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Title:
USE OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED BIOMASS AS MYCOTOXIN BINDER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/193549
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to hydrothermally processed microorganism biomassand a feed or food composition comprising said biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxinsin animal or human digestive tract.

Inventors:
PENNALA, Eero (Mäntyviita 4 A 21, Espoo, FI-02110, FI)
APAJALAHTI, Juha (Kyöniityntie 24C, Helsinki, FI-00670, FI)
PASANEN, Jukka-Pekka (Haarniskatie 12 C 33, Helsinki, FI-00910, FI)
MALM, Annika (Tivolitie 4 A 4, Helsinki, FI-00510, FI)
HEISKA, Arto (Kiviteltankatu 5 A 21, Helsinki, FI-00710, FI)
Application Number:
FI2015/050439
Publication Date:
December 23, 2015
Filing Date:
June 16, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NESTE OIL OYJ (Keilaranta 21, Espoo, FI-02150, FI)
International Classes:
A23K1/00; A23K1/12; A23L1/015; A61K36/02; C12N1/00; C11B1/10; C12P7/64
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010030197A12010-03-18
WO2014188006A12014-11-27
Foreign References:
EP2450424A12012-05-09
US20080268096A12008-10-30
US20120082759A12012-04-05
US20100330615A12010-12-30
EP2450425A12012-05-09
US20120027747A12012-02-02
Other References:
KOGAN G. ET AL.: "Role of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in pig nutrition and health protection.", LIVESTOCK SCIENCE, vol. 109, no. 1-3, 2007, pages 161 - 165, XP022053296, ISSN: 1871-1413
See also references of EP 3157538A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ZACCO DENMARK A/S (Arne Jacobsens Allé 15, Copenhagen S, DK-2300, DK)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A method for preparing a feed or food additive, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass,

(b) subjecting said aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar,

(c) separating a solid phase containing the microbial biomass,

(d) optionally, drying the microbial biomass obtained from step (c).

2. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein step (b) is conducted under conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9.

3. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein step (b) is conducted under conditions corresponding to a severity factor in the range of about 3.5 to about 5.5 such as e.g. about 4 to about 4.9, such as e.g. about 4.1 to about 4.8.

4. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein step (b) is conducted during a period of e.g. about 5 minutes and up to about 120 minutes, such as e.g. about 10 minutes and up to about 60 minutes, while the temperature is about 160°C and up to about 220°C, such as e.g. about 180°C and up to about 220°C.

5. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass contains cultivation medium comprising lignocellulose hydrolysate.

6. The method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the microbial biomass obtained in step (c) further comprises residues of lignocellulose.

7. The method of according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the microbial biomass is obtained from oleaginous microorganisms.

8. The method of according to claim 7, wherein the microbial biomass of step (c) is obtained by subjecting the oleaginous microorganisms to a step of removing the microbial oil from said microbial biomass after step b).

9. The method of according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said microbial biomass is obtained from Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus or Mortierella.

10. A feed or food additive obtainable from the method of claim 1 -9.

1 1 . A method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to claim 8,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

12. A method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to claim 8,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

13. A method for preparing a feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food substance,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to claim 8,

(c) mixing the feed or food substance of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b) to obtain a feed or food product.

14. The method according to any of claims 1 1 to 13, wherein the feed substance is contaminated with one or more mycotoxin such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin or T2 toxin.

15. A feed or food product obtainable from any one of claims 13 and 14.

16. A method for feeding an animal, said method comprising

(a) feeding said animal with a feed product according to claim 15.

17. Hydrothermally processed microbial biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating microorganism on a cultivation medium and subsequently subjecting microbial biomass from said cultivation to a hydrothermal treatment at a temperature of at least 160 °C.

18. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to claim 17, characterized in that the hydrothermal treatment is conducted in conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9.

19. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any of claims 17 to 18, characterized in that the hydrothermal treatment is conducted in conditions corresponding to a severity factor of in the range of of about 3.5 to about 5.5 such as e.g. about 4 to about 4.9, such as e.g. about 4.1 to about 4.8.

20. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to claim 17, characterized in that the hydrothermal treatment is conducted during a period of e.g. about 5 minutes and up to about 120 minutes, such as e.g. about 10 minutes and up to about 60 minutes, while the temperature is about 160°C and up to about 220°C, such as e.g. about 180°C and up to about 220°C.

21 . The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17 and 18, characterized in that the cultivation medium comprises lignocellulose hydrolysate.

22. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17-19, characterized in that the microbial biomass comprises residues of lignocellulose.

23. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17-20, characterized in that the microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from a single cell oil production process.

24. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17-21 , characterized in that the microbial biomass is obtained from strains of yeasts belonging to genus Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, or Saccharomyces or strains of filamentous fungi belonging to genus Aspergillus or Mortierella.

25. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17-22, characterized in the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human stomach, small intestine and/or colon.

26. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of claims 17-23, characterized in the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin and/ T2 toxin.

27. A feed or food composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that it comprises the microbial biomass according to any one of claims 17-24.

Description:
Use of hydrothermally treated biomass as mycotoxin binder

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to hydrothernnally processed microorganism biomass or a feed or food composition comprising said biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract. The invention relates also to a feed or food composition and to a method for producing it. The present invention relates also to a method for improving the well-being and increasing the productivity of an animal.

Background of the invention

Mycotoxins often contaminate feedstuffs. Mycotoxins have multiple toxic effects which cause reduced feed intake and impaired animal performance. Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by molds and fungi and can be present in feed raw materials already at harvest or produced during suboptimal storage. Fungal spores are found everywhere in the environment and therefore mycotoxin contamination in feeds is a major concern to farm animal industry. Mycotoxins can induce acute and long-term chronic diseases on animals, for example, reduced body weight gain and fertility leading to economic losses. In addition, mycotoxins increase susceptibility to viral and bacterial diseases. Besides the fact that mycotoxins decrease animal performance, toxin residues in milk, meat and eggs pose a threat to human end consumers. Mycotoxins are stable and bioaccumulating molecules and, therefore, very difficult to eliminate from contaminated food (Boudergue et al. 2009. Review of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents used as feed additives: mode of action, efficacy and feed/food safety; CFP/EFSA/FEEDAP/2009/01 )

The binding of mycotoxins has been reported by using different adsorbents, for example activated charcoal and aluminosilicates. In addition, yeasts grown on saccharides and yeast products (yeast cell wall extracts) have been used in mycotoxin binding. Commercial yeast polysaccharides including e.g MTB100®, (Alltech Inc.) are reported to adsorb mycotoxins. Hydrothermal processes for different biomasses and waste sludges have been reported widely.

Typically the solid biomass fraction recovered after the hydrothermal processing, i.e., char is used either as a fuel, soil amendment material or as a filler. Hydrothermal processing of distillers grains (DDGS) has been reported to create animal feed. Use of hydrothermally processed microbial biomass as an animal feed additive in mycotoxin binding has not been reported.

US 2012/0027747 relates to a method for rendering mycotoxins harmless, where the mycotoxins are present in food products. The results are reported to be of varied nature showing varied degrees of mycotoxin binding.

Although some attempts to eliminate or reduce the effects of mycotoxins in digestive tract are known from the prior art, there is still a need for efficient products and methods which could be used to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of mycotoxins in digestive tract in animals and human.

Summary of the invention

It is one object of the present invention to provide a solution to problems encountered in the prior art. Specifically, the present invention aims to provide a solution to problems encountered in the well-being of animals and human. Furthermore, the present invention aims to increase the productivity of animals.

In particular, it is one object of the present invention to provide a solution, which enables prevention or reduction of the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract.

To achieve these objects the invention is characterized by the features that are enlisted in the independent claims. Other claims represent the preferred embodiments of the invention.

The invention is based on the surprising finding that hydrothermally processed microbial biomass prevents and reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract in a more effective way than other biomass based products of prior art. It has also been found that the hydrothermally processed biomass does not bind feed components that are essential for the well-being of the animal, e.g., vitamins and amino acids. It has now been surprisingly found that microbial biomass obtained by cultivating microorganism on a cultivation medium and which biomass has been subjected to hydrothermal processing has the ability to prevent and to reduce the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract.

Moreover, it has been surprisingly found that a particularly effective mycotoxin binding is observed when the microbial biomass is processed hydrothermally with a severity factor of about 3.5 to about 5.5 such as e.g. about 4 to about 4.9, such as e.g. about 4.1 to about 4.8.

Accordingly, a first aspect of the present invention relate to a method for preparing a feed or food additive, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass,

(b) subjecting said aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar,

(c) separating a solid phase containing the microbial biomass,

(d) optionally, drying the microbial biomass obtained from step (c).

A second aspect of the present invention relates to a feed or food additive obtainable from the method of the invention relating to the preparation of a feed additive.

