Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
TURBINE WITH FEEDBACK
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/103632
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The subject of the invention is Turbine with feedback, which is used to utilize the motion energy of the atomic particles or molecules of the gaseous working fluid. The flow passage from the working fluid intake (9) to the working fluid exhaust (10) consists of the converging nozzle (1), the blading (2), the diffuser (4), the blading (5) and the diffuser(7), together with the blading (2) is connected to the generator (8) by the drive (3), and the connected generator(8), the drive (3) and the blading (5) close the feedback loop and the extractor unit of the kinetic energy difference of the atomic particles and/or molecules of the working fluid intake (9) and the working fluid exhaust (10) consist of the generator (8), the drive (6), the drive (3), the blading (5) and/or the blading (2).

Inventors:
MAGAI, Istvan (Karinthy utca 5, 2051 Biatorbagy, 2051, HU)
Application Number:
HU2016/050063
Publication Date:
June 22, 2017
Filing Date:
December 16, 2016
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
MAGAI, Istvan (Karinthy utca 5, 2051 Biatorbagy, 2051, HU)
International Classes:
F03G7/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO1994020741A11994-09-15
Download PDF:
Claims:
PATENT CLAIMS

1. Turbine with feedback with nozzle, blading, diffuser, generator, transmission and fluid characterized by the fact that the flow passage from the working fluid intake(9) to the working fluid exhaust(lO) consists of the converging nozzle(l), the blading(2), the diffuser(4), the blading(5) and the diffuser(7), together with the blading(2) is connected to the generator(8) by the drive(3), and the connected generator(8), the drive(3) and the blading(5) close the feedback loop and the extractor unit of the kinetic energy difference of the atomic particles and/or molecules of the working fluid intake(9) and the working fluid exhaust(lO) consist of the generator(8), the drive(6), the drive(3), the blading(5) and / or the blading(2).

2. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that the diffuser(4) is eliminated or is integrated into the blading(2) and / or the diffuser(7) is eliminated or is integrated into the blading(5) and /or the working fluid exhaust(lO) is connected to the blading(5) directly.

3. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that the generator(8) and the drive(3) and / or the drive(6) are connected by the constant or variable transmission.

4. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that the blading(2) and blading(5) are built into a radial or conical disc or impeller, which integrates the diffuser(4) and / or the diffuser(7).

5. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that working fluid intake(9) is connected to the diffuser(7) and the working fluid exhaust(lO) is connected to the outside(15) by the nozzle(l ).

6. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that the blade angles of the blading(2) and the blading(5) are different.

7. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterized by the fact that the working fluid intake(9) contains ambient air.

8. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterised by the fact that the system starting motor is integrated into the generator(8).

9. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterised by the fact that the total pressure of the working fluid intake(9) is equal or less than the total pressure of the working fluid exhaust(lO).

10. The turbine with feedback described in claim 1. characterised by the fact that the working fluid intake(9) is the supercritical fluid.

The claimant: Istvan Magai

Description:
TURBINE WITH FEEDBACK

The subject of the invention is Turbine with feedback, which is used to utilize the motion energy of the atomic particles or molecules of the gaseous working fluid. As is known, turbines are power engines which are used to produce mechanical work from the potential energy of the working fluid, characterized by the reduction of the overpressure. There are impulse turbines and reaction turbines and mixture of both. The process of the impulse turbine is characterized by the Newton's II. Law and the reaction turbine is characterized by the Newton's III. Law. The turbines above have nozzle to accelerate the working fluid near to the local speed of sound by the pressure difference to increase the efficiency of producing mechanical work. The accelerated working fluid produces work on the moving blades and the reaction force of the fluid produces work in a reaction turbine. The present state is characterized by the following patents:

US8,650,875; US2,760,356; CN103062000; US6,668,554; US5497631; US2013/0101393; US3748054; US20080256923; US6533539; US4958986; US1, 329,559; US1,061,206; US5236349.

The solution closest to our invention from the above list is US5236349. In this solution the two-phase turbine is completed by a reverse- turning unit to increase the efficiency. The disadvantages of this solution are: complicated structure, the degree of reaction is flexible, but the overpressure need is so high at the nozzle as the regular turbines need. Further disadvantages are the complicated gas-tighting system and the higher aerodynamic friction loss.

