a reflux condensor, air-balance drop funnel and nitrogen inlet was charged with Mg (0.11 g, 4.44 mmol) and a crystal of I2. The flask was warmed (heat gun) to volatilize the I2 under vacuum, and then was allowed to cool. Dry ethyl ether (10 ml) was added next followed by introduction of catalytic neat 4-bromo-l-butene (0.02 g). The reaction was initiated by brief warming and then the rest of total amount of bromide (0.4 g, 2.96 mmol) in dry ethyl ether (5 ml) was added dropwise over 5 minutes. The mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes and then was allowed to reach O0C. Into the stirred Grignard reagent solution was added dropwise a solution of diphenylacetaldehyde 1 (0.64 g, 3.26 mmol) in dry ethyl ether (5 ml), and the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 3.5 hr at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 was added to the reaction mixture at 0°C, the organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl ether (3 x 20 ml). The combined organic phases were washed with brine and water, then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and flash chromatography of the crude residue (SiO2, hexane/Ethyl Acetate 9:1) gave 1,1- diphenyl-hex-5-en-2-ol 8 (0.68 g, 91 %) as a liquid.

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.45-1.70(m, 2H, H-3) 1.69(bd, -OH) 2.1-2.4(m, 2H, H-4) 3.91(d, J=8.4 Hz, IH, H-I) 4.39(m, IH, H-2) 4.95-5. l(m, 2H, H-6) 5.81(m, IH, H-5) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of l,l-diphenyl-2-(l-ethenoxy)-hex-5-ene (9)

Into a mixture of l,l-diphenyl-hex-5-en-2-ol 2 (7 g, 27.78 mmol) in ethyl vinyl ether (250 ml) was added Hg(OCOCF3)2(2.37 g, 5.56 mmol) and was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was neutralized by addition of sat. aqueous NaHCO3. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl ether, and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of the solvent and purification by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate 20: 1) gave l,l-diphenyl-2-(l-ethenoxy)-hex-5-ene 9 (5.1 g, 66%) as a liquid.

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.58-1.78(m, 2H, H-3) 2.08-2.30(m, 2H, H-4) 3.86(dd, J= I.6Hz, 8.4Hz, IH, H-2') 4.15(d, J=8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.25(dd, J= 1.6Hz, 14Hz, IH, H-2') 4.50(m, IH, H-2) 5.00(m, 2H, H-6) 5.77(m, IH, H-5) 6.15(dd, J=6.8Hz, 14.8Hz, IH, H-I') 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). Synthesis of 2-benzhvdryl-3.4-dihvdro-2H-pyran (10)

A solution of l, l-diphenyl-2-(l-ethenoxy)-hex-5-ene 9 (5.1 g, 18.3 mmol) and Grubb's catalyst (1.5 g, 1.83 mmol) in benzene (200 ml) was heated under reflux for 20 hr. The solvent was removed under vacuo and the residue was chromatographed over silica gel (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate 20: 1) to give 2-diphenyl- 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran 10 (4.25 g, 92.6%) as a liquid.

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.52-1.66(m, IH, H-3) 1.76-1.84(m, IH, H-3) 1.92-2.14(m, 2H, H-4) 4.08(d, J=9.2Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.59(dt, J=2.4Hz, 8.8Hz, IH, H-2) 4.72(m, IH, H-5) 6.38(d, J=6.4Hz, IH, H-6) 7.16-7.50(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of ?rafls-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (11)

Into a solution of 0.5M 9-BBN-THF complex (24 ml, 12 mmol) in dry THF (20 ml) was added in a drop wise manner 2-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H- pyran 10 (1 g, 4 mmol) dissolved in dry THF(IO ml). The mixture was kept under stirring at room temperature. After the completion of initial addition reaction, the intermediate reaction mixture was oxidized with 5.3 ml 3N sodium hydroxide and 3 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide. The reaction was continued at 55°C for 1 hr to insure the completion of oxidation. After the mixture was diluted with sat. aqueous NaHCO3, the organic layer was separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 40 ml). The combined extract was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the crude product was purified by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate 7: 3) to furnish trans-β- diphenyltetrahydropyran-3-ol 11 (1 g, 93.5%) as a liquid.

1H NMR(SOOMHZ, CDCl3) 1.32-1.44(m, 2H, H-5) 1.54-1.64(m, IH, H-4) 1.75(bs, IH, OH) 2.02-2.14(m, IH, H-4) 3.14(t, J= 10.2Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.67(m, IH, H-3) 3.90(d, J=9.3Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 3.95-4.04(m, 2H, H-2eq, H-6). 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). Synthesis of 6-benzhvdryl-dihvdropyran-3-one (12)

Into a solution of DMSO (0.13 g, 1.64 mmol) in methylene chloride (5 ml) at -780C was added a solution of oxalyl chloride (0.11 g, 0.82 mmol) in methylene chloride (1 ml) in a dropwise manner. A solution of trans-2- diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-5-ol 11 (0.2 g, 0.75 mmol) in methylene chloride (2 ml) was added next. The reaction was continued for 15 minutes, triethylamine (0.38 g, 3.73 mmol) was next added portion wise and the reaction mixture was allowed to come to room temperature for over a period of 30 minutes. Additional methylene chloride (10 ml) was added, and washed with sat. aqueous NaHCO3, brine, and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of the solvent and purification by flash chromatography (SiO2, Hexane/Ethyl Acetate 8.5: 1.5) gave 2- diphenylmethyl-dihydro-pyran-5-one 12 (0.18 g, 91 %) as a liquid.

1H NMR(300MHz, CDCl3) 1.9-1.98(m, 2H, H-5) 2.38-2.62(m, 2H, H-4) 4.0(d, J= 17. IHz, IH, H-2) 4.05(d, J=9Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.17(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 16.2Hz, IH, H-2) 4.44(dt, J=5.2Hz, 8.4Hz, IH, H-6) 7.16-7.38 (m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

13C NMR(75MHz, CDCl3) (ppm) 21.50, 32.00, 55.72, 65.62, 76.05, 126.89, 127.09, 128.60, 128.68, 128.90, 128.97, 141.36, 141.62, 146.77.

Synthesis of Trans- (6-benzhy dry l-tetrahydropyran-3-y I)- (34-fluorobenzv)-amine (16a)

2-diphenylmethyl-dihydropyran-5-one 12 (0.18 g, 0.68 mmol) was reacted with 4-fluorobenzylamine (0.08 g, 0.68 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.041 g, 0.68 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroefhane (10 ml) at room temperature, and then reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.051 g, 0.81 mmol) (Procedure D) to yield a mixture of 16a and 16b. cw-2-Diphenylmethyl-5-(4-flurobenzylamino)- tetrahydropyran 16b eluted first (0.04 g, 15%).

1H NMR(300MHz, CDCl3) 1.33(m, IH, H-5) 1.46-1.72(m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 1.935(m, IH, H-4) 2.03 l(bm, IH, NH) 2.641(m, IH, H-3) 3.571(dd, J= I.8Hz, 11.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.75(m, 2H, (F)Ph-CH2) 3.95-4.14(m, 3H, H-6, H- 2eq, Ph2CH) 6.9-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

Free base 16b was converted into oxalate: mp 229-230°C. C,H,N Anal: [C25H26NOF-(COOH)2].

Eluted second was tra«5'-2-diphenylmethyl-5-(4-flurobenzylamino)- tetrahydropyran 16a (0.11 g, 45%).

1H NMR(300MHz, CDCl3) 1.24-1.44(m, 2H, H-5) 1.55(m, IH, H-4) 1.748(bm, NH) 2.02(m, IH, H-4) 2.68(m, IH, H-3) 3.11(t, J= 10.8Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.76(s, 2H, (F)-Ph-CH2) 3.89(d, J=9Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 3.99(dt, J=3Hz, 8.7Hz, IH, H-6) 4.08(m, IH, H-2eq) 6.9-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

Free base 16a was converted into the oxalate: mp 141-143°C. C,H,N Anal: [C25H26NOF-(COOH)20.65H2O] .

Synthesis of methanesulfonic acid ^rαw5-6-benzhvdryl-tetra-hvdropyran-3-vI ester (13)

Methanesulfonyl chloride (0.33 g, 2.87 mmol) was reacted with tra7W-2-diphenyhnethyl-tetrahydropyran-5-ol 11 (0.38 g, 1.43 mmol) in the presence of triemylarnine (0.22 g, 2.15 mmol) in methylene chloride (10 ml) to give trans-2- diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-5-yl methanesulfonate 13 (0.39 g, 77.8%) as an oil (Procedure A).

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.47(m, IH, H-5) i;62-1.78(m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 2.25(m, IH, H-4) 2.96(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.36(t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.89(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.00(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 4.14(m, IH, H-2eq) 4.61(m, IH, H-3) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). Synthesis of Cfa-3-azido-6-benzhydryI-tetrahvdropyran (14)

rrans-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-5-yl methanesulfonate 13 (0.39 g, 1.12 mmol) in dry DMF (50 ml) was reacted with, sodium azide (0.22 g, 3.35 mmol) to yield cw-5-azido-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 14 (0.3 g, 92%) as an oil (Procedure B).

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.36 (m, IH, H-5) 1.54-1.85 (m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 1.98 (m, IH, H-4), 3.55 (m, IH, H-3), 3.64 (dd, J= I.8Hz, 12.6Hz, IH, H-2) 3.95-4.15(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of Cis-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-amine (15)

methanol (25 ml) was hydrogenated under the catalyst of 10% Pd-C (0.03 g, 10% wt) for 4 hr (Procedure C) to give cw-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.21 g, 78%) as an oil.

1H NMR(400MHz, CD3OD) 1.31(m, IH, H-5eq) 1.54(m, IH, H- 5ax) 1.70-1.86(m, 2H, H-4) 2.90(bs, bs, IH, H-3) 3.68(m, 2H, H-2) 3.96(d, J=9.2Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.13(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.10-7.40(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). Free base 15 was converted to the HCl salt: mp 260-261°C. C,H,N Anal: [C18H21NOHCl O^H2O].

Synthesis of Cιs-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-a mine (16b)

rrαns-5-amino-2~diphenylmethyl~tetrahydropyran 15 (0.21 g, 0.79 mmol) was reacted with 4-flurobenzaldehyde (0.098 g, 0.79 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.047 g, 0.79 mmol) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and then reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.059 g, 0.95 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16b (0.24 g, 82%). 1H NMR(300MHz, CDCl3) 1.33(m, IH, H-5) 1.46-1.72(m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 1.935(m, IH, H-4) 2.03 l(bm, IH, NH) 2.641(m, IH, H-3) 3.571(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 11.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.75(m, 2H, (F)Ph-CH2) 3.95-4.14(m, 3H, H-6, H- 2eq, Ph2CH) 6.9-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

■ Free base 16b was converted into the oxalate: mp 229-23CTC. C, H, N Anal: [C25H26NOF-(COOH)2].

