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Title:
USE OF HUMAN MILK OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CALVES FATTENING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/041803
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to the use of human milk oligosaccharides for feeding production animals such as calves. The present invention further relates to milk replacer compositions containing human milk oligosaccharides. Further subject matter of the present invention is a method for preventing and treating gastrointestinal diseases, particularly gastro-intestinal infections, of young production animals, in particular calves, by administering an effective amount of one or more human milk oligosaccharides. Particularly useful in the context of the present invention as one or the human milk oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose (2-FL).

Inventors:
DIERS, Hubertus (Eisenbahnstrasse 1, Altenberge, 48341, DE)
NIERMANN, Hermann (Felsenkellerweg 42, Melle, 49324, DE)
Application Number:
EP2017/071606
Publication Date:
March 08, 2018
Filing Date:
August 29, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PRISMAGEN GMBH (Lütke Berg 2, Altenberge, 48341, DE)
International Classes:
A23K20/163; A23K50/10; A23K50/60
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015071401A12015-05-21
WO2010120682A12010-10-21
WO2012158517A12012-11-22
WO2012158517A12012-11-22
WO2010070104A12010-06-24
Foreign References:
US20130315990A12013-11-28
Other References:
S MARTÍN-SOSA ET AL: "Sialoglycoconjugate content of milk replacers for neonatal calves", SPANISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 7, no. 2, 1 June 2009 (2009-06-01), ES, pages 322 - 329, XP055416450, ISSN: 1695-971X, DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2009072-423
STEINWUNDER ET AL.: "Milchviehfutterung, Tier- und Leistungsgerecht", 2005, LEOPOLD STOCKER VERLAG
DROCHNER, W. ET AL.: "Ernahrung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere", 2008, EUGEN ULMER KG, article "Futterung der Rinder", pages: 385 - 467
ROHRMOSER ET AL.: "Wirtschaftliche Milchviehhaltung und Rindermast", 1995, VERLAG UNION AGRAR, article "Aufzucht des Rindes", pages: 221 - 261
SCHRAG ET AL.: "Die wichtigsten Krankheiten in Aufzucht und Mast. Erkennung, Vorbeuge, Behandlung", 1984, SCHOBER VERLAGS-GMBH, article "Gesunde Kalber - Gesunde Rinder", pages: 249 - 276
DOHMS: "Aspekte der Darmgesundheit und Chancen fur den Einsatz von Probiotika", 2004
BODE, GLYCOBIOLOGY, vol. 22, no. 9, 2012, pages 1147 - 1162
"Bovine Alliance on Management and Nutrition (BAMN", A GUIDE TO CALF MILK REPLACERS, 2008, Retrieved from the Internet
KAMPHUES ET AL.: "Supplemente zu Vorlesungen und Ubungen in der Tierernahrung", 2004, VERLAG M. & H. SCHAPER ALFRED
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HABERMANN, HRUSCHKA & SCHNABEL (Montgelasstr. 2, München, 81679, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . Milk replacer composition containing at least one human milk oligosaccharide.

2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose.

3. The composition of claim 1 or 2 containing the human milk oligosaccharide in an amount of from 0.5 to 10.0 wt.-% based on the total weight of the composition.

4. The composition of claim 3 containing the human milk oligosaccharide in an amount of from 1 .0 to 5.0 wt.-% based on the total weight of the composition.

5. The composition of claim 4 containing the human milk oligosaccharide in an amount of 4.0 wt.-% based on the total weight of the composition.

6. The composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the human milk oligosaccharide is a synthetic oligosaccharide prepared in bacterial culture.

7. Use of one or more human milk oligosaccharides in feeding of production

animals.

8. The use of claim 7 wherein the human milk oligosaccharide is used in calves mast.

9. The use of claim 8 wherein the human oligosaccharide is 2 '-fu cosy I lactose.

10. A human milk oligosaccharide or a composition of human milk

oligosaccharides for use in the prevention of gastro-intestinal diseases of production animals.

