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Title:
USE OF UREIDOMUSTINE (BO-1055) IN CANCER TREATMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/031156
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Method of using ureidomustine (BO-1055), a water-soluble NDA cross-linking agent, in the treatment of a cancer, selected from the group consisting of various types of human leukemia [such as acute myeloid leukemia (ALL) and acute B Lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)], lymphomas, small lung cell carcinoma (SCLC), sarcomas, and others.

Inventors:
MOORE MALCOLM (US)
SHIEH JAE-HUNG (US)
SU TSANN-LONG (US)
LEE TE-CHANG (TW)
Application Number:
US2016/047264
Publication Date:
February 23, 2017
Filing Date:
August 17, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ACAD SINICA
MEMORIAL SLOAN KETTERING CANER CENTER (US)
International Classes:
C07C275/42; A61P35/02; C07D215/42; C07D219/08
Foreign References:
US20130178494A12013-07-11
US20080171765A12008-07-17
US8222297B22012-07-17
US8222297B22012-07-17
Other References:
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
POLYAKOV, Mark, V. et al. (Phippips Katz, Clark & Mortimer,500 West Madison Street, Suite 113, Chicago IL, US)
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Claims:
Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of treating cancer in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of ureidomustine, wherein said cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, small lung cell carcinoma (SCLC), glioblastoma and sarcoma.

2. The method according to claim 1 , wherein said cancer is leukemia,

3. The method according to claim 1 , wherein said cancer is lymphoma.

4. The method according to claim 1 , wherein said cancer is small lung cell carcinoma.

5. The method according to claim 1. wherein said cancer is sarcoma.

8. The method according to claim 1 , wherein said method results in a therapeutically significant reduction in the number of said cancer cells and does not result in significant toxicities against non-malignant tissues.

7. The method according to claim 1 , wherein said ureidomustine is formulated as a pharmaceutical composition.

8. The method according to claim 1 , further comprising administration of another anti-cancer active agent to said patient.

Description:
Use of Ureidomustirse (BO-1055) in Cancer Treatment

Backgrfiund of the invention

Ever since President Nixon's 1971 declaration of "War on Cancer," a set of assumptions has dominated cancer treatment for over 40 years. A war on cancer is a powerfuliy evocative metaphor that is directly responsible for a counterproductive and even potentially dangerous cell-kill treatment paradigm. (Oronsky et al. 2015). The pharmaceutical industry still develops cancer drugs to achieve the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in an attempt to achieve a maximal and rapid cell killing. Chemotherapy and radiation are the ultimate stress test for cancer cells, leading to an unintended "survival of the fittest" response. Chemotherapy, designed to wipe out the tumor, may actually have the opposite effect. This is because the chemosensitive cells, which normally keep the chemoresisiant forms in check by competing for scarce space and resources, are killed off, while cancerous tumors adapt in Darwinian fashion to their environment and evolve by clonal expansion and genetic diversification. (Greaves & Maley 2012). The price of this selection pressure is the emergence of acquired resistance and therapeutic failure, making aggressive therapy a self-defeating process.

Accordingly, there is a need for effective methods of treating cancer which do not result in significant toxicities against non-malignant tissues.

Alkylating agents are a set of anticancer compounds. Ureidomustine (also known as BO-1055) is a selective alkylating agent. It is described in US Patent No. 8,222,297 B2 and has the following structural formula:

Although ureidomustine was previously suggested as an anti-tumor agent for some cancers, there remains a significant need for methods of treating other cancers with this compound.

Summary of the ^ Invention

In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of treating cancer in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of ureidomustine, wherein said cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer, small lung cell carcinoma (SCLC), colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer, glioblastoma, and sarcoma,

Ureidomustine (also referred to as "BO-1055" throughout this application) has the following structural formula:

U,S, Patent No. 8,222,297 describes ureidomustine, as well as a process of making this compound.

The term "ureidomustine" also encompasses pharmaceutically acceptable salts of BO-1055, isomers, enantiomers and racemic mixtures of the compound. in a preferred embodiment, the cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, SCLC and sarcoma.