Synthesis of C^-Cό-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-S-vD-^-cvano-benzvD-amine (16c)

rrfln^-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.15 g, 0.56 mmol) was reacted with 4-cyanobenzaldehyde (0.07 g, 0.56 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.033 g, 0.56 mmol) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.042 g, 0.67 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16c (0.17 g, 80%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.36(m, IH, H-5) 1.46-1.58(m, IH, H- 5) 1.58-1.74(m, IH, H-4) 1.931(m, IH, H-4) 2.615(bm, IH, H-3) 3.59(dd, J= I.8Hz, 11.7Hz, H-2ax) 3.83(m, 2H, (CN)Ph-CH2) 3.95-4.16(m, 3H, H-6, H- 2eq, Ph2CH) 7.16-7.62(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16c was converted into the oxalate: mp 241-242°C. C,H,N Anal: [C26H26N2O • (COOH)2].

Synthesis of Ct's-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-nitro-benzyl)-am ine (16d)

rrans-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (O. lg, 0.38 mmol) was reacted with 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (0.057 g, 0.38 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.023 g, 0.38 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and then reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.03 g, 0.45 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16d (0.12 g, 80%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.35(m, IH, H-5) 1.53(m, IH, H-5) 1.67(tt, J=3.6Hz, 13.5Hz, IH, H-4) 1.91(m, 2H, H-4, NH) 2.62(m, IH, H-3) 3.58(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.87(m, 2H, (NO2)Ph-CH2) 3.92-4.14(m, 3H, H-6, H-2eq, Ph2CH) 7.14-7.54, 8.12-8.2(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16d was converted into the oxalate: mp 236-2380C. C,H,N Anal: [C25H26N2O3 ■ (COOH)2].

Synthesis of Cw-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-am ine (16e)

7>fln5'-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.15 g, 0.56 mmol) was reacted with 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (0.078 g, 0.56 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.033 g, 0.56 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.042 g, 0.67 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16e (0.17 g, 78%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.35(m, IH, H-5) 1.48-1.76(m, 2H, H- 5, H-4) 1.88-2.02(m, IH, H-4) 2.68(bs, IH, H-3) 3.59(dd, J= 12.3Hz, 2.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.76(d, J=7.2Hz, 2H, (CH3O)Ph-CH2) 3.825(s, 3H, CH3O-3.98-4.16(m, 3H, H-6, H-2eq, Ph2CH) 6.88-6.94, 7.18-7.44(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16e was converted into the oxalate: mp 215-2170C. C,H,N Anal: [C26H29NO2 • (COOH)2].

Synthesis of Ct's-(6-benzhvdrvI-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(3-indole-methyl)-a mine (16f)

rrans-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.12g, 0.45 mmol) was reacted with 3-indole-carboxaldehyde (0.065 g, 0.45 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.027 g, 0.45 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.034 g, 0.54 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16f (0.15 g, 82%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.34(m, IH, H-5) 1.53(m, IH, H-5) 1.67(tt, J= 14Hz, 4Hz, IH, H-4) 1.93(m, IH, H-4) 2.37(bm, IH, NH) 2.65(bs, IH, H-3) 3.57(dd, J= 10.7Hz, 1.6Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.96(s, 2H, 2-Indole-CH2) 3.92- 4.14(m, 3H, H-6, H-2eq, Ph2CH) 6.35(s, IH, Indole-3-H) 7.05-7.6(m, 14H, aromatic-CH) 9. l(s, IH, Indole-NH). Free base 16f was converted into the oxalate: mp 177-179°C. C, H, N Anal: [C27H28N2O-(COOH)2 - O-SH2O]. Synthesis of Cts-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(2-indole-methyl)-am ine (16g)

rrøns-5-ammo-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.067 g, 0.25 mmol) was reacted with 2-indole-carboxaldehyde (0.036 g, 0.25 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.015 g, 0.25 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and then reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.019 g, 0.3 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16g (0.081 g, 82%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.33(m, IH, H-5) 1.48-1.76(m, 2H, H- 5, H-4) 1.99(m, IH, H-4) 2.27(bs, IH, NH) 2.79(m, IH, H-3) 3.6(dd, J= I.8Hz, 12.3Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.998(s, 2H, Indole-3-CH2) 4.02-4.2(m, 3H, H-6, H-2eq, Ph2CH) 7.0-7.8(m, 14H, aromatic-CH) 8.42(s, IH, Indole-NH). Free base 16g was converted into the oxalate: mp 215-216°C. C, H, N Anal: [C27H28N2O • (COOH)2 .0.5H2O].

Synthesis of Cit5-(6-benzhvdrvI-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-hvdroxy-benzyl)- ainine (16h)

rrαrø-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.15 g, 0.56 mmol) was reacted with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.067 g, 0.56 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.034 g, 0.56 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.042 g, 0.67 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16h (0.17 g, 80%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.34(m, IH, H-5) 1.50(m, IH, H-5) 1.67(tt, J=4Hz, 13.6Hz, IH, H-4) 2.02(m, IH, H-4) 2.71(m, IH, H-3) 3.56(dd, J= 1.6Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.64(m, 2H, (HO)Ph-CH2) 3.95(d, J=8.0Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.02-4.14(m, 2H, H-6, H-2eq) 6.52(m, 2H, aromatic-CH) 6.9-7.38(m, 12H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16h was converted into oxalate: mp 136-138°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 - (COOH)2]. Synthesis of CM-fό-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-S-vD-O^-dichloro-benzvD-an iine (16i)

rrøns-S-amino^-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (O. lg, 0.38 mmol) was reacted with 3,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde (0.066 g, 0.38 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid(0.023 g, 0.38 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.03 g, 0.45 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16i (0.12 g, 75%) as an oil.

1H NMR (500MHz, CDCl3) 1.34(m, IH, H-5) 1.52(m, IH, H-5) 1.66(m, IH, H-4) 1.79(bs, IH, NH) 1.91(m, IH, H-4) 2.61(m, IH, H-3) 3.57(dd, J= 1.5Hz, 11.5Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.72(m, 2H, (Cl5Cl)Ph-CH2) 3.94-4.05(m, 2H, H- 2eq, Ph2CH) 4.08(dt, J=2Hz, 8.5Hz, IH, H-6) 7.1-7.5(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16i was converted into the oxalate: mp 251-252°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H25NOCl2 - (COOH)2].

Synthesis of Ct5-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(3.4-difluoro-benzyl )-aniine (16j)

7>"αn5'-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.1 g, 0.38 mmol) was reacted with 3,4-difluorobenzaldehyde (0.055 g, 0.38 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.023 g, 0.38 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.03 g, 0.45 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16j (0.12 g, 80%).

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.34(m, IH, H-5) 1.52(m, IH, H-5) 1.66(tt, J=3.6Hz, 13.5Hz, IH, H-4) 1.76(bs, IH, NH) 1.92(m, IH, H-4) 2.61(m, IH, H-3) 3.57(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 11.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.72(m, 2H, (F1F)Ph-CH2) 3.94- 4.14(m, 3H, H-6, H-2eq, Ph2CH) 6.9-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16j was converted into the oxalate: mp 234-2350C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H25NOF2 ■ (COOH)2]. Synthesis of C^-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-benzyl-amine (16k)

rrans-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrah.ydropyran 15 (0.03 g, 0.11 mmol) was reacted with benzaldehyde (0.012 g, 0.11 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.007 g, 0.11 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.009 g, 0.14 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16k (0.034 g, 85%).

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.30(m, IH, H-5) 1.44-1.70(m, 2H, H- 5, H-4) 1.80(bs, IH, NH) 1.92(m, IH, H-4) 2.64(m, IH, H-3) 3.55(dd, J= I.8Hz, 11.7Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.77(m, 2H, Ph-CH2) 3.92-4. l(m, 3H, Ph2CH, H-6, H-2eq) 7.0-7.38(m, 15H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16k was converted into the oxalate: mp 208-210°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO • (COOH)2].

Synthesis of Cis-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-bromo-benzyl)-ami ne (161)

rrans-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.04 g, 0.15 mmol) was reacted with 4-bromobenzaldehyde (0.028 g, 0.15 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.009 g, 0.15 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.012 g, 0.18 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 161 (0.052 g, 80%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.31(m, IH, H-5) 1.50(m, IH, H-5) 1.64(m, IH, H-4) 1.80(bs, IH, NH) 1.90(m, IH, H-4) 2.61(m, IH, H-3) 3.56(dd, J= 1.6Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.72(m, 2H, (Br)-Ph-CH2) 3.94-4.30(m, 2H, Ph2CH, H-2eq) 4.07(dt, J= 1.6Hz, J=9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.0-7.42(m, 14H, aromatic- CH). Free base 161 was converted into the oxalate: mp 250-252°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H26BrNO • (COOH)2]. Synthesis of Os-f6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-iodo-benzyl)-amine (16m)

rran5-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetraliydropyran 15 (0.04 g, 0.15 mmol) was reacted with 4-iodobenzaldehyde (0.045 g, 0.15 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.009 g, 0.15 mmol) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.012 g, 0.18 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16m (0.059 g, 81 %) as an oil.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.28(m, IH, H-5) 1.50(m, IH, H-5) 1.64(m, IH, H-4) 1.72(bs, IH, NH) 1.90(m, IH, H-4) 2.60(m, IH, H-3) 3.56(dd, J= 1.6Hz, 12.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.71(m, 2H, (I)-Ph-CH2) 3.92-4.02(m, 2H, Ph2CH, H-2eq) 4.06(dt, J = 1.6Hz, J=9.2Hz, IH, H-6) 7.0-7.70(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16m was converted into the oxalate: mp 243-244° C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H26INO - (COOH)2].

