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Title:
TRUNCATED ICOSAHEDRA ASSEMBLIES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/195272
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A truncated icosahedron assembly can include a plurality of structural elements coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration. Each structural element can include first and second hexagonal portions and first and second pentagonal portions. The hexagonal portions of each structural element can be coupled together at a first edge of the first hexagonal portion and a second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The pentagonal portions of each structural element can be spaced relative to each other by the first and second hexagonal portions. The first pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The second pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion.

Inventors:
LANAHAN, Samuel, J. (5219 NW Walnut St, Vancouver, WA, 98663, US)
Application Number:
US2018/028294
Publication Date:
October 25, 2018
Filing Date:
April 19, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
LANAHAN, Samuel, J. (5219 NW Walnut St, Vancouver, WA, 98663, US)
International Classes:
F16B5/06; F16B1/00; F16B5/00; F16B5/02; F16B5/08; F16B47/00
Foreign References:
US20090263615A12009-10-22
US20060160446A12006-07-20
US20150315775A12015-11-05
US5732518A1998-03-31
US20080040984A12008-02-21
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JOHNSON, Brandon, J. (Klarquist Sparkman, LLPOne World Trade Center, Suite 1600,121 SW Salmon Stree, Portland OR, 97204, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. An assembly, comprising:

a plurality of structural elements, wherein each structural element includes first and second hexagonal portions and first and second pentagonal portions,

wherein the first and second hexagonal portions of each structural element are coupled together at a first edge of the first hexagonal portion and a second edge of the second hexagonal portion,

wherein the first and second pentagonal portions of each structural element are spaced relative to each other by the first and second hexagonal portions,

wherein the first pentagonal portion of each structural element is coupled to the first and second hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion,

wherein the second pentagonal portion of each structural element is coupled to the first and second hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion, and

wherein the structural elements are configured such that the structural elements can be coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration.

2. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the plurality of structural elements comprises six structural elements.

3. The assembly of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein each of the structural elements is rotated 90 degrees relative to an adjacent structural element.

4. The assembly of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the structural elements comprise curved surfaces such that the structural elements form a sphere when the structural elements are coupled together.

5. The assembly of any one of claims 1-4, wherein the structural elements comprise inside surfaces and outside surfaces, wherein at least one of the outside surfaces comprises a first coating, and at least one of the inside surfaces comprises a second coating.

6. The assembly of claim 5, wherein the at least one first coating is configured to react with a substance more slowly than the at least one second coating reacts with the substance.

7. The assembly of any one of claims 1-6, wherein the structural elements are coupled together magnetically.

8. The assembly of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the structural elements are flexible.

9. The assembly of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the structural elements are rigid.

10. The component of any one of claims 1-9, wherein one of the structural elements is formed from a different material than another structural element.

11. The assembly of any one of claims 1-10, wherein the structural elements are coupled together by attachment members.

12. The assembly of any one of claims 1-11, wherein the attachment members engage the structural elements in a snap-fit connection.

13. The assembly of any one of claims 1-12, wherein the structural elements comprise mating features configured to interlock the structural elements relative to adjacent structural elements.

14. The assembly of any one of claims 1-13, wherein the assembly is one of a plurality of assemblies that are coupled together with connecting members to form a hexagonal layer.

15. The assembly of claim 14, wherein the hexagonal layer is one of a plurality of hexagonal layers that are stacked and coupled together.

16. The assembly of claim 15, wherein each of the hexagonal layers is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer so as to form one or more helices.

17. The assembly of claim 16, wherein each of the hexagonal layers is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer by about 60-180 degrees.

18. An assembly, comprising: a first structural member and a second structural member, wherein the first and second structural members each include a plurality of structural elements coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration; and

a connecting member coupled to and extending between the first and second structural members.

19. The assembly of claim 18, further comprising a first coupler and a second coupler, wherein the connecting member is coupled to the first structural member by the first coupler and is coupled to the second structural member by the second coupler.

20. The assembly of claim 19, wherein the first and second couplers are configured to threadably engage the first and second structural members, respectively.

