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Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2000/056178
Kind Code:
The invention relates to the use of inulin as a replacement for conventional auxiliaries, in particular phosphate adjuvants, in meat products which contain 10-95 % (m/m) meat, 3-60 % (m/m) water and 0.5-35 % (m/m) other constituents, in an amount of 0.5-8 % (m/m) based on the total weight of the meat product. In particular a low-grade meat product that contains 10-40 % (m/m) meat, 30-60 % (m/m) water and 2-7 % (m/m) inulin and a poultry meat product that contains 70-95 % (m/m) meat, 3-25 % (m/m) water and 2-7 % (m/m) inulin are described.

Application Number:
Publication Date:
September 28, 2000
Filing Date:
March 17, 2000
Export Citation:
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International Classes:
A23L1/308; A23L13/40; A23L13/50; A23L13/70; (IPC1-7): A23L1/314; A23L1/308; A23L1/315; A23L1/318
Domestic Patent References:
Foreign References:
Other References:
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 017, no. 216 (C - 1053) 28 April 1993 (1993-04-28)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Jorritsma, Ruurd (Nederlandsch Octrooibureau Scheveningseweg 82 P.O. Box 29720 LS The Hague, NL)
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1. Use of inulin in phosphate adjuvantfree meat products. which contain at least 1095 % (m/m) meat and 360 % (m/m) water, in an amount of 0.58 % (m/m) based on the total weight of the meat product.
2. Use according to Claim 1. wherein the meat product is a product based on lowgrade meat that contains at least 1040 % (m/m) meat, 3060% (mi'mj waler. 04% (m/m) flavourings and 02 % (mim) salts. based on the total weight of the meat product.
3. Use according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the meat product also contains 215 % (m/m) protein other than meat and 315 % (m/m) fat, based on the total weight of the meat product.
4. Use according to Claim 1. wherein the meat product contains chicken or turkey whole muscle meat as meat.
5. Use according to Claim 4, wherein the meat product is a poultry meat product that contains 7095 % (m/m) meat. 325 % (m/m) water, 02 % (m/m) flavourings and 02 % (m/m) salts, based on the total weight of the meat product.
6. Use according to Claim 5 wherein the inulin is injected into the poultry meat in the form of a solution in water, in particular 820 parts inulin solution in 8092 parts meat.
7. Use according to one or more of Claims 16, wherein 27 % (m/m), in particular 2.54 % (m/m), inulin is used in the meat product, based on the end weight of the meat product.
8. Use according to one or more of Claims 17. wherein the ha has an average chain length of 3 to 60, in particular 8 to 30.
9. Phosphate adjuvantfree meat product which contains at least 1095 % (mim) meat. 360 % (m/m) water and 0.58 % (m/m) inulin. based on the total weight of the meat product.
10. Phosphate adjuvantfree meat product that contains 1040% (m/m) meat. 30 60 % (m/m) water. 04 % (m/m) flavourings, 02 % (m/m) salts and 25 % (m/m) inulin.
11. Meat product according to Claim 10 that contains 1533 % (m/m) emulsified rind, 720 % (m/m) emulsified fat, 1125 % (m/m) MDM and 312 % (m/m) soya protein.
12. Phosphate adjuvantfree meat product that contains 7095% (m/m) meat. in particular poultry meat, 325 % (m/m) water, 02 % (m/m) flavourings, 02 % (m/m) salts and 25 % (m/m) inulin.
Use of inulin in meat products The invention relates to the use of inulin in meat products based on both high-grade and low-grade meat and in particular on poultry meat.

When preparing meat products in dry form on the basis of, for example, low-grade starting material. meat. mechanically deboned meat (MDM). soya and rind are the most important sources of protein. In this context a number of problems arise in practice, such as: -an end product which is too dry and not homogeneous; -deviations in taste as a result of inferior raw materials (soya and MDM) ; and -problems during processing because the temperature of this type of product rises very rapidly during production.

When preparing high-grade meat products, in particular from poultry meat (chicken, etc.) the water binding of the end product is frequently problematical. The cutability and frying characteristics of the product also frequently leave something to be desired.

Auxiliaries, such as sugars, flavourings and in particular phosphate adjuvants are added to solve such problems. The role of such phosphate adjuvants is to retain the water in the meat product so that the meat product can be regarded as a tender product. However. such auxiliaries have disadvantages, such as doubts with regard to the health aspects, a rise in the calorific value and an inadequate effect as far as processiblity, hardness and organoleptic properties are concerned, as a result of which acceptance by the general public is limited.

