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Title:
UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS TO HIGHER VALUE RENEWABLE CHEMICALS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/136283
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This present disclosure relates to catalytic processes for upgrading crude and/or refined fusel oil mixtures to higher value renewable chemicals, via mixed metal oxide or zeolite catalysts. Disclosed herein are processes passing a vaporized stream of crude and/or refined fusel oils over various mixed metal oxide catalysts, metal doped zeolites, or non-metal doped zeolites and/or metal oxides providing options to valorize fusel oil mixtures to higher value products. Renewable chemicals formed, via these upgrading catalyst platforms, are comprised of, but not limited to, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK), isoamylene, and isoprene.

Inventors:
SMITH, Jonathan O. (345 Inverness Drive South, Englewood, Colorado, 80112, US)
Application Number:
US2019/012395
Publication Date:
July 11, 2019
Filing Date:
January 04, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GEVO, INC. (345 Inverness Drive South, Building C Suite 31, Englewood Colorado, 80112, US)
International Classes:
C07C5/00; C07C7/00; C07C45/00; C07C67/03; C08F236/00; C08F236/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010099201A12010-09-02
Foreign References:
US20170226028A12017-08-10
US4704480A1987-11-03
US20070112220A12007-05-17
US7090789B22006-08-15
US4049573A1977-09-20
US20130211148A12013-08-15
US7745372B22010-06-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BLINKA, Thomas A. et al. (Cooley LLP, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Suite 70, Washington District of Columbia, 20004, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A process for preparing a renewable chemical, comprising:

(a) feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %; and

(b) contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Znv/Mgw/Cux/Mny/Zrz, whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %,

wherein V is 1 to 10,

wherein W is 1 to 50,

wherein X is 0 to 20,

wherein Y is 1 to 50,

wherein Z is 1 to 180,

wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 1 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 1 to 16.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein the atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is

1 to 6.

3. The process of claim 1, wherein the atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is

2 to 16.

4. The process of claim 1, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK).

5. The process of claim 4, wherein the yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is at least about 35 %.

6. The process of claim 5, wherein the yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is at least about 45 %.

7. The process of claim 1, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK).

8. The process of claim 7, wherein the yield of the di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK) is at least about 35 %.

9. The process of claim 8, wherein the yield of the di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK) is at least about 45 %.

10. The process of claim 1, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is a Cs aldehyde.

11. The process of claim 10, wherein the yield of the Cs aldehyde is at least about 35 %.

12. The process of claim 11, wherein the yield of the Cs aldehyde is at least about 45 %.

13. The process of claim 1, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is isoprene.

14. The process of claim 13, wherein the yield of the isoprene is at least about 35 %.

15. The process of claim 14, wherein the yield of the isoprene is at least about 45 %.

16. The process of claim 1, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is isoamylene.

17. The process of claim 16, wherein the yield of the isoamylene is at least about 35 %.

18. The process of claim 17, wherein the yield of the isoamylene is at least about 45 %.

19. The process of claim 1, further comprising step (c) of recovering the at least one renewable chemical.

20. The process of claim 19, wherein the renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK).

21. The process of claim 19, wherein the renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is di isobutyl ketone (DIBK).

22. The process of claim 19, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is a C5 aldehyde.

23. The process of claim 19, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is isoprene.

24. The process of claim 19, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is isoamylene.

25. The process of any of claims 1-24, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is bio-based.

26. The process of claim 25, wherein at least about 60 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

27. The process of claim 26, wherein at least about 70 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

28. The process of claim 27, wherein at least about 80 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

29. The process of claim 28, wherein at least about 90 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

30. The process of claim 29, wherein at least about 95 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

31. The process of any of claims 1-30, wherein a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is produced in an alcohol bio-refinery via fermentation of sugars by yeast.

32. The process of claim 31 , wherein the alcohol bio-refinery is an ethanol production plant.

33. The process of any of claims 1-30, wherein a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is obtained from biomass-generated syngas.

34. The process of claim 33, wherein a second portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is obtained from syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof.

35. The process of claim 1, wherein the reactor feed comprises water.

36. The process of claim 35, wherein the reactor feed comprises less than about 15 wt. % water.

37. The process of claim 36, wherein the reactor feed comprises greater than about 10 wt. % water.

38. The process of claim 37, wherein the reactor feed comprises greater than about 5 wt. % water.

39. The process of claim 1, wherein the reactor feed comprises ethanol.

40. The process of claim 39, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of less than about 20 wt. %.

41. The process of claim 40, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 10 wt. %.

42. The process of claim 41, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 5 wt. %.

43. The process of claim 42, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 2 wt. %.

43. The process of claim 1, wherein the reactor feed comprises ethanol, water, and the C3- C6 alcohols.

44. The process of any of claims 1-43, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols includes at least one of 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

45. The process of claim 44, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols includes two or more of 2-methy 1-1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

46. The process of any of claims 1-45, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 300 °C to about 600 °C.

47. The process of claim 46, wherein mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 400 °C to about 500 °C.

48. The process of claim 47, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 415 °C to about 470 °C.

49. The process of claim 48, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 425 °C to about 445 °C.

50. The process of any of claims 1-49, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity range of about 0.1 hr-1 to about 2.5 hr1.

51. The process of claim 50, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity of about 2.0 hr 1.

52. The process of claim 51, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity of about 1.5 hr1.

53. The process of claim 1, wherein the mixed oxide catalyst is prepared using a hard- template method, a co-precipitation method, or an impregnated method.

54. The process of any of claims 1-53, wherein X is 0.

55. The process of claim 54, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V: W: Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 1:2:5: 18.

56. The process of claim 54, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V: W: Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 1:4:5: 18.

57. The process of claim 54, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V: W: Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 2: 1 :5: 18.

58. The process of claim 54, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V : W : Y :Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 2:2:5: 18.

59. A process for preparing a renewable chemical, comprising:

(a) feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %; and

(b) contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Znv/Mgw/Cux/Mny/Zrz, whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %,

wherein V is 0 to 10,

wherein W is 0 to 50,

wherein X is 0 to 20,

wherein Y is 1 to 50,

wherein Z is 1 to 180,

wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 0 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 3 to 6.

60. The process of claim 59, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK).

61. The process of claim 60, wherein the yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is at least about 35 %.

62. The process of claim 61, wherein the yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is at least about 45 %.

63. The process of claim 59, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK).

64. The process of claim 63, wherein the yield of the di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK) is at least about 35 %.

65. The process of claim 64, wherein the yield of the di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK) is at least about 45 %.

66. The process of claim 59, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is a Cs aldehyde.

67. The process of claim 66, wherein the yield of the Cs aldehyde is at least about 35 %.

68. The process of claim 67, wherein the yield of the Cs aldehyde is at least about 45 %.

69. The process of claim 59, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is isoprene.

70. The process of claim 69, wherein the yield of the isoprene is at least about 35 %.

71. The process of claim 70, wherein the yield of the isoprene is at least about 45 %.

72. The process of claim 59, wherein the at least one renewable chemical is isoamylene.

73. The process of claim 72, wherein the yield of the isoamylene is at least about 35 %.

74. The process of claim 73, wherein the yield of the isoamylene is at least about 45 %.

75. The process of claim 59, further comprising step (c) of recovering the at least one renewable chemical.

76. The process of claim 75, wherein the renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK).

77. The process of claim 75, wherein the renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is di isobutyl ketone (DIBK).

78. The process of claim 75, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is a C5 aldehyde.

79. The process of claim 75, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is isoprene.

80. The process of claim 75, wherein the at least one renewable chemical recovered in step (c) is isoamylene.

81. The process of any of claims 59-80, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is bio-based.

82. The process of claim 81, wherein at least about 60 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

83. The process of claim 82, wherein at least about 70 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

84. The process of claim 83, wherein at least about 80 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

85. The process of claim 84, wherein at least about 90 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

86. The process of claim 85, wherein at least about 95 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock.

87. The process of any of claims 59-86, wherein a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is produced in an alcohol bio-refinery via fermentation of sugars by yeast.

88. The process of claim 87, wherein the alcohol bio-refinery is an ethanol production plant.

89. The process of any of claims 59-86, wherein a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is obtained from biomass-generated syngas.

90. The process of claim 89, wherein a second portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is obtained from syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof.

91. The process of any of claims 59-86, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is obtained from a combination of biomass-generated syngas and syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof.

92. The process of claim 59, wherein the reactor feed comprises water.

93. The process of claim 92, wherein the reactor feed comprises less than about 15 wt. % water.

94. The process of claim 93, wherein the reactor feed comprises greater than about 10 wt. % water.

95. The process of claim 94, wherein the reactor feed comprises greater than about 5 wt. % water.

96. The process of claim 59, wherein the reactor feed comprises ethanol.

97. The process of claim 96, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of less than about 20 wt. %.

98. The process of claim 97, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 10 wt. %.

99. The process of claim 98, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 5 wt. %.

100. The process of claim 99, wherein the ethanol is at a concentration of greater than about 2 wt. %.

101. The process of claim 59, wherein the reactor feed comprises ethanol, water, and the C3- C6 alcohols.

102. The process of any of claims 59-101, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols includes at least one of 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

103. The process of claim 102, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols includes two or more of 2-methy 1-1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

104. The process of any of claims 59-103, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 300 °C to about 600 °C.

105. The process of claim 104, wherein mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 400 °C to about 500 °C.

106. The process of claim 105, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 415 °C to about 470 °C.

107. The process of claim 106, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 425 °C to about 445 °C.

108. The process of any of claims 1-49, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity range of about 0.1 hr 1 to about 2.5

hr1.