Description:
TRUNCATED ICOSAHEDRA ASSEMBLIES

FIELD

[001] This disclosure relates generally to structural assemblies and more particularly to truncated icosahedra assemblies.

BACKGROUND

[002] In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron that is comprised of twenty faces. In a

"regular" icosahedron each of the twenty faces forms an equilateral triangle. The regular icosahedron is one of the five Platonic solids, which have long since been recognized and appreciated by mathematicians for their aesthetic beauty and symmetry. The other four Platonic solids are a regular tetrahedron (pyramid with all faces being equilateral triangles), a regular hexahedron (cube), a regular octahedron (eight-sided figure with all faces being equilateral triangles), and a regular dodecahedron (twelve-sided figure with pentagonal faces).

[003] A "truncated" icosahedron can be constructed from an icosahedron cutting off the 12 vertices of the icosahedron such that each edge is cut off at both ends. This creates 12 new pentagon faces and leaves the original 20 triangle faces as regular hexagons. Thus, the truncated icosahedron has 12 regular pentagonal faces, 20 regular hexagonal faces, 60 vertices and 90 edges.

SUMMARY

[004] Described herein are various embodiments of truncated icosahedra assemblies. Polyhedron- based structures, such as truncated icosahedrons, have been recognized to have superior strength- to-weight ratios and other characteristics that make them suitable for structural applications.

[005] A truncated icosahedron assembly can comprise a plurality of structural elements coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration. Each structural element can include first and second hexagonal portions and first and second pentagonal portions. The hexagonal portions of each structural element can be coupled together at a first edge of the first hexagonal portion and a second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The pentagonal portions of each structural element can be spaced relative to each other by the first and second hexagonal portions. The first pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The second pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion. [006] In one representative embodiment, an assembly can comprise a plurality of structural elements coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration. Each structural element can include first and second hexagonal portions and first and second pentagonal portions. The hexagonal portions of each structural element can be coupled together at a first edge of the first hexagonal portion and a second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The pentagonal portions of each structural element can be spaced relative to each other by the first and second hexagonal portions. The first pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The second pentagonal portion of each structural element can be coupled to the hexagonal portions adjacent the first edge of the first hexagonal portion and the second edge of the second hexagonal portion. The structural elements are configured such that the structural elements can be coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration.

[007] In some embodiments, the plurality of structural elements comprises six structural elements.

[008] In some embodiments, each of the structural elements is rotated 90 degrees relative to an adjacent structural element.

[009] In some embodiments, the structural elements comprise curved surfaces such that the structural elements form a sphere when the structural elements are coupled together.

[010] In some embodiments, the structural elements comprise inside surfaces and outside surfaces, wherein at least one of the outside surfaces comprises a first coating, and at least one of the inside surfaces comprises a second coating. In some embodiments, the at least one first coating is configured to react with a substance more slowly than the at least one second coating reacts with the substance.

[011] In some embodiments, the structural elements are coupled together magnetically.

[012] In some embodiments, the structural elements are flexible. In some embodiments, the structural elements are rigid.

[013] In some embodiments, one of the structural elements is formed from a different material than another structural element.

[014] In some embodiments, the structural elements are coupled together by attachment members.

[015] In some embodiments, the attachment members engage the structural elements in a snap-fit connection. [016] In some embodiments, the structural elements comprise mating features configured to interlock the structural elements relative to adjacent structural elements.

[017] In some embodiments, the assembly is one of a plurality of assemblies that are coupled together with connecting members to form a hexagonal layer.

[018] In some embodiments, the hexagonal layer is one of a plurality of hexagonal layers that are stacked and coupled together.

[019] In some embodiments, each of the hexagonal layers is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer so as to form one or more helices.

[020] In some embodiments, each of the hexagonal layers is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer by about 60-180 degrees.

[021] In another representative embodiment, an assembly comprises a first structural member, a second structural member, and a connecting member. The first and second structural members each include a plurality of structural elements coupled together in a truncated icosahedral configuration. The connecting member is coupled to and extends between the first and second structural members.

[022] In some embodiments, the assembly further comprises a first coupler and a second coupler, wherein the connecting member is coupled to the first structural member by the first coupler and is coupled to the second structural member by the second coupler. In some embodiments, the first and second couplers are configured to threadably engage the first and second structural members, respectively.

