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Title:
TWO REFERENCE SIGNAL BEAM REPORTING AND IDENTIFICATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/055320
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Various embodiments disclosed herein provide for a beam reporting and identification system that can use two different types of signals as reference signals when reporting on beam strengths. The user equipment device can send a unified report that reports on each of the different types of reference signals using a unified beam index. In an embodiment, the first type of reference signal can be a user equipment (UE) specific reference signal, such as a channel state information reference signal (CSI-RS), while the second type of signal used as a reference signal can be a synchronization signal (SS), received as an SS block. The unified index, where SS blocks are grouped into a number of groups, allows for the same number of bits to report on both synchronization signals and CSI-RS signals in the same report.

Inventors:
AKOUM, Salam (5906 Long Ct, Austin, Texas, 78730, US)
WANG, Xiaoyi (11300 Pachea Trail, Austin, Texas, 78726, US)
GHOSH, Arunabha (9805 Bundoran Dr, Austin, Texas, 78717, US)
Application Number:
US2018/050112
Publication Date:
March 21, 2019
Filing Date:
September 07, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
AT&T INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY I, L.P. (675 W. Peachtree Street, Suite 4000Atlanta, Georgia, 30308, US)
International Classes:
H04L5/00
Other References:
AT&T: "Beam Measurement and Reporting", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 12 September 2017 (2017-09-12), XP051329791, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170912]
ZTE ET AL: "Discussion on beam management", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 12 September 2017 (2017-09-12), XP051329369, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170912]
AT&T: "On beam recovery for partial and full control channel failure", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 12 September 2017 (2017-09-12), XP051329792, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170912]
NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS: "Details of Improved Beam Failure Handling", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 11 September 2017 (2017-09-11), XP051329342, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170911]
AT&T: "Beam Measurement and Reporting", vol. RAN WG1, no. Nagoya, Japan; 20170918 - 20170921, 18 September 2017 (2017-09-18), XP051353811, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170918]
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WATSON, Thomas E. et al. (127 Public Square, 57th Fl.Cleveland, Ohio, 44114, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A user equipment device, comprising:

a processor; and

a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor, facilitate performance of operations, comprising:

generating a beam index comprising a first group of signal measurements of a first type of reference signal, and a second group of signal measurements of a second type of reference signal;

transmitting a first report to a network node comprising a first signal measurement of a first beam of the first group of signal measurements in response to the first signal measurement of the first beam being determined to be above a defined signal strength; and

transmitting a second report to the network node comprising a second signal measurement of a second beam of the second group of signal measurements in response to each signal measurement of the first group of signal measurements being below the defined signal strength, wherein the second signal measurement of the second beam has the highest signal strength of the second group of signal measurements.

2. The user equipment device of claim 1 , wherein the first type of reference signal is a user equipment device specific channel state information reference signal.

3. The user equipment device of claim 1, wherein the second type of reference signal is a synchronization signal.

4. The user equipment device of claim 1 , wherein the second type of reference signal comprises a synchronization signal block comprising a primary

synchronization signal, a secondary synchronization signal, and a physical broadcast channel signal.

5. The user equipment device of claim 1, wherein the operations further comprise:

updating the beam index in response to receiving new signal measurements of both the first type of reference signal and the second type of reference signal.

6. The user equipment device of claim 1, wherein the first report and the second report have a same number of bits that report the first signal measurement of the first beam and the second signal measurement of the second beam.

7. The user equipment device of claim 1, wherein the beam index comprises a group of synchronization signal blocks.

8. The user equipment device of claim 7, wherein a number of synchronization signal blocks in the group of synchronization signal blocks is such that a uniform reporting is maintained between the first group of signal measurements and the second group of signal measurements.

9. The user equipment device of claim 1, wherein the operations further comprise:

identifying a synchronization signal block associated with the second beam.

10. The user equipment device of claim 9, wherein the second report comprises an indication of the synchronization signal block.

11. A method, comprising:

receiving, by a user equipment device comprising a processor, a first reference signal corresponding to a first type of reference signal that has an identifier associated with the user equipment device;

receiving, by the user equipment device, a second reference signal corresponding to a second type of reference signal that does not have an identifier associated with the user equipment device;

generating, by the user equipment device, a unified index of the first reference signal and the second reference signal; and

transmitting, by the user equipment device, a report indicating a beam with at least a defined signal strength based on the unified index.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the second reference signal comprises a synchronization signal block.

13. The method of claim 11, further comprising:

in response to the first reference signal having a signal strength above a defined signal strength, selecting, by the user equipment device, the beam from the unified index that corresponds to the first reference signal.

14. The method of claim 11, further comprising:

in response to the first reference signal having a signal strength below a defined signal strength, selecting, by the user equipment device, the beam from the unified index that corresponds to the second reference signal having a highest measured signal strength of synchronization signals received in a synchronization signal block.

15. The method of claim 11, wherein the unified index comprises a group of synchronization signal blocks, and wherein a number of synchronization signal blocks in the group corresponds to a number of first reference signals in the unified index.

16. The method of claim 11, wherein the transmitting the report comprises transmitting a same number of bits that report the first signal measurement of the first reference signal and the second signal measurement of the second reference signal.

17. The method of claim 11, further comprising:

updating, by the user equipment device, the unified index in response to receiving a new signal measurement of the first type of reference signal or the second type of reference signal.

18. A machine -readable storage medium, comprising executable instructions that, when executed by a processor of a device, facilitate performance of operations, comprising:

receiving a first reference signal corresponding to a first type of reference signal that addresses a user equipment device;

receiving a second reference signal corresponding to a second type of reference signal that does not address a user equipment device;

creating a unified beam index of the first reference signal and the second reference signal; and

reporting on a beam with at least a defined signal strength based on the unified beam index.

19. The machine -readable storage medium of claim 18, wherein the operations further comprise

in response to the first reference signal having a signal strength above a predetermined signal strength, reporting on the beam from the unified beam index that corresponds to the first reference signal.

20. The machine -readable storage medium of claim 18, wherein the operations further comprise

in response to the first reference signal having a signal strength below a predetermined signal strength, reporting on the beam from the unified beam index that corresponds to the second reference signal having a highest measured signal strength of synchronization signals received in a synchronization signal block.

Description:
TWO REFERENCE SIGNAL BEAM REPORTING AND IDENTIFICATION

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] The subject application claims priority to U. S. Application Serial No.

15/706,066 filed September 15, 2017, entitled "TWO REFERENCE SIGNAL BEAM REPORTING AND IDENTIFICATION" which application is incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present application relates generally to the field of mobile communication and, more specifically, to creating a unified index of different types of references signals to facilitate beam reporting and identification in a next generation wireless communications network.