109. The process of claim 108, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity of about 2.0 hr1.

110. The process of claim 109, wherein the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols is contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity of about 1.5 hr 1.

111. The process of claim 59, wherein the mixed oxide catalyst is prepared using a hard- template method, a co-precipitation method, or an impregnated method.

112. The process of claim 59, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V : W : Y :Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 0:0:5: 18.

113. The process of claim 59, wherein the ratio ofZnv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 0:2:5: 18.

114. The process of claim 59, wherein the ratio of Znv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V : W : Y :Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 1:0:5: 18.

115. The process of claim 59, wherein the ratio ofZnv/Mgw/Mny/Zrz (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 2:0:5: 18.

116. A process for converting one or more C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols contained in fusel oil to renewable chemicals, comprising contacting a feed stream with the C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols with a catalyst to produce at least one of a ketone, an olefin, a di-olefin, or an aldehyde.

117. The process of claim 116, wherein the one or more C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols comprise at least 50 wt. % of organic material within the fusel oil.

118. The process of claim 116, wherein the catalyst comprises mixed metal oxide manganese/zirconium catalysts, doped with magnesium, zinc, copper, or combinations thereof.

119. The process of claim 116, wherein the catalyst comprises mixed acidic ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts, doped with boron, phosphorous, or combinations thereof.

120. The process of claim 116, wherein the catalyst comprises mixed niobium/alumina catalysts, doped with boron, phosphorous, or combinations thereof.

121. The process of claim 116, wherein the catalyst comprises a zinc oxide catalyst.

122. The process of claim 116, wherein the catalyst comprises mixed Y-alumina catalysts, doped with potassium, or combinations thereof.

123. The process of claim 118, wherein the manganese/zirconium support further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % manganese and 35-70% zirconium.

124. The process of claim 118, wherein the manganese/zirconium support further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % magnesium and 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % zinc, and 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % copper, or combinations thereof.

125. The process of claim 119, wherein the mixed acidic ZSM-5 catalyst further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % boron, and 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % phosphorous.

126. The process of claim 120, wherein the niobium/alumina support further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % niobium and 35-70 wt. % alumina.

127. The process of claim 120, wherein the niobium/alumina support further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % boron, and 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % phosphorous.

128. The process of claim 122, wherein the Y-alumina catalyst further comprises from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % potassium.

Description:
UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS TO HIGHER VALUE RENEWABLE CHEMICALS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the priority to and the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/613,740, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO HIGHER VALUE PRODUCTS” and filed on January 4, 2018; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/643,103, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO HIGHER VALUE PRODUCTS” and filed on March 14, 2018; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/651,534, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO HIGHER VALUE PRODUCTS” and filed on April 2, 2018; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/695,685, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO RENEWABLE PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE (PPD) CLASS ANTIOZONANT MIXTURES” and filed on July 9, 2018; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/696,220, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO RENEWABLE MIXTURES OF KETONES HAVING IMPROVED RESIN SOLVATION PROPERTIES” and filed on July 10, 2018; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/732,749, entitled“UPGRADING FUSEL OIL MIXTURES OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYST TO RENEWABLE MIXTURES OF KETONES HAVING IMPROVED RESIN SOLVATION PROPERTIES” and filed on September 18, 2018; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/755,307, entitled“UPGRADING OF FUSEL OILS OVER MIXED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS AND ZEOLITES TO ALDEHYDES ISOPRENE AND AROMATICS” and filed on November 2, 2018, the disclosure of each which is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This disclosure relates to catalytic processes for upgrading crude and/or refined fusel oil mixtures to higher value renewable chemicals via mixed metal oxide or zeolite catalysts.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Fusel oils are formed as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation, and consist of a mixture of several alcohols comprised mainly of amyl alcohols along with lesser amounts of propanol, n-butanol, and isobutanol depending upon the purification process employed. In some cases, these fusel oils are re-added back into an ethanol product at some level, burned as fuel, or further purified and sold on the open market. Depending on the carbohydrate source for the fermentation process, and the organism used, fusel oil levels are typically between 0.2- 3.0% as a relative percent of the target alcohol produced. Generally, fusel oil alcohols are considered waste compounds in the production of bio-ethanol, and are often burnt as fuel for heating distillation columns.

[0004] Some metabolites involved in fermentation processes have been identified as a source of higher alcohols such as fusel oils. Ehrlich (1907) and Klosowski etal. (2010) have attributed the production of higher alcohols to amine nitrogen assimilation. Considering the high content of amyl alcohols in fusel oil (Maiorella et al, 1981), it is important to mention the role played by leucine and isoleucine as source molecules of 3-methyl- 1 -butanol and 2-methyl- 1 -butanol, respectively (Ribereau-Gayon etal, 2006). Roehr (2001) indicates that fusel oil is formed from a-keto acids, derived from amino acids. Pfenninger (1963) and Roehr (2001) compared fusel oil composition based on the feedstock for fermentation. Their results indicate that butanol and i-amyl alcohols content increases when molasses and fruits are the raw material for fermentation. However, those authors point out the importance of pH in the fermenter in the production of higher alcohols.

[0005] Raw fusel oil is a relatively viscous liquid with a dark-reddish color, and a very unpleasant odor. As a result of these properties, the direct utilization of fusel oil as a solvent has been very limited. In some countries it is burned to supply energy for the ethanol processing plants. In Turkey, it is used mainly for denaturation of alcohol, or for removing the foam from molasses during sugar manufacturing. A substantial portion of it, however, has generally been discarded. Recent studies have suggested that several alternative uses for fusel oils are possible. For example, acetic acid and butyric acid esters, major alcohol components of fusel oil, have economic value as chemicals for flavor and fragrance manufacturing (Ceylan et al, 1997). Especially ethyl butyrate is in high demand as a component of pineapple-banana flavors in the food industry. Seino et.al (1984) investigated the enzymatic synthesis of the carbohydrate esters of fatty acids. Gilles, et.al. (1987) and Welsh and Williams (1989), studied enzymatic esterification of fusel oils with acetic acid and butyric acid. Generally, lipase enzyme was used in these studies. Ghuiba et.al. (1985) investigated chemical esterification of fusel oil with poly basic acids with high molecular weights at relatively high temperatures. They reported the esters synthesized under these conditions are very compatible with polyvinyl chloride as plasticizers. Ay et.al. (1994) reported that fusel oil can be used for the purification of phosphoric acid produced by the wet method. They also reported that especially iso-amyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol are selective for extraction of the acid. Hasan et.al. (1993) reported that the indigenously prepared solvent tri-isoamyl phosphate (TAP) obtained from fusel oil has been successfully utilized to extract titanium (IV) from its aqueous solutions. Pereira et al (2013) reported the conversion of main fusel oil components (3 -methyl- 1 -butanol, 2-methyl- 1 -butanol, and isobutanol) to organic alkyl carbonates by carbon dioxide fixation.

[0006] Fusel oil can be also used as a raw material for production of amyl and butyl alcohols which have some different but significant applications: The work of Ogonowski and Sikora (2000) deals with catalytic conversion of methanol and i-butanol into ethers. Similarly, Klier et al. (1997) studied the conversion of higher alcohols into different ethers over multifunctional catalysts. Vaze et al. (1997) presented an alternative of valorization consisting on the electrochemical oxidation of alcohols to produce carboxylic acids. Mitra et al. (1997) studied the alkylation of aromatic compounds with alcohols such as butanol and i-butanol in order to provide green feedstocks to the pharmaceutical industry. Garcia et al. (1997) and Liaw et al. (1998) also offer alternatives for using butanol and i-amyl alcohol in pharmaceutical applications.

[0007] Moreover, in the last decade, fusel oils have been used for the manufacture of bio-based products with the advantage of being environmentally safe, renewable, and in some cases biodegradable. Ozgiilsun et al. (2000) studied the esterification reaction of oleic acid with a fraction of fusel oil from molasses to produce lubricating oil. Dormo et al. (2004) synthesized a bio-lubricant from fusel oil by enzymatic esterification. Giivenc et al. (2007) and Bandres et al. (2010) performed the syntheses of bio-based solvents to obtain acetates, carbonates and i- valerates with i-amyl alcohol from fusel oil.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] Low cost bio-based fusel oil mixtures can be converted in high yield to crude liquid product mixes consisting of industrially relevant symmetrical and asymmetrical C2-C9 ketones, aldehydes, esters, C4-C5 olefins, and aromatics along with co-production of renewable hydrogen depending upon selected catalysts. Conventional distillation of the crude product mixes provides access to cost competitive industrially relevant renewable chemicals (ie. primarily MIBK, DIBK, isoamylene, isoprene). The distribution and selectivity of the oxygenated or olefmic product mixes can be controlled by adjusting catalyst composition, reaction temperature, and feed composition and flow rates. For example, lower reaction temperatures with a novel mixed metal oxide catalyst results in higher yields to aldehydes relative to ketones, versus higher reaction temperatures giving predominately ketones and lesser amounts of aldehydes. On the other hand, dehydration of fusel oil mixtures provides predominately 3 -methyl- 1 -butene, l-methyl-2-butene, and 2-methyl-2-butene, which upon in- situ isomerization results in high yields to cost competitive bio-based isoamylene. Alternatively, dehydrogenation of the crude fusel oil alcohol mixture, consisting primarily of 3-methyl- 1 -butanol and 2-methy 1-1 -butanol, provides access to the corresponding bio-based C5 aldehydes in excellent yields. Subsequent conversion of the amyl alcohol derived aldehydes (3-methyl butanal and 2-methyl butanal), via novel doped mixed metal oxide catalysts or novel doped zeolite catalysts, provides access to a cost competitive bio-based isoprene in good yields.