A third aspect of the present invention relates to a method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive of the present invention,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

A fourth aspect of the present invention provides a method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive of the present invention, (c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

A fifth aspect of the present invention concerns a method for preparing a feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food substance,

(b) providing a feed or food additive of the present invention,

(c) mixing the feed or food substance of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b) to obtain a feed or food product.

A sixth aspect of the present invention relates to a feed product obtainable from any of the preceding methods for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, a method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product and a method for preparing a feed or food product.

A further aspect concerns a method for feeding an animal with a feed product of the present invention.

One aspect of the present invention provides hydrothermally processed microbial biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating microorganism on a cultivation medium and subsequently subjecting microbial biomass from said cultivation to a hydrothermal treatment at a temperature of at least 160 °C.

Yet an aspect relates to a feed or food composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that it comprises the microbial biomass according to the present invention.

Finally, the present invention provides a method for improving the well-being and increasing the productivity of an animal, characterized in that said method comprises feeding to said animal a feed composition comprising microbial biomass according to the present invention.

Brief description of the Figures

Figure 1 and 7 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of aflatoxin. Figure 2 and 8 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of ochratoxin. Figure 3 and 9 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of zearaleone. Figure 4 and 10 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of vomitoxin. Figure 5 and 1 1 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of T-2 toxin. Figure 6 and 12 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of Fumonisin B1 . Figure 13 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of lysine Figure 14 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of threonine Figure 15 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of tryptophan Figure 16 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of methionine Figure 17 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of thiamine Figure 18 shows the binding of microbial biomasses of niacin

Detailed description of the invention Definitions

The present invention provides hydrothermally processed microbial biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract. Such biomass is obtainable by cultivating said microorganisms on a cultivation medium and processing the biomass by a hydrothermal process.

As disclosed herein the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is able to bind a wide range of mycotoxins. In addition, said hydrothermally processed biomass is able to bind mycotoxins both at the pH of the acidic stomach and neutral small intestine and colon.

The binding effect of adsorbing agents is based on that said microbial biomass physically bind mycotoxins and inhibit their uptake from the digestive tract of animals and the subsequent distribution of the blood and target organs. The toxin-adsorbing agent complex passes through the animal digestive tract and is voided via the faeces, thus minimizing the exposure of animal tissues to mycotoxins.

By "lignocellulosic material" is meant any material which comprises lignocellulose. Lignocellulosic material comprises lignocellulose, fragments of lignocellulose or hydrolysis products of lignocellulose including saccharides, such as mono-, di-, and/or oligosaccharides originating from lignocellulose. "Lignocellulosic material" may comprise also other components in addition to lignocellulose such as other components from wood or herbaceous plants.

"Lignocellulose" comprises carbohydrate polymers cellulose and hemicellulose and aromatic polymer lignin. Lignocellulosic material include but is not limited to woody plants or non-woody, herbaceous plants or other materials containing cellulose and/or hemicellulose: Materials can be agricultural residues (such as wheat straw, rice straw, chaff, hulls, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw tops and leafs), dedicated energy crops (such as switchgrass, Miscanthus, reed canary grass, willow, water hyacinth), wood materials or residues (including sawmill and pulp and/or paper mill residues or fractions, such as hemicellulose, spent sulphite liquor, waste fibre and/or primary sludge), moss or peat, or municipal paper waste. The term

lignocellulosic material comprises also low lignin materials, materials such as macroalgae biomass. In addition, the materials comprise also hemicellulose or cellulose fractions from industrial practises. The term lignocellulosic material encompasses any kind of cellulose fraction. The raw materials or certain fractions, such as hemicellulose and/or cellulose, of raw materials from different origin, plant species, or industrial processes can be mixed together and used as raw materials for cultivating microbial biomass according to this disclosure.

The term lignocellulosic material comprises at least 50 wt% lignocellulose, preferably at least 60 wt% lignocellulose, more preferably at least 70 wt% lignocellulose, most preferably at least 80 wt% lignocellulose. Usually lignocellulosic material comprises 60 - 95 wt% lignocellulose, typically 70 - 90 wt%, or 80 - 90 wt% lignocellulose.

"A cultivation medium comprising lignocellulosic material" means a cultivation medium for cultivating a microorganism, which medium comprises lignocellulose, fragments of lignocellulose or hydrolysis products of lignocellulose including nitrogen compounds originating from proteins and metals, and other components necessary for cultivating said microorganism, such as a source of nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic salts and/or trace elements, defoaming agents. Lignocellulose may function as a carbon source for said microorganism, but it may also have other functions in the cultivation medium.

"Hydrolysis" refers here to saccharification of polymeric sugars to sugar oligomers and monomers. Saccharification is typically carried out in two phases: first the substrate i.e. lignocellulosic material or lignocellulose is hydrolyzed by

thermochemical or chemical methods and then by using enzymes capable of hydrolysing polymeric sugars. Alternatively and depending on the lignocellulosic material, saccharification can be carried out by using thermochemical or chemical methods or by enzymes capable of hydrolysing polymeric sugars or some

combination of these methods. Chemical methods include, but are not limited to acid treatment.

In some embodiments of the invention, the microorganism cultivated on a medium comprising lignocellulosic material is able to hydrolyse lignocellulose to sugar oligomers and monomers. In other preferred embodiments lignocellulosic material or feedstock comprising polymeric sugars is hydrolyzed to monomeric sugars thermochemically and/or chemically and/or by enzymes before cultivation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, lignocellulosic material containing polymeric sugars is hydrolysed thermochemically and/or chemically and/or by enzymes to contain oligomeric sugars and the microorganism cultivated on a medium comprising lignocellulose is able to utilize these sugar oligomers.

By "lignocellulose hydrolysate" is meant the hydrolysis products of lignocellulose or lignocellulosic material comprising cellulose and/or hemicellulose, oligosaccharides, mono- and/or disaccharides, acetic acid, formic acid, other organic acids, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, levulinic acid, phenolic compounds, other hydrolysis and/or degradation products formed from lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and/or other components of lignocellulose, nitrogen compounds originating from proteins, metals and/or non-hydrolyzed or partly hydrolyzed fragments of lignocellulose. According to this disclosure the treatment of lignocellulose and production of lignocellulose hydrolysate for cultivation of microbial biomass can be done with any method known in the art or developed in the future. Methods include but are not limited to thermochemical treatment, steam explosion, hot water extraction, autohydrolysis, sub critical water treatment, super critical water treatment, strong acid treatment, mild acid treatment, alkaline treatment (e.g. lime, ammonia), Organosolv treatment (e.g. alcohols, organic acids), mechanical treatment, thermomechanical treatment and ionic liquid treatment. These treatments methods can be combined with enzymatic treatment.

Hydrothermal processing or hydrothermal treatment or heat treatment are used here synonymously and refer to a process in which an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass is heated to a temperature of at least 160°C and subjecting the aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar.

It should be notes that in the context of the present invention the above mentioned methods, i.e. thermochemical treatment, steam explosion, hot water extraction, autohydrolysis, sub critical water treatment, super critical water treatment, strong acid treatment, mild acid treatment, alkaline treatment (e.g. lime, ammonia), Organosolv treatment (e.g. alcohols, organic acids), mechanical treatment, thermomechanical treatment and ionic liquid treatment does not fall within the definition of hydrothermal processing (or hydrothermal treatment, heat treatment, HTT).

The term "severity factor" (Pedersen, M. and A. S. Meyer (2010). Lignocellulose pretreatment severity - relating pH to biomatrix opening. New Biotechnology 27(6): 739-750) refers here to a parameter LogRo, which is calculated based on the following equation and which describes the hydrothermal conditions in terms of temperature and time.

"A cultivation medium comprising saccharides" means here a cultivation medium, which comprises mono-, di-, and/or oligosaccharides from lignocellulose. "A cultivation medium comprising pure saccharides" means here a cultivation medium, which comprises mono-, di- and/or oligosaccharides, which are not produced by hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Pure saccharides include, e.g. starch or starch derived sugars, sugar cane or sugar beet derived sugars.

By "a microorganism" is meant any microorganism, such as a fungus, preferably a filamentous fungus or yeast, an alga including heterotrophic alga, a bacterium or an archaebacterium, which microorganism is capable of producing cellular biomass. Microorganism is able to produce microbial biomass when grown on cultivation medium comprising a source of carbon. Preferably said microorganism is a filamentous fungus or yeast. More preferably the microbial biomass is fungal biomass, still more preferably obtainable from cultivation of filamentous fungi or yeasts, most preferably filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus and/or Mortierella or yeasts from genus Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, or Saccharomyces.