Synthesis of ^-(ό-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-S-vD-dH-iodo-S-ylmethvD-ami ne (16ri)

rrø«s-5-amino-2-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 15 (0.05 g, 0.19 mmol) was reacted with 5-indole-carboxaldehyde (0.027 g, 0.19 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.011 g, 0.19 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (20 ml), and NaCNBH3 (0.024 g, 0.37 mmol) in methanol (5 ml) (Procedure D) to give compound 16n (0.061 g, 82%) as an oil.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.32(m, IH, H-5) 1.50-1.70(m, 2H, H- 5, H-4) 1.95(m, 2H, H-4, NH) 2.71(bs, IH, H-3) 3.57(dd, J=2Hz, 12Hz, IH, H- 2ax) 3.88(m, 2H, Indole-CH2) 3.96-4.12(m, 3H, Ph2CH, H-2eq, H-6) 6.51, 7.1- 7.4, 7.57 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH) 8.36(bs, IH, NH). Free base 16n was converted into the oxalate: mp 128-1300C. C, H, N Anal: [C27H28N2O • (COOH)2 • 0.5H2O]. Synthesis of Cts-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-(4-amino-benzγl)-am ine (166)

A mixture of cw-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-nitro- benzyl)-amine (16f) (0.16 g, 0.39 mmol) and SnCl2/2H2O (0.35 g, 1.55 mmol) in EtOH/EtOAc (20 ml, 7:3) was heated to reflux for 1.5h (monitored by TLC, Hex/EtOAc/Et3N 5:5:0.4). After removal of the solvent, the residue was diluted with 10 % NaHCO3 and EtOAc and stirred vigorously for 30 min. After filtration the organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 ml x 2). The combined organic phase was dried over Na2SO4. After removal of the solvent, flash chromatography gave I60, cw-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3- yl)-(4-amino-benzyl)-amine (0.087 g, 60%).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.3(m, IH, H-5) 1.47(m, IH, H-5) 1.64(tt, J=4Hz, 12.8Hz, IH, H-4) 1.90(m, IH, H-4) 2.53-2.70(m, 3H, H-3, (NH2)-PhCH2) 3.54(dd, J = 1.6 Hz, 11.2Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.92-4.0(m, 2H, Ph2CH, H-2eq) 4.06(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.06-7.38(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base I60 was converted into the oxalate: mp 151-1530C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H28N2O -2(COOH)2 - 0.3H2O].

Synthesis of Os-N-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahγdro-pyran-3-yl)-2-(4-fluoro-pheny l)-acetamide (17)

Into a solution of 4-fluorophenylacetic acid (0.23 g, 1.46 mmol) in dichloromethane (25 ml) was added oxalyl chloride (0.22 g, 1.76 mmol) dissolved in dichloromethane (5 ml) at O0C which was followed by addition of one drop of DMF. The reaction mixture was allowed to reach at room temperature over a period of 2 hours. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 ml) and was added into a solution of cis-N-(6- benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-amine (0.26 g, 0.96 mmol) and triethylamine (0.31 g, 1.46 mmol) in dichloromethane (25 ml) at O0C. After 20 minutes the reaction mixture was allowed to come to room temperature. After 3 hours, more dichloromethane was added and the mixture was washed in turn with IN NaHCO3, H2O and brine, then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (hexane/ethyl acetate 7:3) to give ds-N-(6-benzhydryRetrahydropyran-3-yl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)- acetamide 17 (0.31 g, yield 80%) as an oil.

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) l.l-1.4(m, 2H, H-5) 1.6-1.93(m, 2H, H-4) 3.49(s, 2H, Ph-CH2CO) 3.63(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 11.7Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.7-3.85(m, 2H, Ph2CH, H-3) 3.9-4.08(m, 2H, H-6, H-2eq) 6.9-7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH).

Synthesis of Cw-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3yl)- r2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyri-amine (16p)

Into a suspension Of NaBH4 (0.21 g, 3.33 mmol) in dry THF (20 ml) was added BF3-Et2O drop wise at O0C. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 Hours at room temperature and cooled to 0°C. A solution of cw-N-(6-benzhydryl- tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-acetamide 17 (0.17 g, 0.42 mmol) in dry THF (10 ml) was added drop wise into the solution. The mixture was refluxed overnight and cooled to room temperature. Methanol was added to quench the reaction followed by removal of solvent in vacuo. To the residue was added 20 ml 10% HCl/MeOH and the mixture refluxed for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature and solid NaHCO3 was added at O0C to pH 9. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 20 ml). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, and the solvent was removed in vacuo. Flash chromatography gave 16p Q?-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3yl)- [2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethyl]-amine (0.13 g, yield 81 %).

1H NMR (300MHz, CDCl3) 1.2-1.42(m, 2H, H-5, NH) 1.61(m, IH, H-5) 1.88(m, 2H, H-4) 2.64(m, IH, H-3) 2.72-2.82(m, 4H, Ph-CH2CH2) 3.55(dd, J= 1.8Hz, 11.7Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.86-3.98(m, 2H, Ph2CH, H-2eq) 4.03(dt, J=3Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-6) 6.9-7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). Free base 16p was converted into the oxalate: mp 240-242°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H28NOF • (COOH)2].

Biology. The affinity of test compounds in binding to rat DAT, SERT, and NET was assessed by measuring inhibition of binding of 5.0 nM [3H]WIN 35,428, 3.5 nM [3H]citalopram, and 1.1 nM [3H]nisoxetine, respectively, exactly as described by us previously. Briefly, rat striatum was the source for DAT, and cerebral cortex for SERT and NET. Final [Na+] was 30 mM for DAT and

SERT assays, and 152 nM for NET assays. All binding assays were conducted at

0-4?, for a period of 2h for [3H]WIN 35,428 and [Η]citalopram binding, and 3h for

[3H] nisoxetine binding. Nonspecific binding of [3H]WIN 35,428 and [3H]citalopram

binding was defined with lOOuM cocaine, and that of [3H]nisoxetine binding with

1 uM desipramine. Radioligand Kd values were 2.1, 3.2 and 2.2 nM, respectively.

Test compounds were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted out in

10% (v/v) DMSO. Additions from the latter stocks resulted in a final concentration

of DMSO of 0.5 % , which by itself did not interfere with radioligand binding. At

lease five triplicate concentrations of each test compound were studied, spaced

evenly around the IC50 value. For DAT uptake assays, uptake of 50 nM [3H]DA

into rat striatal synaptosomes was measured exactly as described by us previously.

Briefly, rat striatal P2 membrane fractions were incubated with test compounds for

8min followed by the additional presence of [3H]DA for 4min at 25?. Nonspecific

uptake was defined with lOOuM cocaine. Construction of inhibition curves and

dissolvement of test compounds were as described above.

TABLE 2 Affinity of Drugs at Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine Transporters in Rat Striatum

a. For binding, the DAT was labeled with [3H]WIN 35, 428, the SERT with [3H]citalopram and the NET with [3H] nisoxetine. For uptake by DAT, [3H]DA accumulation was measured. Results are average ± SEM of three to eight independent experiments assayed in triplicate, b. See reference # 22. TABLE 3 Selectivity of Various Drugs for their Activity at Monoamine Transporters

Synthesis of 3.3-Diphenylpropene (22)

Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (4 g, 11.12 mmol) was added over a 15-min period to a mixture of butyllithium (7.3 ml of 1.6 M solution in THF, 11.76 mmol) and dry THF (50 ml) with stirring and under nitrogen atmosphere at 5 < ALOKE, Temp. > °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2h at room temperature and the mixture was then recooled to -78° C. A solution of diphenylacetaldehyde (2.2 g, 11.12 mmol) in dry THF(IO ml) was added to the above mixture over a 15-min period. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 h at room temperature, followed by addition of ethyl ether (200 ml), and the reaction 10 mixture was then filtered. The ether extracts were washed with water (3 x 50ml), brine (100 ml) and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography on silical gel (Hexane: Ethyl ether = 9: 1) to give pure 3,3-diphenylpropene 460 mg (46%).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 4.82(d, J=6.4Hz, IH, H-3) 5.08(d, 15 J= 17.2Hz, IH, H-I) 5.31(d, J= 12Hz, IH, H-I) 6.39(m, IH, H-2) 7.2-7.4 (m, 1OH, aromatic-H) 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 55.30, 116.69, 126.67, 128.73, 128.92, 140.94, 143.59.

Synthesis of 2-Benzhvdryl-oxirane (23)

A flask was charged with 3,3-diphenylpropene (5.1 g, 26.3 mmol) ■20 in 100 ml CH2Cl2. It was followed by by portionwise addition of mCPBA (9.1 g, 70% purity, 52.6 mmol) at 0°C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24h and the reaction was then quenched with 30 ml IM Na2SO3. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 100 ml). The combined organic phases were washed in turn with saturated NaHCO3, brine, and then dried over anhydrous 25 Na2SO4. Purification by flash chromatography (Hexane/ether=9:l) gave pure 2- benzhydryl-oxirane, 4.7g (85%).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.54(m, IH, H-I) 2.87(m, IH, H-I) 3.54(m, IH, H-2) 3.86(d, J=7.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH), 7.2-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-H) 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 46.80, 53.58, 55.17, 127.06, 127.14, 128.70, 128.81, 141.28.

Resolution of Racemic 2-benzhvdryl-oxirane (23) by HKR Reaction

A mixture of (R,R)-(-)-N,N'-Bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-l,2- cyclohexane diaminocobalt (II) (0.22 g, 0.37 mmol, 0.8 %), toluene (5 ml), and acetic acid (0.044 g, 0.74 mmol) was stirred for Ih at room temperature. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was dried. 2-Benzhydryl-oxirane (9.6 g, 45.7 mmol) was added in one portion and stirred, the mixture was then cooled by means of an ice-bath. H2O (0.58 g, 32 mmol) was slowly added over a 30-min period. After water addition, the ice bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 72h. Compounds were separated via flash chromatography on slica gel column to give (2R)-2-benzhydryl-oxirane (23a) 4.5 g (MD = (+)9.58, C = 1, MeOH) and (2S)-3,3-diphenyl-propane-l,2-diol 24 3.53 g ([α]D=(+)48, c= l, MeOH, ee=97%). The proton and carbon NMR data of (2R)- 2-benzhydryl-oxirane was identical to the racemate 2-benzhydryl-oxirane.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.54(m, IH, H-I) 2.87(m, IH, H-I) 3.54(m, IH, H-2) 3.86(d, J=7.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH), 7.2-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 46.80, 53.58, 55.17, 127.06, 127.14, 128.70, 128.81, 141.28.

For (2S)-3 , 3-diphenyl-propane- 1 ,2-diol :

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.39(bs, 2H, OH) 3.44(m, IH, H-I) 3.60(m, IH, H-I), 4.02(D, J= IOHz, IH, Ph2CH), 4.44(m, IH, H-2), 7.16- 7.22(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 55.08, 64.94, 74.26, 127.08, 127.23, 128.35, 128.84, 129.03, 129.17, 141.23, 141.62 Synthesis of (2S)-2-benzhydryl-oxirane (23b)

A solution of (2S)-3,3-diphenyl-propane-l,2-diol (3.5 g, 15.35 mmol); Ph3P (8.05 g, 30.7 mmol), and DEAD (5.4 g, 30.7 mmol) in benzene (50 ml) was refluxed for 24h. Solvent was removed and the residue was diluted with ethyl ether (200 ml) to precipitate Ph2PO. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was chromatographed on silica gel (hexane/ether=9: l) to give (2S)-2- benzhydryl-oxirane 23b 2.5g (78%, ([α]D=(-)9.6, c=l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (R)-isomer.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.54(m, IH, H-I) 2.87(m, IH, H-I) 3.54(m, IH, H-2) 3.86(d, J=7.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH), 7.2-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 46.80, 53.58, 55.17, 127.06, 127.14, 128.70, 128.81, 141.28.