[0009] In some embodiments, a vaporized stream of crude and/or refined fusel oils is passed over various mixed metal oxide catalysts, metal doped zeolites, or non-metal doped zeolites and/or metal oxides at between 300-500 °C to provide higher value products. In either case, the novel catalysts provide the upgrader with options to valorize fusel oil mixtures to higher value renewable chemicals desired by the chemical industry. Renewable chemicals of interest formed via these upgrading platforms are comprised of but not limited to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK), isoamylene, isoprene, aldehydes, esters, and other asymmetric ketones.

[0010] In some embodiments, a process for preparing a renewable chemical includes feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %. The process includes contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mg w /Cux/Mn y /Zrz, whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %, wherein V is 1 to 10, wherein W is 1 to 50, wherein X is 0 to 20, wherein Y is 1 to 50, wherein Z is 1 to 180, wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 1 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 1 to 16. The atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other can be 1 to 6. The atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other can also be 2 to 16.

[0011] The at least one renewable chemical can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The yield of the di isobutyl ketone (DIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be a C5 aldehyde. The yield of the C5 aldehyde can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoprene. The yield of the isoprene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoamylene. The yield of the isoamylene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %.

[0012] In some embodiments, the process can further include the step of recovering the at least one renewable chemical. The renewable chemical recovered can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be a C5 aldehyde. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoprene. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoamylene.

[0013] In some embodiments, the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be bio-based. At least about 60 wt. %, 70 wt. %, 80 wt. %, 90 wt. %, or 95 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be derived from a non-petroleum feedstock. A portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can produced in an alcohol bio-refinery via fermentation of sugars by yeast. The alcohol bio- refinery can be an ethanol production plant.

[0014] In some embodiments, a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from biomass-generated syngas. A second portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from a combination of biomass-generated syngas and syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof.

[0015] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include water. The reactor feed can be less than about 15 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 10 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 5 wt. % water. In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol. The ethanol can be at a concentration of less than about 20 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 10 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 5 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 2 wt. %.

[0016] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol, water, and the C3-C6 alcohols. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include at least one of 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include two or more of 2- methyl-l -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol. [0017] The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 300 °C to about 600 °C, about 400 °C to about 500 °C, about 415 °C to about 470 °C, or about 425 °C to about 445 °C. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity range of about 0.1 hr 1 to about 2.5 hr 1 , about 2.0 hr 1 , or about 1.5 hr 1 . The mixed oxide catalyst can be prepared using a hard-template method, a co-precipitation method, or an impregnated method.

[0018] In some embodiments, X can be 0 for the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mgw/Cux/Mn y /Zrz. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zrz (V: W: Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 1:2:5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 1:4:5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 2: 1 :5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 2:2:5: 18.

[0019] In some embodiments, a process is disclosed for preparing a renewable chemical including feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %, and contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mgw/Cux/Mn y /Zr z , whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %, wherein V is 0 to 10, wherein W is 0 to 50, wherein X is 0 to 20, wherein Y is 1 to 50, wherein Z is 1 to 180, wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 0 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 3 to 6.

[0020] The at least one renewable chemical can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The yield of the di isobutyl ketone (DIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be a C5 aldehyde. The yield of the C5 aldehyde can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoprene. The yield of the isoprene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoamylene. The yield of the isoamylene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %.

[0021] In some embodiments, the process can further include the step of recovering the at least one renewable chemical. The renewable chemical recovered can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be a C5 aldehyde. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoprene. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoamylene.

[0022] In some embodiments, the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be bio-based. At least about 60 wt. %, 70 wt. %, 80 wt. %, 90 wt. %, or 95 wt. % of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be derived from a non-petroleum feedstock. A portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can produced in an alcohol bio-refinery via fermentation of sugars by yeast. The alcohol bio- refinery can be an ethanol production plant.

[0023] In some embodiments, a portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from biomass-generated syngas. A second portion of the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be obtained from a combination of biomass-generated syngas and syngas that has been derived from natural gas, coal, or a combination thereof.

[0024] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include water. The reactor feed can be less than about 15 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 10 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 5 wt. % water. In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol. The ethanol can be at a concentration of less than about 20 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 10 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 5 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 2 wt. %.

[0025] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol, water, and the C3-C6 alcohols. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include at least one of 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include two or more of 2- methyl-l -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

[0026] The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 300 °C to about 600 °C, about 400 °C to about 500 °C, about 415 °C to about 470 °C, or about 425 °C to about 445 °C. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity range of about 0.1 hr 1 to about 2.5 hr 1 , about 2.0 hr 1 , or about 1.5 hr 1 . The mixed oxide catalyst can be prepared using a hard-template method, a co-precipitation method, or an impregnated method. In some embodiments, the ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zrz (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 0:0:5: 18, about 0:2:5: 18, about 1 :0:5: 18, or about 2:0:5: 18. [0027] In some embodiments, a process is disclosed for converting one or more C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols contained in fusel oil to renewable chemicals, including contacting a feed stream with the C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols with a catalyst to produce at least one of a ketone, an olefin, a di-olefin, or an aldehyde. The one or more C2-C6 linear or branched alcohols can include at least 50 wt. % of organic material within the fusel oil. The catalyst can include mixed metal oxide manganese/zirconium catalysts, doped with magnesium, zinc, copper, or combinations thereof.

[0028] In some embodiments, the catalyst can include mixed acidic ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts, doped with boron, phosphorous, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the catalyst can include mixed niobium/alumina catalysts, doped with boron, phosphorous, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the catalyst can include a zinc oxide catalyst. In some embodiments, the catalyst can include mixed Y-alumina catalysts, doped with potassium, or combinations thereof.

[0029] In some embodiments, the manganese/zirconium support can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % manganese and 35-70% zirconium. In some embodiments, the manganese/zirconium support can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % magnesium and 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % zinc, and 0.01 wt. % to about 10 wt. % copper, or combinations thereof.

[0030] In some embodiments, the mixed acidic ZSM-5 catalyst can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % boron, and 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % phosphorous. In some embodiments, the niobium/alumina support can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % niobium and 35-70 wt. % alumina. In some embodiments, the niobium/alumina support can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % boron, and 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % phosphorous. In some embodiments, the Y-alumina catalyst can further include from about 0.01 wt. % to about 20 wt. % potassium.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0031] The ability to transform low cost bio-based fusel oils into highly desired bio-based oxygenates has not previously been reported or demonstrated. Disclosed herein are catalysts and processes that are suitable for converting fusel oils heavier oxygenates.

[0032] Oxygenated solvents such as aliphatic ketones constitute the largest segment of the solvent market. For example, diisobutyl ketone (DIBK), methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK) and their alcohol products carbinols have a market volume of around 80 million pounds per year. With an annual production of 1 billion pounds, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is among the top ten most widely used organic solvents in industry. At present, the manufacturing processes of ketones are relatively complicated. For example, the petroleum-derived raw material acetone is chemically processed to MIBK via three reaction steps: (i) aldol condensation to diacetone alcohol, (ii) dehydration to mesityl oxide and (iii) selective hydrogenation of the unsaturated ketone mesityl oxide. Similarly, following the three-step process, the carbonyl compound isobutanal or MIBK reacts with acetone to yield MIAK or DIBK. Although multifunctional catalysts have been developed to enable these reaction series in one pot, the yield to MIBK or DIBK is only around 30% or 10%, respectively. In addition, the operation requires high pressure (10-100 atm), and the supply of raw materials is dependent on the availability of petroleum feedstock

[0033] Isoprene is the requisite building block for polyisoprene rubber, styrene co-polymers, and butyl rubber. Currently all commercially available isoprene is derived from petroleum. The majority of isoprene has typically been produced by separating the Cri stream from ethylene crackers fed with heavier feedstocks like naphtha or gas oil. Recently, steam crackers in the United States have shifted toward using lighter feedstocks like ethane, propane, and butane, which are byproducts of shale gas production. These lighter feedstocks have increased ethylene yields but have negatively impacted isoprene production. This has created a favorable opportunity for bio-based isoprene to enter the market. Bio-based isoprene, produced by aerobic bioconversion of carbohydrates, is identical to petroleum-based isoprene and functions as a drop-in replacement molecule. Production of isoprene from biological sources is in the early stages of development but is accelerating with the backing from major tire manufacturers (Bridgestone, Goodyear, and Michelin). Total world consumption of isoprene in 2008 was 800,000 metric tons (GlycosBio 2010). About 60% of it was used to produce polyisoprene rubber, styrene co-polymers, and butyl rubber used for manufacturing tires. About 30% was used to produce adhesives and the balance was used for medical or personal care applications. Tires are the dominant market for isoprene and demand for isoprene-based products typically follows the health of the transportation sector. In 2013, Russia and the United States account for roughly two-thirds of the total world consumption of isoprene (IHS 20l4e).