In the context of the present invention the term "biomass" (or "cell mass") refers to biological material derived from living or non-living organisms. "Microbial biomass" or "microorganism biomass" thus refers to biomass derived from a microorganism(s). The microbial biomass may be obtained from a single species of microorganism or a pool of different species of microorganisms. The microbial biomass may exist in a living or a non-living state. In the context of the present invention, the microbial biomass, which has been subjected to hydrothermal heat treatment (HTT) is in a non-living state.

"Hydrothermally processed microbial biomass" thus refers to microbial biomass, which have been subjected to hydrothermal processing. It follows from the above that hydrothermally processed microbial biomass according to this disclosure refers to biomass of microorganisms in a non-living state since the hydrothermal processing of microbial biomass disrupts the structure of the biomass cells.

In the context of the present invention the term "residual microbial biomass" refers to microbial biomass in the form of a by-product from a process that actively involves or is conducted in the present of microorganism. For example the residual microbial biomass may be the microorganisms from a fermentation broth such as an alcohol fermentation broth or microbial lipid production process. The residual microbial biomass may be in a living state or a non-living state. It follows that if the process from which the residual microbial has been subjected to a step that terminates the fermentation by killing the microbes present (e.g. pasteurization) then the residual microbial biomass is in a non-living state.

According to this disclosure a microorganism can be cultivated for biomass production or it can be cultivated under conditions that permit the microorganism to produce desired products, such as lipids, ethanol, enzymes, or other economically valuable co-products.

According to one embodiment of the invention, by "oleaginous microorganism" refers to is a lipid-producing microorganism. When a lipid-producing microorganism has been used for single cell oil production, the microbial biomass is residual biomass from a single cell oil production process.

By "lipid producing microorganism " or "oleaginous microorganism" is meant a microorganism that is able to produce and accumulate in their cell biomass more than 15% lipids from their dry cell biomass weight when cultivated in suitable conditions for lipid production. Alternatively or in addition microorganism may be able to excrete lipids outside the cells e.g. to cultivation medium.

Single-cell oil stands typically for an intracellular lipid that has been intracellularly synthesized by a microorganism, lipids excreted by the cell, as well as lipids present in the structural parts of a cell, such as in membrane systems.

By "single-cell oil production process" is meant a process where microorganisms are used to produce oils. In the process, microorganisms are cultivated on organic carbon sources and microorganisms are let to produce oil . Microorganisms can store the oil intracellularly or excrete it out from the cell. Organic carbon source can be pure saccharides, lignocellulosic material, or starch. Single-cell oil process typically utilizes microorganisms, such as oleaginous microorganisms, that are capable of producing lipids efficiently.

"Lipid recovery" or" oil recovery" refers to a process, in which the lipid (intracellular lipid) is recovered by mechanical, chemical, biochemical, thermomechanical or autocatalytic methods or by a combination of these methods from the microorganism cells.

After cultivation of microorganisms for production of oil, microorganisms containing lipids may be separated from culture medium by any known methods, such as by using a filtration or decanting techniques. Alternatively, centrifugation with industrial scale commercial centrifuges of large volume capacity may be used to separate the desired products.

In various embodiments of the invention, oil, or precursors for oil, may be recovered from cell biomass for example cell biomass provided in the form of a culture broth using any method known in the art or developed in the future. Such methods, include, but are not limited to extraction with organic solvents or mechanical pressing. The microbial biomass is subjected to hydrothermal processing before or after the recovery of oil or precursors of oil from the cell biomass. Preferably the microbial biomass is hydrothermally processed before the recovery of oil or oil precursors.

In embodiments where microbial biomass is cultivated on lignocellulosic material, in particular lignocellulose hydrolysate, it may comprise also hydrolysis products or residues of lignocellulose. Such residues are for example, acetic acid, formic acid, other organic acids, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, levulinic acid, phenolic compounds, other hydrolysis or degradation products formed from lignin, cellulose or hemicellulose or other components of lignocellulose, or non-hydrolyzed or partly hydrolyzed fragments of lignocellulose. Hence, if microbial biomass is cultivated on lignocellulose hydrolysate, it typically comprises lignocellulose hydrolysis products or residues, which the microorganism has not utilized during cultivation or which the microorganism has not been able to utilize, for example lignin, polysaccharides and mono-, di- or oligosaccharides. The amount of lignocellulose hydrolysis products or residues is typically 0.01 - 20 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.5 - 10 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass. The amount of phenolic compounds originating from

lignocellulosic materials is typically 0.01 - 10 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.05 - 5 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass. Depending on the source of the lignocellulosic material and on other components of the cultivation medium, "microbial biomass" may comprise for example residues of various proteins and lipids.

In one embodiments of the invention, the microorganism is cultivated on

lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing lignocellulose hydrolysis or degradation products not utilized by microorganism, such as phenolic compounds and furfural. These compounds are formed in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose. The lignocellulose hydrolysis can be performed by thermochemical treatment, steam explosion, hot water extraction, autohydrolysis, sub critical water treatment, super critical water treatment, strong acid treatment, mild acid treatment, alkaline treatment (e.g. lime, ammonia), Organosolv treatment (e.g. alcohols, organic acids), mechanical treatment, thermomechanical treatment, ionic liquid treatment in addition to

enzymatic treatment.

The capability of hydrothermally processed microbial biomass to prevent or to reduce the adverse effect of mycotoxins is considered to be due to process driven changes in cell structure of the biomass and/or changes in the cell wall composition of the biomass. These changes in biomass cell structure and composition of the cell wall and the biomass are considered to be due to the hydrothermal processing.

Without being bound by any theory it is also considered that lignocellulosic residues if present in the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass may be at least partly responsible for the prevention or adverse effect of mycotoxins in digestive tract. The components of hydrolysate, such as phenolic compounds and metals may adsorb to the cell wall of microorganisms and be carried on with the microbial biomass. It is also considered that at least part of the lignocellulosic material dissolved in the cultivation medium is transformed into solid state during the hydrothermal processing and therefore to form part of the microbial biomass. Alternatively the microbial cell walls may be modified by the components of lignocellulose hydrolysate.

Hydrothermally processed microbial biomass binds according to this disclosure a wide range of mycotoxins including, but not limited to aflatoxin, ochratoxin,

zearaleon, vomitoxin, fumonisin and T2 toxin. This encompasses thus also vomitoxin, which is not bound for example by commercial mycotoxin binder hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). Hydrothermally processed microbial biomass binds also mycotoxins at wide pH range, and is therefore able to bind mycotoxins in various pHs of the digestive tract, in stomach (pH 2.5) and in small intestinal conditions (pH 6.5).

Preferred microorganism strains for the purposes of the present invention are from the species and genera listed below:

Preferred fungal strains are from species from genera Aspergillus such as Aspergillus oryzae, Mortierella such as Mortierella isabellina, Chaetomium, Claviceps,

Cladosporidium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Glomus, Mucor,

Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pseudozyma, Pythium, Rhizopus, Tremella, Trichoderma, Zygorhynchus, Humicola, Cladosporium, Malbranchea, Umbelopsis such as

Umbelopsis isabellina and Ustilago.

Preferred yeast strains are those belonging to species from genera Clavispora, Geotrichum, Deparyomyces, Pachysolen, Kluyveromyces, Galactomyces,

Hansenula, Leucosporidium, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Sporidiobolus, Waltomyces, Endomycopsis, Cryptococcus, such as Cryptococcus curvatus,

Rhodosporidium, such as Rhodosporidium toruloides or Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula, such as Rhodotorula glutinis, Yarrowia, such as Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia, such as Pichia stipitis, Candida such as Candida curvata, Lipomyces such as Lipomyces starkeyi and Trichosporon such as Trichosporon cutaneum or

Trichosporon pullulans. Most preferred yeasts are from genus Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces or Saccharomyces.

Preferred bacteria are those belonging to the species from genera Acinetobacter, Actinobacter, Alcanivorax, Aerogenes, Anabaena, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Clostridium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Escherichia, Flexibacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, Rhodopseudomonas, Shewanella, Shigella, Streptomyces and Vibrio. Most preferred algae are microalgae, such as microalgae species from genera comprising

Achnantes, Amphiprora, Amphora, Ankistrodesmus, Attheya, Boeklovia,

Botryococcus, Biddulphia, Brachiomonas, Bracteococcus, Carteria, Chaetoceros, Characium, Chlamydomonas, Crypthecodinium, Cryptomonas, Chlorella,

Chlorococcum, Chrysophaera, Coccochloris, Cocconeis, Cyclotella, Cylindrotheca, Dunaliella, Ellipsoidon, Entomoneis, Euglena, Eremosphaera, Extubocellulus, Franceia, Fragilaria, Gleothamnion, Hantzschia, Haematococcus, Hormotilopsis, Hymenomonas, Isochrysis, Lepocinclis, Melosira, Minidiscus, Micractinum,

Monallanthus, Monoraphidium, Muriellopsis, Nannochloris, Nannochloropsis, Navicula, Neochloris, Nephroselmis, Nitzschia Ochromonas, Oedogonium, Oocystis, Papiliocellulus, Parachlorella, Pascheria, Pavlova, Peridinium, Phaeodactylum, Plankthothrix, Platymonas, Pleurochrysis, Pleurosigma, Porphyridium, Prototheca, Prymnesium, Pseudochlorella, Pyramimonas, Pyrobotrus, Radiosphaera,

Rhodomonas, Rhodosorus, Sarcinoid, Scenedesmus, Schizochytrium, Scrippsiella, Seminavis, Skeletonema, Spirogyra, Stichococcus, Synedra, Tetraedron,

Tetraselmis, Thalassiosira, Trachyneis, Traustrochytrium, Trentepholia, Ulkenia, Viridiella, and Volvox. The organisms belonging to the genera Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium and Crypthecodinium and Ulkenia are sometimes called as marine fungi.