Surprisingly, it has now been found that the problems in the preparation of meat products as described above can be overcome by using inulin to replace conventional auxiliaries, in particular phosphate adjuvants, in meat products. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of inulin in a quantity of 0.5-8 % (m/m), based on the total weight of the meat product in phosphate adjuvant-free meat products, which contain at least 10-95 % (m/m) meat and 3-60 % (m/m) water.

According to the invention, inulin (fructan with a terminal glucose group) is added in a quantity of preferably 2-7 % (m/m). in particular 2.5-4 % (m/m), based on the total weight of the end product. In this context the inulin can also completely or partially replace conventional additives such as starch or maltodextrins and sugars. Inulin has also been found to impart taste-improving characteristics to fried meat. as a result of which the use of flavourings such as hvdrolvsed vegetable proteins and stock can be restricted or can be dispensed with. The preferred use of inulin according to the invention is described in more detail in the appended dependent claims.

The use of inulin in meat products is known per se. However. inulin is used here as a fat replacement. which is not the purpose in the present invention.

More particularly, the use of a"high performance''inulin product which has a substantially raised average degree of polymerisation (DP) in foods compared with the natural product is described in WO 96/01849 A. An inulin product which has an average DP of between 20 and 40. in particular between 23 and 27. and a maximum 1) 1'of between 60 and 70 is described on page 13. line 15 et seq. of this literature citation. lt can be seen from a specific field of application mentioned on page line 25 et seq. that this"high performance inulin product is used to replace fat and/or oil in food products. The "Frankfurter sausages"with a substantially reduced fat content which are described in Examples 22 and 23 of said WO 96/01849 A also contain a phosphate product in addition to the inulin product. Furthermore. Example 24 of this literature citation describes an offal product, that is to say a spreadable liver pate. with a reduced fat content of 13 % (m/m), which provides a fat reduction of 60 % compared with the standard recipe, whilst in Example 33 a"lean beef'hamburger with an exceptionally high inulin cream content of 30 % is described to make it possible to achieve appreciable meat replacement ol a"mouth-feel" which can be produced by"fat products".

WO 94/22327 describes a stabilised food product with a reduced solids content, in which, for example, inulin in an amount of 1-15 % (m/m) is present as stabiliser. The use of inulin as a fat substitute is also mentioned in this literature citation (sec page 1, line 29 et seq.). In Example 2 of said WO 94/22327 a reduction of approximately 20 % in fat- containing meat is achieved by use of inulin or water, with retention of the desired sausage characteristics.

Furthermore, US Patent 5 527 556 relates to the use of inulin creams in water as a fat replacement in foods, as can be seen from the description and, in principle, all use examples.

In the only example in which a meat product is described, i. e. Example) 9. the fat content of liver pâté is appreciably reduced by the use of 15 % of such an inulin cream.

The advantages of the use of inulin according to the invention also lie in the production process. inter alia in the case of meat products based on low-grade starting material. The free water (ice) that is added during the production process is rapidly taken up by the inulin.

Consequently the throughput time of other raw materials is promoted. with the consequence that as a result of more substantial comminution more protein activation takes place at a lower temperature. Consequently. fat and water can be better bound to the protein molecules

released. As a result of the longer throughput time of the dough an end product is obtained which has a better cut face. Furthermore-after frying-the product has a better feel in the mouth and a better taste than a corresponding meat product containing phosphate adjuvant.

When used in raw muscle meat products injected with inulin. preferably poultry meat products (chicken. turkey. etc.). there is the avantage that the inulin is also able completely or partially to replace other substances such as starch and gums as well as the phosphate auxiliary. Although the injection of an inulin solution is preferred for this application. other <BR> <BR> <BR> methods for incorporating the inulin in the poultry meat, such as mixing in a drum. can also be considered. Furthermore, it can be useful to allow the product to rest for some time. for example 6-12 hours, following incorporation, so that the inulin has the opportunity to gel.

As a result of the inulin, the poultry meat product also has a better taste and a better colour during or after frying than a poultry meat product containing a phosphate adjuvant.

The inulin to be used can be a commercial form of inulin. Specifically, the inulin can originate from chicory, dahlias, Jerusalem artichokes, etc. An inulin with a chain length of 3 to 60 sugar units, preferably with an average chain length of 8 to 30 fructose units (DP = 8- 30), in particular of 8 to 20 fructose units (DP = 8-20), can be used. Advantageously, short chains (5 or less fructose units) make up less than 25 % (by weight) of the total inulin. The chain length can be that of the natural product, or can advantageously have been modified by hydrolysis, enzymatic chain lengthening or separation techniques such as crystallisation or chromatography.