[0034] In former times, a potentially economical process for production of isoprene is the dehydration of 2-methylbutyraldehyde (2-MBA). 2-MBA can be produced by hydroformylation of butene, and so is an inexpensive raw material which can be manufactured in the large quantities needed for large scale commercial production of isoprene. The dehydration of 2-MBA to isoprene is catalyzed by acids and can be affected with reasonable selectivity. However, since isoprene itself is polymerized by strong acids such as sulfuric acid, such strong acids are not useful as isoprene catalysts. A wide variety of catalysts, including both molecular sieves and various other materials, have been proposed for use in the previous reactions for production of isoprene and in chemically-similar reactions. For example, British Pat. No. 673,547 describes a process for the conversion of l-methoxy-3-methylbut-4-ene to isoprene using a silicate of aluminum as the catalyst. U.S. Pat. No. 3,253,051 to Yanagita et al. describes a process for the production of isoprene from a mixture of isobutylene and formaldehyde in which the catalyst employed is a mixture of an oxide or hydroxide of a metal such as iron with phosphoric acid, this mixture being supported on a suitable carrier, for example silica or alumina. U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,872,216 and 3,846,338, both to Kachalova et al, describe methods for producing isoprene from a dioxane employing a tricalcium phosphate catalyst. British Pat. No. 1,385,348 describes the production of a diene from the corresponding aldehyde using an acidic dehydration catalyst, which can comprise inorganic acids, inorganic acid salts, acid anhydrides of an inorganic acid, or mixed anhydrides thereof either supported or unsupported. Specific catalysts mentioned include phosphoric acid, boric acid, silicic acid, titanic acid, boron phosphate, silicon borate, and silicon titanate. British Pat. No. 2,093,060 describes the dehydration of carbonyl compounds to dienes using as catalysts magnesium phosphate compositions, while British Pat. No. 2,063,297 describes the use of alum and mixed alum sulfates as catalysts in the same reaction. Zeolite molecular sieves have been used as catalysts for production of isoprene by dehydration of starting materials other than 2-MBA. For example, Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 77/57104 describes the dehydration of 4,4-DMD in the gas phase over Group II metal-exchanged Zeolite X. Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 74/10924 describes the dehydration of 4,4-DMD or 4-methyl-5,6- dihydro-2H-pyran in the gas phase over a zeolite catalyst. Japan Patent Application Publication No. 77/36603 describes the dehydration of 4,4-DMD over a catalyst composed of Zeolite X and an acid clay. Nefedova et al, Neftekhimiya 19, 113 (1979) describe the dehydration of 2- methylbutane-2,3-diol using as catalysts Zeolites A, X, and Y. Ivanova and Kucherov, Neftekhimiya 10, 400 (1970) describe the use of Zeolite Y as a catalyst for the dehydration of dimethylvinyl- carbinol. A variety of catalysts have also been proposed for use in the dehydration of 2-methylbutyraldehyde to isoprene. U.S. Pat. No. 1,033,180 describes the use of aluminum silicate as a catalyst. European Patent Application Publication No. 80,449 describes the use of acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, specifically boron phosphate and silica in this reaction. U.S. Pat. No. 4,524,233 describes the use of boron phosphate admixed with graphite and treated with amines and steam as a 2-MBA to isoprene catalyst. U.S.S.R. Pat. No. 721,116 and Bol'shakov et al., Neftekhimiya 23, 183 (1983) describe the use of boron phosphate as a catalyst for this reaction. Irodov, Smirnov and Kryukov, Zh. Org. Khim. 18,1401 (1982) describe the use of amorphous aluminum, boron and calcium phosphates as catalysts for the conversion of 2-MBA to isoprene. U.S. Pat. No. 4,560,822 to Hoelderich et al. (which issued December 24, 1985 on Application Ser. No. 730,687 filed May 3, 1985 and claiming priority of West German Patent Application No. 34 19379 filed May 24,1984) describes and claims a process for the dehydration of aldehydes to dienes (including the dehydration of 2-methylbutyraldehyde to isoprene) at elevated temperatures using a zeolite as a catalyst. European Patent Application Publication No. 0211797A1 (1985, Goodyear) describes the use of a boron phosphate catalyst treated with ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate followed by calcination presumably to produce a large pore catalyst for dehydration of 2-MBA to isoprene resulting in longer on-stream times (120 hr versus 6 hr) with slower decay in activity. However, no mention is made regarding extended catalyst life and selectivity as a result of multiple regenerations.

[0035] A disadvantage associated with the aforementioned boron-phosphate catalysts to dehydrate aldehydes is that catalyst life depends on many factors which include catalyst composition and structure, catalyst activity, operating temperatures, surface phosphor leaching, and coke deposition. Coke deposition is understood to denote coke (carbonaceous) deposits formed on the catalyst during the dehydration reaction. As stated earlier, no commercial process based on said technique has been developed so far, since there is no catalyst with selectivity and stability to justify a commercial process, and the cost to produce 2-MBA as a feedstock to isoprene is not cost competitive compared to the extraction of isoprene from crude C5 refinery streams.

[0036] In the following description, certain specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of various embodiments. However, one skilled in the art will understand that the disclosure may be practiced without these details. In other instances, well- known structures have not been shown or described in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring descriptions of the embodiments. Unless the context requires otherwise, throughout the specification and claims which follow, the word“comprise” and variations thereof, such as, “comprises” and“comprising” are to be construed in an open, inclusive sense, that is, as “including, but not limited to.” Further, headings provided herein are for convenience only and do not interpret the scope or meaning of the claimed disclosure.

[0037] In this application, the use of“or” means“and/or” unless stated otherwise.

[0038] As used throughout the specification,“a” can include referents to the singular or plural. For example, an alcohol can include one or more than one alcohol.

[0039] Throughout the present specification, the terms“about” and/or“approximately” can be used in conjunction with numerical values and/or ranges. The term“about” is understood to mean those values near to a recited value. For example,“about 40 [units]” can mean within ± 25% of 40 (e.g., from 30 to 50), within ± 20%, ± 15%, ± 10%, ± 9%, ± 8%, ± 7%, ± 6%, ± 5%, ± 4%, ± 3%, ± 2%, ± 1%, less than ± 1%, or any other value or range of values therein or there below. Furthermore, the phrases“less than about [a value]” or“greater than about [a value]” should be understood in view of the definition of the term“about” provided herein. The terms “about” and“approximately” can be used interchangeably.

[0040] Throughout the present specification, the term“renewable chemical” is used to indicate the product or products of a process described herein. In broad terms, a renewable chemical is a bio-based material intentionally made from substances derived from living (or once-living) organisms. Renewable chemicals include linear, branched, and cyclic molecules having up to about 12 carbons. The terms include either a homologated (one carbon added relative to the carbon number of the starting material) or lengthened (two or more carbons added relative to the carbon number of the starting material) compounds, or a product with the same or greater carbon number relative to the starting material but with some sort of functionalization introduced (e.g., a carbonyl, a hydroxyl, ester, and/or a degree of unsaturation, e.g., a double bond), and mixtures thereof. Non-limiting examples of co-products including renewable chemicals produced by a process disclosed herein include methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), sec- butyl methyl ketone (iso-MIBK), di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK), 2,5-dimethyl-4-heptanone (iso- DIBK), isoamylene, isoprene, aldehydes, esters, and other asymmetric ketones.

[0041] Co-products may also be produced by a catalytic reaction, according to the catalysts and processes of the present application. For example, co-products include a product obtained from the reaction of at least one reactant with at least one intermediate, or a product obtained from the reaction of multiple intermediates. Co-products include linear, branched, cyclic molecules having up to about 10 carbons. Co-products also includes non-hydrocarbon molecules generated by a process of converting starting material. Non-limiting examples of co products produced by a process disclosed herein include, isobutylene, acetone, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, phenol, 2-pentanone, mesityl oxide, methyl isobutylketone, 3- methyl-2-butanone, 2-methyl phenol, 3-methyl phenol (meto-cresol), 2,5-dimethyl phenol, 3,5- dimethyl phenol (3,5-xylenol), 2,3-dimethyl phenol, and 3,4-dimethyl phenol.

[0042] Throughout the present specification, the term“selectivity” is used to indicate the selectivity of the process to produce a particular renewable chemical. In some embodiments, the catalyst, preparation of the catalyst, and reaction parameters, e.g., superficial velocity, influence the yield of a particular renewable chemical.