According to the present disclosure hydrothermally processed microbial biomass obtained by cultivating microorganisms on a cultivation medium prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, preferably in animal or human stomach, small intestine and/or colon.

By "mycotoxin" is here meant any secondary metabolite produced by fungi that cause a toxic response (mycotoxicosis) when ingested by animals or human.

Mycotoxins comprise for example:

Aflatoxin, in particular B1 , B2, G1 and G2, for example AFB1 . Aflatoxin is

synthesized by fungi of Aspergillus genus. It is found in all major cereal crops. It is typically found in high moisture and temperature. It causes liver disease, and carcinogenic and teratogenic effects.

Ochratoxin, in particular Ochratoxin A, is synthesized by fungi of Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. It causes nephrotoxicity, mild liver damage and immune suppression. Especially chickens are susceptible to ochratoxin.

Zearaleone in particular Zearaleone (ZEA) is synthesized by fungi of Fusarium genus. It causes estrogenic effects, atrophy of ovaries and testicles and abortion. It binds estrogen receptors in farm animals and thereby disrupts estrogenic hormone binding. Especially swine are sensitive to zearaleone.

Trichothecenes, in particular Vomitoxin (deoxyvalenol, DON) is synthesized by fungi of Fusarium genus. They cause Immunologic effects, diarrhoea, reduced feed intake and haemorrhages in animals.

Fumonisin, in particular fumonisin B1 , B2 and B3 synthesized by fungi of Fusarium genus. It causes pulmonary edema, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity in animals. "By "preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins" is meant here toincrease the well-being and productivity of animals in case the well-being and/or animal productivity have been decreased by mycotoxins in said animals or to decrease of mortality of animals caused by mycotoxins. In humans preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins means the increase in well-being and better health.

The present invention provides also a feed or food composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract. Said feed or food composition comprises the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass according to this disclosure.

The use of a feed composition for use in reducing the amount of mycotoxins in feed results also in reduction of mycotoxins in products sold to end consumers, such as milk, eggs, or meat.

The feed or food composition comprises hydrothermally processed microbial biomass preferably 0.001 -20 wt %, more preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition.

In some embodiments of the invention the composition is a ruminant or monogastric animal, such as pigs or poultry feed composition. The composition comprises hydrothermally processed microbial biomass and components or ingredients suitable for ruminant or monogastric animal feed composition, such as source of protein and fibre components.

By "feed or food ingredient" is here meant a component part or constituent of any combination or mixture making up a feed or food, whether or not it has a nutritional value in the animal ' s or human ' s diet. Ingredients are of plant, animal or aquatic origin, or other organic or inorganic substances.

In the context of the present invention "feed or food additive" refers to a composition of microbial biomass, which essentially does not have a nutritional value in the animal ' s or human ' s diet. The "feed or food additive" of the present invention has the capacity of inactivating/detoxifying mycotoxins.

By the term "dry matter content" or "DM" is meant the solid contents of the

suspension that are being subjected to hydrothermal treatment. According to the invention the DM of the suspensions subjected to hydrothermal treatment is in the range of about 1 % to about 25% such as e.g. 5% to about 20%, such as e.g. about 8 % to about 20 % and can thus be characterized as clear suspensions. It should be noted that the suspension according to the invention has a maximum DM content of 25%.

The present invention provides also a method for producing a feed or food additive. In broad terms the method comprises the steps of

- providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass,

- subjecting the microbial biomass to a hydrothermal processing at a temperature of at least 160 °C- separating a solid phase containing microbial biomass and/or separating the cell wall from the soluble intracellular components and obtaining a cell wall extract,

- optionally, drying the separated microbial biomass or cell wall extract,

- subsequently said cell biomass or cell extract may be added to a feed or food product.

A first aspect of the present invention therefore relates to a method for preparing a feed or food additive, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass, (b) subjecting said aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar,

(c) separating a solid phase containing the microbial biomass,

(d) optionally, drying the microbial biomass obtained from step (c).

The microbial biomass obtained in step (c) may be in the form of a concentrated suspension comprising said solid phase containing the microbial biomass microbial biomass, a wet or a substantially dry form of said solid phase containing the microbial biomass microbial biomass. Where it is desired, a dry form of the solid phase containing the microbial biomass may be obtained by subjecting the solid phase to a step of drying the solid phase.

The hydrothermal processing (step (b)) is conducted at a pressure above 5 bar, such as in the range of 6 to 25 bar, for example in the range of 10 to 25 bar, such as in the range of 10 to 15 bar. The hydrothermal processing (step (b)) is conducted for 1 second to 360 minutes, such as in the range of 5 minutes to 240 min, for example in the range of 10 minutes to 120 min.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the hydrothermal processing (step (b)) is conducted in the range of 180 °C to 250 °C. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrothermal processing (step (b)) is conducted under conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9.

In a further embodiment, the severity factor is in the range of about 3.5 to about 5.5 such as e.g. about 4 to about 4.9, such as e.g. about 4.1 to about 4.8. The thermal treatment is typically conducted in a closed vessel.

Moreover, the hydrothermal heating is conducted during a period of e.g. about 5 minutes and up to about 120 minutes, such as e.g. about 10 minutes and up to about 60 minutes, while the temperature is about 160°C and up to about 220°C, such as e.g. about 180°C and up to about 220°C.

In another embodiment, the microbial biomass obtained from (c) is subjected to washing step. Where the microbe has been cultivated using a cultivation medium comprising lignocellulose the cultivation medium may comprise lignocellulose hydrolysate if not before then at least after the hydrothermal treatment (step (b)).

In one embodiment of the present invention, the aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass contains cultivation medium comprising lignocellulose hydrolysate. In a further embodiment, wherein the microbial biomass obtained in step (c) further comprises residues of lignocellulose.

The amount of lignocellulose hydrolysis products or residues is typically 0.01 - 20 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.5 - 10 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass. The amount of phenolic compounds originating from lignocellulosic materials is typically 0.01 - 10 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.05 - 5 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass.

In another embodiment, the aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass contains cultivation medium comprising starch and/or sugar cane/beet derived sugars.

According to this disclosure the microbial biomass obtainable by cultivating

microorganisms on a medium comprising pure saccharides, lignocellulosic material or starch is useful in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the microbial biomass is obtained from oleaginous microorganisms.

It follows that the feed or food additive of the present invention may in the form of a by-product from a microbial lipid production process. The by-product may be subjected to further refining to obtain the feed or food additive.

Accordingly, in one embodiment, said microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from a fermentation process. In a further embodiment, the microbial biomass of step (c) is obtained by subjecting the oleaginous

microorganisms to a step of removing the microbial oil from said microbial biomass. In a particular embodiment, the microbial biomass of step (c) is obtained by subjecting the oleaginous microorganisms to a step of removing the microbial oil from said microbial biomass after step b).

Thus one embodiment of the present invention provides a method for preparing a feed or food additive, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass from or in the form of a oleaginous microorganisms,

(b) subjecting said aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar,

(c) separating a solid phase containing the microbial biomass from the liquid phase,

(d) drying the solid phase containing the microbial biomass obtained from step

(c) ,

(e) extracting the microbial oil from the microbial biomass obtained from step

(d) with a solvent,

(f) optionally, drying the microbial biomass obtained from step (e).

The aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass may contain one or more microorganism or microbial biomass from more than one microorganism. Thus in one embodiment, the microbial biomass is obtained from one or more microorganism. It follows that the feed or food additive of the present invention may contain microbial biomass from more than one microorganism.

As mentioned herein, the microbial biomass used by the invention may be obtained from a wide range of microorganisms including both unicellular and multicellular microorganisms. In a preferred embodiment, the microbial biomass is obtained from one or more fungi, preferably yeasts or filamentous fungi. In one embodiment of the invention the microbial biomass in aqueous suspension is obtained from

Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, or Saccharomyces or strains of filamentous fungi belonging to genus Aspergillus or Mortierella. In one particular embodiment of the invention the microbial biomass in aqueous suspension used by the method of the invention is obtained from Rhodosporidium or Lipomyces. In a preferred embodiment the microbial biomass is obtained from or at least a major part of the microbial biomass is obtained from Rhodosporidium.