1 1 .The human milk oligosaccharide for use of claim 10 wherein the production animal is a calf.

12. The human milk oligosaccharide for use of claim 1 1 wherein the

oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose.

13. A method for feeding a production animal comprising the step of feeding a production animal with a milk replacer composition according to any one of claims 1 to 6.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein the animal is a calf.

Description:
Use of human milk oligosaccharides in calves fattening

The present invention relates to the use of human milk oligosaccharides for feeding production animals such as calves. The present invention further relates to milk replacer compositions containing human milk oligosaccharides. Further subject matter of the present invention is a method for preventing and treating gastro- intestinal diseases, particularly gastro-intestinal infections, of young production animals, in particular calves, by administering an effective amount of one or more human milk oligosaccharides. Particularly useful in the context of the present invention as one or the human milk oligosaccharide is 2'-fucosyllactose (2-FL). The raising of healthy calves is the basis for successful dairy farming. Healthy calves obtained through optimal farming and care, an early development of the function of the gastroesophageal vestibule and an economically sensible raising are several of the objects of calf raising (Steinwunder et al. (2005) Milchviehfutterung, Tier- und Leistungsgerecht. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz; Drochner, W. (2008): Futterung der Rinder. in: Jeroch et al. (eds.) Ernahrung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere, 2 nd ed.

Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart, pp. 385-467).

A successful raising is connected to the minimization of animal lost, which is regarded as the most crucial problem. In Germany, raising lost has been in the range of 8 to 14 % for several years (see, for example, Rohrmoser (1995): Aufzucht des Rindes. in: Matzke et al. (eds.) Wirtschaftliche Milchviehhaltung und Rindermast. 3 rd ed., Frankfurt am Main, Verlag Union Agrar, pp. 221 -261 ). The goal should be to attain a lost of around 5 %. Optimized calf feeding can contribute to this goal. Several prophylactic measures have been suggested in the context of feeding, for example to reduce instances of calf diarrhea (Schrag et al. (1984) Gesunde Kalber - Gesunde Rinder. Die wichtigsten Krankheiten in Aufzucht und Mast. Erkennung, Vorbeuge, Behandlung. 3 rd ed. Henbersberg, Schober Verlags-GmbH, pp 249-276). The focus of these measures is a well-developed gut microflora and healthiness of the intestine. Various prebiotics have been suggested for inclusion into the milk replacer so as to improve and sustain gut healthiness (Dohms (2004) Aspekte der Darmgesundheit und Chancen fur den Einsatz von Probiotika, 4 th ed.).

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of diverse unconjugated glycans that are abundant and unique to human milk; reviewed, e.g. in Bode (2012)

Glycobiology 22 (9), pp. 1 147-1 162. WO-A-2012/158517 discloses the use of human milk oligosaccharides, in particular 2'-fucosyllactose for the promotion of growth of bacteria found in infant faeces. This prior art also intends to use human milk oligosaccharides as prebiotics for nutrition of diverse mammalia, however, besides growth promotion of enterobacteria, no experimental data whatsoever are presented so that the use of human milk

oligosaccharides for feeding animals remains speculative.

The technical problem underlying the present invention is to provide improved raising of young production annimals, in particular calves, especially through improvement of their feeding.

The solution to the above technical problem is provided by the embodiments of the present invention as described herein and as defined in the claims.

In particular, the present invention relates to novel milk replacer compositions containing at least one human milk oligosaccharide.

According to the invention, a "human milk oligosaccharide" is a sugar molecule composed of at least three carbohydrate entities, which sugar molecule is found in the milk or pre-milk of female humans. Preferably, the HMO is an oligosaccharide composed of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more sugar entities, whereby oligosaccharides containing 4 or more entities may be linear or branched oligomers. HMOs are typically composed of the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, N- acetyglucosamine, N-acetylcalactosamine, fucose and N-acetylneuraminic acid. Most HMOs for use in the invention are based on the disaccharides lactose or N- acetyllactosamine, with those based on lactose are particularly preferred.