The purpose of our invention is to eliminate the disadvantageous features described above and to develop advantageous features. The subject of the invention is Turbine with feedback which is used to utilize the motion energy of the atomic particles or molecules of the gaseous working fluid.

We describe the invention in more detail with the help of the attached drawing, which depicts the copy of the cut off shape of the apparatus according to the invention.

In the attached drawing:

Figure 1 Turbine with feedback

Figure 2 Turbine with feedback with input blower

Figure 3 Radial design

Figure 4 Venturi idea

Legend:

1. nozzle

2. blading

3. drive

4. diffuser

5. blading

6. drive

7. diffuser

8. generator

9. working fluid intake

10. working fluid exhaust 11. motor

12. intake cross section

13. smallest cross section

14. exhaust cross section

15. outside

16. blower

The operation of the Turbine with feedback will be described based upon Figure 1. The flow passage begins at the working fluid intake 9 and ends at the working fluid exhaust 10. The working fluid intake 9 flows from outside 15 is accelerated in the converging nozzle 1 by the static pressure difference as the Bernoulli equation states. The accelerated fluid flows toward the rotating blading 2 and makes work on that while loses energy. The brake torque is generated by the blading 2, drive 3 and generator 8 up to the amount of the generated and extracted electricity. The fluid is partly decelerated in the diffuser 4 as the Bernoulli equation defines. The partially decelerated fluid flows toward the movable blading 5 which works as a blower: there is a depression before the blading 5 and there is a compression after it. This depression decreases the static pressure in the diffuser 4 and in the nozzle 1 and increases the stagnation pressure of the working fluid exhaust 10 to higher pressure than the outside 15 static pressure is. This larger static pressure is needed for the exhaust process. The reduced static pressure - after the nozzle 1 - increases the pressure difference of the nozzle 1 and this pressure difference increases the fluid velocity after the nozzle 1. The increased fluid velocity increases the extracted work and this work increases the depression further which is a positive feedback on the blading 5. This process is called "positive feedback" because the result increases the effect in a previous point. The 10-75% of the extracted mechanical work is fed back by the drive 6 to the blading 5 to produce larger depression after the nozzle 1. The excitation which is caused by the positive feedback is limited by the local sound speed at the smallest cross section 13 and limited by the friction and loss. The acceleration of the working fluid intake 9 in the nozzle 1 is processed by the kinetic energy of the gas molecules (called: potential energy of the gas outside 15) in an ideal case with no friction and loss. In a real case the extractable physical work on the generator 8 is the difference of the extracted work on the blading 2 and used work on blading 5. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if we remove the diffuser 7 from the system and the working fluid exhaust 10 flows to the outside 15 from blading 5 directly. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if we remove the diffuser 4 or integrate it into one unit with blading 2 and / or blading 5. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if the drive 3 and 6 are connected with different transmission by the generator 8. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is on Fig 3. if we build the blading 2 and 5 in to one unit which is turning on the drive 3 shaft as a radial or conical impeller. In this case the diffuser 4 is located between the blading 2 and 5 or it is integrated with them. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if the diffuser 7 is located on the impeller as integrated or independent unit. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if the working fluid intake 9 intakes into the diffuser 7 and exhausts from the nozzle 1 which works as a diffuser in this direction. The blading 2 and 5 are modified to the reverse direction also. The blading 5 increases the total pressure of the intaked fluid by 10-25%. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is the case if the blade angles of the blading 2 and 5 are different. The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if the working fluid intake 9 is ambient air (from outside 15). The other application of the Turbine with feedback is if the generator 9 has a starter motor function also to speed up and reach the operating parameters. This case the generator 8 drives as a motor until the optimal working point or optimal fluid velocity and works above that point as a generator 8. The detailed operation is showed according to the Fig 1. We used the Bernoulli equation and the adiabatic nozzle equation for the calculations:

v2 = (vl y 2+2*K/(K-l)*R 5 Tl*(l-(p2/pl ) y ((K-l)/K))) y 0.5 where K= 1.4 adiabatic exponent of the dry air, pi = 100 kPa the stagnation pressure of the working fluid intake 9, p2 = 50 kPa static pressure at the end of the nozzle 1, R=287 J/kgK universal gas constant, Tl =293 K temperature of working fluid intake 9, vl = 33 m/s velocity and Cp= 1000 J/kgK specific heat of the working fluid intake 9. Results: max. fluid velocity at nozzle 1 = 328 m/s. This is the initial fluid velocity at the blading 2. The fluid leaves the blading 2 with 232 m/s velocity. The motion energy of the fluid reduced by 50% because the motion energy = ½ m v 2 . In an ideal and lossless case: If we don't extract mechanical work by the blading 2 from the fluid than the accelerated fluid is decelerated in the diffuser 7 and the energy content of the working fluid intake 9 and energy content of the working fluid exhaust 10 is equal as the energy conservation law (Bernoulli) states. The pipe system with converging-diverging flow passage is showed on Fig 4. In this case the size of the intake cross section 12 and size of the exhaust cross section 14 are equal. In ideal case the velocity of the fluid can reach the local sound speed in the smallest cross section 13. In a real case the process isn't adiabatic because of the dissipation of the friction and energy losss. The blower 16 with motor 11 cower the loss energy and gives enough pressure difference to keep the exhaust process against the outside 15 static pressure. The explanation of the calculation above - using the Fig. 1 : The working fluid which is decelerated to velocity 232 m/s has 50 kPa static pressure, and 239 K static temperature after the exhaust from blading 2. As the combined and ideal gas law states:

pl*Vl/Tl =p2*V2/T2 the certain amount of molecules in a reduced volume have smaller distance from each other and have less kinetic energy also. This causes less impulse at the shock on the surroundings, but the number of the shocks are increased on a certain surface. (Same pressure with less entropy.) From other side: In ideal case the fluid with 232 m/s velocity and 239 K static temperature and 50 kPa static pressure is decelerated in the diffuser 7 and leaves the diffuser 7 with 33 m/s velocity and T=266 K static temperature and 100 kPa static pressure as we calculated it by the adiabatic nozzle equation. The temperature of the fluid is decreased by 27 K during the process. If we apply 1025 m 3 /h ambient air volumetric current than heat energy Q=Cp*m*dT reduction per second is 5.48 kW. The outside 15 generates 28.46 kW volumetric power during the intake and the working fluid exhaust 10 generates 25.84 kW power against the outside 15. The difference of the two volumetric power is 2.62 kW. The sum of the heat energy reduction and the volumetric power difference gives the result: the extracted power is 5.48 + 2.62 = 8.10 kW. In a real case the energy loss and friction dissipates the 5-25 % of the extracted work by the blading 2 and generator 8. This loss is covered by the feedback which is realized by the drive 3 and 6 and by the blading 5 (which is part of the blower 16 on Fig. 4). The blower 16 ensures the pressure difference which needs for the closing of the process through the outside 15. The energy balance is: The extracted energy/mechanical/electric work by the generator 8 is equal to the difference of the energy content of the working fluid intake 9 and the energy content of the working fluid exhaust 10. The isolated system hasn't another energy transport to the outside 5. The result meets the requirements of the energy conservation law. The energy source of the power engine is the kinetic energy of the gas molecules.

In the practice there isn't any technical problem to produce turbine with 50% shaft efficiency and diffuser with 90% efficiency. The projected loss which is caused by the poor thermal isolation and friction is about 25% of the extracted mechanical/electric work. The Turbine with feedback is a power engine and not a heat engine because of the aerodynamic and kinetic processes. If there isn't any mechanical work extraction by the blading 2 and by the generator 8 than the process is similar to the Venturi pipe.

The extracted specific work and the efficiency of the previous turbines are originated from the pressure difference and enthalpy difference of

Fig. 3.

the working fluid intake 9 and the working fluid exhaust 10. The extracted specific work of our Turbine with feedback invention is originated from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. There is no need for larger total pressure and/or total temperature at the working fluid intake 9, than pressure is at the working fluid exhaust 10. There is no need for larger static pressure of the working gas at the intake point than the outside 15 static pressure is. Using a reasonable feedback process (described above) we can reach higher dynamic pressure at the exhaust than the intake pressure is. Using this possibility you can build blower or "cold" compressor which uses the kinetic energy of the molecules of the ambient static air only. The pressurized air is colder than the intake was. In the practice the limitations of the applications are defined by the friction and phase (condensation...) changes. If we build the Turbine with feedback into a reservoir or closed system we can apply normal or supercritical gases and/or other compressible fluids as a working fluid on higher static pressure also. In this case we need a heat exchanger to the outside 15 to receive input energy from the ambient air. The Turbine with feedback invention is applicable to build power engine, cooler, blower or compressor with no need for external mechanical drive input.