BACKGROUND

[0003] To meet the huge demand for data centric applications, Third

Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) systems and systems that employ one or more aspects of the specifications of the Fourth Generation (4G) standard for wireless communications will be extended to a Fifth Generation (5G) standard for wireless communications. Unique challenges exist to provide levels of service associated with forthcoming 5G and other next generation network standards.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] Non-limiting and non-exhaustive embodiments of the subject disclosure are described with reference to the following figures, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the various views unless otherwise specified.

[0005] FIG. 1 illustrates an example wireless communication system in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0006] FIG. 2 illustrates an example block diagram showing a message sequence chart in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure. [0007] FIG. 3 illustrates an example flow diagram showing a method for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0008] FIG. 4 illustrates an example block diagram of a unified beam report in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0009] FIG. 5 illustrates an example block diagram of groups of

synchronization signal blocks and channel state information reference signals in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0010] FIG. 6 illustrates an example block diagram of a user equipment device in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 7 illustrates an example method for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0012] FIG. 8 illustrates an example method for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0013] FIG. 9 illustrates an example block diagram of an example user equipment that can be a mobile handset operable to provide a format indicator in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0014] FIG. 10 illustrates an example block diagram of a computer that can be operable to execute processes and methods in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0015] One or more embodiments are now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the various embodiments. It is evident, however, that the various embodiments can be practiced without these specific details (and without applying to any particular networked environment or standard).

[0016] Various embodiments disclosed herein provide for a beam reporting and identification system that can use two different types of signals as reference signals when reporting on beam strengths. The user equipment device can send a unified report that reports on each of the different types of reference signals using a unified beam index. In an embodiment, the first type of reference signal can be a user equipment (UE) specific reference signal, such as a channel state information reference signal (CSI-RS), while the second type of signal used as a reference signal can be a synchronization signal (SS), received as an SS block. As the number of SS- blocks can be larger than the number of CSI-RS configured for the UE, a unified index, where SS-blocks are grouped into a number of groups, allows for the same number of bits to report on either signals-blocks and CSI-RS signals in the same report.

[0017] In an embodiment, the user equipment device can measure the configured CSI-RS against a given threshold, such that if any of the configured CSI- RS signal strengths exceeds the given threshold, the UE reports on the beam index corresponding to the maximum RSRP that exceeds the index. When the UE is configured with CSI-RS for measurement and reporting, and the UE measures the configured CSI-RS against a given threshold, such that none of the configured CSI- RS RSRP exceeds the given threshold, the UE does not report on the beam index corresponding to a configured CSI-RS, but instead measured on the available SS- blocks.

[0018] The UE measures on the SS-blocks transmitted periodically from the network, and reports on the SS-block beam index corresponding to the maximum measured RSRP.

[0019] To maintain a unified indexing of the two types of RSs and a unified report (e.g. same number of feedback bits required for reporting on the beam index and RSRP), the UE maintains a unified RS indexing framework, such that CSI-RS and SS-block beams share a common indexing and can be reported on using a unified report.

[0020] When the number of SS-blocks available for measurement is large, such that the number of SS-blocks exceeds the available reference framework maintained at the UE, the N SS-blocks can be grouped in NL groups, such that each group has L available SS blocks, and the UE uses the unified framework to report on the SS-blocks group corresponding to the maximum measured RSRP.

[0021] A refinement of the SS block group reporting is then possible in, for example, a two-step approach, where the SS-block beam index £, £ E. {1, ... , L}, is reported in a following reporting instance.

[0022] In various embodiments, a user equipment device can comprise a processor and a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor facilitate performance of operations. The operations can comprise generating a beam index comprising a first group of signal measurements of a first type of reference signal, and a second group of signal measurements of a second type of reference signal. The operations can also comprise transmitting a first report to a network node comprising a first signal measurement of a first beam of the first group of signal measurements in response to the first signal measurement of the first beam being determined to be above a defined signal strength. The operations can also comprise transmitting a second report to the network node comprising a second signal measurement of a second beam of the second group of signal measurements in response to each signal measurement of the first group of signal measurements being below the defined signal strength, wherein the second signal measurement of the second beam has the highest signal strength of the second group of signal measurements.

[0023] In another embodiment, method comprises receiving, by a user equipment device comprising a processor, a first reference signal corresponding to a first type of reference signal that has an identifier associated with the user equipment device. The method can also comprise receiving, by the user equipment device, a second reference signal corresponding to a second type of reference signal that is a synchronization signal that does not have an identifier associated with the user equipment device. The method can also comprise generating, by the user equipment device, a unified index of the first reference signal and the second reference signal. The method can also comprise transmitting, by the user equipment device, a report indicating a beam with at least a defined signal strength based on the unified index.

[0024] In another embodiment machine -readable storage medium, comprising executable instructions that, when executed by a processor of a device, facilitate performance of operations. The operations can comprise receiving a first reference signal corresponding to a first type of reference signal that addresses a user equipment device. The operations can also comprise receiving a second reference signal corresponding to a second type of reference signal that is a synchronization signal that does not address a user equipment device. The operations can also comprise creating a unified beam index of the first reference signal and the second reference signal. The operations can also comprise reporting on a beam with at least a defined signal strength based on the unified beam index.

[0025] As used in this disclosure, in some embodiments, the terms

"component," "system" and the like are intended to refer to, or comprise, a computer- related entity or an entity related to an operational apparatus with one or more specific functionalities, wherein the entity can be either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. As an example, a component may be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, computer-executable instructions, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration and not limitation, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component.

[0026] One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. In addition, these components can execute from various computer readable media having various data structures stored thereon. The components may communicate via local and/or remote processes such as in accordance with a signal having one or more data packets (e.g., data from one component interacting with another component in a local system, distributed system, and/or across a network such as the Internet with other systems via the signal). As another example, a component can be an apparatus with specific functionality provided by mechanical parts operated by electric or electronic circuitry, which is operated by a software application or firmware application executed by a processor, wherein the processor can be internal or external to the apparatus and executes at least a part of the software or firmware application. As yet another example, a component can be an apparatus that provides specific functionality through electronic components without mechanical parts, the electronic components can comprise a processor therein to execute software or firmware that confers at least in part the functionality of the electronic components. While various components have been illustrated as separate components, it will be appreciated that multiple components can be implemented as a single component, or a single component can be

implemented as multiple components, without departing from example embodiments.

[0027] Further, the various embodiments can be implemented as a method, apparatus or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement the disclosed subject matter. The term "article of manufacture" as used herein is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable (or machine -readable) device or computer-readable (or machine -readable) storage/communications media. For example, computer readable storage media can comprise, but are not limited to, magnetic storage devices (e.g., hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic strips), optical disks (e.g., compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD)), smart cards, and flash memory devices (e.g., card, stick, key drive). Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications can be made to this configuration without departing from the scope or spirit of the various embodiments.