In one embodiment, said leukemia comprises acute myeloid leukemia (AlvlL), acute lymphoid or acute lymphoid or lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, T-ceii or B-cell subtypes), bi-phenotypic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, T-cell or B-ceil subtypes) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In a preferred embodiment, said treatment is effective to achieve a therapeutically significant reduction in the number of cancer ceils while not resulting in significant toxicities against non-malignant tissues.

Brief Description of the ... Drawings. FIG. 1 shows a plot of dose of ureidomustine vs human cord blood (CB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC/wk2-CAFC) and hematopoietic stem cells(HSC/wk5-CAFC).

FIG. 2 shows a plot of dose of ureidomustine vs relative fluorescent intensity of normal cell types and a human acute myeloid leukemia {AML) cell line (MA-10). FIG. 3 shows photographs of pathological examination of different organs taken

42 days after administration of ureidomustine (BO-1055), carboplatin, docetaxel and control to mice.

FIG. 4 shows a photograph of DNA cross-linking gel shift assay for ureidomustine. FIG. 5 shows a flow cytometry cell cycle distribution of non-small lung carcinoma

H1299 ceils following ureidomustine treatment.

FIG. 8 shows a graphical representation of the hERG Fluorescence Polarization Assay of binding of ureidomustine to the hERG receptor.

FIG. 7 shows a plot of ureidomustine bound to plasma proteins vs time, FIG. 8 shows alamar blue fluorescence intensity dose-response curves of BO-

1055 cytotoxicity at 72hrs against various leukemic cell lines and normal cord blood CD34+ HSC/HPC.

FIG. 9 shows a plot of dose of ureidomustine vs relative fluorescent intensity of growth factor dependent MA-10-W51 cells. FiG. 10A shows a bioimaging photograph panel of four mice injected with 1x10 3 - 3x10 6 GFP-Luciferase transduced THP-1 AML ceils and not further treated.

FIG. 10B shows a bioimaging photograph panel of four mice injected with 1x1 G 3 ~ 1x10 6 GFP-Luciferase transduced THP-1 AML ceils and also implanted subcutaneously with an osmotic minipump at the time of tumor injection that released 1 ug of human GM-CSF per day over 40 days.

FIG. 1 1 depicts six bioimaging photograph panels of five mice each. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with MV4-1 1 -GFP-Luciferase cells; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with MV4-1 1- GFP-Luciferase cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

FIG. 12 depicts bioimaging photographs of mice which were transplanted with MA10 cells expressing GFP/Luciferase with: a) no cytokine support (on the left) and b) administration of human GM-CSF by minipump implant (right).

FIG. 13 depicts bioimaging photographs of six mice each transplanted with MA- 10-W51 -GFP-Luciferase cells; the three mice on the left received a control injection, and the three mice on the right received ureidomustine injection.

FIG. 14 depicts six bioimaging photograph panels of five mice each. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with AML-2-CD34÷-GFP- Luciferase cells; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with AML-2-CD34+-GFP-Luciferase cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

FIG. 15 is a chart of days after administration of ureidomustine vs the number of surviving mice engrafted with primary patient-derived AML-2 CD34+ cells.

FIG. 18 shows alamar blue fluorescence intensity dose-response curves of BO- 1055 cytotoxicity at 72hrs against a primary patient pre-B ALL leukemia, compared to normal cord blood CD34+ HPC/HSC

FIG. 17 shows a flow cytometry distribution of pre-B-ALL ceils expressing CD19 and/or CD34 following ureidomustine treatment. FIG. 18 shows four bioimaging photograph panels of three mice each. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with Pre-B-ALL CD34-GFP- Luciferase cells and control media; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with Pre-B-ALL CD34-GFP-Luciferase cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

FIG. 19 shows a survival analysis chart of mice engrafted with pre-B-ALL cells treated with ureidomustine and control.

FIG. 20 shows eight bioimaging photograph panels of five mice each. The four panels on the left show mice which were only injected with GFP-Lu-SCLC H526 cells and control media; and the four panels on the right show mice which were injected with SCLC H526 cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

FIG. 21 shows a logarithmic chart of the growth of GFP-Lu-SCLC H528 cells in the mice depicted in FIG. 20.