[0043] “Natural” products are defined as materials derived from natural materials (ie. plant based materials, fermentation broth, etc.) added to flavor and fragrance compounds which have not been subjected to a chemical transformation other than a simple distillation step.

[0044] As used herein, the term“yield” in reference to a yield of a renewable chemical, e.g., MIBK, is expressed as a percentage of the maximum theoretical yield, which defines the maximum amount of the renewable chemical, e.g., isoprene, that can be generated per a given amount of fusel oils as dictated by the stoichiometry of the catalytic reaction used to make the renewable chemical, e.g., isoprene. For example, the theoretical yield for the catalytic reaction described herein is 33.3%, i.e., 1 mol of MIBK produced per every 3 mols of substrate in the reactor feed. As such, if 24% of the carbon substrate is converted to MIBK, the yield, as used herein, would be expressed as 72%, which is obtained by taking a 24% conversion to MIBK divided by a potential 33.3% maximum theoretical yield. In another example, the theoretical yield for the catalytic reaction described herein is 50%, i.e. , 1 mol of DIBK produced per every 2 mols of carbon substrate in the reactor feed. As such, if 40% of the carbon substrate is converted to DIBK, the yield, as used herein, would be expressed as 80.0%, which is obtained by taking a 40% conversion to DIBK divided by a potential 50% maximum theoretical yield. Conversely, on a carbon atom basis, the theoretical yield to DIBK is 75%, which is expressed as 3 carbon atoms in DIBK (1 mol) divided by 4 carbon atoms from the reactor feed substrate (2 mols).

[0045] Reference throughout this specification to“one embodiment” or“an embodiment” means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. Thus, the appearances of the phrases“in one embodiment” or“in an embodiment” in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments. Also, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,”“an,” and“the” include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. It should also be noted that the term“or” is generally employed in its sense including“and/or” unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

[0046] The word“about” when immediately preceding a numerical value means a range of plus or minus 10 % of that value, e.g.,“about 50” means 45 to 55,“about 25,000” means 22,500 to 27,500, etc. Furthermore, the phrases“less than about” a value or“greater than about” a value should be understood in view of the definition of the term“about” provided herein.

[0047]“Fusel oil”, also known as fusel oil alcohols or fusel alcohols, is typically a mixture of one or more alcohols (C3-C6) such as 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, and hexanol, but not methanol and ethanol.“Crude” fusel oil mixtures are defined by higher levels of C2-C4 alcohols and water as a result of less rigorous downstream separation of typical C5 fusel alcohols (3-methyl-l -butanol and 2-methyl- 1 -butanol) from ethanol. Whereas,“refined” fusel oil mixtures are defined by a higher concentration of C5 alcohols (e.g. amyl alcohols), relative to C2-C4 alcohols, and normally lesser amounts of water.

[0048] In some embodiments, ketone product mixtures can be produced with high selectivity and high yields, via a single catalytic step, from fusel oil upgrading, to provide methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), sec-butyl methyl ketone (iso-MIBK), di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK), and 2,5- dimethyl-4-heptanone (iso-DIBK) derived from 3-methyl 1 -butanol and 2-methyl 1 -butanol. Higher selectivities and yield to MIBK, relative to DIBK formation, can be achieved by co feeding additional amounts of ethanol relative to the crude fusel oils.

[0049] In the first approach, fusel oil mixtures can be converted to a crude liquid product mix consisting of C3-C9 ketones, aldehydes, hydrogen, and lesser amounts of C2-C5 olefins. The distribution of the oxygenated product mix can be controlled by reaction temperature and feed flow rates. For example, lower reaction temperatures result in higher yields to aldehydes, and higher reaction temperatures result in predominately ketones. Depending on the type of metal oxides, and their relative metal ratios, fusel oil mixtures can be converted to a liquid product in >90% mass accountability consisting primarily of C5 aldehydes along with lesser amounts of methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isobutyl ketone, and C3-C7 ketones with up to 2.3 eq of hydrogen relative to the average molecular weight of the fusel oil mixture.

[0050] At higher reaction temperatures, fusel oil mixtures can be converted to a liquid product with >60% mass accountability consisting primarily of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), di isobutyl ketone (DIBK), C5 aldehydes, and lesser amounts of C3-C7 ketones with up to 3.0 eq of hydrogen relative to the average molecular weight of the fusel oil mixture. Theoretically, the highest liquid mass accountability, assuming 100 % yield from alcohol to ketone, is 80% due to CC and hydrogen formation, via a series of reactions over the mixed metal oxide catalyst. One skilled in the art will recognize the versatility of converting mixtures of alcohols (C2-C5) to value added aldehydes, or symmetrical and asymmetrical ketones difficult to prepare.

[0051] One skilled in the art will recognize the benefits of converting mixtures of bio-based alcohols including fusel oils into value added aldehydes, or symmetrical and asymmetrical target ketones that are normally difficult to prepare. For example, the addition of renewable based ethanol to the fusel oil feed results in increased levels of MIBK with a corresponding decrease in DIBK formation, and increased levels of renewable 6-methyl-2-heptanone (CAS #928-68-7) and 6-methyl-3-heptene-2-one (CAS #20859-10-3), which both find use as key raw materials towards synthesis of Vitamin E. Additionally, m-cresol (CAS# 108-39-4) levels are increased, which finds use in the total synthesis of Thymol and other applications. Examples of reactor effluent compositional data for crude fusel oil with additional ethanol mixtures is exemplified in Tables 21-24. Alternatively, adding bio-based or petroleum-based methanol to the feed, or operating with only methanol as the feed, results in formation of additional amounts of hydrogen or primarily hydrogen. This allows for the adjustment of the level of hydrogen produced depending upon the needs of production and the product portfolio.

[0052] In a second approach, fusel oil mixtures can be directly converted, over a metal doped zeolite, to a crude liquid mixture with >60% mass accountability consisting primarily of typical BTX aromatics (i.e. toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethyl benzene, trimethylbenzenes, etc) with p-xylene as the predominant xylenes isomer along with minor amounts of C3-C7 olefins. The remaining unaccounted for mass are C2-C4 olefins, as measured in the uncondensed vapor stream. From a practical standpoint, the aromatic compounds can be separated, via classical unit operations, for marketing as renewable chemicals, and the resulting C2-C7 olefins can either be recycled to increase yields to aromatic compounds, or oligomerized to a renewable based fuel.

[0053] In the third approach, fusel oil mixtures are quantitatively dehydrated to their corresponding C2-C5 olefins. Depending on the catalyst used for dehydration (y- Alumina), the primary C5 olefins can be converted to 3 -methyl- 1 -butene (70%) and 2-methy 1-1 -butene (10%) with minor amounts of isomerization to the 2-methyl-2 -butene isomer (18%), or the use of base treated g-Alumina catalyst can further reduce the level of isomerization resulting in higher purities of 3-methyl-l -butene (US 4234752). These terminal olefins, along with the lesser amounts of C2-C4 olefins, can be oligomerized to Jet or Diesel fuel, with varying fuel properties, depending upon catalyst and reaction conditions.

[0054] Conversely, in-situ isomerization of primary C5 alcohols is accomplished, via metal doped zeolites (Zn-ZSM5, ZnZr-H-FER), or g-Alumina at higher reaction temperatures, resulting in an olefmic mixture consisting of 2-methyl-2-butene isomer (62%), 2-methyl- 1- butene (22%), 2-pentene (12%), and minor amounts of 3-methyl-l -butene (4%). The isomerized C5 olefins, along with the lesser amounts of C2-C4 olefins, can be oligomerized to Jet or Diesel fuel, with varying fuel properties, depending upon catalyst and reaction conditions, or used as monomers. These low carbon intensity C2-C5 olefin streams can be directly oligomerized‘as-is’ to produce a low carbon fuel (e.g. Gasoline, Jet, or diesel), or may be co-mingled with other olefin streams derived from renewable, or non-renewable, based alcohols in order to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the target fuel.

[0055] Changes in metal oxide ratios, and/or metal oxide combinations, results in an ability to alter product selectivity depending on the crude fusel oil composition, processing parameters, and the target products desired. For example, preferred metal oxide combinations, and their relative metal atomic molar ratios (see parenthetical values) provides the oxygenated product distributions shown in the examples below depending upon reaction parameters: Zn /Mgw/Mny/Zrz (1/2/5/18), Zn v /Mg/Zr z (1/2/24), Zn v /Zr z (1/11), Mn y /Zr z (5/18), Zm/Cux/Mg w /Zrz (1/1/5/18), Zn v /Mn y /Zr z (1/5/18), Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (2/5/18), Mg w /Zr z (1/12), Cux/Zr z (2/12), ZnO. The preferred ranges of atomic metal ratios for Zn v , Mg w , and Cu x , relative to Mn y or Zr z , are typically 1 to 10. The preferred ranges of atomic metal ratios for Mn y and Zr z relative to one another is 1 to 6 and 2 to 16, respectively. In some embodiments, a process for preparing a renewable chemical includes feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %. The process includes contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mg w /Cux/Mn y /Zr z , whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %, wherein V is 1 to 10, wherein W is 1 to 50, wherein X is 0 to 20, wherein Y is 1 to 50, wherein Z is 1 to 180, wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 1 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 1 to 16. The atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other can be 1 to 6. The atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other can also be 2 to 16. In some embodiments, X can be 0 for the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mgw/Cux/Mn y /Zrz. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zrz (V: W: Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 1:2:5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 1:4:5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mgw/Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 2: 1 :5: 18. The ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V:W:Y:Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst can be about 2:2:5: 18.