[023] The various innovations of this disclosure can be used in combination or separately. This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the detailed description. This summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter. The foregoing and other objects, features, and advantages of the disclosure will become more apparent from the following detailed description, which proceeds with reference to the accompanying figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[024] FIG. 1 shows an exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly.

[025] FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1.

[026] FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a structural element of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1. [027] FIG. 4 is a partially exploded view of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1.

[028] FIG. 5 is a detail cross-sectional view of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1.

[029] FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an attachment element of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1.

[030] FIG. 7 shows exemplary embodiments a connecting member and a coupler.

[031] FIG. 8 is a perspective view of the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 1 with the connecting member and coupler of FIG. 7 attached thereto.

[032] FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 8.

[033] FIG. 10 is a detail view of FIG. 9.

[034] FIG. 11 shows another exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly.

[035] FIG. 12 shows other exemplary embodiments a connecting member and a coupler coupled to the truncated icosahedron assembly of FIG. 11.

[036] FIG. 13 shows another exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly.

[037] FIG. 14 shows an exemplary hexagonal structure comprising icosahedra assemblies and an icosahedron disposed in the center of the hexagonal structure.

[038] FIG. 15 shows a plurality of hexagonal structures assembled in a first configuration and forming a plurality of helices.

[039] FIGS. 16-17 are schematic representations of the hexagonal structures and helices of FIG. 15.

[040] FIG. 18 shows a plurality of hexagonal structures assembled in a second configuration and forming a plurality of helices.

[041] FIG. 19 shows a plurality of hexagonal structures assembled in a third configuration and forming a plurality of helices.

[042] FIG. 20 shows a plurality of exemplary helical strands formed in-part by the icosahedra.

[043] FIGS. 21-23 show a plurality of other exemplary helical strands formed in-part by the icosahedra.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[044] For purposes of this description, certain aspects, advantages, and novel features of the embodiments of this disclosure are described herein. The described methods, systems, and apparatus should not be construed as limiting in any way. Features, characteristics, and/or groups described in conjunction with a particular aspect, embodiment or example are to be understood to be applicable to any other aspect, embodiment or example described herein unless incompatible therewith. All of the features disclosed in this specification (including any accompanying claims, abstract, and drawings), and/or all of the steps of any method or process so disclosed, may be combined in any combination, except combinations where at least some of such features and/or steps are mutually exclusive. The disclosure is not restricted to the details of any foregoing embodiments. The disclosure extends to any novel one, or any novel combination, of the features disclosed in this specification (including any accompanying claims, abstract, and drawings), or to any novel one, or any novel combination, of the steps of any method or process so disclosed.

[045] Although the operations of some of the disclosed methods are described in a particular, sequential order for convenient presentation, it should be understood that this manner of description encompasses rearrangement, unless a particular ordering is required by specific language set forth below. For example, operations described sequentially may in some cases be rearranged or performed concurrently. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, the attached figures may not show the various ways in which the disclosed methods, systems, and apparatus can be used in

conjunction with other systems, methods, and apparatus.

[046] The explanations of terms and abbreviations herein are provided to better describe the present disclosure and to guide those of ordinary skill in the art in the practice of the present disclosure. As used herein, "comprising" means "including" and the singular forms "a" or "an" or "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The term "or" refers to a single element of stated alternative elements or a combination of two or more elements, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

[047] As used herein, the term "and/or" used between the last two of a list of elements means any one of, or any combination of, the listed elements. For example, the phrase "A, B, and/or C" means "A," "B," "C," "A and B," "A and C," "B and C," or "A, B, and C."

[048] As used herein, the terms "attached" and "coupled" generally mean physically connected or linked, which includes items that are directly attached/coupled and items that are attached/coupled with intermediate elements between the attached/coupled items, unless specifically stated to the contrary.

[049] Unless explained otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present disclosure, suitable methods and materials are described below. The materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. Other features of the disclosure are apparent from the detailed description, claims, abstract, and drawings.