A second aspect of the present invention provides a feed or food additive obtainable from the method of the invention as discussed above.

The inventors have discovered that the product of the method has the capacity to inactivate/detoxify mycotoxins. As mentioned herein, this capacity of the microbial biomass obtained by the method of the invention is considered to be due to the hydrothermal processing (step b)). The microbial biomass obtained by the method of the invention may therefore be used a food or feed additive due to its capacity to prevent or to reduce the adverse effect of mycotoxins in the digestive tract of a human or animal subject. The hydrothermal treatment significantly lowers the nutritional value of the microbial biomass and it cannot therefore be used as animal feed or fodder.

The microbial biomass is believed to physically bind mycotoxins and inhibit (detoxify) or reduce the bioavailability by reduce their uptake from the digestive tract of animals and the subsequent distribution of the blood and target organs.

One aspect of the present invention therefore relates to a method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin (or suspected to be contaminated with a mycotoxin),

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to the invention,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

Thus it follows that one embodiment provides a method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed product contaminated with a mycotoxin (or suspected to be contaminated with a mycotoxin),

(b) providing a feed additive according to the invention, (c) mixing the feed product of (a) with the feed additive of (b).

Another aspect of the present invention therefore relates to a method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin (or suspected to be contaminated with a mycotoxin),

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to the invention,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

Thus it follows that one embodiment provides a relates to a method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed product contaminated with a mycotoxin (or suspected to be contaminated with a mycotoxin),

(b) providing a feed additive according to the invention,

(c) mixing the feed product of (a) with the feed additive of (b).

Yet aspect of the present invention therefore relates to a method for preparing a feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food substance,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to the invention,

(c) mixing the feed or food substance of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b) to obtain a feed or food product.

Thus it follows that one embodiment relates to a method for preparing a feed product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed substance,

(b) providing a feed additive according to the invention, (c) mixing the feed substance of (a) with the feed additive of (b) to obtain a feed product.

In one embodiment, the feed additive used by the above methods amounts 0.001 -20 wt % dry weight of the feed of step (c). In another embodiment, the feed additive amounts 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of the feed of step (c).

The feed substance provided in step (a) of the above methods is contaminated with a mycotoxin or at least suspected to be contaminated with one or more mycotoxins. In one embodiment of the present invention, the feed substance is contaminated with one or more mycotoxin such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin or T2 toxin.

A further aspect of the present invention relates to a feed or food product obtainable from the any of the preceding method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, a method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product and a method for preparing a feed or food product.

As mentioned above the addition of the feed additive of the present invention reduced the risk of adverse effects of mycotoxins present in a mycotoxin

contaminated feed product. The additive may thus be added to the feed for a prevention purpose or added to a feed know to be contaminated with a mycotoxin.

One aspect of the present invention provided a method for feeding an animal, said method comprising feeding said animal with a feed product of the present invention.

In one embodiment, said animal is a ruminant or monogastric animal. In another embodiment, said animal is aquaculture such as fish, mollusk or shrimp feed composition. The feed product thus comprises hydrothermally processed microbial biomass and components or ingredients suitable for aquaculture feed composition, such as source of protein and fat components.

In a further embodiment, said animal is a livestock such as a livestock selected from the list consisting of pigs, horses, poultry, cattle, goats and sheep. In a preferred embodiment, the animal is a chicken. In another preferred embodiment, the animal is a pig.

In further embodiments of the invention the food product is a nutritional product for human use. The food product then comprises hydrothermally processed microbial biomass and components or ingredients suitable for food composition. Such components or ingredients comprise for example salt and sugar or other flavour giving ingredients.

The hydrothermally processed microbial biomass may be used in the feed or food product as a food or feed topping, food or feed extender or feed or food supplement.

The present invention provides also a feed or food composition, which comprises preferably 0.001 -20 wt %, more preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass, said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass being obtainable as disclosed herein, and preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract.

The present invention provides also a method for producing a feed or food

composition from single cell oil production process. Preferable the method comprises the steps of

- cultivating a microorganism on a cultivation medium;

- allowing microorganisms to produce oil, preferably under nutrient starvation;

- subjecting the microbial biomass to a hydrothermal processing at a temperature of at least 160 °C

- collecting oil-rich microorganism cells from cultivation medium and optionally washing and drying the cells;

- recovering oil from microorganisms cells typically by organic solvent, said extraction creating liquid phase containing oil and residual microbial biomass,

- separating the residual microbial biomass;

- drying and desolventizing the separated residual microbial biomass;

- adding said microbial biomass to feed or food. Separated residual microbial biomass may optionally be treated mechanically, thermochemically, chemically or enzymatically prior to adding to feed or food.

Advantageously a feed or food composition is prepared by mixing a specific amount of hydrothermally processed microbial biomass or cell wall extract to feed or food. A feed or food composition is prepared to comprise preferably 0.001 -20 wt %, more preferably 0.1 -3 wt % (dry weight) of dry weight of said composition microbial biomass obtainable as disclosed herein.

Advantageously the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass may comprise residues of lignocellulose. The amount of lignocellulose hydrolysis products or residues is typically 0.01 - 20 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.5 - 10 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass. The amount of phenolic compounds originating from lignocellulosic materials is typically 0.01 - 10 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.05 - 5 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass.

The present invention provides also a method for improving the well-being and increasing the productivity of an animal. The method comprises feeding to said animal a feed composition comprising hydrothermally processed microbial biomass, said biomass comprising non-living microbial biomass being obtainable by cultivating a microorganism on a cultivation medium.

Thus one aspect of the present invention provides a method for improving the well- being and increasing the productivity of an animal, characterized in that said method comprises feeding to said animal a feed composition comprising hydrothermally processed microbial biomass as described herein (the feed additive of the invention). In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises 0.001 -20 wt %, preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said microbial biomass.

A further aspect of the present invention provides a hydrothermally processed microbial biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating microorganism on a cultivation medium and subsequently subjecting microbial biomass from said cultivation to a hydrothermal treatment at a temperature of at least 160 °C. In one embodiment, the hydrothermal treatment is conducted at a temperature of from 180 °C to 250 °C. In another embodiment, the hydrothermal treatment is conducted in conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9. In a further embodiment, the microbial biomass is subjected to washing step after the hydrothermal treatment.

In a further embodiment, the severity factor is in the range of about 3.5 to about 5.5 such as e.g. about 4 to about 4.9, such as e.g. about 4.1 to about 4.8. The thermal treatment is typically conducted in a closed vessel.

Moreover, the hydrothermal heating is conducted during a period of e.g. about 5 minutes and up to about 120 minutes, such as e.g. about 10 minutes and up to about 60 minutes, while the temperature is about 160°C and up to about 220°C, such as e.g. about 180°C and up to about 220°C.

In yet another embodiment, the cultivation medium comprises lignocellulose hydrolysate. In a particular embodiment, the microbial biomass comprises residues of lignocellulose.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the cultivation medium comprises starch and/or sugar cane/beet derived sugars.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract is residual microbial biomass obtained from a single cell oil production process. In a further embodiment, said biomass is obtainable by subjecting the microbial biomass to hydrothermal treatment before recovering the single cell oil from said microbial biomass.

In another embodiment, the microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from an alcohol production process, preferably from an ethanol production process.

As mentioned herein the microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating fungi strains, preferably yeasts or filamentous fungi. In a preferred embodiment, the microbial biomass is obtained from strains of yeasts belonging to genus Rhodosporidium. In one embodiment of the present invention the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human stomach, small intestine and/or colon. In a further embodiment, the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin and/ T2 toxin.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the animal is a chicken and the mycotoxin is ochratoxin. In another preferred embodiment, the animal is a pig and the mycotoxin is zearaleone.

The present invention further provide a feed or food composition (also referred to as a feed or food product) for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that it comprises the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass described herein (also referred to a feed or food additive).

In one embodiment, the composition comprises the microbial biomass 0.001 -20 wt %, preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition. In a further embodiment, the composition comprises 0.001 -20 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition microbial biomass.

As discussed herein the feed composition comprising the hydrothermally processed biomass is useful for preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal. Animals include a ruminant or monogastric animal. Thus in one embodiment of the present invention, the feed composition is a ruminant or monogastric animal feed composition. In one embodiment, the animal is a pig and the mycotoxin is zearaleone. In another embodiment, the animal is a chicken and the mycotoxin is ochratoxin. Animals also include an aquatic organisms, such as fish, mollusk or shrimp feed. Thus in yet another embodiment, the composition is an aquaculture feed composition such as fish, mollusk or shrimp feed composition. Animals further include poultry and in one embodiment, the animal is a chicken and the mycotoxin is ochratoxin.