[0056] In some embodiments, a process is disclosed for preparing a renewable chemical including feeding to a reactor a reactor feed comprising a mixture of C3-C6 alcohols at a concentration of at least about 75 wt. %, and contacting the mixture of C3-C6 alcohols with a mixed oxide catalyst in the reactor, the mixed oxide catalyst having a formula Zn v /Mgw/Cux/Mn y /Zr z , whereby the mixture is converted to at least one renewable chemical at a yield of at least about 25 wt. %, wherein V is 0 to 10, wherein W is 0 to 50, wherein X is 0 to 20, wherein Y is 1 to 50, wherein Z is 1 to 180, wherein atomic ratios of each of V and W, relative to Y or Z, are each 0 to 10, and wherein atomic ratios for Y and Z relative to each other is 3 to 6. In some embodiments, the ratio of Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zr z (V :W:Y :Z) in the mixed oxide catalyst is about 0:0:5: 18, about 0:2:5: 18, about 1:0:5: 18, or about 2:0:5: 18.

[0057] The catalysts may be prepared via classical techniques (ie. incipient wetness impregnation, co-precipitation, hard-template method, a co-precipitation method, an impregnated method, etc.), but impregnation is preferred with regard to cost and ease of preparation. Metal oxide catalysts may be regenerated in-situ, via air, as necessary to return catalyst to its initial activity. To maintain product distributions with high selectivity to oxygenated products, the zirconium oxide support must be sufficiently moderated to prevent significant amounts of C2-C5 alcohol dehydration to the C5 olefins. This is most effectively done by addition of metals Zn, Mn, Mg, Cu, and combinations thereof. Other metals and non- metals capable of moderating the acidity of the zirconium or aluminum oxide support with are: Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga, Mo, Ru, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, In, Cd, Sn, Al, Si, Bi, W, Re, P, B. The examples provided show an overview of the fusel oil upgrading technology relative to catalyst compositions as discussed above (see Tables 1-20). Unless noted otherwise, catalysts were prepared via the incipient wetness impregnation technique.

[0058] One issue with fusel oil upgrading technology to primarily aldehydes, via acceptorless dehydrogenation, is the inability to separate 3-methyl-butanal and 2-methyl-butanal via conventional distillation. This prevents the isolation and harvesting of the full market value associated with renewable 3-methyl-butanal (isovaleraldehyde) and/or 2-methyl-butanal, which are useful as a raw materials throughout the flavor, fragrance and fine chemicals industries. In one aspect, the application relates to a process of indirect separation of the aldehyde mixture by utilizing mixed metal oxide catalysts, with and without phosphorous and/or boron or metal and non-metal doped Zeolites, which convert the aldehyde mixture to isoprene and methyl substituted pentenes (e.g. 3 -methyl- 1 -butene, 2-methyl- 1 -butene, and 2- methyl-2-butene). Subsequent purification of the isoprene rich mixture, via extractive distillation, provides access to bio-based monomer grade isoprene, isoamylene, and/or 3- methyl-l -butene. This approach results in purification of the 3-methyl-butanal and 2-methyl- butanal aldehyde product mixture (-75/25 ratio) to > 85% 3-methyl-butanal purity with co production of renewable isoprene, isoamylene, and lesser amounts of isobutylene. Conversely, if isoprene and isoamylene are the desired end products, recycling of the aldehyde mixture provides high yields to isoprene and isoamylene after purification via conventional extractive distillation.

[0059] In some embodiments, the at least one renewable chemical can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The yield of the methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The yield of the di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK) can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be a Cs aldehyde. The yield of the Cs aldehyde can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoprene. The yield of the isoprene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %. The at least one renewable chemical can also be isoamylene. The yield of the isoamylene can be at least about 35 %, or at least about 45 %.

[0060] In some embodiments, the process can further include the step of recovering the at least one renewable chemical. The renewable chemical recovered can be methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The renewable chemical recovered can be a Cs aldehyde. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoprene. The renewable chemical recovered can be isoamylene.

[0061] In another aspect, the application relates to a fusel oil upgrading process providing the ability to remove natural products from fusel oils in an economical manner, while still maintaining a natural product classification. For example, vaporization of the crude fusel oil mixture at 140-180 °C, as part of the fusel oil upgrading process, results in the ability to remove a crude heavy organic stream prior to entering the fixed reactor bed. The heavy organic stream which typically represents 1-2 wt. % of the total fusel oil weight contains several attractive natural products such as: 2-phenyl ethanol, ethyl caprylate, 2-phenyl ethyl acetate, ethyl caprate, ethyl laurate, and ethyl palmitate at varying levels depending upon fermentation conditions and feedstock. Previously, it was be uneconomical to distill and condense 98-99% of the crude fusel oil mixture overhead only to recover a small natural product fraction. However, according to the present fusel oil upgrading process, the removal of the natural product stream coupled with upgrading the entire vaporized fusel oil stream to higher value products provide the practitioner with an economical approach to harvest the value from the natural products contained within.

[0062] Changes in metal oxide ratios, non-metal and/or metal oxide combinations, and/or metal and non-metal doped zeolites provides the ability to alter product selectivity to isoprene. For example, preferred metal oxide combinations, and zeolite catalyst combinations and their relative metal weight percent ratios (see parenthetical values) provides crude isoprene distributions shown in the Tables below (see Tables 25-31) depending upon reaction parameters: NbO, Nb/Alu, Nb/Alu/B, Nb/Alu/B/P, zeolite/boron, and zeolite/B/P. The catalysts may be prepared via classical techniques (ie. incipient wetness impregnation, co precipitation, hard-template method, a co-precipitation method, an impregnated method, etc.), but impregnation is preferred with regard to cost and ease of preparation. Metal oxide and zeolite catalysts may be regenerated in-situ, via air, as necessary to return catalyst to its’ initial activity. Unless noted otherwise, catalysts were prepared via the incipient wetness impregnation technique.

[0063] Catalysts and processes according to the present disclosure in which mixed metal oxide catalysts, non-metal doped mixed metal oxide catalysts, zeolites, and metal or non-metal doped zeolite are used in fusel oil upgrading reactions provide flexibility to produce industrially relevant renewable chemicals such as ketones, olefins, di-olefins, and/or aldehydes in high yield and selectivity at competitive costs.

[0064] Granular or extruded catalysts are suitable for the reactions even though no specific size and morphology are required. Catalyst with a size greater than 0.1 mm is preferred, and the size of 0.2-1.0 mm is more preferred for the operation ability and low pressure drop.

[0065] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include water. The reactor feed can be vaporized prior to entering the reactor. The reactor feed can be less than about 15 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 10 wt. % water. The reactor feed can be greater than about 5 wt. % water. In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol. The ethanol can be at a concentration of less than about 20 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 10 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 5 wt. %. The ethanol can be at a concentration of greater than about 2 wt. %.

[0066] In some embodiments, the reactor feed can include ethanol, water, and the C3-C6 alcohols. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include at least one of 2-methyl- 1 -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can include two or more of 2- methyl-l -butanol (active amyl alcohol), isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), isobutyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol, propanol, butanol, pentanol, or hexanol.

[0067] The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a temperature within the range of about 300 °C to about 600 °C, about 400 °C to about 500 °C, about 415 °C to about 470 °C, or about 425 °C to about 445 °C. The mixture of C3-C6 alcohols can be contacted with the mixed oxide catalyst at a weight hourly space velocity range of about 0.1 hr 1 to about 2.5 hr 1 , about 2.0 hr 1 , or about 1.5 hr 1 .

[0068] The ketone formation reaction temperature of fusel oil mixtures consisting of branched and/or linear C2-C5 alcohols can be from 400 °C to 500° C, with reaction pressures ranging from 0-100 psig.

[0069] The ketone formation reaction can be performed in continuous mode for mass production of ketones. The continuous mode can be operated by using a fixed bed reactor, and reactant flows can be upward or downward.

[0070] The aldehyde formation reaction temperature of fusel oil mixtures consisting of branched and/or linear C2-C5 alcohols can be from 400 °C to 500 °C, with reaction pressures ranging from 0-100 psig.

[0071] The aldehyde formation reaction can be performed in continuous mode for mass production of ketones. The continuous mode can be operated by using a fixed bed reactor, and reactant flows can be upward or downward.

[0072] The isoprene formation reaction temperature of the C5 aldehyde mixture consisting of 3-methylbutanal and 2-methylbutanal is from 300 °C to 500 °C, with reaction pressures ranging from 0-100 psig.

[0073] The isoprene formation reaction is performed in continuous mode for mass production of isoprene. The continuous mode is operated by using a fixed bed reactor, and reactant flows can be upward or downward. [0074] The isoamylene formation reaction temperature of fusel oil mixtures consisting of branched and/or linear C2-C5 alcohols is from 250 °C to 400 °C, with reaction pressures ranging from 0-100 psig.