[0028] In addition, the words "example" and "exemplary" are used herein to mean serving as an instance or illustration. Any embodiment or design described herein as "example" or "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments or designs. Rather, use of the word example or exemplary is intended to present concepts in a concrete fashion. As used in this application, the term "or" is intended to mean an inclusive "or" rather than an exclusive "or". That is, unless specified otherwise or clear from context, "X employs A or B" is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then "X employs A or B" is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. In addition, the articles "a" and "an" as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean "one or more" unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form.

[0029] Moreover, terms such as "mobile device equipment," "mobile station,"

"mobile," subscriber station," "access terminal," "terminal," "handset,"

"communication device," "mobile device" (and/or terms representing similar terminology) can refer to a wireless device utilized by a subscriber or mobile device of a wireless communication service to receive or convey data, control, voice, video, sound, gaming or substantially any data-stream or signaling-stream. The foregoing terms are utilized interchangeably herein and with reference to the related drawings. Likewise, the terms "access point (AP)," "Base Station (BS)," BS transceiver, BS device, cell site, cell site device, "Node B (NB)," "evolved Node B (eNode B)," "home Node B (HNB)" and the like, are utilized interchangeably in the application, and refer to a wireless network component or appliance that transmits and/or receives data, control, voice, video, sound, gaming or substantially any data-stream or signaling-stream from one or more subscriber stations. Data and signaling streams can be packetized or frame-based flows.

[0030] Furthermore, the terms "device," "communication device," "mobile device," "subscriber," "customer entity," "consumer," "customer entity," "entity" and the like are employed interchangeably throughout, unless context warrants particular distinctions among the terms. It should be appreciated that such terms can refer to human entities or automated components supported through artificial intelligence (e.g., a capacity to make inference based on complex mathematical formalisms), which can provide simulated vision, sound recognition and so forth.

[0031] Embodiments described herein can be exploited in substantially any wireless communication technology, comprising, but not limited to, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi), global system for mobile communications (GSM), universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), enhanced general packet radio service (enhanced GPRS), third generation partnership project (3 GPP) long term evolution (LTE), third generation partnership project 2 (3GPP2) ultra mobile broadband (UMB), high speed packet access (HSPA), Z-Wave, Zigbee and other 802.XX wireless technologies and/or legacy telecommunication technologies.

[0032] FIG. 1 illustrates an example wireless communication system 100 in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure. In one or more embodiments, system 100 can comprise one or more user equipment UEs 104 and 102, which can have one or more antenna panels having vertical and horizontal elements. A UE 102 can be a mobile device such as a cellular phone, a smartphone, a tablet computer, a wearable device, a virtual reality (VR) device, a heads-up display (HUD) device, a smart car, a machine-type communication (MTC) device, and the like. UE 102 can also refer to any type of wireless device that communicates with a radio network node in a cellular or mobile communication system. Examples of UE 102 are target device, device to device (D2D) UE, machine type UE or UE capable of machine to machine (M2M) communication, PDA, Tablet, mobile terminals, smart phone, laptop embedded equipped (LEE), laptop mounted equipment (LME), USB dongles etc. User equipment UE 102 can also comprise IOT devices that communicate wirelessly. In various embodiments, system 100 is or comprises a wireless communication network serviced by one or more wireless communication network providers. In example embodiments, a UE 102 can be communicatively coupled to the wireless communication network via a network node 106.

[0033] The non-limiting term network node (or radio network node) is used herein to refer to any type of network node serving a UE 102 and UE 104 and/or connected to other network node, network element, or another network node from which the UE 102 or 104 can receive a radio signal. Network nodes can also have multiple antennas for performing various transmission operations (e.g., MIMO operations). A network node can have a cabinet and other protected enclosures, an antenna mast, and actual antennas. Network nodes can serve several cells, also called sectors, depending on the configuration and type of antenna. Examples of network nodes (e.g., network node 106) can comprise but are not limited to: NodeB devices, base station (BS) devices, access point (AP) devices, and radio access network (RAN) devices. The network node 106 can also comprise multi-standard radio (MSR) radio node devices, including but not limited to: an MSR BS, an eNode B, a network controller, a radio network controller (RNC), a base station controller (BSC), a relay, a donor node controlling relay, a base transceiver station (BTS), a transmission point, a transmission node, an RRU, an RRH, nodes in distributed antenna system (DAS), and the like. In 5G terminology, the node 106 can be referred to as a gNodeB device.

[0034] Wireless communication system 100 can employ various cellular technologies and modulation schemes to facilitate wireless radio communications between devices (e.g., the UE 102 and 104 and the network node 106). For example, system 100 can operate in accordance with a UMTS, long term evolution (LTE), high speed packet access (HSPA), code division multiple access (CDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA), single-carrier code division multiple access (SC-CDMA), single-carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), OFDM, (DFT)-spread OFDM or SC-FDMA)), FBMC, ZT DFT-s-OFDM, GFDM, UFMC, UW DFT- Spread-OFDM, UW-OFDM, CP-OFDM, resource-block-filtered OFDM, and UFMC. However, various features and functionalities of system 100 are particularly described wherein the devices (e.g., the UEs 102 and 104 and the network device 106) of system 100 are configured to communicate wireless signals using one or more multi carrier modulation schemes, wherein data symbols can be transmitted simultaneously over multiple frequency subcarriers (e.g., OFDM, CP-OFDM, DFT-spread OFMD, UFMC, FMBC, etc.).

[0035] In various embodiments, system 100 can be configured to provide and employ 5G wireless networking features and functionalities. 5G wireless communication networks are expected to fulfill the demand of exponentially increasing data traffic and to allow people and machines to enjoy gigabit data rates with virtually zero latency. Compared to 4G, 5G supports more diverse traffic scenarios. For example, in addition to the various types of data communication between conventional UEs (e.g., phones, smartphones, tablets, PCs, televisions, Internet enabled televisions, etc.) supported by 4G networks, 5G networks can be employed to support data communication between smart cars in association with driverless car environments, as well as machine type communications (MTCs). [0036] In an embodiment, UE 102 or 104 can receive a plurality of reference signals from network node 106. The reference signals can be used to identify beams and the UE 102 and 104 can measure the signal strengths of the reference signals to facilitate beam reporting and management. Beam management is a procedure that can be used to acquire and maintain a set of transmit/receive points and/or UE beams that can be used for downlink and uplink transmission/reception, which includes beam determination, measurement, and reporting. Beam management includes beam measurement, beam reporting, and beam selection/reselection. For beam

measurement and reporting, Received Signal Received Power (Ll-RSRP) reporting of measurements based on SS-block and CSI-RS are supported for beam management procedures. While CSI-RS resources can be flexible and efficient, they have a fundamental requirement: CSI-RS resources must be configured. Conversely SS block based measurements need not be configured, as the UE will scan all possible SS- blocks (with default periodicity for the neighbour cells without requiring system information).