Procedure A. Synthesis of (2S)-l,l-Diphenyl-pent-4-ene-2-oI (25a)

(2R)-2-benzhydryl-oxirane (0.5 g, 2.38 mmol) 23a was dissolved in dry THF (5 ml) and was added into a dry THF solution at -780C containing CuI (0.045 g, 0.24 mmol) and vinylmagnesium bromide (5.95 ml of 1.0M solution in THF, 5.95 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred and allowed to reach room temperature over a period of 2h, and then quenched with saturated NH4Cl solution. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 X 30 ml). The combined organic phase was washed with brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed and the residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hexane/Ethyl Ether =4:1) to give 0.4 g (2S)-l,l-diρhenyl-pent-4-ene-2-ol (70%, [α]D=(-)25, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.14(m, IH, H-3), 2.33(m, IH, H-3), 3.93(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, H-I) 4.44(m, IH, H-2) 5.1(m, 2H, H-5), 5.9(m, IH, H-4), 7.16-7.24 (m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, lOOMHz) 39.75, 58.21, 73.06, 118.23, 126.86, 127.08, 128.51, 128.64, 128.92, 129.00, 135.01. Synthesis of (2R)-l.l-diphenyl-pent-4-ene-2-ol (25b)

(2S)-2-benzhydryl-oxirane (0.61 g, 2.91 mmol) was reacted with vinylmagnesium bromide (7.26 ml of 1.0M solution in THF, 7.26 mmol) in the presence of CuI (0.055 g, 0.29 mmol) (Procedure A) to yield (2R)-l,l-diphenyl- pent-4-ene-2-ol 0.48 g (70%, [α]D=(+)26, c=l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (2S)-l,l-diphenyl-pent-4-ene-2-ol.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 2.14(m, IH, H-3), 2.33(m, IH, H-3), 3.93(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, H-I) 4.44(m, IH, H-2) 5.1(m, 2H, H-5), 5.9(m, IH, H-4), 7.16-7.24 (m, 1OH, aromatic-H).

13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 39.75, 58.21, 73.06, 118.23, 126.86, 127.08, 128.51, 128.64, 128.92, 129.00, 135.01.

Procedure B. Synthesis of (2S)-l.l-Diphenyl-2-Allyloxy-Pent-4-en (26a)

(2S)-l,l-diphenyl-pent-4-en-2-ol 25a (0.37 g, 1.57 mmol) was dissolved in dry DMF (2 ml) and was added to a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 0.13 g, 3.14 mmol) in dry DMF (20 ml) at O0C. The reaction mixture was allowed to reach room temperature over a period of Ih. The reaction mixture was cooled again to 0°C employing an ice-bath, and neat allyl bromide (0.57 g, 4.71 mmol) was added via syringe. The reaction mixture was removed from the ice-bath and stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was cooled again to 0°C and quenched by slowly adding H2O (20 ml). The resulting mixture was extracted with Et2O (3 X 50 ml), and the combined organic phases were washed in turn with H2O, brine, and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Filtration followed by concentration gave crude product as light orange oil. Purification by chromatography (hexane/ethyl ether= 10: l) gave 0.37g (2S)-l,l-Diphenyl-2- Allyloxy-Pent-4-en (85%, [α]D=(+)19.7, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 500MHz) 2.26(m, IH, H-3), 2.38(m, IH, H-3), 3.74(m, IH, H-3'), 3.96(m, IH, H-3'), 4.1(m, 2H, H-I, H-2), 5.0-5.16(m, 4H, H- 5, H-I'), 5.71(m, IH, H-2'), 5.93(m,lH, H-4), 7.2-7.46(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 125MHz) 37.27 56.24 71.74 81.80 116.71 117.63 126.49 126.62 128.38 128.70 128.83 129.36 135.21 142.26 142.87.

Synthesis of (2R)-l.l-Diphenyl-2-Allyloxy-Pent-4-en (26b)

(2R)-l,l-diphenyl-pent-4-en-2-ol 25b (0.42 g, 1.75 mmol) was reacted with allyl bromide (0.63 g, 5.25 mmol) (Procedure B) to yield (2R)-1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Allyloxy-Pent-4-en 26b, 0.43 g (87%, [α]D=(-)20, c=l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (2R)-l,l-diphenyl-2-alluloxy-pent-4-en shown above.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 500MHz) 2.26(m, IH, H-3), 2.38(m, IH, H-3), 3.74(m, IH, H-3'), 3.96(m, IH, H-3'), 4.1(m, 2H, H-I, H-2), 5.0-5.16(m, 4H, H- 5, H-I'), 5.71(m, IH, H-2'), 5.93(m,lH, H-4), 7.2-7.46(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 125MHz) 37.27 56.24 71.74 81.80 116.71 117.63 126.49 126.62 128.38 128.70 128.83 129.36 135.21 142.26 142.87.

Procedure C. Synthesis of (2S)-2-benzhvdryl-3,6-dihvdro-2H-pyran (27a)

Into a solution of of (2S)-l,l-Diphenyl-2-Allyloxy-Pent-4-ene 26a (0.19 g, 0.68 mmol) in dry benzene was added Grubb catalyst (0.028 g, 0.034 mmol, 5 %) and the solution was refluxed under N2 for 2Oh. The solvent was removed, and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (hexane/ether=9:l) to give 0.15 g (2S)-2-benzhydryl-3,6-dihydro-2H-ρyran, 27a (88%, [α]D=(-)79.3, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.82(m, IH, H-3) 2.09(m, IH, H-3) 4.0(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.23(m, 2H, H-6) 4.32(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, H-2) 5.77(m, 2H, H-4, H-5) 7.16-7.26(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.10 51.82 55.52 56.66 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.81 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37. Synthesis of (2R)-2-Benzhvdryl-3.6-dihvdro-2H-pyran (27b)

(2R)-l,l-Diphenyl-2-Allyloxy-Pent-4-en 26b (0.25 g, 0.90 mmol) was cyclized in the presence of Grubb's catalyst (0.037 g, 0.045 mmol) (Procedure C) to produce (2R)-2-Benzhydryl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran 27b 0.2 g (89%, [α]D=(+)80.8, c= l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (2S)- 2-benzhydryl-3 ,6-dihydro-2H-pyran 27a.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.82(m, IH, H-3) 2.09(m, IH, H-3) 4.0(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.23(m, 2H, H-6) 4.32(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, H-2) 5.77(m, 2H, H-4, H-5) 7.16-7.26(m, 1OH, aromatic-H). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.10 51.82 55.52 56.66 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.81 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

Procedure D. Synthesis of (IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane (28a) and (IR. 4S. 6S)-4-benzhvdryl-3,7-dioxa-bicvcIor4.1.01-heptane (28b)

To a solution of (2S)-2-benzhydryl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran 27a (0.15 g, 0.6 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (20 ml) was added mCPBA (0.3 g, 70% , 1.2 mmol) in a portionwise manner at O0C. The mixture was brought to room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred for 20 Ii under N2. Na2SO3 (20 ml 1.0 M solution) was added to the reaction mixture at 0°C to quench the reaction. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (20 ml x 2). The combined organic phase was washed in turn with saturated NaHCO3 and brine, then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave light brown solid residue. The crude products were purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl ether =9:1) to give 0.08 g (IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a (50.3%, [α]D=(- )60, c= l, MeOH) and 0.065 g 28b (IR, 4S, 6S)~4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa- bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane (41 % , [α]D=(-)76, c= l, MeOH).

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.71(m, IH, H-5) 1.89(m, IH, H-5) 3.27(m, IH, H-I) 3.34(m,lH, H-7) 3.82(d, J=9.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 3.95(d, J= 14Hz, IH, H-2) 4.14(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.2Hz, H-4) 4.22(dd, J=4Hz, 12.8Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16-7.36(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.1 51.82 55.52 56.67 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

(IR, 4S, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28b: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.66-1.86(m, 2H, H-5) 3.06(m, IH, H-I) 3.28(m,lH, H-7) 3.78-3.98(m, 3H, Ph2CH, H-2, H-4) 4.19(d, J= 13.6Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16- 7.36(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.1 51.82 55.5256.67 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

Synthesis of (IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane (28c) and (IS. 4R. 6R)-4-benzhvdryl-3.7-dioxa-bicvclor4.1.01-heptane (28d)

(2R)-2-benzhydryl-3,6-diliydro-2H-pyran 27b (0.2 g, 0.79 mmol) was reacted with mCPBA (0.27 g, 70% , 1.58 mmol) (Procedure D) to yield the corresponding (IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28c 0.11 g (52% , [α]D=(+)60.4, c= 1, MeOH)) and (IS, 4R, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa- bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28d 0.086 g (41 % , [α]D=(+)78, c= l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical for both (IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa- bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane and (IR, 4S, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]- heptane.

(IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3 ,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28c: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.71(m, IH, H-5) 1.89(m, IH, H-5) 3.27(m, IH, H-I) 3.34(m,lH, H-7) 3.82(d, J=9.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 3.95(d, J= 14Hz, IH, H-2) 4.14(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.2Hz, H-4) 4.22(dd, J=4Hz, 12.8Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16-7.36(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.1 51.82 55.52 56.67 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

(IS, 4R, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28d: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.66-1.86(m, 2H, H-5) 3.06(m, IH, H-I) 3.28(m,lH, H-7) 3.78-3.98(m, 3H, Ph2CH, H-2, H-4) 4.19(d, J= 13.6Hz, IH, H-2) 7.16- 7.36(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.1 51.8255.5256.67 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

Procedure E. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-methoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol (-)29a

A mixture of (IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]- heptane 28a (0.027 g, 0.10 mmol) and p-methoxybenzylamine (0.28 g, 2.03 mmol) in ethanol (1 ml) was refluxed under N2 overnight. The solvent was removed and the residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate/Et3N=6:4:0.2) to give (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-methoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)-29a, 0.03 g (73.2% , [α]D=(-)71.9, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.42(m,lH, H-3) 1.72(m, 3H, H-3, NH, OH) 2.44(m, IH, H-5) 3.66(d, J= 12.8Hz, H-6) 3.74-3.84(m, 5H, -OCH3, Ph- CH2) 3.87-3.98(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-2) 6.80-7.40(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.69 51.04 55.51 56.71 56.79 65.08 67.82 73.81 114.03 126.55 126.75 128.61 128.87 129.47 142.18 142.37.