In a further embodiment of the invention the food composition is a nutritional product for human use. In a particular embodiment, the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is used in the composition as a food or feed topping, food or feed extender or food or feed supplement.

Advantageously the hydrothermally processed microbial biomass comprises residues of lignocellulose The amount of lignocellulose hydrolysis products or residues is typically 0.01 - 20 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.5 - 10 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass. The amount of phenolic compounds originating from

lignocellulosic materials is typically 0.01 - 10 wt% (dry weight), usually 0.05 - 5 wt % of dry weight of the microbial biomass.

The invention is illustrated by the following non-limiting items.

Item 1 . A method for preparing a feed or food additive, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing an aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass,

(b) subjecting said aqueous suspension comprising said microbial biomass to a temperature of at least 160°C for 1 s to 360 minutes at a pressure above 5 bar,

(c) separating a solid phase containing the microbial biomass,

(d) optionally, drying the microbial biomass obtained from step (c).

Item 2. The method of item 1 , wherein the temperature is in the range of 180 °C to 250 °C.

Item 3. The method of item 1 or 2, wherein the microbial biomass obtained from (c) is subjected to washing step.

Item 4. The method according to any of the preceding items, wherein step (b) is conducted under conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9.

Item 5. The method according to any of the preceding items, wherein said aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass contains cultivation medium comprising lignocellulose hydrolysate. Item 6. The method according to any of the preceding items, wherein the microbial biomass obtained in step (c) further comprises residues of lignocellulose.

Item 7. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein said aqueous suspension comprising microbial biomass contains cultivation medium comprising starch and/or sugar cane/beet derived sugars.

Item 8. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein the microbial biomass is obtained from oleaginous microorganisms.

Item 9. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein said microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from a fermentation process.

Item 10 The method of according to item 8, wherein the microbial biomass of step (c) is obtained by subjecting the oleaginous microorganisms to a step of removing the microbial oil from said microbial biomass.

Item 1 1 . The method of according to item 10, wherein the microbial biomass of step (c) is obtained by subjecting the oleaginous microorganisms to a step of removing the microbial oil from said microbial biomass after step b).

Item 12. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein the microbial biomass is obtained from one or more microorganism.

Item 13. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein said microbial biomass is obtained from one or more fungi, preferably yeasts or filamentous fungi.

Item 14. The method of according to any of the preceding items, wherein said microbial biomass is obtained from Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus or Mortierella.

Item 15. A feed or food additive obtainable from the method of item 1 -13.

Item 16 A method for detoxifying a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to item 15, (c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

Item 17. A method for reducing the bioavailability of mycotoxin in a mycotoxin contaminated feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food product contaminated with a mycotoxin,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to item 15,

(c) mixing the feed or food product of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b).

Item 18. A method for preparing a feed or food product, said method comprising the steps of

(a) providing a feed or food substance,

(b) providing a feed or food additive according to item 15,

(c) mixing the feed or food substance of (a) with the feed or food additive of (b) to obtain a feed or food product.

Item 19. The method according to any of items 16 to 18, wherein the feed additive amounts 0.001 -20 wt % dry weight of the feed of step (c).

Item 20. The method according to any of items 16 to 18, wherein the feed additive amounts 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of the feed of step (c).

Item 21 . The method according to any of items 16 to 20, wherein the feed substance is contaminated with one or more mycotoxin such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin or T2 toxin.

Item 22. A feed or food product obtainable from any one of items 18 to 21 .

Item 23. A method for feeding an animal, said method comprising

(a) feeding said animal with a feed product according to item 22.

Item 24. The method according to item 23, wherein said animal is a ruminant or monogastric animal.

Item 25. The method according to item 23, wherein said animal is aquaculture. Item 26. The method according to any of items 23 to 25, wherein the animal is a livestock.

Item 27. The method according to item 23, wherein said animal is a livestock selected from the list consisting of pigs, horses, poultry, cattle, goats and sheep.

Item 28. The method according to item 23, wherein said animal is a chicken.

Item 29. The method according to item 23, wherein said animal is a pig.

Item 30. Hydrothermally processed microbial biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that said hydrothermally processed microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating microorganism on a cultivation medium and subsequently subjecting microbial biomass from said cultivation to a hydrothermal treatment at a temperature of at least 160 °C.

Item 31 . The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to item 29, characterized in that the hydrothermal treatment is conducted at a temperature of from 180 °C to 250 °C.

Item 32. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to item 30 or 31 , characterized in that the microbial biomass is subjected to washing step after the hydrothermal treatment.

Item 33. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any of items 30-32, characterized in that the hydrothermal treatment is conducted in conditions corresponding to a severity factor of at least 2.5, preferably of at least 3.5, most preferably at least 3.9.

Item 34. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-33, characterized in that the cultivation medium comprises lignocellulose hydrolysate.

Item 35. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-34, characterized in that the microbial biomass comprises residues of lignocellulose. Item 36. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-35, characterized in that the cultivation medium comprises starch and/or sugar cane/beet derived sugars.

Item 37. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-36, characterized in that the microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from a single cell oil production process.

Item 38. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to item 37, characterized in that said biomass is obtainable by subjecting the microbial biomass to hydrothermal treatment before recovering the single cell oil from said microbial biomass.

Item 39. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-36, characterized in that the microbial biomass is residual microbial biomass obtained from an alcohol production process, preferably from an ethanol production process.

Item 40. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-39, characterized in that the microbial biomass is obtainable by cultivating fungi strains, preferably yeasts or filamentous fungi.

Item 41 . The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 29-39, characterized in that the microbial biomass is obtained from strains of yeasts belonging to genus Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, or Saccharomyces or strains of filamentous fungi belonging to genus Aspergillus or Mortierella..

Item 42. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 29-40, characterized in the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human stomach, small intestine and/or colon. Item 43. The biomass for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 30-42, characterized in the microbial biomass prevents or reduces the adverse effects of mycotoxins aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, vomitoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin and/ T2 toxin.

Item 44. The biomass for use according to any one of items 30-43, wherein the animal is a chicken and the mycotoxin is ochratoxin.

Item 45. The biomass for use according to any one of items 30-43, wherein the animal is a pig and the mycotoxin is zearaleone.

Item 46. A feed or food composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract, characterized in that it comprises the microbial biomass according to any one of items 30-45.

Item 47. The composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to item 46, characterized in that the composition comprises the microbial biomass 0.001 -20 wt %, preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition.

Item 48. The composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to item 46 or 47,

characterized in that the composition is a ruminant or monogastric animal feed composition.

Item 49. The composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 46 to 48, characterized in that the composition is an aquaculture feed composition.

Item 50. The composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in human or animal digestive tract according to any one of items 46 to 47, characterized in that the food composition is a nutritional product for human use.

Item 51 . The composition for use in preventing or reducing the adverse effects of mycotoxins in animal or human digestive tract according to any one of items 46 to 50, characterized in that said microbial biomass is used in the composition as a food or feed topping, food or feed extender or food or feed supplement.

Item 52. The composition for use according to any of items 46 to 51 , characterized in that the composition comprises 0.001 -20 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition microbial biomass as defined in any one of items 30 - 45.

Item 53. The composition for use according to item 52, characterized in that the composition comprises 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition microbial biomass.

Item 54. The composition for use according to any one of items 46 to 53, wherein the animal is a chicken and the mycotoxin is ochratoxin.

Item 55. The composition for use for use according to any one of items 46 to 53, wherein the animal is a pig and the mycotoxin is zearaleone.

Item 56. A method for improving the well-being and increasing the productivity of an animal, characterized in that said method comprises feeding to said animal a feed composition comprising microbial biomass as defined in any one of items 30 to 45.

Item 57. The method according to item 56, characterized in that the composition comprises 0.001 -20 wt %, preferably 0.1 -3 wt % dry weight of dry weight of said composition microbial biomass.

The present invention has been exemplified by showing that hydrothermally processed and oil extracted yeast biomass obtainable from cultivation of

Rhodosporidium and Lipomyces with pure saccharides or with lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used as an effective binding agent for mycotoxins in the animal digestive tract. It is also shown that the hydrothermally processed and oil extracted biomasses do not bind essential micronutrients such as vitamins and amino acids.

The hydrothermally processed microbial biomasses from microorganisms grown on pure sugar, lignocellulosic material or starch inhibit also the binding of other mycotoxins to intestinal epithelium than those described in the Examples and reduce the adverse effects by other mycotoxins than those described in the Examples to animals or humans. Hydrothernnally processed and oil extracted yeast biomass originating from cultivation using pure saccharides or lignocellulosic hydrolysate was used to bind mycotoxins. The ability of hydrothernnally processed and oil extracted yeast biomass of genus Lipomyces and Rhodosporidium to bind aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearaleone, vomitoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisin B1 at pH of 2.5 and 6.5 was studied and compared with hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), commercial organic mycotoxin binder and with yeast biomasses cultivated using pure saccharides or lignocellulosic hydrolysate and harvested without using hydrothermal processing. The effect of temperature of the hydrothermal processing was also studied by using biomasses with different hydrothermal processing in binding tests.