[050] Described herein are various embodiments of truncated icosahedra assemblies. Polyhedron- based structures, such as truncated icosahedrons, have been recognized to have superior strength- to-weight ratios and other characteristics that make them suitable for structural applications.

[051] FIGS. 1-6 show an exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly 100.

Referring to FIG. 2, the assembly 100 can comprise a plurality of structural elements 102 (e.g., six in the illustrated embodiment) and, optionally, a plurality of attachment members 104 (e.g., eight in the illustrated embodiment, but only six shown in FIG. 2). As shown in FIG. 1, the attachment members 104 can be used to couple the structural elements 102 together in a spherical icosahedral configuration.

[052] Referring to FIG. 3, each structural element 102 can include first and second hexagonal portions 106, 108 and first and second pentagonal portions 110, 112. The first and second hexagonal portions 106, 108 of each structural element are coupled together at a first edge 114 of the first hexagonal portion 106 and a first edge 116 of the second hexagonal portion 108.

[053] The first and second pentagonal portions 110, 112 are spaced relative to each other by the first and second hexagonal portions 106, 108. A first edge 118 of the first pentagonal portion 110 can be coupled to a second edge 120 of the first hexagonal portion 110. A second edge 122 of the first pentagonal portion 1 10 can be coupled to a second edge 124 of the second hexagonal portion 112. A first edge 126 of the second pentagonal portion 112 can be coupled to a third edge 128 of the first hexagonal portion 110. A second edge 130 of the second pentagonal portion 112 can be coupled to a third edge 132 of the second hexagonal portion 112.

[054] Each of the structural elements 102 can also include a plurality of partial hexagonal portions 134. The partial hexagonal portions 134 can comprise two sides or 1/3 of a hexagon. Thus, as shown in FIG. 1, the partial hexagonal portions 134 of three adjacent structural elements 102 collectively form a hexagon 136 (which may be referred to as a virtual hexagon) when the structural elements 102 are coupled together in an icosahedral configuration.

[055] The structural elements 102 can be arranged in the icosahedral configuration by rotating the structural elements 102 90 degrees relative to adjacent structural elements 102, as best shown in FIG. 4. [056] The structural elements 102 can be coupled together in various ways. For example, the structural elements 102 can be coupled together chemically, mechanically, electrically,

biologically, and/or by any other coupling means. In certain embodiments, the structural elements 102 can comprise mating features such that structural elements 102 can be snap-fit together. In other embodiments, the structural elements 102 can be coupled together with fasteners such as screws, bolts, rivets, staples, straps, and/or any other fastening means. In other embodiments, the structural elements 102 can be coupled together by welding and/or an adhesive. In yet other embodiments, the structural elements 102 can be coupled together magnetically.

[057] In some embodiments, the structural elements 102 can comprise mating features configured to interlock the structural elements 102 relative to adjacent structural elements. For example as best shown in FIGS. 2-4, two sides of the structural elements 102 (e.g., the sides adjacent the pentagonal portions 110, 112) can comprise projections 137 configured to extend, and two other sides of the structural elements 102 (e.g., the sides adjacent the hexagonal portions 106, 108) can comprise a grooves or notches (not shown). The notches of the structural elements 102 can be configured to receive the projections 137 of an adjacent structural element 102 when the structural elements 102 are assembled.

[058] In certain embodiments, the attachment members 104 can be used to couple the structural elements 102 together, as best shown in FIG. 1. As best shown in FIGS. 1 and 4, the attachment members 104 can be coupled to the structural elements 102 at junctions 138 of the structural elements 102. The junctions 138 can be formed where three of the structural elements 102 meet.

[059] Referring now to FIG. 4, in some embodiments, the structural elements 102 can collectively form openings 140 at the junctions 138. In such embodiments, the attachment members 104 can, for example, be configured to extend at least partially into the openings 140, as best shown in FIG. 5.

[060] Referring to FIG. 6, the attachment members 104 can each comprise an annular main body portion 142 and a flange portion 144 coupled to and extending radially outwardly from the main body portion 142. The main body portion 142 can be configured to extend into the opening 140 of the structural elements 102. The flange portion 144 can be configured to contact surfaces of the structural elements 102 adjacent the opening 140 (FIG. 5).