Free base was converted into oxalate: mp 230-232°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H29NO3 - (COOH)2].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-methoxy-benzyIamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol(+)29a

(IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28c (0.02 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with p-methoxybenzylamine (0.21 g, 1.50 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-methoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol (+)-29a 0.024 g (80%, [α]D=(+)72.8, c= l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl- 5-(4-methoxy-benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol. 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.42(m,lH, H-3) 1.72(m, 3H, H-3, NH, OH) 2.44(m, IH, H-5) 3.66(d, J= 12.8Hz, H-6) 3.74-3.84(m, 5H, -OCH3, Ph- CH2) 3.87-3.98(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-2) 6.80-7.40(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.69 51.04 55.51 56.71 56.79 65.08 67.8273.81 114.03 126.55 126.75 128.61 128.87 129.47 142.18 142.37.

Free base (+)-29a was converted into the oxalate: mp 230-232°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H29NO3 - (COOH)2 ^SH2O].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhvdryl-5-benzylamino-tetrahγdro-pyran-4-ol (+)29d

(IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28c (0.022 g, 0.082 mmol) was reacted with benzylamrne (0.18 g, 1.64 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-benzylamino-tetrahydro~ pyran-4-ol, (+)-29d 0.025 g (81%, [α]D = (+)53.7, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.43(m,lH, H-3) 1.62-1.80(m, 3H, H-3, NH, OH) 2.54(m, IH, H-5) 3.73(d, J= 13.6Hz, IH, Ph-CH2) 3.79(m, IH, H-6) 3.86-4.02(m, 4H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH, Ph-CH2) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-2) 7.00-7.40(m, 15H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.67 51.64 56.78 56.83 65.10 67.83 73.80 126.57 126.77 127.24 128.30 128.63 128.89 142.25 142.34.

Free base (+)-29d was converted into the oxalate: mp 249-2510C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 - (COOH)2 • 0.3H2O]. ynthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-benzylamino-tetrahydro-pyran-4-ol

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-Benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a (0.03 g, 0.09 mmol) reacted with benzylamine (0.20 g, 1.88 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (-)-29d, 0.03 g (Yield; 86%), [a]D=(-)54.0, c= 1, MeOH). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): 1.43 (m,lH, H-3eq), 1.69 (s, 2H, NH, OH), 1.74 (dt, J = 2.8 Hz, 10.8 Hz, IH, H-3ax), 2.45 (m, IH, H-5), 3.73 (d, J = 13.2 Hz, IH, Ph-CH2), 3.79 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, IH, H-6), 3.86-4.02 (m, 4H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH, Ph-CH2), 4.50 (dt, J = 2.4 Hz, 10.0 Hz, IH, H-2), 7.00-7.40 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH).

Free base was converted into oxalate: mp 250-252 0C Anal. [C25H27NO2 • (COOH)20.5H2O] C, H, N.

Synthesis of (3R, 4R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-4-(4-methoxy-benzylamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-3-ol(-)29g

(IR, 4S, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28b (0.021 g, 0.079 mmol) was reacted with p-methoxybenzylamine (0.22 g, 1.58 mmol) (Procedure E) to yield (3R, 4R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-4-(4-methoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-3-ol, (-)-29g 0.02 g (63 %, [α]D=(-)63.75, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.37 (m, IH, H-5) 1.81 (m, IH, H-5) 2.95 (m, IH, H-4) 3.46 (m, IH, H-3) 3.56-3.72 (m, 3H, H-2, PhCH2) 3.81 (s, 3H, -OCH3) 3.96 (d, J=9.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.04 (dd, J= 1.6Hz, 12Hz, IH, H-2) 4.53 (dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 6.8-7.4 (m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.14 51.23 55.45 55.53 56.64 67.84 68.05 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

Free base (-)-29g was converted into the oxalate: mp 234-235°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H29NO3 • (COOH)2 • 0.2H2O]. Synthesis of (3S, 4S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-4-(4-methoxy-benzylamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-3-oI (+)29g

(IS, 4R, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28d (0.02 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with p-methoxy-benzylamine (0.21 g, 1.50 mmol) (Procedure E) to yield (3S, 4S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-4-(4-methoxy-benzylamino)- tetrahydropyran-3-ol, (+)-29g, 0.029 (94%, [α]D=(+)65, c= l, MeOH). The 1HNMR and 13CNMR were identical with (3R, 4R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-4-(4-methoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-3-ol.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.37 (m, IH, H-5) 1.81 (m, IH, H-5) 2.95 (m, IH, H-4) 3.46 (m, IH, H-3) 3.56-3.72 (m, 3H, H-2, PhCH2) 3.81 (s, 3H, -OCH3) 3.96 (d, J=9.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.04 (dd, J= 1.6Hz, 12Hz, IH, H-2) 4.53 (dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 6.8-7.4 (m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.14 51.23 55.45 55.53 56.64 67.84 68.05 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37.

Free base (+)-29g was converted into the oxalate: mp 235-237°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H29NO3 ■ (COOH)2 • 0.2H2O].

Synthesis of (3S, 4S, 6R)-6-benzhvdryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahvdropyran-3-ol (+)29h

(IS, 4R, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28d (0.019 g, 0.071 mmol) was reacted with benzylamine (0.15 g, 1.43 mmol) (Procedure E) to yield (3S, 4S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydropyran-3- ol, (+)-29h, 0.023 (85%, [α]D = (+)70.1, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.38 (m, IH, H-5) 1.81 (m, IH, H-5) 2.96 (m, IH, H-4) 3.48 (m, IH, H-3) 3.62-3.78 (m, 3H, H-2, PhCH2) 3.96 (d, J=9.6Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.05 (m, IH, H-2) 4.54 (dt, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.0- 7.4 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 31.10 51.82 55.52 56.66 67.86 68.03 74.20 126.63 126.86 127.38 128.35 128.51 128.57 128.65 128.74 128.96 142.18 142.37. Free base (+)-29h was converted into the oxalate: mp 259-260°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 - (COOH)2 • 0.25H2O].

Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-fluoro-benzylamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol (-)29b

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a (0.025 g, 0.094 mmol) was reacted with para-fluoro-benzylamine (0.24 g, 1.88 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2S, 4R, 5R)~2-benzhydryl-5-(4-fluoro- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)-29b, 0.032 g (86% , [α]D=(-)77.2, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, IH, H-3) 1.71(m, IH, H-3) 1.78(bs, 2H, NH, OH) 2.41(m, IH, H-5) 3.66(d, J= 13.2Hz, IH, H-6) 3.72- 3.96(m, 5H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH, PhCH2) 4.49(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 6.8- 7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.69 50.85 56.70 56.85 65.05 67.70 73.80 115.29 115.50 126.57 126.77 128.61 128.64 128.86 129.74 129.83 142.19 142.31.

Free base (-)-29b was converted into the oxalate: mp 222-223°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H26NFO2 • (COOH)2].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-fluoro-benzylamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol (+)29b . (IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane, 28c, (0.02 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with para-fluoro-benzylamine (0.19 g, 1.50 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-fluoro- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (+)-29b, 0.028 g (94%, [α]D=(+)77.6, c=l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.43(m, IH, H-3) 1.68-1.78(m, 3H, H-3, NH, OH) 2.43(m, IH, H-5) 3.68(d, J= 13.2Hz, IH, H-6) 3.74-4.00(m, 5H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH, PhCH2) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 6.8-7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.71 50.87 56.72 56.85 65.06 67.75 73.81 115.30 115.51 126.57 126.78 128.61 128.65 128.87 129.75 129.83 142.20 142.31.

Free base (+)-29b was converted into the oxalate: mp 223-225°C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H26NFO2 - (COOH)2 • 0.2H2O].

Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethylamino]- tetrahydropyran-4-ol (-)29c

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo [4.1.0] -heptane 28a (0.025 g, 0.094 mmol) was reacted with 2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethylamine (0.26 g, 1.88 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-[2-(4- fTuorophenyl)-ethylamino] -tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)-29c, 0.04 g (98 % , [α]D = (-)62.9, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, IH, H-3) 1.63(m, IH, H-3) 1.84(s, 2H, NH, OH) 2.43(m, IH, H-5) 2.73, 2.92(m, 4H, (F)PhCH2CH2) 3.70(dd, J=2Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-6) 3.86-3.98(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.49(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 6.8-7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.70 36.1949.28 56.7457.66 65.21 67.35 73.81 115.34 115.55 126.58 126.79 128.61 128.88 130.20 130.30 142.18 142.30.

Free base (-)-29c was converted into the oxalate: mp 205-207°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H28NFO2 - (COOH)2 - 0.1H2O].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethylamino]- tetrahydropyran-4-ol (+)29c

(IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28c (0.02 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine (0.21 g, 1.50 mmol) in ethanol (Procedure E) to yield (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-[2-(4- fluorophenyl)-ethylamino]-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (+)-29c, 0.030 g (98 % , [α]D=(+)63.4, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, IH, H-3) 1.63(m, IH, H-3) 1.84(s, 2H, NH, OH) 2.43(m, IH, H-5) 2.73, 2.92(m, 4H, (F)PhCH2CH2) 3.70(dd, J=2Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-6) 3.86-3.98(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.49(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 6.8-7.4(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.72 36.26 49.33 56.74 57.67 65.28 67.47 73.80 115.33 115.53 126.57 126.78 128.61 128.88 130.22 130.30 142.19 142.30.

Free base (+)-29c was converted into the oxalate: mp 203-205°C. C, H, N Anal: [C26H28NFO2 - (COOH)2 • 0.5H2O].

Synthesis of (3S. 4R, 6S)-6-benzhvdrvI-4-benzylamino-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (- )29h

(IR, 4S, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28b (0.03 g, 0.09 mmol) reacted with benzylamine (0.2O g, 1.88 rnmol) (Procedure E) to yield (3S, 4R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-4-benzylamino-tetrahydropyran-3-ol, (-)-29h, 0.03 g (Yield; 86%), [α]D=(-)70.6, c=l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz): 1.30 (td, J=3.2Hz, 14Hz, IH, H-5eq), 1.68-1.80 (m, 3H, H-5ax, NH, OH), 2.88 (m, IH, H-4), 3.40 (m, IH, H-3), 3.54- 3.70 (m, 3H, H-2, PhCH2), 3.88 (d, J=9.60Hz, IH, Ph2CH), 3.96 (dd, J= 1.60Hz, 12.00Hz, IH, H-2), 4.46 (dt, J=2.40Hz, 10.00Hz, IH, H-6) 7.00-7.40 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH).