[0037] During the channel measurement process, one of the millimeter wave propagation problems is the so called blockage effect. As a result of smaller wave length, objects around user, including user self, might block the millimeter wave propagation on a certain direction temporarily. The narrower beamforming of NR also makes this effect more obvious. Beam failure recovery is an important procedure in NR to overcome blockage effect and provide robustness to the connection. Beam failure is triggered when all beams fail. In the beam failure recovery procedure, after beam failure detection, the UE tries to identify a new candidate beam to be used for beam recovery. To identify a new candidate beam, the UE monitors the beam identification RS. This RS can be CSI-RS, if it is configured by the network, or SS- block, or a combination of both.

[0038] In an embodiment, UE 102 or 104 can receive two or more signals that can be used as reference signals to determine a beam quality and be used for reporting on the beam. In an embodiment, the first reference signal can be a UE specific reference signal. A UE specific reference signal has an indicator that is directed towards one or more specific UEs such that only the UEs addressed will receive and process the reference signal. The reference signal can be used by the UE 102 or 104 to estimate the channel and report channel quality information (CQI) to the network node 106. In an embodiment, the second signal that can be used as a reference signal can be a synchronization signal sent as an SS block. The SS block can be non-UE specific, or in other words, the SS block is not directed towards a specific or a group of specific UEs, and is rather broadcast to all UEs within the cell.

[0039] The synchronization signals can include a primary synchronization signal (NR-PSS), a secondary synchronization signal (NR-SSS), and/or a physical broadcast channel signal (NR-PBCH) which can be transmitted within an SS block. One or multiple SS blocks compose an SS burst. One or multiple SS bursts compose an SS burst set where the number of SS bursts within an SS burst set is finite. During the initial access procedure, the UE selects the SS block corresponding to the gNB Tx beam that results in the highest RSRP towards the UE. This same beam is then used to acquire subsequent control information. SS-block-RSRP can also be used for beam measurement and reporting in beam management.

[0040] Since the CSI-RS and SS-block are different in size and type, the UE

102 or 104 can generate a unified index of the reference signals that accounts for the differences in size and type in order to provide a unified report for the UE 102 and 104 to report to the network node 106.

[0041] The UE 102 and 104 can receive the SS-block and CSI-RS signals and generate a unified index by grouping the SS-blocks into a number of groups, where the number of SS-blocks in each group corresponds to a number of beams associated with the CSI-RS. When reporting on the beams, the UE 102 or 104 will create the report reporting the CSI-RS and the group of SS-Blocks in order to have the same number of bits dedicated to each of the types of reference signals.

[0042] In an embodiment, after the beams are indexed in the unified index, the

UE 102 or 104 can prepare the report to send back to the network node 106. When determining which beam to report, the UE 102 or 104 can first determine whether any of the CSI-RS beams are above the predetermined threshold signal strength, or reference signal received power. If one or more of the CSI-RS beams are above the threshold, the UE 102 or 104 will select one of the beams, or in some embodiments, the strongest of the beams or highest signal strength beam in order to report back to the network node 106. If none of the CSI-RS beams are above the predetermined signal strength threshold, the UE 102 or 104 can report back the highest, or strongest SS block.

[0043] Turning now to FIG. 2, illustrated is an example block diagram showing a message sequence chart 200 in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure. [0044] In an embodiment, a gNodeB (or other network node) 202 can issue a reference signal 206 that can be received by a UE 204. The reference signal can be beamformed in some embodiments, or non beamformed in other embodiments. In an embodiment, the reference signal can be a CSI-RS signal that is UE specific, or is addressed to one or more UEs (e.g., UE 204). Concurrently, or synchronously, the gNB 202 can also send one or more synchronization signals 208. The

synchronization signals can include a primary synchronization signal (NR-PSS), a secondary synchronization signal (NR-SSS), and/or a physical broadcast channel signal (NR-PBCH) which can be transmitted within an SS-block. One or multiple SS blocks compose an SS burst. One or multiple SS bursts compose an SS burst set where the number of SS bursts within an SS burst set is finite. During the initial access procedure, the UE selects the SS block corresponding to the gNB Tx beam that results in the highest RSRP towards the UE. This same beam is then used to acquire subsequent control information. SS-block-RSRP can also be used for beam measurement and reporting in beam management.

[0045] At 210, the UE 204 can generate a unified index that takes into account the differences between the reference signal 206 and the SS-block 208.

When the number of SS-blocks available for measurement is large, such that the number of SS-blocks exceeds the available reference framework maintained at the UE, the N SS blocks can be grouped in NL groups, such that each group has L available SS blocks, and the UE uses the unified framework to report on the SS block group corresponding to the maximum measured RSRP.

[0046] At 212, the UE 204 sends the unified report reporting on the beams to the gNB 202. The unified report uses the same number of feedback bits to report on the CSI-RS and/or the SS-block beam index.

[0047] Turning now to FIG. 3, illustrated is an example flow diagram 300 showing a method for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0048] At 302, the UE (e.g., UE 102 or 104) can receive a first reference signal. The first reference signal can be a UE specific reference signal that is addressed to one or more specific UEs. The first reference signal can, in an embodiment, be a CSI-RS signal. At 304, the UE can receive a broadcast synchronization signal in the form of one or more SS-blocks. The synchronization signal can include a primary synchronization signal, a secondary synchronization signal, and/or a physical broadcast channel signal. [0049] In an embodiment, reporting on the SS-block and the CSI-RS are different from each other as the number of configured CSI-RS beams can be different from the number of measured SS-blocks. The UE, as an example, can be configured with 8 CSI-RS beams, whereas there might be 64 SS-blocks to measure at the UE in a millimeter Wave scenario. To identify a beam in each of the types of reference signals requires a different number of bits. For instance, to identify 1 beam out of 8 in the CSI-RS beams requires up to 3 bits, whereas the SS-Block can require 6 bits. Accordingly, at 306, a unified index is generated, where the SS-Blocks are grouped into a N number of groups comprising L SS blocks. The number L can, as an example, be 4 bits, where 3 bits correspond to the number of CSI-RS beams, and 1 bit to indicate the type of RS reported.

[0050] At 308, the UE determines whether any of the first reference signals

(e.g., CSI-RS) are above a predetermined signal strength, or RSRP. If there is at least one CSI-RS above the threshold, the UE reports on the highest reference signal above the threshold at 310. If none of the CSI-RS are above the threshold, the UE, at 312, will report on the beam index of the SS-block that has the highest signal strength, or one above at least a second predetermined threshold. At 314, the UE ends the beam reporting and identification.