[061] In some embodiments, the flange portion 144 can include an annular projection or lip 146. Referring again to FIG. 5, the lip 146 can, in some embodiments, be configured to engage a recess or groove 148 formed in the structural elements 102 adjacent and radially spaced from the opening 140. [062] In some embodiments, the structural elements 102 and the attachment members 104 can comprise mating features to selectively secure the structural elements 102 and the attachment members 104 together. For example, as shown in FIGS. 5-6, the structural elements 104 can comprise internal threads 150 surround the openings 140, and the main body 142 can comprise external threads 152 configured to threadably engage the internal threads 150 of the structural elements 102.

[063] In other embodiments, the structural element 102 and the attachment members 104 can comprise various other mating features. For example, the mating features can be snap-fit type mating features.

[064] FIG. 7 shows an exemplary embodiment of a connecting member 200 and an optional coupler 202. The connecting member 200 and the coupler 202 can be configured to be coupled to and extend from the assembly 100, as shown in FIG. 8. In this manner, the connecting member 200 and the coupler 202 can be used to coupled one assembly 100 (e.g., a first assembly) to another object or structure (e.g., a second assembly).

[065] Referring again to FIG. 7, the connecting member 200 can comprise a first end portion 204, a second end portion 206, and an intermediate portion 208 disposed between the first and second end portions 204, 206. The first and second end portions 204, 206 can be configured to be coupled to the assembly 100.

[066] In some embodiments, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can coupled directly to the assembly 100. For example, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can comprise external threads configured to engage corresponding internal threads 160 of apertures 162 of the assembly 100. In other embodiments, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can be coupled to the assembly 100 via a snap-fit type connection. In other embodiments, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can coupled to the assembly 100 in various other ways (e.g., with adhesive, welding, fasteners, etc.)

[067] As shown in the illustrated embodiment, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can optionally be coupled to the assembly with the coupler 202. For example as best shown in FIGS. 9- 10, the coupler 202 can comprise external threads 210 configured to engage the internal threads 158 of the apertures 160 of the assembly 100 similar to the manner in which the attachment members 104 threadably engage the structural elements 102.

[068] Referring to FIG. 8, in some embodiments, the first and second end portions 204, 206 of the connecting member 200 can be matably coupled to the assembly 100 such that relative rotational movement between the connecting member 200 and the assembly 100 is prevented. For example, the first and second end portions 204, 206 can comprise the non-circular (e.g., hexagonal) heads 212 configured to be disposed in corresponding non-circular (e.g., hexagonal) recesses 162 of the assembly 100. As such, edge surfaces of the non-circular recesses 162 can engage the non-circular heads 212 and prevent the connecting members 200 from rotating relative to the assembly 100, as best shown in FIG. 10.

[069] FIG. 11 shows another exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly 300. The assembly 300 can comprise a plurality of structural elements 302 (e.g., six in the illustrated embodiment).

[070] The structural elements can be coupled together in various ways. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the structural elements 302 can comprise tabs 304 and openings 306 configured to receive the tabs 304 of an adjacent structural element 302.

[071] FIG. 12 shows another exemplary embodiment of a connecting member 400 and an optional coupler 402. The connecting member 400 and the coupler 402 can, for example be used to couple a first assembly 300a to a second assembly 300b. The connecting member 400 and the coupler 402 can be configured to extend annularly around openings 308 of the assembly 300 without obstructing the openings 308.

[072] FIG. 13 shows another exemplary embodiment of a truncated icosahedron assembly 500. The assembly 500 can comprise a plurality of structural elements 502 (e.g., six in the illustrated embodiment) and a plurality of attachment members 504 (e.g., eight in the illustrated embodiment). The structural elements 502 and the attachment members 504 of the assembly 500 can be configured similar to the structural elements 102 and the attachment members 104 of the assembly 100, respectively.

[073] The attachment members 504 can, for example, be coupled to the structural elements via a snap-fit type connection.

[074] A plurality of truncated icosahedron assemblies (e.g., the assemblies 100, 300, 500) can be coupled together in various structural arrangements. For example, the connecting members 200, 400 can be used to couple the assemblies together.