Free base (-)-29h was converted into the oxalate: mp 259-260 °C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 • (COOH)2 • 0.25H2O].

Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzylamino)- tetrahvdropyran-4-ol (-)-29f

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a (0.020 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with 3,5-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.25 g, 1.50 mmol) (Procedure E) to yield (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(3,5-dimethoxy- benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)-29f, 0.03 g (Yield; 95%, [α]D=(-)58.60, C= I5 CHCl3).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz): 1.40 (m, IH, H-3), 1.72 (m, IH, H-3), 2.42 (m, IH, H-5), 3.62-4.00 (m, 12H, H-4, H-6, PhCH2, -OCH3, Ph2CH), 4.49 (dt, J=2.00Hz, 10.00Hz, IH, H-2), 6.34, 6.48, 7.10-7.40 (m, 13H, aromatic-CH).

Free base (-)-29f was converted into oxalate: mp 245-247 0C. C, H, N Anal: [C27H31NO4 • (COOH)2 • 0.2H2O].

Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(2,4-dimethoxy-benzylamino)- tetrahvdropyran-4-ol (-)-29e

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28a (0.020 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with 2,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.25 g, 1.50 mmol) (Procedure E) to yield (2S, 4R, 5R)-2~benzhydryl-5-(2,4- dimethoxybenzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)-29e, 0.025 g (Yield; 70%, [α]D = (-)3.70, C= I5 CHCl3).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz): 1.42 (m, IH, H-3), 1.77 (m, IH, H-3), 2.10(bs, 2H, OH, NH), 2.47 (m, IH, H-5), 3.66-4.06 (m, 12H, H-4, H-6, PhCH2, -OCH3, Ph2CH), 4.50 (dt, J=2.80Hz, 9.60Hz, IH, H-2), 6.40, 7.10-7.40 (m, 13H, aromatic-CH).

Free base (-)-29e was converted into the oxalate: mp 208-210 °C. C, H, N Anal: [C27H31NO4 ■ (COOH)2 ] .

Procedure F. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-5-Azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol (30a)

A solution of (IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]- heptane 28a (0.05 g, 0.19 mmol) in a 8: 1 MeOH/H2O (2 ml) mixture was treated with NaN3 (0.061 g, 0.94 mmol) and NH4Cl (0.022 g, 0.41 mmol) and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 80°C overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with ether and the organic layer was separated. Evaporation of the washed (saturated aqueous NaHCO3, water) ether extracts afforded a crude solid product. Purification of the product by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate =4: 1) yielded (2S, 4R, 5R)-5-Azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol 30a 0.05 g (95%, [α]D=(-)109.3, C= I5 MeOH). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.44(m, IH, H-3) 1.79(m, IH, H-3) 1.91(s, IH, OH) 3.258(m, IH, H-5) 3.82-4.04(m, 4H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.49(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 7.0-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.56 56.96 59.63 64.81 66.32 73.56 126.64 126.88 128.62 128.64 128.67 128.92 142.04.

Synthesis of (2R. 4S, 5S)-5-Azido-2-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdro-pyran-4-ol (30b)

(IR, 4R, 7S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 8c (0.04 g, 0.15 mmol) was treated with NaN3 (0.05 g, 0.75 mmol) and NH4Cl (0.018 g, 0.33 mmol) (Procedure F) yielded (2R, 4S, 5S)-5-Azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol 30b, 0.04 g (95%, [α]D=(+)108, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.45(m, IH, H-3) 1.80(m, IH, H-3) 1.91(s, IH, OH) 3.27(m, IH, H-5) 3.84-4.05(m, 4H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 7.0-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.59 56.96 59.64 64.81 66.35 73.56 126.64 126.87 128.62 128.64

Procedure G. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-5-Amino-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol (31a)

(2S, 4R, 5R)-5-Azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro-pyran-4-ol (0.05 g, 0.18 mmol) dissolved in methanol (20 ml) was hydrogenated in the presence of 10% Pd/C (0.006 g). The mixture was filtered through a short bed of cellite, and evaporation of the solvent gave (2S, 4R, 5R)-5-amino-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol 0.05 g (97%, [α]D=(-)66, c= l, MeOH), which was pure enough for the next reaction.

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, IH, H-3) 1.70(m, IH, H-3) 2.73(s, IH, H-5) 3.20(m, 3H, NH, OH) 3.60(m, IH, H-6) 3.8-4.0(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.46(t, J= IOHz, IH, H-2) 7.0-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 32.87 51.26 56.68 67.25 67.85 74.15 126.60 126.82 128.61 128.65 128.89 142.15 142.18. Synthesis of (2R. 4S. 5S)-5-Amino-2-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdro-pyran-4-ol (31b)

(2R, 4S, 5S)-5-Azido-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol (0.05 g, 0.14 mmol) was hydrogenated (Procedure G) to yield (2R, 4S, 5S)-5-amino-2- benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol 0.04 g (97%, [α]D=(+)66.2, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CD3OD, 400MHz) 1.43(m, IH, H-3) 1.72(m, IH, H-3) 2.65(m, IH, H-5) 3.57(m, IH, H-6) 3.82(m, IH, H-4) 3.92-4.0(m, 2H, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.52(dt, J=2Hz, 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 7.0-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CD3OD, 100MHz) 32.40 50.67 56.92 66.65 67.47 74.04 125.96 126.35 128.01 128.38 128.42 142.44 142.77.

Procedure H. Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-hydroxy- benzylamino)-tetrahvdropyran-4-oI (-)32a

To a solution of (2S, 4R, 5R)-5-amino-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol 31a (0.02 g, 0.09 mmol), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.01 g, 0.09 mmol) and glacial acetic acid (0.005 g, 0.09 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (5 ml) was added portionwise NaCNBH3 (0.007 g, 0.11 mmol) in methanol (1 ml). The reaction was continued for 4 hr. Water was added to quench the reaction and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at O0C. The reaction mixture was stirred with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and the product was extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 10 ml). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, water and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (Hexane/Ethyl Acetate/Triemylamine 3:2:0.2) to give (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-hydroxy-benzylamino)-tetrahydropyran-4 -ol, (-)-32a, 0.03 g (80%, [α]D = (-)72.6, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, IH, H-3) 1.66(m, IH, H-3) 2.45(s, IH, H-5) 3.23(bs, NH, OH) 3.58(d, J= 12.4Hz, IH, (OH)PhCH2) 3.7- 3.8(m, 2H, H-6, (OH)PhCH2) 3.84-4.0(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.49(dt, J=2Hz, 10Hz, IH, H-2) 6.57, 7.03, 7.1-7.36(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.56 50.86 56.49 56.60 64.55 67.19 73.95 115.82 126.61 126.79 128.59 128.64 128.68 128.87 129.91 130.87 142.09 142.22 155.61. Free base (-)-32a was converted into the oxalate: C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO3 • (COOH)2 ■ 0.4H2O].

Synthesis of (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-[(lH-indol-5-ylmethyl)-amino]- tetrahvdropyran-4-ol (-)32b

(2S, 4R, 5R)-5-amino-2-benzhydryl-tetraliydropyran-4-ol 31a (0.03 g, 0.11 mmol) was reacted with lH-indol-5-carbaldehyde (0.02 g, 0.11 mmol), glacial acetic acid (0.01 g, 0.11 mmol), and NaCNBH3 (0.01 g, 0.21 mmol) (Procedure C) to give (2S, 4R, 5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-[(lH-indol-5-yhnethyl)-amino]- tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (-)32b, 0.04 g (92% , [α]D=(-)69.90, c= l, Acetone).

1HNMR (DMSO, 400MHz): 1.24 (m, IH, H-3eq), 1.63 (dt, J=2.80Hz, 12.00Hz, IH, H-3ax), 2.35 (m, IH, H-5), 3.35 (bs, NH, OH), 3.61 (d, J= 10.40Hz, IH, H-6), 3.68-3.90 (m, 4H, H-4, H-6, indol-CH2), 3.97(d, J= 10.00Hz, IH, Ph2CH), 4.45 (dt, J=2.00Hz, 10.00Hz, IH, H-2), 6.40, 7.00- 7.60 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (DMSO, 100MHz): 33.81, 51.72, 56.67, 56.87, 65.03, 65.93, 73.78, 101.52, 111.73, 120.01, 122.45, 126.00, 126.46, 126.88, 128.21, 128.78, 128.95, 128.99, 129.13, 135.69, 143.35, 143.93.

Free base (-)-32b was converted into the oxalate: C, H, N Anal: [C27H28N2O2 • (COOH)2 • 0.5H2O].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-hydroxy-benzylamino)-tetrahydro- pyran-4-ol (+)32a

(2R, 4S, 5S)-5-amino-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol 31b (0.02 g, 0.07 mmol) was reacted with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.009 g, 0.071 mmol), glacial acetic acid (0.004 g, 0.071 mmol) and NaCNBH3 (0.005 g, 0.085 mmol) (Procedure H) to give (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-(4-hydroxy-benzylamino)- tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (+)-32a, 0.023 g (85% , [α]D=(+)72.4, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.42(m, IH, H-3) 1.68(m, IH, H-3) 2.46(m, IH, H-5) 3.52(bs, NH, OH) 3.60(d, J= 13.6Hz, IH, (OH)PhCH2) 3.72- 3.82(m, 2H, H-6, (OH)PhCH2) 3.86-4.0(m, 3H, H-4, H-6, Ph2CH) 4.50(dt, J=2.4Hz, 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 6.58, 7.05, 7.1-7.36(m, 14H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 33.62 50.94 56.59 64.64 67.36 73.93 115.78 126.62 126.79 128.59 128.64 128.69 128.88 129.87 142.08 142.23 155.51.

Free base (+)-32a was converted into the oxalate: C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO3 • (COOH)2 • 0.4H2O].

Synthesis of (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-[(lH-indol-5-ylmethyl)-amino]- tetrahvdropyran-4-ol (+)32b

(2R, 4S, 5S)-5-amino-2-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-4-ol 31b (0.05 g, 0.18 mmol) was reacted with lH-indol-5-carbaldehyde (0.03 g, 0.18 mmol), glacial acetic acid (0.01 g, 0.18 mmol) and NaCNBH3 (0.02 g, 0.35 mmol) (Procedure C) to give (2R, 4S, 5S)-2-benzhydryl-5-[(lH-indol-5-yhnethyl)-amino]- tetrahydropyran-4-ol, (+)32b, 0.05 g (69% , [α]D=(+)70.9, c= l, Acetone).