[0051] Turning now to FIG. 4, illustrated is an example block diagram 400 of a unified beam report in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0052] In an embodiment, a UE can receive a group of reference signals at

406. The reference signals can include multiple CSI-RS signals 408 and 410, as well as SS Blocks that can be grouped into SS Block groups 412, 414, and 416.

[0053] The UE at 404 will measure the reference signals 406. Measuring the reference signals includes measuring at least one or more of the signal strengths, RSRP, signal to interference plus noise ratio, or other parameter associated with signal quality or other indicator relating to the transmission quality or reliability of the beam. Based on the measurements, the UE can create a unified index and then report on the reference signal received power (RSRP) configured threshold at 402.

[0054] Turning now to FIG. 5, illustrated is an example block diagram 500 of groups of synchronization signal blocks and channel state information reference signals in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure

[0055] The embodiments in FIG. 5 illustrate how the SS blocks are grouped in the unified index. A first group 502 and a second group 504 of SS blocks can have, as an example, 8 SS blocks in the group, and a CSI-RS index 506 can have CSI-RS corresponding to 8 beams. Thus, when the report is sent to the network node, the same number of bits can be used to identify the SS Block(s) with the t beam index corresponding to the maximum RSRP and the CSI-RS beam above the predetermined threshold.

[0056] Turning now to FIG. 6, illustrated is an example block diagram 600 of a user equipment device 602 in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0057] User equipment device 602 can correspond to the UE 102 or 104 and perform the beam reporting and identification described in FIGs. 1-5. The user equipment device 602 can include a measurement component 606 that receives the reference signals. The measurement component 606 can measure the reference signal received power which can be the signal strength, or SINR of the reference signal or some other parameter associated with transmission reliability and quality. The measurement component 606 can measure the RSRP of both the CSI-RS received as well as the SS-blocks.

[0058] The indexing component 604 can generate a unified index where SS blocks are grouped into a number of groups, allows for the same number of bits to report on both synchronization signals and CSI-RS signals in the same report.

[0059] A selection component 610 can be provided to determine which beam to report on in the unified report to the user equipment device 602. In response to the CSI-RS signal having a signal strength above a predetermined signal strength, the selection component 610 can select the CSI-RS beam that is the strongest or one of the CSI-RS beams above the threshold to report to the network node. In response to the CSI-RS signals having a signal strength below the predetermined signal strength, the selection component 610 can select the SS-block with the beam index that has the highest measured signal strength to report to the network node. Once the beam to report has been selected, the reporting component 608 can transmit the unified report to the network node.

[0060] FIGs. 7-8 illustrates a process in connection with the aforementioned systems. The processes in FIGs. 7-8 can be implemented for example by the systems in FIGS. 1-6 respectively. While for purposes of simplicity of explanation, the methods are shown and described as a series of blocks, it is to be understood and appreciated that the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, as some blocks may occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other blocks from what is depicted and described herein. Moreover, not all illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described hereinafter.

[0061] FIG. 7 illustrates an example method 700 for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0062] Method 700 can begin at 702 where the method includes receiving, by a user equipment device comprising a processor, a first reference signal corresponding to a first type of reference signal that has an identifier associated with the user equipment device.

[0063] At 704, the method includes receiving, by the user equipment device, a second reference signal corresponding to a second type of reference signal that is a synchronization signal that does not have an identifier associated with the user equipment device.

[0064] At 706, the method includes generating, by the user equipment device, a unified index of the first reference signal and the second reference signal.

[0065] At 708, the method includes transmitting, by the user equipment device, a report indicating a beam with at least a defined signal strength based on the unified index.

[0066] FIG. 8 illustrates an example method 800 for beam reporting in accordance with various aspects and embodiments of the subject disclosure.

[0067] Method 800 can begin at 802 wherein the method includes generating a beam index comprising a first group of signal measurements of a first type of reference signal, and a second group of signal measurements of a second type of reference signal.

[0068] At 804, the method can include transmitting a first report to a network node comprising a first signal measurement of a first beam of the first group of signal measurements in response to the first signal measurement of the first beam being determined to be above a defined signal strength.

[0069] At 806, the method can include transmitting a second report to the network node comprising a second signal measurement of a second beam of the second group of signal measurements in response to each signal measurement of the first group of signal measurements being below the defined signal strength, wherein the second signal measurement of the second beam has the highest signal strength of the second group of signal measurements.

[0070] Referring now to FIG. 9, illustrated is a schematic block diagram of an example end-user device such as a user equipment) that can be a mobile device 900 capable of connecting to a network in accordance with some embodiments described herein. Although a mobile handset 900 is illustrated herein, it will be understood that other devices can be a mobile device, and that the mobile handset 900 is merely illustrated to provide context for the embodiments of the various embodiments described herein. The following discussion is intended to provide a brief, general description of an example of a suitable environment 900 in which the various embodiments can be implemented. While the description includes a general context of computer-executable instructions embodied on a machine -readable storage medium, those skilled in the art will recognize that the various embodiments also can be implemented in combination with other program modules and/or as a combination of hardware and software.

[0071] Generally, applications (e.g. , program modules) can include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc., that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the methods described herein can be practiced with other system configurations, including single -processor or multiprocessor systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based or programmable consumer electronics, and the like, each of which can be operatively coupled to one or more associated devices.

[0072] A computing device can typically include a variety of machine- readable media. Machine -readable media can be any available media that can be accessed by the computer and includes both volatile and non-volatile media, removable and non-removable media. By way of example and not limitation, computer-readable media can comprise computer storage media and communication media. Computer storage media can include volatile and/or non-volatile media, removable and/or non-removable media implemented in any method or technology for storage of information, such as computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data. Computer storage media can include, but is not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD ROM, digital video disk (DVD) or other optical disk storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium which can be used to store the desired information and which can be accessed by the computer.

[0073] Communication media typically embodies computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data in a modulated data signal such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism, and includes any information delivery media. The term "modulated data signal" means a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in the signal. By way of example, and not limitation, communication media includes wired media such as a wired network or direct- wired connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media. Combinations of the any of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media.

[0074] The handset 900 includes a processor 902 for controlling and processing all onboard operations and functions. A memory 904 interfaces to the processor 902 for storage of data and one or more applications 906 (e.g., a video player software, user feedback component software, etc.). Other applications can include voice recognition of predetermined voice commands that facilitate initiation of the user feedback signals. The applications 906 can be stored in the memory 904 and/or in a firmware 908, and executed by the processor 902 from either or both the memory 904 or/and the firmware 908. The firmware 908 can also store startup code for execution in initializing the handset 900. A communications component 910 interfaces to the processor 902 to facilitate wired/wireless communication with external systems, e.g., cellular networks, VoIP networks, and so on. Here, the communications component 910 can also include a suitable cellular transceiver 911 (e.g., a GSM transceiver) and/or an unlicensed transceiver 913 (e.g., Wi-Fi, WiMax) for corresponding signal communications. The handset 900 can be a device such as a cellular telephone, a PDA with mobile communications capabilities, and messaging- centric devices. The communications component 910 also facilitates communications reception from terrestrial radio networks (e.g., broadcast), digital satellite radio networks, and Internet-based radio services networks.