[075] FIG. 14 shows a hexagonal structure 600 comprising a pluraltiy of icosahedra assemblies 602a-602f configured in a hexagonal configuration and an icosahedron assembly 602g in the center of the hexagonal configuration. The icosahedra assemblies 602a-602g (collectively referred to as "the assemblies 602" and generically as "an assembly 602") can be coupled together using connectors 604. It should be noted that although icosahedra assemblies are depicted in FIG. 14, truncated icosahedra assemblies can be used. It should also be noted that although the connectors 604 are shown schematically, the connectors can, in some embodiments, be configured similar to the connectors 200 and/or the connectors 400.

[076] Referring now to FIGS. 15-17, a plurality of hexagonal structures 600a-600g can be assembled to form a plurality of helices or spirals. The helices can be formed by rotationally offsetting each hexagonal layer or row relative to an adjacent layer. For example, in certain embodiments, the each layer can be rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer by about 60 degrees. In other words, each icosahedron is moved one rotational position at each layer. This can be observed in FIGS. 15-17 by tracking the icosahedron 602f from an initial rotational position at the first layer (e.g., the bottom layer as depicted in FIGS. 15-17), to sequential rotational positions at the second through sixth layers, and back to the initial rotational position at the seventh layer (e.g., the top layer as depicted in FIGS. 15-17).

[077] FIG. 18 depicts an alternative embodiment of the plurality of hexagonal structures 600a- 600g in which each layer is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer by about 120 degrees. In other words, each icosahedron is moved two rotational positions at each layer. This can be observed in FIG. 18 by tracking the icosahedron 602f from an initial rotational position at the first layer, to sequential rotational positions at the second and third layers, and back to the initial rotational position at the fourth layer. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 18, the icosahedron 602f completes two revolutions from the first layer to the seventh layer.

[078] FIG. 19 depicts an alternative embodiment of the plurality of hexagonal structures 600a- 600g in which each layer is rotationally offset relative to an adjacent layer by about 180 degrees. In other words, each icosahedron is moved three rotational positions at each layer. This can be observed in FIG. 19 by tracking the icosahedron 602f from an initial rotational position at the first layer, to an intermediate rotational position at the second layer, and back to the initial rotational position at the third layer. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 19, the icosahedron 602f completes three revolutions from the first layer to the seventh layer.

[079] It should be noted that in some embodiments, the helices can include less or more than seven layers of icosahedra assemblies 602.

[080] In some embodiments, the nucleus is fully constrained by three layers.

[081] Referring to FIG. 20, in some embodiments, each icosahedron assembly 602 of the hexagonal structures 600 can be a point or location on a continuous strand or spiral comprising. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, there a six stands 606a-606f (i.e., two blue strands 606a-

606b, two yellow strands 606c-606d, and two green strands 606e-606f), each following a respective icosahedron assembly 602a-602f at each layer. In other embodiments, as shown in FIGS. 21-23, there can be three strands 608a-608c, each following a respective pair of icosahedra assemblies 602 at each layer. In yet other embodiments, there can be two strands, each following a respective triplet of the icosahedra assemblies at each layer.

[082] The structural elements, the attachment members, connecting members, and/or couplers can be formed from various materials including metals (e.g. steel, titanium,), polymers (e.g., ABS), ceramics (e.g., concrete), composites (e.g., carbon fiber and wood). In some embodiments, the structural elements, the attachment members, connecting members, and/or couplers can be formed from relatively flexible or squishy materials (e.g., rubber, foam, LDPE). In other embodiments, the structural elements, the attachment members, connecting members, and/or couplers can be formed from relatively rigid materials such as ABS, steel concrete, etc.

[083] In certain embodiments, the structural elements can be made of materials that dissolve and/or accrete. For example, the structural elements can dissolve and/or accrete to form concrete.

[084] In certain embodiments, the structural elements, the attachment members, connecting members, and/or couplers can be formed from the same material (e.g., ABS). In other

embodiments, for example, a first component (e.g., the structural elements) can be formed from a first material (e.g., concrete), and a second component (e.g., the attachment members) can be formed from a second material (e.g., steel).