Preferred human milk oligosaccharides in the context of the invention include, but are not limited to, 2'-fucoyllactose (2-FL), 3'-fucosyllactose (3-FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3-SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6-SL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), lacto-N- hexaose (LNH), / ' so-lacto-N-octaose, / ' so-lacto-N-neooctaose, para-lacto-N-octaose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I), lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNFP II), lacto-N- fucopentaose III (LNFP III), lacto-N-fucopentaose V (LNFP V), LS-tetrasaccharide a (LST a), LS-zetrasaccharide b (LST b), LS-zetrasaccharide c (LST c) and

disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT).

Particularly preferred HMOs for use in the present invention are the human milk trisaccharides 3-FL and 2-FL. Recently, a biotechnological production of 2-FL has been provided (see WO-A-2010/070104) so that this basic HMO is available on an industrial scale (Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH, Rheinbreitbach, Germany) . The HMO in the milk replacer composition is therefore preferably a synthetic one that has been prepared in bacterial culture, especially using genetically modified bacteria as taught in WO-A-2010/070104. 2-FL, in particular synthetic 2-FL as described before, and higher HMOs based on 2-FL are generally preferred in the context of the invention, and 2-FL is the most preferred HMO for the practice of the present invention.

The present invention also relates to milk replacer compositions comprising more than one particular HMO whereby a mixture of two or more of the above-mentioned HMOs is preferred. Particularly preferred is a mixture of HMOs whereby one of the HMOs of the mixture is 2-FL or 3-FL, or the mixture comprises both 2-FL and 3-FL together with third, fourth, fifth etc. further HMOs. Most preferred in this context of the invention is a combination of 2-FL and 3-FL.

The milk replacer composition of the invention can, of course, contain other sugars in addition to HMOs. In this context, lactose and N-acetyllactosamine are to be mentioned as preferred further oligosaccharides. A "milk replacer" or "milk replacer composition" means a nutritional composition for feeding of production animals, preferably selected from cattle, goat, sheep, pig, deer and horse, especially infant and young production animals. The term "milk replacer" and "milk replacer composition" according to the present invention also includes the definition pursuant to Art. 3 (2) of the Regulation (EC) No. 767/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council, according to which a "milk replacer" means a "compound feed administered in dry form or after dilution in a given quantity of liquid for feeding young animals as a complement to, or substitute for, post-colostral milk or for feeding young animals such as calves, lambs or kids intended for slaughter".

The milk replacer composition of the invention thus typically contains one or more HMOs as described above together with a basic milk replacer composition. The term milk replacer composition according to the invention comprises the composition in dry form as well as its liquid form which is typically obtained by reconstitution of the dry composition with water. Basic nutritional compositions for providing the milk replacer composition of the invention are known in the art (for an overview for calf milk replacers, see, e.g., Bovine Alliance on Management and Nutrition (BAMN), 2008, A GUIDE TO CALF MILK REPLACERS, available online at

https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animaLheaIth/nahms/dairy/downI oads/bamn/BA

GuideMilkRepl.pdf; and Kamphues et al. (2004) Supplemente zu Vorlesungen und Ubungen in der Tierernahrung, Hannover, Verlag M. & H. Schaper Alfred).

Milk replacer compositions according to the invention thus generally comprise at least a protein and a fat source, optionally reconstituted in an aqueous liquid (in which ingredients may be present in the aqueous base in the form of suspension, emulsion and/or solution), typically in admixture with further ingredients such as carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, mineral supplements, and further additives such as medicaments, emulsifiers, thickeners, trace elements, antioxidants and flavorings. Milk replacer compositions are usually categorized according to the source of their protein and/or fat constituents. Typical protein sources for milk replacer

compositions, especially for use in calf feeding, include skimmed milk powder, whey powder, and plant protein sources such as soy protein, soy flour, wheat gluten or wheat isolate. Fat components of milk replacers may be from animal fat or vegetable oils.