[0075] The handset 900 includes a display 912 for displaying text, images, video, telephony functions (e.g., a Caller ID function), setup functions, and for user input. For example, the display 912 can also be referred to as a "screen" that can accommodate the presentation of multimedia content (e.g., music metadata, messages, wallpaper, graphics, etc.). The display 912 can also display videos and can facilitate the generation, editing and sharing of video quotes. A serial I/O interface 914 is provided in communication with the processor 902 to facilitate wired and/or wireless serial communications (e.g., USB, and/or IEEE 1394) through a hardwire connection, and other serial input devices (e.g., a keyboard, keypad, and mouse). This supports updating and troubleshooting the handset 900, for example. Audio capabilities are provided with an audio I/O component 916, which can include a speaker for the output of audio signals related to, for example, indication that the user pressed the proper key or key combination to initiate the user feedback signal. The audio I/O component 916 also facilitates the input of audio signals through a microphone to record data and/or telephony voice data, and for inputting voice signals for telephone conversations.

[0076] The handset 900 can include a slot interface 918 for accommodating a

SIC (Subscriber Identity Component) in the form factor of a card Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) or universal SIM 920, and interfacing the SIM card 920 with the processor 902. However, it is to be appreciated that the SIM card 920 can be manufactured into the handset 900, and updated by downloading data and software.

[0077] The handset 900 can process IP data traffic through the communication component 910 to accommodate IP traffic from an IP network such as, for example, the Internet, a corporate intranet, a home network, a person area network, etc., through an ISP or broadband cable provider. Thus, VoIP traffic can be utilized by the handset 800 and IP-based multimedia content can be received in either an encoded or decoded format.

[0078] A video processing component 922 (e.g., a camera) can be provided for decoding encoded multimedia content. The video processing component 922 can aid in facilitating the generation, editing and sharing of video quotes. The handset 900 also includes a power source 924 in the form of batteries and/or an AC power subsystem, which power source 924 can interface to an external power system or charging equipment (not shown) by a power I/O component 926.

[0079] The handset 900 can also include a video component 930 for processing video content received and, for recording and transmitting video content. For example, the video component 930 can facilitate the generation, editing and sharing of video quotes. A location tracking component 932 facilitates geographically locating the handset 900. As described hereinabove, this can occur when the user initiates the feedback signal automatically or manually. A user input component 934 facilitates the user initiating the quality feedback signal. The user input component 934 can also facilitate the generation, editing and sharing of video quotes. The user input component 934 can include such conventional input device technologies such as a keypad, keyboard, mouse, stylus pen, and/or touch screen, for example.

[0080] Referring again to the applications 906, a hysteresis component 936 facilitates the analysis and processing of hysteresis data, which is utilized to determine when to associate with the access point. A software trigger component 938 can be provided that facilitates triggering of the hysteresis component 938 when the Wi-Fi transceiver 913 detects the beacon of the access point. A SIP client 940 enables the handset 900 to support SIP protocols and register the subscriber with the SIP registrar server. The applications 906 can also include a client 942 that provides at least the capability of discovery, play and store of multimedia content, for example, music.

[0081] The handset 900, as indicated above related to the communications component 810, includes an indoor network radio transceiver 913 (e.g., Wi-Fi transceiver). This function supports the indoor radio link, such as IEEE 802.11, for the dual-mode GSM handset 900. The handset 900 can accommodate at least satellite radio services through a handset that can combine wireless voice and digital radio chipsets into a single handheld device.

[0082] Referring now to FIG. 10, there is illustrated a block diagram of a computer 1000 operable to execute the functions and operations performed in the described example embodiments. For example, a network node (e.g., network node 406) may contain components as described in FIG. 10. The computer 1000 can provide networking and communication capabilities between a wired or wireless communication network and a server and/or communication device. In order to provide additional context for various aspects thereof, FIG. 10 and the following discussion are intended to provide a brief, general description of a suitable computing environment in which the various aspects of the embodiments can be implemented to facilitate the establishment of a transaction between an entity and a third party. While the description above is in the general context of computer-executable instructions that can run on one or more computers, those skilled in the art will recognize that the various embodiments also can be implemented in combination with other program modules and/or as a combination of hardware and software.

[0083] Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc., that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive methods can be practiced with other computer system configurations, including single- processor or multiprocessor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based or programmable consumer electronics, and the like, each of which can be operatively coupled to one or more associated devices. [0084] The illustrated aspects of the various embodiments can also be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.

[0085] Computing devices typically include a variety of media, which can include computer-readable storage media or communications media, which two terms are used herein differently from one another as follows.

[0086] Computer-readable storage media can be any available storage media that can be accessed by the computer and includes both volatile and nonvolatile media, removable and non-removable media. By way of example, and not limitation, computer-readable storage media can be implemented in connection with any method or technology for storage of information such as computer-readable instructions, program modules, structured data, or unstructured data. Computer-readable storage media can include, but are not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disk (DVD) or other optical disk storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or other tangible and/or non-transitory media which can be used to store desired information. Computer-readable storage media can be accessed by one or more local or remote computing devices, e.g., via access requests, queries or other data retrieval protocols, for a variety of operations with respect to the information stored by the medium.

[0087] Communications media can embody computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other structured or unstructured data in a data signal such as a modulated data signal, e.g., a carrier wave or other transport mechanism, and includes any information delivery or transport media. The term "modulated data signal" or signals refers to a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in one or more signals. By way of example, and not limitation, communication media include wired media, such as a wired network or direct-wired connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media.

[0088] With reference to FIG. 10, implementing various aspects described herein with regards to the end-user device can include a computer 1000, the computer 1000 including a processing unit 1004, a system memory 1006 and a system bus 1008. The system bus 1008 couples system components including, but not limited to, the system memory 1006 to the processing unit 1004. The processing unit 1004 can be any of various commercially available processors. Dual microprocessors and other multi-processor architectures can also be employed as the processing unit 1004.

[0089] The system bus 1008 can be any of several types of bus structure that can further interconnect to a memory bus (with or without a memory controller), a peripheral bus, and a local bus using any of a variety of commercially available bus architectures. The system memory 1006 includes read-only memory (ROM) 1027 and random access memory (RAM) 1012. A basic input/output system (BIOS) is stored in a non-volatile memory 1027 such as ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, which BIOS contains the basic routines that help to transfer information between elements within the computer 1000, such as during start-up. The RAM 1012 can also include a high-speed RAM such as static RAM for caching data.