[0075] The isoamylene formation reaction is performed in continuous mode for mass production of olefins. The continuous mode can be operated by using a fixed bed reactor, and reactant flows can be upward or downward.

[0076] Fusel oil mixture (ie. C2-C5 alcohol) single pass conversion in the ketone formation reaction is typically higher than about 90 %.

[0077] Fusel oil mixture (ie. C2-C5 alcohol) single pass conversion in the acceptorless aldehyde formation reaction is typically higher than about 70 %.

[0078] Aldehyde mixture (ie. 3-methylbutanal and 2-methylbutanal at -70/30 ratio) single pass conversion in the isoprene formation reaction is typically higher than about 20 %.

[0079] Fusel oil mixture (ie. C2-C5 alcohol) single pass conversion in the isoamylene formation reaction is typically higher than about 90 %.

[0080] One skilled in the art will immediately recognize the similarity of the reaction conditions and parameters for the aforementioned reactions, and how a multi-purpose plant configuration would be suitable to allow production of the various renewable chemicals depending upon market conditions in order to maximize profitability and plant utilization.

[0081] Granular or extruded catalysts are suitable for the reactions even though no specific size and morphology are mandatory. Catalyst with a size greater than 0.1 mm is more suitable, and the size of 0.2-1.0 mm is most suitable for the operation ability and low pressure drop.

REACTOR SET-UP

[0082] The fusel oil upgrading options were carried out at 300-500 °C, via a fixed bed reactor, containing 2.9 g, 5.0 g, or 15 g of specified catalyst, and flowing preheated (160 °C) vaporized fusel oils in a downward flow over the fixed catalyst bed while in some cases co-feeding nitrogen. The flow rates of fusel oils and/or ethanol were controlled by Teledyne model 500D syringe pumps, and the flow rates were adjusted to obtain the targeted olefin WHSV (weight hourly space velocity). The internal reaction temperature was maintained constant via a Lindberg Blue M furnace as manufactured by Thermo-Scientific. Fusel oil conversion and selectivity was calculated by analysis of the liquid phase reactor effluent by GC for organic and water content, and comparing mass accountability fed versus liquid mass collected. EXAMPLES

Example la: Impregnated Zn v /Mg w /Mn y /Zrz (V:W:Y:Z) (nominal metal mol% ratio 1/2/5/18, respectively) Catalyst Preparation:

[0083] Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness technique. The precursor metal salts (Sigma Aldrich): 0.308 g zinc nitrate hexahydrate and 0.43 g of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate were added and dissolved in deionized water (3.8 ml). Upon salt dissolution, the solution was added in dropwise fashion to 3 g manganese/zirconium (nominal metal mol% ratio 1/4) support. The resulting mixed metal oxide was manually mixed to assure complete wetting, and the resulting impregnated catalyst was dried at 160 °C for 1 hr, and afterwards calcined at 500 °C for 4 hrs.

Example lb: Boron Impregnated Niobium/ Alumina Catalyst Preparation:

[0084] Nb/alumina + 3.7 wt% boron catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness technique as described. 0.63 g boric acid (Sigma Aldrich) was added to deionized water (4.0 g) and gently heated to dissolve. Upon boric acid dissolution, the solution was added in dropwise fashion to 3 g niobium/alumina (9 wt. % niobium content) support. The resulting impregnated mixed metal oxide was manually mixed to assure complete wetting, and the resulting impregnated catalyst was dried at 160 °C for 1 hr, and afterwards calcined at 550 °C for 4 hrs.

Example lc: Boron and Phosphor Impregnated Zeolite Catalyst Preparation:

[0085] Zeolite type ZSM-5 (Zeolyst CBV-5524H + 2.7 wt. % boron + 3.5 wt. % phosphor catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness technique as described. 0.47 g boric acid (Sigma Aldrich) and 0.40 g phosphoric acid (85 wt. %) was added to deionized water (3.6 g) and gently heated to dissolve. Upon mixed acid dissolution, the solution was added in dropwise fashion to 3 g zeolite support. The resulting impregnated zeolite was manually mixed to assure complete wetting, and the resulting impregnated catalyst was dried at 160 °C for 1 hr, and afterwards calcined at 550 °C for 4 hrs.

[0086] Table 1 : Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Refined Fusel Oil Composition: 1 wt. % Ethanol, 3 wt. % Isobutanol, 80 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 3 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 60 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 21

Methyl isobutyl ketone 9 C6-C7 ketones 8

Di-isobutyl ketone 40

C9+ ketones 9

C2-C5 olefins 3

Hydrogen 3.0 eq

[0087] Table 2: Reaction Conditions: T = 435 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Cu/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 64 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 28

Methyl isobutyl ketone 15

C6-C7 ketones 4

Di-isobutyl ketone 18

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 10

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins 11

[0088] Table 3: Reaction Conditions: T = 470 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Al/Si/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/2/11); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 32 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 12

Methyl isobutyl ketone 23

C6-C7 ketones 4

Di-isobutyl ketone 28

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester < 1

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 Olefins 17

[0089] Table 4: Reaction Conditions: T = 425 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/4/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 61 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 23

Methyl isobutyl ketone 25

C6-C7 ketones 4

Di-isobutyl ketone 25

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 9

C9+ ketones 3

C2-C5 olefins 1

[0090] Table 5: Reaction Conditions: T = 445 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/4/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 54 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 1

Methyl isobutyl ketone 36

C6-C7 ketones 8

Di-isobutyl ketone 46

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 0.7

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0091] Table 6: Reaction Conditions: T = 425 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/4/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 72 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 29

Methyl isobutyl ketone 21

C6-C7 ketones 2

Di-isobutyl ketone 9

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 6 C9+ ketones 3

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0092] Table 7: Reaction Conditions: T = 445 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/4/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 44 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 3

Methyl isobutyl ketone 50

C6-C7 ketones 12

Di-isobutyl ketone 31

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester <1

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 Olefins <1

[0093] Table 8: Reaction Conditions: T = 415 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 2/1/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 69 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 26

Methyl isobutyl ketone 35

C6-C7 ketones 3

Di-isobutyl ketone 18

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 10

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0094] Table 9: Reaction Conditions: T = 430 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 2/2/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68.2 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 57 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 21 Methyl isobutyl ketone 32

C6-C7 ketones 6

Di-isobutyl ketone 26

Valeric Acid, Isopentyl ester 6

C9+ ketones 4

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0095] Table 10: Reaction Conditions: T = 445 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Binary metal oxide (Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 8.4 wt. % Ethanol, 12 wt. % Isobutanol, 50 wt. % 3-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 15 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 12 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 51 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes nd

Methyl isobutyl ketone 23

C6-C7 ketones 20

Di-isobutyl ketone 32

Valeric Acid, Isopentyl ester <1

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0096] Table 11: Reaction Conditions: T = 445 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Tertiary metal oxide (Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 2/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 8.4 wt. % Ethanol, 12 wt. % Isobutanol, 50 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 15 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 12 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 52 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 2

Methyl isobutyl ketone 13

C6-C7 ketones 26

Di-isobutyl ketone 25

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester <1

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins 2

[0097] Table 12: Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Tertiary metal oxide (Zn/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 8.4 wt. % Ethanol, 12 wt. % Isobutanol, 50 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 15 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 12 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 64 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 20

Methyl isobutyl ketone 21

C6-C7 ketones 23

Di-isobutyl ketone 15

Valeric Acid, Isopentyl ester 5

C9+ ketones 3

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0098] Table 13: Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Tertiary metal oxide (Zn/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 2/5/18); refined Fusel Oil Composition: 1 wt. % Ethanol, 2.6 wt. % Isobutanol, 81 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 14 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 76 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 33

Methyl isobutyl ketone 7

C6-C7 ketones 5

Di-isobutyl ketone 28

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 9

C9+ ketones 3

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0099] Table 14: Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Binary metal oxide (Zn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 3/11); refined Fusel Oil Composition: 1 wt. % Ethanol, 2.6 wt. % Isobutanol, 81 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 14 wt. % 2-Methy 1-1 -butanol, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 76 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 50

Methyl isobutyl ketone 5

C6-C7 ketones 3

Di-isobutyl ketone 11

Valeric Acid, Isopentyl ester 18 C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 Olefins <1

[0100] Table 15: Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Metal oxide (tetragonal Zr02 @ 100 %); Refined Fusel Oil Composition: 1 wt. % Ethanol, 2.6 wt. % Isobutanol, 81 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 14 wt. % 2-Methyl-l -butanol, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 38 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes <1

Methyl isobutyl ketone nd

C6-C7 ketones <2

Di-isobutyl ketone 8

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester <1

C9+ ketones <1

C2-C5 olefins 72

[0101] Table 16: Reaction Conditions: T = 440 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Tertiary metal oxide (Zn/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/5/18); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 8.4 wt. % Ethanol, 12 wt. % Isobutanol, 50 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 15 wt. % 2-Methyl-l -butanol, 12 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 63 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 16

Methyl isobutyl ketone 17

C6-C7 ketones 20

Di-isobutyl ketone 24

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 3

C9+ ketones 3

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0102] Table 17: Reaction Conditions: T = 455 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Metal oxide (ZnO @ 100 %); Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l -butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 80 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 48 Methyl isobutyl ketone 10