The advantage of the present invention is the enhanced ability of the hydrothernnally processed biomass to bind a wide range of mycotoxins both at the low pH of the acidic stomach and at the neutral pH of small intestine and colon.

In the present invention it was shown that, the hydrothernnally processed

microorganism biomass grown on pure sugar or lignocellulosic material can bind various different mycotoxins.

As shown in the experimental part of this disclosure, the test products bound all the tested mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, vomitoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisin B1 . In contrast, the positive control hydrated sodium calcium

aluminosilicate (HSCAS) was not effective in binding ochratoxin at pH 6.5 (Fig 2 and 8) and vomitoxin (Fig 3 and 9). HSCAS is a generic commercial product and a widely studied adsorbing agent (Boudergue et al. 2009). The test products were also generally more effective binders of the tested mycotoxins than the commercial organic mycotoxin binder used as a second positive control.

The hydrothernnally processed biomass has good binding properties both in the stomach (pH 2.5) and in small intestinal conditions (pH6.5), which is essential for a good mycotoxin adsorbing agent.

In conclusion, the hydrothernnally processed microbial biomass binds a wider range of mycotoxins than the positive control hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate or the commercial organic mycotoxin binder. It binds mycotoxins also at wider pH range than the two positive controls.

The invention is illustrated by the following non-limiting examples. The invention can be applicable to other mycotoxins than those illustrated in examples. The invention can be applicable to biomasses from other microorganisms than those illustrated in examples. It should be understood, however, that the embodiments given in the description above and in the examples are for illustrative purposes only, and that various changes and modifications are possible within the scope of invention.

Examples

Example 1

Preparation of Lipomyces biomass grown on pure saccharides with and without hydrothermal processing

Lipomyces starkeyi strain CBS 8064 (or other L. starkeyi strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a pilot fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using glucose as carbon source. After 40 h batch phase glucose syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 160 h cultivation. Growth medium was supplemented with yeast extract (10 g/l), malt extract (0,5 g/l), (NH4)2HPO4 (1 ,5 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (1 g/l), MgCI2 (1 ,8 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 g/l), KH2PO4 (3 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,4 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0003 g/l), CuCI (0,0002 g/l) and MnCI2 (0,03 g/l).

After cultivation part of the biomass was harvested and dried by removing water from the biomass under vacuum in 50 C. The resulting dry biomass was milled and extracted using hexane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 1 .

From the same cultivation, a part of the biomass was harvested by thermal processing. Biomass containing cultivation broth was heated in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 1 hour. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was not washed in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using hexane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 2.

Example 2

Neutralisation of mycotoxins with Lipomyces yeast biomasses prepared in example 1

Test product suspensions were incubated in 50mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 and 50 mM glycine-HCI at pH 2.5. After that they were incubated for two hours with tritium labeled mycotoxins (1 O g/I) by gently shaking at 37°C. The abundance of unbound mycotoxin was analysed from the supernatant. The test mycotoxins were Aflatoxin B1 , Ochratoxin A, Zearaleone, Vomitoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisin B1 .

The test products were the biomasses whose production was described in example 1 . These biomasses are named as Mass 1 and Mass 2 in Figures 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

As positive controls were used HSCAS and commercial organic mycotoxin binder in 4 dose levels.

The results were compared to a negative control with no amendment.

Test treatments

The mycotoxin binding experiment was carried out in four replicates and in four doses: 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of Alfatoxin B1

As shown in Figure 1 the concentration of free aflatoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 1 , the hydrothernnally processed biomass has significantly better binding properties than the biomass without hydrothermal processing. The hydrothernnally processed biomass binds alfatoxin at similar level to that of both of the positive controls.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of Ochratoxin A

As is shown in Figure 2 the concentration of free ochratoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate SE between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 2, the hydrothernnally processed biomass has significantly better binding properties than the biomass without hydrothermal processing. The hydrothernnally processed biomass is also significantly better binder of ochratoxin than either of the positive controls, even at low level of dosage.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of Zearalenone

As is shown in Figure 3 the concentration of free zearalenone in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate SE between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 3, the hydrothernnally processed biomass has significantly better binding properties than the biomass without hydrothermal processing. The hydrothernnally processed biomass is also is significantly better binder of zearalenone than either of the positive controls, even at low level of dosage.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of Vomitoxin

As is shown in Figure 4 the concentration of free vomitoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate SE between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 4, the hydrothermally processed biomass is significantly better binder of vomitoxin than either of the positive controls, even at low level of dosage.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of T-2 toxin

As is shown in Figure 5 the concentration of free T-2 toxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate SE between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 5, the hydrothermally processed biomass is significantly better binder of T-2 toxin than either of the positive controls, even at low level of dosage especially at pH of 6.5.

Effect of Lipomyces yeast biomass on the binding of Fumonisin B1

As is shown in Figure 6 the concentration of free fumonisin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate SE between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 6, the hydrothermally processed biomass has significantly better binding properties than the biomass without hydrothermal processing. The hydrothermally processed biomass is also is significantly better binder of fumonisin than either of the positive controls, even at low level of dosage especially at pH of 6.5.

Example 3

Preparation of hydrothermally processed Rhodosporidium biomass grown on pure saccharides

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain CBS 8587 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a pilot fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using glucose as carbon source. After 24 h batch phase glucose syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 143 h cultivation. Growth medium was

supplemented with yeast extract (8 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (3 g/l), MgCI2 (2 g/l), K2HPO4 (9 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,4 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0003 g/l), CuCI (0,0002 g/l) and MnCI2 (0,03 g/l).

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by thermal treatment using three different treatment conditions. Biomass that is referred as Mass 3 was heated in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 60 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was not washed in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 3.

Biomass that is referred as Mass 4 was harvested by heating the biomass containing fermentation broth in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 210 C and kept in that temperature for 10 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was not washed in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 4.

Biomass that is referred as Mass 5 was harvested by heating the biomass containing fermentation broth in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 140 C and kept in that temperature for 15 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was not washed in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 5.

Example 4

Preparation of hydrothermally processed Rhodosporidium biomass grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysate

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain CBS 8587 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a pilot fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolysate syrup as the carbon source. After 12 h batch fermentation lignocellulose hydrolysate syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 144 h cultivation. Growth medium was supplemented with yeast extract (17 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (2,1 g/l), (NH4)2HPO4 (2,1 g/l) MgCI2 (3,3 g/l), K2HPO4 (5 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,2 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0005 g/l), CuCI (0,0003 g/l) and MnCI2 (0,05 g/l). Lignocellulosic hydrolysate used in the cultivation was prepared by thermo- chemical processing of straw.

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by thermal treatment using three different treatment conditions. Biomass that is referred as Mass 6 was heated in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 60 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was washed using tap-water in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 6.

Biomass that is referred as Mass 7 was heated in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 60 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was not washed in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 7.

Biomass that is referred as Mass 8 was heated in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 220 C and kept in that temperature for 20 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was washed using tap-water in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in mycotoxin binding tests and is named Mass 8.

Example 5

Preparation of Rhodosporidium biomass grown on pure saccharides without hydrothermal treatment

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain CBS 8587 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a pilot fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using glucose as carbon source. After 24 h batch phase glucose syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 143 h cultivation. Growth medium was

supplemented with yeast extract (8 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (3 g/l), MgCI2 (2 g/l), K2HPO4 (9 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,4 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0003 g/l), CuCI (0,0002 g/l) and MnCI2 (0,03 g/l).

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by centrifugation. The biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in pathogen binding tests and is named Mass 9.

Example 6

Preparation of Rhodosporidium biomass grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysate without hydrothermal treatment

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain CBS 8587 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a 10-liter fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolysate syrup as the carbon source. After 10 h batch fermentation lignocellulose hydrolysate syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 95 h cultivation. Growth medium was supplemented with yeast extract (8 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (2,5 g/l), MgSO4 (2,5 g/l), KH2PO4 (3,5 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 ,5 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,1 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0008 g/l), CuCI (0,00008 g/l), MnSO4 (0,0008 g/l), FeSO4 (0,0004 g/l) and NaH2PO4 (0,5 g/l). Lignocellulosic hydrolysate was prepared by thermo-chemical process using straw as a raw material.

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by centrifugation. The biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in pathogen binding tests and is named Mass 10.