[0090] The computer 1000 further includes an internal hard disk drive (HDD)

1014 (e.g., EIDE, SATA), which internal hard disk drive 1014 can also be configured for external use in a suitable chassis (not shown), a magnetic floppy disk drive (FDD) 1016, (e.g., to read from or write to a removable diskette 1018) and an optical disk drive 1020, (e.g., reading a CD-ROM disk 1022 or, to read from or write to other high capacity optical media such as the DVD). The hard disk drive 1014, magnetic disk drive 1016 and optical disk drive 1020 can be connected to the system bus 1008 by a hard disk drive interface 1024, a magnetic disk drive interface 1026 and an optical drive interface 1028, respectively. The interface 1024 for external drive

implementations includes at least one or both of Universal Serial Bus (USB) and IEEE 1394 interface technologies. Other external drive connection technologies are within contemplation of the subject embodiments.

[0091] The drives and their associated computer-readable media provide nonvolatile storage of data, data structures, computer-executable instructions, and so forth. For the computer 1000 the drives and media accommodate the storage of any data in a suitable digital format. Although the description of computer-readable media above refers to a HDD, a removable magnetic diskette, and a removable optical media such as a CD or DVD, it should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other types of media which are readable by a computer 1000, such as zip drives, magnetic cassettes, flash memory cards, cartridges, and the like, can also be used in the example operating environment, and further, that any such media can contain computer-executable instructions for performing the methods of the disclosed embodiments. [0092] A number of program modules can be stored in the drives and RAM

1012, including an operating system 1030, one or more application programs 1032, other program modules 1034 and program data 1036. All or portions of the operating system, applications, modules, and/or data can also be cached in the RAM 1012. It is to be appreciated that the various embodiments can be implemented with various commercially available operating systems or combinations of operating systems.

[0093] A user can enter commands and information into the computer 1000 through one or more wired/wireless input devices, e.g., a keyboard 1038 and a pointing device, such as a mouse 1040. Other input devices (not shown) may include a microphone, an IR remote control, a joystick, a game pad, a stylus pen, touch screen, or the like. These and other input devices are often connected to the processing unit 1004 through an input device interface 1042 that is coupled to the system bus 1008, but can be connected by other interfaces, such as a parallel port, an IEEE 1394 serial port, a game port, a USB port, an IR interface, etc.

[0094] A monitor 1044 or other type of display device is also connected to the system bus 1008 through an interface, such as a video adapter 1046. In addition to the monitor 1044, a computer 1000 typically includes other peripheral output devices (not shown), such as speakers, printers, etc.

[0095] The computer 1000 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections by wired and/or wireless communications to one or more remote computers, such as a remote computer(s) 1048. The remote computer(s) 1048 can be a workstation, a server computer, a router, a personal computer, portable computer, microprocessor-based entertainment device, a peer device or other common network node, and typically includes many or all of the elements described relative to the computer, although, for purposes of brevity, only a memory/storage device 1050 is illustrated. The logical connections depicted include wired/wireless connectivity to a local area network (LAN) 1052 and/or larger networks, e.g., a wide area network (WAN) 1054. Such LAN and WAN networking environments are commonplace in offices and companies, and facilitate enterprise-wide computer networks, such as intranets, all of which may connect to a global communications network, e.g., the Internet.

[0096] When used in a LAN networking environment, the computer 1000 is connected to the local network 1052 through a wired and/or wireless communication network interface or adapter 1056. The adapter 1056 may facilitate wired or wireless communication to the LAN 1052, which may also include a wireless access point disposed thereon for communicating with the wireless adapter 1056.

[0097] When used in a WAN networking environment, the computer 1000 can include a modem 1058, or is connected to a communications server on the WAN 1054, or has other means for establishing communications over the WAN 1054, such as by way of the Internet. The modem 1058, which can be internal or external and a wired or wireless device, is connected to the system bus 1008 through the input device interface 1042. In a networked environment, program modules depicted relative to the computer, or portions thereof, can be stored in the remote

memory/storage device 1050. It will be appreciated that the network connections shown are exemplary and other means of establishing a communications link between the computers can be used.

[0098] The computer is operable to communicate with any wireless devices or entities operatively disposed in wireless communication, e.g., a printer, scanner, desktop and/or portable computer, portable data assistant, communications satellite, any piece of equipment or location associated with a wirelessly detectable tag (e.g., a kiosk, news stand, restroom), and telephone. This includes at least Wi-Fi and Bluetooth™ wireless technologies. Thus, the communication can be a predefined structure as with a conventional network or simply an ad hoc communication between at least two devices.

[0099] Wi-Fi, or Wireless Fidelity, allows connection to the Internet from a couch at home, a bed in a hotel room, or a conference room at work, without wires. Wi-Fi is a wireless technology similar to that used in a cell phone that enables such devices, e.g., computers, to send and receive data indoors and out; anywhere within the range of a base station. Wi-Fi networks use radio technologies called IEEE802.11 (a, b, g, n, etc.) to provide secure, reliable, fast wireless connectivity. A Wi-Fi network can be used to connect computers to each other, to the Internet, and to wired networks (which use IEEE802.3 or Ethernet). Wi-Fi networks operate in the unlicensed 2.4 and 5 GHz radio bands, at an 11 Mbps (802.11b) or 54 Mbps (802.11a) data rate, for example, or with products that contain both bands (dual band), so the networks can provide real-world performance similar to the basic "lOBaseT" wired Ethernet networks used in many offices.

[00100] As used in this application, the terms "system," "component,"

"interface," and the like are generally intended to refer to a computer-related entity or an entity related to an operational machine with one or more specific functionalities. The entities disclosed herein can be either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component may be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. These components also can execute from various computer readable storage media having various data structures stored thereon. The components may communicate via local and/or remote processes such as in accordance with a signal having one or more data packets (e.g., data from one component interacting with another component in a local system, distributed system, and/or across a network such as the Internet with other systems via the signal). As another example, a component can be an apparatus with specific functionality provided by mechanical parts operated by electric or electronic circuitry that is operated by software or firmware application(s) executed by a processor, wherein the processor can be internal or external to the apparatus and executes at least a part of the software or firmware application. As yet another example, a component can be an apparatus that provides specific functionality through electronic components without mechanical parts, the electronic components can comprise a processor therein to execute software or firmware that confers at least in part the functionality of the electronic components. An interface can comprise input/output (I/O) components as well as associated processor, application, and/or API components.