C6-C7 ketones 5

Di-isobutyl ketone <1

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 2

C9+ ketones <1

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0103] Table 18: Reaction Conditions: T = 415 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Binary metal oxide (Zn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/8; co-precipitated) Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl-l- butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 63 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 39

Methyl isobutyl ketone 10

C6-C7 ketones 2

Di-isobutyl ketone 2

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 18

C9+ ketones <1

C2-C5 olefins 10

[0104] Table 19: Reaction Conditions: T = 435 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Binary metal oxide (Zn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 3/11) Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68 wt. % 3-Methyl-l -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 78 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 48

Methyl isobutyl ketone 16

C6-C7 ketones 2

Di-isobutyl ketone 6

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 17

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0105] Table 20: Reaction Conditions: T = 455 °C, WHSV = 2.0; Catalyst - Tertiary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/24) Crude Fusel Oil Composition: 10.6 wt. % Ethanol, 1.3 wt. % Isobutanol, 68 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 13 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 71%

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

C5 aldehydes 42

Methyl isobutyl ketone 22

C6-C7 ketones 2

Di-isobutyl ketone 13

Valeric acid, Isopentyl ester 8

C9+ ketones 2

C2-C5 olefins <1

[0106] Table 21: Reaction Conditions: T = 420 C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Fusel Oil + Ethanol Mixture Composition: 48.7 wt. % Ethanol, 0.8 wt. % Isobutanol, 39.2 wt. % 3-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7.5 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 3.8 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 53 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

Acetone 5

C5 aldehydes 3

2-pentanone 6

Methyl isobutyl ketone 38

sec-butyl methyl ketone 6

Propyl isobutyl ketone 3

6-methyl-2-heptenone 3

6-methyl-2-heptanone 6

Di-isobutyl ketone 10

m-cresol 4

[0107] Table 22: Reaction Conditions: T = 410 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Fusel Oil + Ethanol Mixture Composition: 48.7 wt. % Ethanol, 0.8 wt. % Isobutanol, 39.2 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7.5 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 3.8 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 53 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total: Acetone 4

C5 aldehydes 11

2-pentanone 4

Methyl isobutyl ketone 38

sec-butyl methyl ketone 5

Propyl isobutyl ketone 2

6-methyl-2-heptenone 3

6-methyl-2-heptanone 6

Di-isobutyl ketone 5

m-cresol 6

[0108] Table 23: Reaction Conditions: T = 395° C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Fusel Oil + Ethanol Mixture Composition: 48.7 wt. % Ethanol, 0.8 wt. % Isobutanol, 39.2 wt. % 3 -Methyl- 1 -butanol, 7.5 wt. % 2-Methyl- 1 -butanol, 3.8 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 58 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

Acetone 4

C5 Aldehydes 18

2-pentanone 5

Methyl isobutyl ketone 20

sec-butyl methyl ketone 3

Propyl isobutyl ketone 1

6-methyl-2-heptenone 3

6-methyl-2-heptanone 6

Di-isobutyl ketone 1

m-cresol 7

[0109] Table 24: Reaction Conditions: T = 480 °C, WHSV = 1.5; Catalyst - Quaternary metal oxide (Zn/Mg/Mn/Zr @ relative metal ratio 1/2/5/18); Fusel Oil + Ethanol Mixture Composition: 29.7 wt. % Ethanol, 2.2 wt. % n-propanol, 6.8 wt. % Isobutanol, 37.5 wt. % 3- Methy 1-1 -butanol, l l.9 wt. % 2-Methy 1-1 -butanol, 12 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 68 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total: Acetone 4

Methyl ethyl ketone 2

C5 aldehydes 7

2-pentanone 3

Methyl isobutyl ketone 41

sec-butyl methyl ketone 10

Propyl isobutyl ketone 4

6-methyl-2-heptenone 7

6-methyl-2-heptanone 2

Di-isobutyl ketone 7

[0110] Table 25: Reaction Conditions: T = 390 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - ZSM5 (CBV- 5524H + ) doped with 1.6 wt. % Boron; Crude Aldehyde Composition: 79 wt. % 3-methyl- butanal, 20 wt. % 2-methyl-butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 95.2 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 1.3

isobutylene 6.4

3-methyl- 1 -butene 1.1

isoprene 16.8

2-methyl-2-butene 2.9

3-methyl-butanal 59.6

2-methyl-butanal 5.0

2-pentanone 1.5

3-pentanone 1.6

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 1.5

[0111] Table 26: Reaction Conditions: T = 380 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - Niobium (10 wt. %) on Alumina; Crude Aldehyde Composition: 70 wt. % 3-methyl-butanal, 30 wt. % 2-methyl- butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 83.3 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 0.3

isobutylene 2.6

linear butenes 0.5 3-methyl- 1 -butene 5.2

2-methyl- 1 -butene 3.9

isoprene 19.7

2-methyl-2-butene 10.0

3-methyl-butanal 29.8

2-methyl-butanal 6.8

methyl isopropyl ketone 2.8

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 4.0

C9+ aromatics 12.0

[0112] Table 27: Reaction Conditions: T = 380 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - Niobium (10 wt. %) on Alumina; Crude Aldehyde Composition: 65 wt. % 3-methyl-butanal, 35 wt. % 2-methyl- butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 85.8 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 0.5

isobutylene 3.9

linear butenes 0.7

3-methyl- 1 -butene 4.8

2-methyl- 1 -butene 5.2

isoprene 21.0

2-methyl-2-butene 13.1

3-methyl-butanal 18.9

2-methyl-butanal 4.9

methyl isopropyl ketone 3.9

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 4.9

C9+ aromatics 17.0

[0113] Table 28: Reaction Conditions: T = 450 °C, WHSV = 2.4 with water co-fed; Catalyst - Zirconium oxide doped with Boron and Phosphorus; Crude Aldehyde Composition: 65 wt. % 3-methyl-butanal, 35 wt. % 2-methyl-butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 98.9 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 0.3

isobutylene 3.2 linear butenes 0.7

3-methyl- 1 -butene 0.2

2-methyl- 1 -butene 0.5

isoprene 27.6

2-methyl-2-butene 1.0

3-methyl-butanal 52.5

2-methyl-butanal 8.8

methyl isopropyl ketone 1.4

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 1.0

C9+ aromatics nd

[0114] Table 29: Reaction Conditions: T = 430 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - Zeolite CBV- 5524 doped with 3.7 wt. % Boron; Crude Aldehyde Feed Composition: 80 wt. % 3-methyl- butanal, 20 wt. % 2-methyl-butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 90.9 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 0.6

isobutylene 9.6

linear butenes 1.5

3-methyl- 1 -butene nd

2-methyl- 1 -butene 0.6

isoprene 18.5

2-methy l-2-butene 1.3

3-methyl-butanal 55.4

2-methyl-butanal 4.0

methyl isopropyl ketone 1.3

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 2.0

C9+ aromatics nd

[0115] Table 30: Reaction Conditions: T = 395 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - Zeolite CBV- 5524 doped with 2.7 wt. % boron and 3.5 wt. % Phosphor; Crude Aldehyde Feed Composition: 68 wt. % 3-methyl-butanal, 32 wt. % 2-methyl-butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 97.1 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total: isobutane 0.8

isobutylene 6.6

linear butenes 1.6

3-methyl- 1 -butene nd

2-methyl- 1 -butene 0.5

isoprene 20.2

2-methyl-2-butene 1.4

3-methyl-butanal 50.0

2-methyl-butanal 8.0

methyl isopropyl ketone 1.3

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 2.0

C9+ aromatics nd

[0116] Table 31: Reaction Conditions: T = 385 °C, WHSV = 2.4; Catalyst - Niobium (10 wt. %) on Alumina doped with 3.7 wt. % Boron; Crude Aldehyde Feed Composition: 70 wt. % 3- methyl-butanal, 30 wt. % 2-methyl-butanal, 1 wt. % Water; Liquid Mass accountability (Mass Out/Mass In) = 90 wt. %

Reactor Effluent Composition Wt. % of Total:

isobutane 0.3

isobutylene 3.0

linear butenes 0.5

3-methyl- 1 -butene 1.8

2-methyl- 1 -butene 3.4

isoprene 16.3

2-methyl-2-butene 8.8

3-methyl-butanal 47.3

2-methyl-butanal 8.8

methyl isopropyl ketone 2.2

3/2-methyl-butanoic acid 2.0

C9+ aromatics 4.2

[0117] The foregoing specific examples are intended to be illustrative of the invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention as defined by appended claims. [0118] The foregoing detailed description has been given for clearness of understanding only and no unnecessary limitations should be understood there from as modifications will be obvious to those skilled in the art.

[0119] The disclosures, including the claims, figures and/or drawings, of each and every patent, patent application, and publication cited herein are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

[0120] While the invention has been described in connection with specific embodiments thereof, it will be understood that it is capable of further modifications and this application is intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention following, in general, the principles of the invention and including such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice within the art to which the invention pertains and as may be applied to the essential features hereinbefore set forth and as follows in the scope of the appended claims.