1HNMR (Acetone, 400MHz): 1.27 (td, J=2.80Hz, 14.00Hz, IH, H- 3eq), 1.61 (dt, J=2.80Hz, 14.00Hz, IH, H-3ax), 2.34 (m, IH, H-5), 3.58 (d, J= 12.00Hz, IH, H-6), 3.68-3.90 (m, 5H, H-4, H-6, indol-CH2, Ph2CH), 4.41 (dt, J=2.40Hz, 10.00Hz, IH, H-2), 6.28, 6.94-7.44 (m, 15H, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (Acetone, 100MHz): 33.59, 51.76, 56.74, 57.07, 64.94, 66.47, 73.74, 101.59, 111.20, 119.95, 122.39, 125.07, 126.01, 126.39, 128.20, 128.57, 128.74, 128.89, 143.22, 143.50.

Free base (+)-32b was converted into the oxalate: C, H, N Anal: [C27H28N2O2 - (COOH)2].

Procedure I. Synthesis of (3R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (33a)

(IS, 4S, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane 28a (0.3 g, 1.13 mmol) in dry pentane (10 ml) was added to a suspension of LiAlH4 (0.21 g, 5.64 mmol) in dry pentane (20 ml). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred under N2 for 20 hr at room temperature, and then quenched with 10% NaOH, diluted with ethyl acetate (30 ml), and the precipitate removed by filtration. The organic phase was washed with brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Removal of solvent followed by flash chromatography of the crude product produced pure (3R, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol, 33a, 0.23 g (75%, [α]D=(-)-61.6, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, 2H, H-5) 1.58(m, IH, H-4) 2.07(m, IH, H-4) 3.14(t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 3.69(m, IH, H-3) 3.82-4.04(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.1-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 29.47 33.18 57.40 66.55 73.1278.95 126.51 126.74 128.54 128.60 128.79 142.41 142.77.

Synthesis of (3S, 6R)-6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-ol (33b)

(IR, 4R, 6S)-4-benzhydryl-3,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]-heptane (0.05 g, 0.19 rnmol) was treated with LΪA1H4 (0.036 g, 0.94 mmol) (Procedure I) in dry pentane to yield trans-(3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol 33b 0.035 g (70% , [α]D=(+)61.7, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40 (m, 2H, H-5), 1.58 (m, IH, H-4), 2.07 (m, IH, H-4), 3.14 (t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2), 3.69 (m, IH, H-3), 3.82-4.04 (m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH), 7.1-7.4 (m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 29.47 33.18 57.40 66.55 73.12 78.95 126.51 126.74 128.54 128.60 128.79 142.41 142.77.

An Alternative Procedure for the synthesis of (3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydro- pyran-3-ol (33b)

Synthesis of (3R, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (38)

Treatment of (IS, 4R, 6R)-4-benzhydryl-3 ,7-dioxa- bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane 28d (0.06 g, 0.23 mmol) with a suspension Of LiAlH4 (0.06 g, 1.58 mmol) in pentane along with 12-crown-4 ether (0.31 g, 1.74 mmol) for 15 h at room temperature afforded (3R, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol 38 0.046 g (77% , [α]D=(+)74.9, c= l, MeOH). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.28(m, IH, H-5) 1.58-1.74(m, 2H, H-4, H-5) 1.88(m, IH, H-5) 2.20(bs,lH, OH) 3.63(m, IH, H-2) 3.75(bs, IH, H-3) 3.88- 4.10(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.1-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 24.95 30.15 57.78 64.77 73.02 79.64 126.56 126.77 128.58 128.69 128.71 128.81 142.30 142.42.

Procedure J. Synthesis of methanesulfonic acid «s-(3R, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetra- hydropyran-3-yl ester (39)

Methanesulfonyl chloride (0.067 g, 0.58 mmol) was reacted with cis- (3R, 6R)-6-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol 38 (0.078 g, 0.29 mmol) in the presence of triethylamine (0.044 g, 0.44 mmol) in dry methylene chloride (10 ml) to give cis-(3R, 6R)-6-diphenylmethyl tetrahydropyran-3-yl methanesulfonate 39 0.1 g (quantitative yield, [α]D=(+)65.7, c= l, MeOH).

1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.46(m, IH, H-5) 1.62-1.78(m, 2H, H-4, H-5) 2.24(m, IH, H-5) 2.96(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.36(t, J= 10.4 Hz, IH, H-2) 3.88(d, J=8.8 Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.0(dt, J=2 Hz, 8.8 Hz, IH, H-2) 4.14(m, IH, H-2) 4.61(m, IH, H-3) 7.1-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 29.49 30.58 38.71 57.10 69.87 75.23 79.07 126.69 126.93 128.57 128.60 128.67 128.89 141.94 142.33.

Synthesis of (3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (13b)

cis-(3R, 6R)-6-diphenylmethyl tetrahydropyran-3-yl methanesulfonate 39 (0.1 g, 0.29 mmol) and 18-crown-6 (0.76 g, 2.9 mmol) are dissolved in a 1: 1 mixture of DMSO and DMF (15 ml). KO2 (0.062 g, 0.87 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred under N2. After 5 hr, the reaction was over. H2O (1 ml) and a few drops of IM solution of HCl were added and the solution was extracted with Et2O (3 X 10 ml). The ether phase was washed with water and saturated brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and evaporated to dryness. The crude product was chromatographed on silica gel using hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 to yield pure trans-(3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol 33b 0.062 g (80% , [α]D=(+)62.8, c= l, MeOH). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400MHz) 1.40(m, 2H, H-5) 1.58(m, IH, H-4) 2.07(m, IH, H-4) 3.14(t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2) 3.69(m, IH, H-3) 3.82-4.04(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.1-7.4(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13CNMR (CDCl3, 100MHz) 29.47 33.18 57.4066.55 73.1278.95 126.51 126.74 128.54 128.60 128.79 142.41 142.77.

Synthesis of methauesulfonic acid trans-(3K, 6S)-6-benzhydryl-tetra- hydropyran-3-yI ester (34a)

Methanesulfonyl chloride (0.2O g, 1.7 mmol) was reacted with trans - (3R,6S)-6-diphenyhnethyl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol 33a (0.23 g, 0.85 mmol) (Procedure J) to give trans-(3R, 6S)-6-diphenylmethyl tetrahydropyran-3-yl methanesulfonate 34a 0.23 g (80%, [α]D=(-)54, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.47(m, IH, H-5) 1.62-1.80(m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 2.25(m, IH, H-4) 2.98(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.37(t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.89(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.01(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 4.15(m, IH, H-2eq) 4.62(m, IH, H-3) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) δ(ppm) 29.46, 30.57, 38.71, 57.07, 69.85, 75.19, 79.04, 126.67, 126.90, 128.54, 128.57, 128.63, 128.86, 141.87, 142.28.

Synthesis of methanesulfonic acid trans-(3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetra- hydropyran-3-vI ester 34b

Trans-(3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-ol (0.025 g, 0.093 mmol) was reacted with methanesulfonyl chloride (0.021 g, 0.19 mmol) (Procedure J) to yield trans-(3S, 6R)-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl ester 34b 0.028 g (88%, [α]D=(+)54.8, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR(400MHz, CDCl3) 1.47(m, IH, H-5) 1.62-1.80(m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 2.25(m, IH, H-4) 2.98(s, 3H, CH3SO2) 3.37(t, J= 10.4Hz, IH, H-2ax) 3.89(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.01(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 4.15(m, IH, H-2eq) 4.62(m, IH, H-3) 7.16-7.38(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) δ(ppm) 29.46, 30.57, 38.71, 57.07, 69.85, 75.19, 79.04, 126.67, 126.90, 128.54, 128.57, 128.63, 128.86, 141.87, 142.28. Procedure K. Synthesis of Cis-(3S, 6S)-3-azido-6-benzhydryl-tetrahvdropyran 35a

Trans-(3R, 6S) -ό-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-S-yl methanesulfonate 34a (0.23 g, 0.68 mmol) in dry DMF (10 ml) was reacted with sodium azide (0.13 g, 2.03 mmol) to yield cis-(3S, 6S)-3-azido-6-diphenylmethyl- tetrahydropyran, 35a, 0.17 g (86%, [α]D=(-)78.2, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.38 (m, IH, H-5) 1.60-1.84 (m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 1.98 (m, IH, H-4), 3.55 (m, IH, H-3), 3.63 (dd, J=2Hz, 12.4Hz, IH, H-2) 3.98-4.12(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.16-7.40(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) 25.47, 27.70, 55.60, 57.58, 69.79, 79.48, 126.58, 126.84, 128.59, 128.69, 128.76, 128.86 142.28 142.29.

Procedure L. Synthesis of Cis-(3S, 6S)-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)- amϊne (36a)

Cis-(3S, 6S)-3-azido-6-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran 35a (0.17 g, 0.58 mmol) in methanol (25 ml) was hydrogenated employing as catalyst 10% Pd-C (0.017 g, 10% wt) for 4 hr to give cis-(3S, 6S)-(6-diphenyhnethyl-tetrahydropyran- 3-yl)-amine 36a, 0.12 g (78%, [α]D=(-)74.3, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR(400MHz, CD3OD) 1.27(m, IH, H-5) 1.52(m, IH, H-5) 1.62-1.80(m, 2H, H-4) 2.78(bs, IH, H-3) 3.63(m, 2H, H-2) 3.95(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.10(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.0-7.40(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) 24.47, 29.29, 45.15, 57.32, 72.08, 79.28, 125.97, 126.34, 128.02, 128.39, 128.42 128.54 142.72 142.82.

Synthesis of Cfa-(3R, 6R)-(6-benzhvdryl-tetrahvdropyran-3-yl)-amine (34b)

Synthesis of Cis-(3R, 6R)-3-azido-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran

Trans- (3 S , 6R) -ό-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran-S -yl methanesulfonate (0.028 g, 0.082 mmol) was reacted with NaN3 (0.016 g, 0.25 mmol) (Procedure L) to yield d,s-(3R, 6R)-3-azido-6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran 0.024 g (quantitative yield, [α]D=(+)77.6, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.38 (m, IH, H-5) 1.60-1.84 (m, 2H, H-5, H-4) 1.98 (m, IH, H-4), 3.55 (m, IH, H-3), 3.63 (dd, J=2Hz, 12.4Hz, IH, H-2) 3.98-4.12(m, 3H, H-2, H-6, Ph2CH) 7.16-7.40(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) 25.47, 27.70, 55.60, 57.58, 69.79, 79.48, 126.58, 126.84, 128.59, 128.69, 128.76, 128.86 142.28 142.29.