Protein and fat levels are both important features of milk replacer compositions for use in the invention. Preferred protein levels in calf milk replacers typically range from about 18 to about 22% (w/w), most preferred about 20 % (w/w), and fat levels are preferably in the range of from about 10 to about 28 % (w/w), with about 18 to about 23% (w/w) fat being more preferred. The levels of ingredients also vary with the type of animal to be fed. For example, for breed calves the fat level typically ranges from about 13 to about 20 % (w/w), while the fat content in the milk replacer composition should be elevated to around 23 % (w/w) for fattening calves, i.e. calves intended for slaughter. Of special consideration for production of milk replacer compositions is also the ratio of carbohydrate to protein. For example, pure dried whey has a lactose content of about 70 % (w/w), and the protein content is about 12 % (w/w). For practicing the invention, the content of carbohydrates (excluding the HMO content), in particular lactose, glucose and saccharose, should preferably not exceed a value of about 50 % (w/w), so as to prevent a high passage rate leading to misfermentations in the colon (Kamphues (2004), supra). A typical basic milk replacer composition for use in the invention contains about 22 % (w/w) or more crude protein, about 20 % (w/w) or more crude fat, not more than about 0.15 (w/w) crude fiber, calcium in an amount of from about 0.75 % (w/w) to about 1 .75 % (w/w), at least about 0.7 % (w/w) phosphorous, at least about 20000 lU/lb Vitamin A, at least about 5000 lU/lb Vitamin D3, and about 100 lU/lb Vitamin E.

The milk replacer composition according to the invention typically contains HMOs (which may be a single type of HMO such as 2-FL, or a mixture of 2 or more different HMOs) in an amount of from about 0.5 to 10.0 % (w/w), preferably about 1 to 5 % (w/w), most preferred 4 % (w/w), based on the total weight of the composition.

The present invention is also directed to the use of HMOs (one ore more of HMOs) for feeding of production animals, in particular young production animals such as calves, lambkins, kids and foals. The HMOs are particularly useful in calves fattening. The present invention is also directed to a method for feeding production animals, in particular young production animals such as calves, lambkins, kids and foals, comprising the step of feeding the production animal with a milk replacer composition of the invention. The feeding method of the invention improves the feed intake by and performance parameters of the production animals, especially in the context of calves fattening. A special benefit of using HMOs as an ingredient in milk replacer compositions as taught herein is an improvement of overall conditions of the fed production animals, in particular calves, lambkins, kids and foals, so that the performance parameters of the animal fed with a milk replacer according to the invention improve. Milk replacer compositions according to the invention decrease animal lost, especially by preventing gastro-intestinal diseases such as bacterial or viral gut infections leading to diarrhea. Without wishing to be bound to any theory, it is believed that the HMOs improve the growth of favorable intestinal bacteria thereby reducing the relative number of pathogenic bacteria, while at the same time prevent or at least hinder binding of pathogenic agents such as pathogenic enterobacteria and viruses to intestinal receptors. The HMOs are also believed to improve the animal's gut microflora, modulate muccosal immunity, and strengthen the animal's resistance against atopic conditions. In the context of the present invention, the HMOs are particularly useful in improving the healthiness of production animals such as calves, lambkins, kids and foals. In particular, the HMOs (which can be either given alone or it can be provided as a mixture of HMOs, as described above) are used for prevention and treatment, and at least reduce the incidents of, gastro-intestinal diseases, in particular bacterial and viral gastro-intestinal diseases such as diarrhea (or at least shorten the periods of such diseases) in said production animals. The HMOs also are useful in preventing and treating atopic diseases, i.e. conditions associated with a hypersensitivity for substances foreign to the body, in production animals, preferably those as defined above. Furthermore, the HMOs are useful for improving the mucosal immunity of production animals, in particular those mentioned before. According to the invention, the HMOs also improve the intestinal flora of the production animals such as calves, lambkins, kids and foals. The HMOs can be administered alone or in form of a composition, preferably in oral administration form, which can also take the form of a milk replacer composition as defined herein. The medical composition can also take the form of a tablet or capsule given separately from any feeding composition. The invention is therefore also directed to a method for preventing or treating a gastrointestinal disease such as bacterial and viral infection in the gastro-intestinal system, for example diarrhea, in a production animal, preferably a young production animal as outlined above, comprising the step of administering a safe and effective amount of at least one HMO, or a composition containing two or more HMOs, to the production animal. The present invention is furthermore directed to the use of at least one HMO, or of a composition containing two or more HMOs, for the production of a medicament for the prevention or treatment of the above-mentioned conditions.