The other constituents of the products in which inulin is used according to the invention can be conventional constituents. In the case of low-grade meat these constituents can be 10-40 % (m/m) meat (on protein basis), 2-15 % (m/m) protein (other than meat), 3-15 % (m/m) fat, 30-60 % (m/m) water, 0-3 % (m/m) other carbohydrates, 0-4 % (m/m), preferably 0.2-4 % (m/m), flavourings (herbs, onion powder, garlic powder, onion) and 0-2 % (m/m). preferably 0.2-2 % (m/m), salts. In particular such a product contains 15-33 % (m/m) emulsified rind. 7-20 % (m/m) emulsified fat. 11-25'S, (m/m) MDM and 3-12 % (m/m) soya protein as main constituents.

In the case of poultry meat the constituents can be. for example, 70-95 % (m/m) meat, 5-25 % (m% m) water, 0-3 % (m/m) other carbohydrates. 0-2 % (m/m), preferablv 0.1-2 % <BR> <BR> <BR> (mim). flavourin<Js and 0-2 % fm/m), preferably 0.2-2 % (m/m) salts. In this context the inulin. optionally together with other water-soluble additives. is preferably injected as a <BR> <BR> <BR> solution, in an amount by weight of 5/95 to 30/70 (solution/meat), preferably 8i9 ? to 20/80

and most preferentially 10/90 to 17/83.

EXAMPLES Example 1 A meat product according to the invention based on MDM and having the composition (A) according to the following table was prepared. For comparison such a product according to the prior art. having the composition (B), was prepared. After frying, product (A) achieved significantly better ratings than product (B) both in terms of taste (determined by a taste panel of five trained tasters) and in terms of cutability. (The percentages are expressed in % (m/m).) (A) (B) According to the invention C : omparison emulsified rind (1) 23.6 23.6 emulsified fat (2) 12.9 12.9 MDM 17.5 17.5 ice 31.2 31.2 isolated soya (90 % protein) 7.0 7.0 maxten E100 (50 % protein) 1.7 1.7 herbs 0.6 0.6 onion powder 0.25 0.25 garlic powder 0.25 0.25 chopped onion (1-3 mm) 0.3 0.3 salt 1.2 1.2 starch-2.3 HVP-0.5 phosphate-0.3 dextrose-0.35 inulin (average chain length (DP) is 10) 3.5 100 100 (1): 50% rind, 50% water (2): 44 ° O pig fat. I 1 % soya fat. I % salt and 44 % ice water

Example 2 A solution having the following composition: water 8.4 % salt 0.7 % RFCK (stock) 0.3 % maltodextrin 0.5 % dextrose 0.1 % inulin (average chain length (DP) is 10) 3.0 % 13.0% was injected into raw chicken (87.0%) (using approximately 15% (m/m) based on the chicken). (The percentages are expressed % (m/m).) In the assessment of a taste panel the characteristics of the product were clearly better than those of the same product without inulin as far as frying behaviour and taste were concerned.

Example 3 Comparative tests relating to inulin in place of phosphate adjuvant in salting applications for poultry meat.

The tests were carried out with brine compositions 1 to 4 on the basis of injection at 15 % on the raw chicken. The batch size per test was 50 kg. (The percentages are expressed in % (m/m).) Brine composition 1: water 8.5 °S, salt 0.7'S, maltodextrin 0.7 % dextrose 0.1 % inulin (average chain length (DP) is 10) 3.0'% Total

Brine composition 2: water 8.5 % salt 0.7 % maltodextrin 0.7 % dextrose 0.1 % inulin (average chain length (DP) is 20) 3.0 % Total 13.0 % Brine composition 3: water 8.5 % salt 0.7 % maltodextrin 0.7 % dextrose 0.1 % inulin (average chain length (DP) is 15-20) 3.0 % Total 13.0% Brine composition 4: water 8.5 % salt 0.7 % sugars 0.7 % sodium tripolyphosphate 3.0 % alginate 0.1 % Total 13.0 % Test method * Injection at 15 % on the raw meat weight.

* Multi-needle injector X Tumbling: 10 minutes running/I 5 minutes rest/I 0 minutes runnin} 5 minutes rest/10 minutes running (without vacuum) 'Total residence time including tumbling: 3 hours.

Result in raw state after iniection and tumblin . There are no visually detectable differences after 3 hours.

* No differences in weight of the four compositions are detectable. = 57.6 kg.

Result after heating to an internal temperature of 78 °C and cooling to 2 °C Test 1 Weight after heating: 51. 23 kg Test 2 Weight after heating: 52.7 kg Test 3 Weight after heating: 52.81 kg Test 4 Weight after heating: 52.7 kg The organoleptic properties (taste/colour. texture, odour) determined by an assessment panel are significantly better for the product obtained according to the invention (Tests 1. 2 and 3) than for the reference product containing the phosphate adjuvant according to the prior art (Test 4).