FIG. 22A is a chart of average tumor size vs days after tumor implantation in various mice bearing SCLC H526 xenografts (s.c), after intravenous injection of ureidomustine or irinotecan or etoposide.

FIG. 22B is a chart of average body weight changes vs days after tumor implantation in the same mice.

FIG. 23A depicts a proliferation inhibition curve and ICso obtained by GraphPad Prism on DLBCL (ABC subtype) OCY-LY3 cancer cells treated with ureidomustine and doxorubicin (DOXO).

FIG. 23B depicts a Fa-Ci plot obtained by GraphPad Prism on the same cells,

FIG. 23C depicts an isobologram obtained by GraphPad Prism on the same cells; the panel on the left depicts BO1055 Cte + DOXO Var.; while the panel on the right depicts DOXO Var + B01055 Cte. FiG. 24 shows six bioimaging photograph panels of five mice each. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with JEKO-1-GFP-Luc mantle cell lymphoma cells and control media; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with JEKO-1 -GFP-Luc mantle cell lymphoma cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

F!G, 25A shows a flow cytometry cell cycle distribution of A673 Ewing's sarcoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines following ureidomustine treatment.

FIG. 25B shows the percentages of apoptotic and dead A673 cells following ureidomustine treatment. FIG. 25C shows a graph of caspase activity in A673 ceils following ureidomustine treatment.

FIG. 25D shows a graphical representation of the percentage of dead A673 cells following ureidomustine treatment.

FIG. 25E shows a graphical representation of the percentage of apoptotic A673 cells foiiowing ureidomustine treatment.

FIG. 26A is graph showing inhibition of A673 Ewing's sarcoma onco-sphere formation in methylceliulose culture following treatment with various concentrations of ureidomustine or 4-Hydroperoxycyciophosphamide,

FIG. 26B is an image showing oncosphere formation in methylceliulose, FIG. 27A shows an isobologram obtained by GraphPad Prism on A873 Ewing's sarcoma cells treated with a combination of ureidomustine and topotecan.

FIG. 27B shows an isobologram of the same cells treated with a combination of ureidomustine and SN-38.

FIG. 27C shows an isobologram of the same cells treated with a combination of ureidomustine and doxorubicin. FIG. 27D shows an isobologram of the same cells treated with a combination of ureidomustine and PU-H71 , an HSP90 inhibitor.

FIG. 28A shows a graph of tumor volume vs days from start of treatment of NSG mice bearing A873 Ewing's sarcoma xenografts and treated with different doses of ureidomustine.

FIG. 28B shows Kaplan-Meier survival curves in the same mice,

FIG. 28C shows a graph of weight of mice vs days from start of ureidomustine treatment of the same mice.

FIG. 28D shows a graph of tumor size vs days from start of treatment of NSG mice bearing A204 rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts and treated with ureidomustine.

FiG. 28E shows a graph of weight of mice vs days from start of ureidomustine treatment of the same mice.

FiG. 29 shows a graph of tumor size vs days from start of treatment of NSG mice bearing primary Ewing's sarcoma xenografts and treated first with 3 daily injections of cyclophosphamide, and following progressive tumor growth, with 4 injections of ureidomustine.

Detailed Description of the invention

As used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", and "the" include plural reference unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a cell" includes a plurality of such ceils and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth. As well, the terms "a" (or "an"), "one or more" and "at least one" can be used interchangeably herein, it is also to be noted that the terms "comprising", "including", and "having" can be used interchangeably.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, the preferred methods and materials are now described. All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of describing and disclosing the chemicals, cell lines, vectors, animals, instruments, statistical analysis and methodologies which are reported in the pubiications which might be used in connection with the invention. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the invention is not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of treating cancer in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of ureidomustine, wherein said cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer, small lung cell carcinoma (SCLC), colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, renal cancer, glioblastoma, and sarcoma.

Preferably, ureidomustine is formulated in a pharmaceutical composition.

Ureidomustine (also referred to as "BO-1055" throughout this application) has the following structural formula:

U.S. Patent No. 8,222,297 describes ureidomustine, as well as a process of making this compound.