[00101] Furthermore, the disclosed subject matter may be implemented as a method, apparatus, or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement the disclosed subject matter. The term "article of manufacture" as used herein is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, computer-readable carrier, or computer-readable media. For example, computer-readable media can include, but are not limited to, a magnetic storage device, e.g., hard disk; floppy disk; magnetic strip(s); an optical disk (e.g., compact disk (CD), a digital video disc (DVD), a Blu- ray Disc™ (BD)); a smart card; a flash memory device (e.g., card, stick, key drive); and/or a virtual device that emulates a storage device and/or any of the above computer-readable media. [00102] As it employed in the subject specification, the term "processor" can refer to substantially any computing processing unit or device comprising, but not limited to comprising, single-core processors; single -processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors; multi-core processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors with hardware multithread technology; parallel platforms; and parallel platforms with distributed shared memory. Additionally, a processor can refer to an integrated circuit, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a digital signal processor (DSP), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic controller (PLC), a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. Processors can exploit nano-scale architectures such as, but not limited to, molecular and quantum-dot based transistors, switches and gates, in order to optimize space usage or enhance performance of user equipment. A processor also can be implemented as a combination of computing processing units.

[00103] In the subject specification, terms such as "store," "data store," "data storage," "database," "repository," "queue", and substantially any other information storage component relevant to operation and functionality of a component, refer to "memory components," or entities embodied in a "memory" or components comprising the memory. It will be appreciated that the memory components described herein can be either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can comprise both volatile and nonvolatile memory. In addition, memory components or memory elements can be removable or stationary. Moreover, memory can be internal or external to a device or component, or removable or stationary. Memory can comprise various types of media that are readable by a computer, such as hard-disc drives, zip drives, magnetic cassettes, flash memory cards or other types of memory cards, cartridges, or the like.

[00104] By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory can comprise read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory can comprise random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as synchronous RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM

(DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR

SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), and direct Rambus RAM (DRRAM). Additionally, the disclosed memory components of systems or methods herein are intended to comprise, without being limited to comprising, these and any other suitable types of memory.

[00105] In particular and in regard to the various functions performed by the above described components, devices, circuits, systems and the like, the terms (including a reference to a "means") used to describe such components are intended to correspond, unless otherwise indicated, to any component which performs the specified function of the described component (e.g. , a functional equivalent), even though not structurally equivalent to the disclosed structure, which performs the function in the herein illustrated example aspects of the embodiments. In this regard, it will also be recognized that the embodiments comprises a system as well as a computer-readable medium having computer-executable instructions for performing the acts and/or events of the various methods.

[00106] Computing devices typically comprise a variety of media, which can comprise computer-readable storage media and/or communications media, which two terms are used herein differently from one another as follows. Computer-readable storage media can be any available storage media that can be accessed by the computer and comprises both volatile and nonvolatile media, removable and nonremovable media. By way of example, and not limitation, computer-readable storage media can be implemented in connection with any method or technology for storage of information such as computer-readable instructions, program modules, structured data, or unstructured data.

[00107] Computer-readable storage media can include, but are not limited to, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM), flash memory or other memory technology, solid state drive (SSD) or other solid-state storage technology, compact disk read only memory (CD ROM), digital versatile disk (DVD), Blu-ray disc or other optical disk storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices or other tangible and/or non-transitory media which can be used to store desired information.

[00108] In this regard, the terms "tangible" or "non-transitory" herein as applied to storage, memory or computer-readable media, are to be understood to exclude only propagating transitory signals per se as modifiers and do not relinquish rights to all standard storage, memory or computer-readable media that are not only propagating transitory signals per se. Computer-readable storage media can be accessed by one or more local or remote computing devices, e.g., via access requests, queries or other data retrieval protocols, for a variety of operations with respect to the information stored by the medium.

[00109] On the other hand, communications media typically embody computer- readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other structured or unstructured data in a data signal such as a modulated data signal, e.g., a carrier wave or other transport mechanism, and comprises any information delivery or transport media. The term "modulated data signal" or signals refers to a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in one or more signals. By way of example, and not limitation, communications media comprise wired media, such as a wired network or direct-wired connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media

[00110] Further, terms like "user equipment," "user device," "mobile device,"

"mobile," station," "access terminal," "terminal," "handset," and similar terminology, generally refer to a wireless device utilized by a subscriber or user of a wireless communication network or service to receive or convey data, control, voice, video, sound, gaming, or substantially any data-stream or signaling-stream. The foregoing terms are utilized interchangeably in the subject specification and related drawings. Likewise, the terms "access point," "node B," "base station," "evolved Node B," "cell," "cell site," and the like, can be utilized interchangeably in the subject application, and refer to a wireless network component or appliance that serves and receives data, control, voice, video, sound, gaming, or substantially any data-stream or signaling-stream from a set of subscriber stations. Data and signaling streams can be packetized or frame-based flows. It is noted that in the subject specification and drawings, context or explicit distinction provides differentiation with respect to access points or base stations that serve and receive data from a mobile device in an outdoor environment, and access points or base stations that operate in a confined, primarily indoor environment overlaid in an outdoor coverage area. Data and signaling streams can be packetized or frame-based flows.

[00111] Furthermore, the terms "user," "subscriber," "customer," "consumer," and the like are employed interchangeably throughout the subject specification, unless context warrants particular distinction(s) among the terms. It should be appreciated that such terms can refer to human entities, associated devices, or automated components supported through artificial intelligence (e.g., a capacity to make inference based on complex mathematical formalisms) which can provide simulated vision, sound recognition and so forth. In addition, the terms "wireless network" and "network" are used interchangeable in the subject application, when context wherein the term is utilized warrants distinction for clarity purposes such distinction is made explicit.

[00112] Moreover, the word "exemplary" is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as

"exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs. Rather, use of the word exemplary is intended to present concepts in a concrete fashion. As used in this application, the term "or" is intended to mean an inclusive "or" rather than an exclusive "or". That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from context, "X employs A or B" is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then "X employs A or B" is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. In addition, the articles "a" and "an" as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean "one or more" unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form.

[00113] In addition, while a particular feature may have been disclosed with respect to only one of several implementations, such feature may be combined with one or more other features of the other implementations as may be desired and advantageous for any given or particular application. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms "includes" and "including" and variants thereof are used in either the detailed description or the claims, these terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term "comprising."

[00114] The above descriptions of various embodiments of the subject disclosure and corresponding figures and what is described in the Abstract, are described herein for illustrative purposes, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosed embodiments to the precise forms disclosed. It is to be understood that one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize that other embodiments having modifications, permutations, combinations, and additions can be implemented for performing the same, similar, alternative, or substitute functions of the disclosed subject matter, and are therefore considered within the scope of this disclosure.

Therefore, the disclosed subject matter should not be limited to any single embodiment described herein, but rather should be construed in breadth and scope in accordance with the claims below.