Cis-(3R,6R)-3-azido-6-diphenylmethyl-tetrahydropyran (0.024 g, 0.082 mmol) was hydrogenated (Procedure M) to yield cw-(3R, 6R)-(6-benzhydryl- tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-amine 34b 0.02 g (92%, [α]D=(+)74.0, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR(400MHz, CD3OD) 1.27(m, IH, H-5) 1.52(m, IH, H-5) 1.62-1.80(m, 2H, H-4) 2.78(bs, bs, IH, H-3) 3.63(m, 2H, H-2) 3.95(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.10(dt, J=2Hz, 9.6Hz, IH, H-6) 7.0-7.40(m, 1OH, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR(IOOMHz, CDCl3) 24.47, 29.29, 45.15, 57.32, 72.08, 79.28, 125.97, 126.34, 128.02, 128.39, 128.42 128.54 142.72 142.82.

Synthesis of cis-(3S, 6S)-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-hydroxy- benzvD-amine (-)37a

Cis-(3S, 6S)-3-amino-6-diphenylmethyl pyran 36a (0.02 g, 0.075 mmol) was reacted with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.009 g, 0.075 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.005 g, 0.075 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (10 ml), then was reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.0057 g, 0.09 mmol) (Procedure H) to give cis- (3S, 6S)-(6-berizhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-fluorobenzyl)-am me (-)-37a, 0.02 g (72%, [α]D=(-) 38.3, c = l, MeOH).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.36(m, IH, H-5) 1.51(m, IH, H-5) 1.68(m, IH, H-4) 2.0(m, IH, H-4) 2.71(s, IH, H-3) 3.56(dd, J = 1.6Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-2) 3.64(m, 2H, (HO)Ph-CH2) 3.96(d, J=8.4Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 4.02-4.16(m, 2H, H-6, H-2) 6.52(m, 2H, aromatic-CH) 6.98-7.38(m, 12H, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR (IOOMHz, CDCl3) 25.28 27.31 50.39 50.68 57.21 69.88 79.45 116.04 126.56 126.67 128.54 128.70 128.73 128.93 129.86 130.47 142.16 142.58 155.93.

Free base (-)-37a was converted into the oxalate: mp 136-138 0C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 • (COOH)2 • 0.6H2O].

Syntheis of ds-(3R, 6R)-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-hydroxy- benzvD-amϊne (+)37a

cώ-(3R, 6R)-3-amino-6-diρhenylmethyl pyran 34b (0.024 g, 0.09 mmol) was reacted with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.011 g, 0.09 mmol) in the presence of glacial acetic acid (0.0054 g, 0.09 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (10 ml), then was reduced by NaCNBH3 (0.012 g, 0.18 mmol) (Procedure H) to give cis-(3R, 6R)-(6-benzhydryl-tetrahydropyran-3-yl)-(4-fluorobenzyl)-ami ne 0.024 g (+)-37a (71%, [α]D=(+) 40.1, c= l, MeOH).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) 1.34(m, IH, H-5) 1.51(m, IH, H-5) 1.65(m, IH, H-4) 1.96(m, IH, H-4) 2.67(m, IH, H-3) 3.56(dd, J= 1.6Hz, 11.6Hz, IH, H-2) 3.66(m, 2H, (HO)Ph-CH2) 3.96(d, J=8.8Hz, IH, Ph2CH) 3.98-4.12(m, 2H, H-6, H-2) 6.65(m, 2H, aromatic-CH) 7.06-7.38(m, 12H, aromatic-CH). 13C NMR (100MHz, CDCl3) 25.28 27.31 50.39 50.68 57.21 69.88 79.45 116.04 126.56 126.67 128.54 128.70 128.73 128.93 129.86 130.47 142.16 142.58 155.93.

Free base (+)-37a was converted into the oxalate: mp 136-138 0C. C, H, N Anal: [C25H27NO2 - (COOH)2 • 1.8H2O]. TABLE 4 Affinity of Drugs at DAT, SERT, and NET in Rat Brain.

TABLE 5 Affinity of Drugs at Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine Transporters in Rat Striatum

b. Uptake inhibition values

The most widely accepted basis of the cause of depression focuses on

monoamines. Imbalances in the level of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and

norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmitter systems are responsible for such

neurodegeneration. Clinical studies as well as basic research in neurobiology has

demonstrated that two monoaminergic systems are involved in the etiology and

therapy of affective disorders, namely serotonin and norepinephrine. The common

basis of pharmacotherapy is based on the increase of intracellular concentration of

serotonin and norepinephrine by blocking the reuptake mechanism of serotonin and

norepinephrine transporters. It is evident from Table 4 that the compounds (-)-29a,

(-)-29e, (-)-29f, (-)-32b and (-)-37a are potent blockers for both SERT and NET.

Compounds with such properties are known as SNRI and are potent antidepressants.

The known antidepressant drugs belonging to this SNRI category and used in the

clinics are venlafaxine, milnacipran, chlorimipramine and duloxetine. SNRI are

considered to have faster onset of action compared to SSRI and are more effective

to treat depression. On the other hand, compounds (-)-29b, (-)-29d, (-)-32a, (+)-32a

and (+)-37a are selective blockers for NET. Compounds with such biological

property are known as NRI and are also considered potent antidepressants. A known potent NRI which was recently approved for antidepressant treatment, is Reboxetine.

Current existing SNRI, SSRI and RNI are also being used in other related neurodisorders including post-traumatic . stress disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders, anxiety and urinary stress incontinence. For this reason the compounds included in this application will also have use in neurodisorders like post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders, anxiety and urinary stress incontinence.

While embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it is not intended that these embodiments illustrate and describe all possible forms of the invention. Rather, the words used in the specification are words of description rather than limitation, and it is understood that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. References: (1) Amara, S. G., Kuhan, M. J. Neurotransmitter transporters: recent progress. ANNU. REV. NEUROSCI, 1993, 16, 73-93. (2) Rudnick, G. Mechanisms of biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters. In neurotransmitter transporters: Structure and function; Reith, M. E. A., Eds.; Human Press: Totowa, N J, second edition, 381-432, 2002. (3) Rudnick, G., Wall, S. C. The molecular mechanism of ectasy [3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)]-serotonin transporters are targets for MDMA induced serotonin release. PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, 1992, 89, 1817-1821. (4) Steele, T. , Nichols, D., Yim, G. Stereochemical effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and related amphetamine derivatives on inhibition of uptake of [3H]monoamine into synaptosomes from different regions of rat brain. BIOCHEM. PHARMACOL. 1987, 36, 2297-2303. (5) Ritz, M.C.; Lamb, RJ.; Goldberg, R.; Kuhar, M.J. Cocaine receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self- adminstration of cocaine. SCIENCE. 1987, 237, 1219-1223. (6) Ritz, M. C, Cone, E.J. Kuhar, MJ. Cocaine Inhibition of Ligand Binding at Dopamine, norpinephrine and serotonin transporters: A structure-activity study. LIFE .SCI. 1990, 46, 635-645. (7) Kuhar, MJ. , Ritz, M. C, Boja, J.W. The dopamine hypothesis of the reinforcing properties of cocaine. TRENDS. NEUROSCI. 1991, 14, 299-302. (8) Tatsumi, M., Groshan, K., Blakely, R. Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. EUR. J. PHARMACOL. 1997, 340, 249-258. (9) Richelson, E. Interactions of antidepressants with neurotransmitter transporters and receptors and their clinical relevance. J. CLIN. PSYCHIATRY. 2003, 64, 5-12. (10) Koch, S., Hemrick-Luecke, S., Thompson, L., Evans, D. , Threlkeld, P., Nelson, D. , Perry, K. , Bymaster, F. Comparison of effects of dual transporter inhibitors on monoamine transporters and extracellular levels in rats. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY. 2003, 45, 935-944. (11) Nemeroff, C B. Psychopharmacology of affective disorders in the 21 = century. BiOL. PSYCHIATRY. 44, 517-525, 1998. (12) Iverson, L. Neurotransmitter transporters: fruitful targets for CNS drug discovery. MθL. PSYCHIATRY. 5, 357-362, 2000. (13) Schloss, P., Williams, D. C. The serotonin transporter: a primary target for antidepressant drugs . J . PSYCHOPHARMACOL. 12, 115-121, 1998. (14) Richelson, E. Interaction of antidepressants with neurotransmitter transporters and receptors and their clinical relevance. J. CLIN. PSYCHIATRY. 64, 5-12, 2000. (15) Beasley, C. M., Holman, S. L., Potvin, J. H. Fluoxetine compared with imipramine in the treatment of inpatient depression. A multicenter trial. ANN. CLIN. PSYCHIATRY. 5, 199-207, 1993. (16) Cookson, J. Side effects of antidepressants. BR. J. PSYCHIATRY. 20, 20-24, 1993. (17) Feighner, J. P. Mechanism of action of antidepressant medications. J. CLIN. PSYCHIATRY. 60, 4-11, 1999. (18) Pinder, R. M., Wieringa, J. H. Third-generation antidepressants. MED. RES. REV. 13, 259-325, 1993. (19) Goldstein, B. J., Goodnick, P. J. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of affective disorders~III. Tolerability, safety and pharmacoeconomics. J. PSYCHOPHARMACOL. 12(3 Suppl B): $55-87, 1998. (20) Barbey, J. T. , Roose, S. P. SSRI safety in overdose. J. CLIN. PSYCHIATRY. 59 Suppl 15:42-8, 1998. (21) Dutta, A.K. , Davis, M.C. , Reith, M. E. A. Rational Design and synthesis of novel conformationally constrained 2,5- disubstituted cis- and tras-piperidine derivatives exhibiting differential activity for the dopamine transporter. BiOORG. MED. LETT. 2001, 11, 2337-2340. (22) Kolhatkar R.B., Ghorai S.K., George C, Reith M. E. A, Dutta A K. Interaction of cis-(6- benzhydryl-piperidin-3-yl)- benzyl-amine analogs with monoamine transporters: Structure Activity Relationship study of structurally constrained 3,6- disubstituted piperidine analogs of (2,2-diphenylethyl)-[l-(4- fluorobenzyl)piperidine-4-ylmethyl] amine. J. MED. CHEM. 2003, 46, 2205-2215. (23) Zhang S, Reith M E A, Dutta A K. Design, synthesis, and activity of novel cis- and trans-3,6-disubstituted pyran biomimetics of 3,6-disubstituted piperidine as potential ligands for the dopamine transporter. BiOORG. MED. CHEM. LETT. 13, 1591-1595, 2003. (24) Zhang, S., Zhen, J. , Reith, M. E. A., Dutta, A. K. Structural requirements for 2,4- and 3,6- disubstituted pyran biomimetics of cis-(6-benzhydryl-piperidin-3-yl)-berizylarnine compounds to interact with monoamine transporters. BiooRGANic MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY. 2004, 12, 6301-6315.