Example 7

Neutralisation of mycotoxins by with Rhodosporidium yeast biomasses prepared in examples 3-6

Test product suspensions were incubated in 50mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 and 50 mM glycine-HCI at pH 2.5. After that they were incubated for two hours with tritium labeled mycotoxins (1 O g/I) by gently shaking at 37°C. The abundance of unbound mycotoxin was analysed from the supernatant. The test mycotoxins were Aflatoxin B1 , Ochratoxin A, Zearaleone, Vomitoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisin B1 .

The test products were the biomasses whose production was described in examples 3-6. These biomasses are named as Mass 3, Mass 4, Mass 5, Mass 6, Mass 7, Mass 8, Mass 9 and Mass 10 in Figures 7-12.

HSCAS and a commercial organic mycotoxin binder were used as a positive control in three dose levels.

The results were compared to a negative control with no amendment.

Test treatments

The mycotoxin binding experiment was carried out in four replicates and in three doses: 1 , 10 and 40 mg/ml.

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of Aflatoxin B1

As shown in Figure 7 the concentration of free aflatoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ).

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of Ochratoxin A

As shown in Figure 8 the concentration of free ochratoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ).

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of Zearalenone

As shown in Figure 9 the concentration of free zearalenone in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ).

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of Vomitoxin (DON)

As shown in Figure 10 the concentration of free vomitoxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ).

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of T-2 toxin

As shown in Figure 1 1 the concentration of free T-2 toxin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ).

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of Fumonisin B1 As shown in Figure 12 the concentration of free Fumonisin in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder at pH 6.5 (white columns with dark stripe) and pH 2.5 (dark columns). Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 4 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). The results in Figures 7-12 show that all the hydrothermally processed biomasses bind all the mycotoxins and in several cases the tested biomasses exhibit superior binding properties compared to the positive control products used in the experiments.

Example 8

Preparation of hydrothermally processed Rhodosporidium biomass grown on pure saccharides for vitamin and amino acid binding examples

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain C-71034 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a pilot fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using glucose as carbon source. After 6 h batch phase glucose syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 167 h cultivation. Growth medium was

supplemented with yeast extract (10 g/l), (NH4)2HPO4 (1 ,5 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (1 ,5 g/l), MgCI2 (1 ,8 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 g/l), KH2PO4 (3 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,4 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,001 g/l), CuCI (0,001 g/l), MnCI2 (0,05 g/l), NiSO4x6H2O (0,001 g/l), Na2MoO4 (0,0001 g/l).

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by thermal treatment by heating the biomass containing cultivation broth in a 600 liter pilot pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 60 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was washed using tap- water in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using heating to 50 C and efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in micronutrient binding tests and is named Mass 1 1 . Example 9

Preparation of hydrothermally processed Rhodosporidium biomass grown on lignocellulosic hydrolysate for vitamin and amino acid binding examples

Rhodosporidium toruloides strain CBS 8587 (or other R. toruloides strain, which are readily available from recognized microbial culture collections) was grown under aeration in a 10-liter fermentor. Fermentation was done as fed-batch fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolysate syrup as the carbon source. After 10 h batch fermentation lignocellulose hydrolysate syrup was added to the fermentor periodically during the 95 h cultivation. Growth medium was supplemented with yeast extract (8 g/l), (NH4)2SO4 (2,5 g/l), MgSO4 (2,5 g/l), KH2PO4 (3,5 g/l), K2HPO4 (1 ,5 g/l) and CaCI2 (0,1 g/l) and trace minerals ZnSO4 (0,0008 g/l), CuCI (0,00008 g/l), MnSO4 (0,0008 g/l), FeSO4 (0,0004 g/l) and NaH2PO4 (0,5 g/l). Lignocellulosic hydrolysate used was prepared using a thermo-chemical method from straw.

After cultivation the biomass was harvested by thermal treatment by heating the biomass containing cultivation broth in a 1 liter laboratory pressure vessel to 180 C and kept in that temperature for 60 minutes. After the thermal treatment the biomass was separated from the liquid phase by filtration. The biomass was washed using tap-water in the filter. The resulting biomass was dried in an oven, milled and extracted using heptane. Residual solvent was removed by drying the biomass using efficient ventilation. This biomass was used in micronutrient binding tests and is named Mass 12.

Example 10

Testing for unwanted micronutrient binding by yeast biomasses prepared in examples 1 , 8 and 9

Test product suspensions were incubated in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5. The reaction mixtures were prepared in 2 ml microfuge tubes in triplicates. Fresh small intestinal digesta matrix extracted from the small intestine of swine was used in the micronutrient binder tests. Solids were removed from the digesta matrix by

centrifugation and the liquid matrix was added on top of the binder products. No amino acids were added to this liquid digesta matrix, but the binding was tested in the naturally occurring amino acid concentration of the digesta matrix. Additionally, 990 g/ml of ascorbic acid, 198 g/ml of both thiamine and niacin were added to the mixture. The reaction mixtures in triplicates were incubated for two hours with gentle shaking at 37°C temperature. Finally, solids (test materials) were removed by centrifugation and supernatant was used for vitamin (thiamine, niacin and ascorbic acid) and amino acid (methionine, lysine, threonine and tryptophan) analyses.

The test products were the biomasses whose production was described in examples 1 , 8 and 9. These biomasses are named as Mass 2, Mass 1 1 and Mass 12 in Figures 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18.

The micronutrient binding experiment was carried out in three replicates and in two doses: 5 and 40 mg/ml.

HSCAS was used as a positive control in two dose levels and activated carbon in one dose level.

The results were compared to a negative control with no amendment.

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of lysine

In Figure 13 the concentration of free lysine in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 13, the test products showed no statistically significant binding of lysine. The positive control did bind lysine at the highest dose applied. Increase in lysine concentration with Mass 1 1 is due to the lysine occurring in the biomass. Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of threonine

In Figure 14 the concentration of free threonine in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 14, the test products bound threonine at the highest dose applied. However, only 1 1 -13% of the threonine was bound by the test products. The positive control did not bind threonine

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of tryptophan

In Figure 15 the concentration of free tryptophan in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 15, the test products as well as the positive control bound tryptophan. The amount of tryptophan bound compared to the control was less than 15%.

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of methionine

In Figure 16 the concentration of free methionine in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 16, none of the test products or the positive control bound methionine.

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of thiamine (Vitamin B1) In Figure 17 the concentration of free thiamine in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 17, the tested products bound up to one third of the thiamine present. However, positive control product bound over 90% of thiamine at the highest test dose.

Effect of yeast biomass on the binding of niacin (Vitamin B3)

In Figure 18 the concentration of free thiamine in the presence of potential binders as compared to control with no binder are shown. Error bars indicate standard error (SE) between 3 replicate reaction vessels and asterisks the statistical significance of the difference to control according to the Student's t-test (p-value < 0.05 * , p-value < 0.01 ** , p-value < 0.001 *** , p-value < 0.0001 **** ). As shown in Figure 18, none of the test products bound niacin, on the contrary, some test products increased the concentration of niacin statistically significantly due to niacin present in the products.

The results indicate that none of tested hydrothermally processed biomasses significantly bind the tested vitamins even at high biomass concentrations whereas activated carbon and HSCAS was found to signicantly bind the thiamine.

The results also indicate that none of the hydrothermally processed biomasses significantly bind any of the tested amino acids except methionine even at relatively high biomass concentrations whereas HSCAS was found to significantly bind lysine and activated carbon was found to bind tryptophan even at low concentrations.

Generally the results of examples 2, 7 and 10 indicate that hydrothermal processing significantly increases the ability of the microbial biomass to bind various mycotoxins in animal digestive tract but the hydrothermally processed biomass does not significantly bind valuable nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. Reference to biomass samples used in the examples

Name used Description Preparation Binding in the example example examples

Mass 1 Lipomyces Sugar not thermally harvested Ex 1 Ex 2

Mass 2 Lipomyces Sugar 180C 60 min not washed Ex 1 Ex 2, Ex 10

Mass 3 Rhodosporidium Sugar 180 C/60 min not Ex 3 Ex 7

washed

Mass 4 Rhodosporidium Sugar 210 C/10 min not Ex 3 Ex 7

washed

Mass 5 Rhodosporidium Sugar 140 C/15 min not Ex 3 Ex 7

washed

Mass 6 Rhodosporidium Ligno 180C/60 min Ex 4 Ex 7

washed

Mass 7 Rhodosporidium Ligno 180C/60 min not Ex 4 Ex 7

washed

Mass 8 Rhodosporidium Ligno 220C/20 min Ex 4 Ex 7

washed

Mass 9 Rhodosporidium no thermal harvesting Ex 5 Ex 7

Mass 10 Rhodosporidium ligno no thermal harvesting Ex 6 Ex 7

Mass 1 1 Rhodosporidium Sugar 180C/60min washed Ex 8 Ex 10

Mass 12 Rhodosporidium Ligno 180C/60 min Ex 9 Ex 10 washed