The present invention is further illustrated by the following non-limiting examples: EXAMPLES Example 1 : Feeding of breed calves using milk replacer containing HMO

Materials and methods: 60 calves (Deutsche Holstein), are divided into two groups (control group and experimental group, 30 each) with equal numbers of male (15/30) and female (15/30) animals. The average age of the calves is 7 days. Each animal in both groups is held in single keeping. At the age of 14 days, the calves are held in the two groups with each group held in a different, but otherwise identical stable. The animals are fed with the milk replacer composition via an automated watering dispenser. The animals can take water freely from a water dispenser. In addition, 150 g of hay is given to each animal per day. From the 8 th week onwards, concentrated feed is given via an automated dispenser. Both groups, except for HMOs, are fed with the same milk replacer compositions. The experimental group is fed with basic milk replacer composition plus 4 % (w/w) 2-FL. The control group is fed with additional 4 % (w/w) whey powder instead of the HMO. One litre of the liquid milk replacer composition contains 125 g dry milk replacer concentrate.

The following table shows the feeding plan:

Second week 2 x 3 I milk replacer 42 Single or milk replacer +

HMO

3 rd to 7 th week 2 x 3 I milk replacer 210 Group

or milk replacer +

HMO

8 th to 10 th week 2 x 2 I milk replacer 56 Group

or milk replacer +

HMO

10 to 12 th week 1 x 3 1 milk replacer 28 Group

or milk replacer +

HMO

Total: 336

Duration of experiment: 77 days

Data collection: Feeding via automated dispenser with single animal recognition, measurement of food intake by each individual; hay and feed concentrate data are collected by weighing; daily weighing of each animal; sublingual measurement of body temperature at automated feeding dispenser, with rectal measurement once weekly for comparison and control; control of health condition and use of medication; weekly analysis of faeces with respect to colonisation by intestinal bacteria.

Feed analysis, analyses of milk replacer, hay and feed concentrate.

Example 2: Feeding of fattening calves using milk replacer containing HMO Materials and methods: 60 calves of the breed Fleckvieh, devided into two groups (control/experimental) with 30 calves each. Equal amounts of male (15/30) and female (15/30) calves in both groups. The average age of the animals is 14 days (50 to 60 kg live weight). The animals of each group are held in a stable, both stables are identical. The animals are fed with the milk replacer composition via an automated watering dispenser. The animals can take water freely. In addition, 300 g of hay is given to each animal per day. Both groups, except for HMOs, are fed with the same milk replacer compositions. The experimental group is fed with basic milk replacer composition plus 4 % (w/w) 2-FL. The control group is fed with additional 4 % (w/w) whey powder instead of the HMO. On the onset of the experiment, one litre of the liquid feed composition contains 125 g dry milk replacer concentrate. The

concentration of the liquid feed composition is increased to 250 g per litre at the end of the experiment.

The feeding plan is as follows:

Duration of experiment: the experiment starts at the age of ca. 14 days and ends with slaughter at a weight of ca. 230 to 240 kg (ca. 22 nd week of experiment), resulting in a duration of ca. 140 days. Data collection: Feeding via automated dispenser with single animal recognition, measurement of food intake by each individual; hey and feed concentrate data are collected by weighing; daily weighing of each animal; sublingual measurement of body temperature at automated feeding dispenser, with rectal measurement once weekly for comparison and control; control of health condition and use of medication; weekly analysis of faeces with respect to colonisation by intestinal bacteria. After slaughtering, the body of each animal is evaluated.

Feed analysis, analyses of milk replacer and hay.