[085] In some embodiments, for example, each of the structural elements of the assembly can be formed from the same material, e.g., ABS. In other embodiments, at least one of the structural elements 102 can be formed from a different material than at least one other structural element.

[086] In some embodiments, for example, each of the attachment members of an assembly can be formed from the same material, e.g., ABS. In other embodiments, at least one of the attachment members can be formed from a different material than at least one other attachment members.

[087] In some embodiments, radially inwardly facing surfaces (e.g., surface 154 of assembly 100 shown in FIG. 2) and/or radially outwardly facing surfaces (e.g., surface 156 or assembly 100 shown in FIG. 2) of the structural elements can comprise a coating and/or substance attached thereto. In some embodiments, the coating on the radially inwardly facing surfaces can be the same as the coating on the radially outwardly facing surfaces. In other embodiments, the coating on the radially inwardly facing surfaces can be different than the coating on the radially outwardly facing surfaces. For example, the radially outwardly facing surface can comprise a first coating and/or substance attached thereto that reacts slowly with an environment thereby protecting the contents within the assembly (e.g., a second coating and/or substance on the radially inwardly facing surface) for a desired time (e.g., until time to release and react the second coating and/or substance with the environment).

[088] In yet other embodiments, the radially inwardly surfaces and/or the radially outwardly facing surfaces of each structural element can comprise the same coating and/or substance attached thereto the other structural elements. In other embodiments, the radially inwardly surfaces and/or the radially outwardly facing surfaces of each structural element can comprise a different coating and/or substance attached thereto than at least one other structural element.

[089] In yet other embodiments, the radially inwardly surfaces and/or the radially outwardly facing surfaces can comprise one or more layers of coating and/or substances applied thereto.

[090] In certain embodiments, the coating and/or substances can, for example, be a

pharmaceutical (e.g., drug). In particular embodiments, the assembly can be configured to exclude toxins.

[091] In some embodiments, the hexagonal portions and the pentagonal portions of the assembly can be comprise curved edges and/or rounded vertices. In some embodiments, the structural elements can be coupled together in a flat or sheet-like configuration and then formed into a truncated icosahedral or spherical truncated icosahedral configuration. In some embodiments, the structural elements can be formed in a flat configuration. In other embodiments, the structural elements can comprise a radius such that the assembly approximates a sphere.

[092] In some embodiments, the hexagonal portions and the pentagonal portions can be solid or at least substantially solid. In other embodiments, the hexagonal portions and the pentagonal portions can comprise struts coupled together in a lattice type structure.

[093] The vertices of the assembly can be coded in a unique number system such that each vertices is a unique location when assembled. The unique locations can be used to store binary information in the form of a small electrical charge at the location.

[094] This disclosed technology can be applied to various applications. For example, the described assemblies can be used for framing for houses, from creating materials that flow into crevices and mold and assemble into yet stronger structural materials by applying, light heat or magnetism to structural elements formed from growth media and grow together and intertwine with one another to form skin, walls, and/or structures.

[095] The configuration of the structural elements can, for example, allow the structural elements to nest into one another. This compactness can, for example, greatly reduce the volume of the assemblies for storage and/or transportation. A great variety of shapes and sizes can be packaged to take advantage of modern distribution systems.

[096] In certain embodiments, unassembled structural elements can be flushed into a nanotube and then allowed to chemically assemble into assemblies inside the nanotube to add lateral strength to a nanotube wall. This can, for example, improve efficiency compared to pre-assembling the structural elements and inserting them into the nanotubes.

[097] In one particular embodiment, the structural elements can be magnetically guided to the desired location in a body or structure and then they can be assembled into stiff load bearing structures.

[098] The features described herein with regard to any example can be combined with other features described in any one or more of the other examples. For example, components, materials and/or properties of the assembly 100 can be combined with the components, materials, and//or properties of the assembly 300.

[099] In view of the many possible embodiments to which the principles of the disclosure may be applied, it should be recognized that the illustrated embodiments are only preferred examples and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the claims. Rather, the scope of the claimed subject matter is defined by the following claims and their equivalents.