The term "ureidomustine" also encompasses pharmaceutically acceptable salts of BO-1055, isomers, enantiomers and racemic mixtures of the compound. The invention also encompasses methods of treatment of different cancers comprising administering metabolites of ureidomustine. The term "metabolite" means any substance produced from ureidomustine by metabolism or a metabolic process. In a preferred embodiment, the cancer is selected from the group consisting of leukemia, lymphoma, SCLC and sarcoma.

In one embodiment, said leukemia comprises acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid or acute lymphoid or lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, T-cell or B-celi subtypes), bi-phenotypic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, T-cell or B-cell subtypes) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

In a preferred embodiment, said treatment is effective to achieve a therapeutically significant reduction in the number of cancer cells while not resulting in significant toxicities against non-malignant tissues. In one embodiment, the therapeutically effective dosage of ureidomustine is between about 3 and about 4 mg/kg per weight of a patient,

In some embodiments, the methods of the invention further comprise a coadministration of another anti-cancer active agent to the patient being treated with ureidomustine. As defined herein, "contacting" means that the anti-tumor compound used in the present invention is introduced info a sample containing the receptor in a test tube, flask, tissue culture, chip, array, plate, micropiate, capillary, or the like, and incubated at a temperature and time sufficient to permit binding of the anti-tumor compound to a receptor. Methods for contacting the samples with the anti-tumor compound or other specific binding components are known to those skilled in the art and may be selected depending on the type of assay protocol to be run. Incubation methods are also standard and are known to those skilled in the art.

In another embodiment, the term "contacting" means that the anti-tumor compound used in the present invention is introduced into a patient receiving treatment, and the compound is allowed to come in contact in vivo.

As used herein, the term "treating" includes preventative as well as disorder remittent treatment. As used herein, the terms "reducing", "suppressing" and "inhibiting" have their commonly understood meaning of lessening or decreasing. As used herein, the term "progression" means increasing in scope or severity, advancing, growing or becoming worse. As used herein, the term "recurrence" means the return of a disease after a remission. As used herein, the term "administering" refers to bringing a patient, tissue, organ or cells in contact with an anti-tumor compound. As used herein, administration can be accomplished in vitro, i.e. in a test tube, or in vivo, i.e. in cells or tissues of living organisms, for example, humans. In certain embodiments, the present invention encompasses administering the compounds useful in the present invention to a patient or subject. A "patient" or "subject", used equivalently herein, refers to a mammal, preferably a human, that either: (1) has a disorder remediable or treatable by administration of ureidomustine or (2) is susceptible to a disorder that is preventable by administering ureidomustine.

As used herein, "pharmaceutical composition" means therapeutically effective amounts of the anti-tumor compound together with suitable diluents, preservatives, solubiiizers, emuisifiers, and adjuvants, collectively "pharmaceutica!iy-acceptable carriers." As used herein, the terms "effective amount" and "therapeutically effective amount" refer to the quantity of active therapeutic agent sufficient to yield a desired therapeutic response without undue adverse side effects such as toxicity, irritation, or allergic response. The specific "effective amount" will, obviously, vary with such factors as the particular condition being treated, the physical condition of the patient, the type of animal being treated, the duration of the treatment, the nature of concurrent therapy (if any), and the specific formulations employed and the structure of the compounds or its derivatives. Sn this case, an amount would be deemed therapeutically effective if it resulted in one or more of the following: (a) the prevention of disease (e.g., pancreatic cancer, breast cancer); and (b) the reversal or stabilization of such disease. The optimum effective amounts can be readily determined by one of ordinary skill in the art using routine experimentation. Pharmaceutical compositions are liquids or !yophilized or otherwise dried formulations and include diluents of various buffer content (e.g., Tris-HCS, acetate, phosphate), pH and ionic strength, additives such as albumin or gelatin to prevent absorption to surfaces, detergents (e.g., Tween (Polysorbate) 20, Tween 80, Piuronic F88, bile acid salts), soiubi!izing agents (e.g., glycerol, polyethylene glycerol), antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite), preservatives (e.g., Thimerosal, benzyl alcohol, parabens), bulking substances or tonicity modifiers (e.g., lactose, mannitol), covalent attachment of polymers such as polyethylene glycol to the protein, complexation with metal ions, or incorporation of the material into or onto particulate preparations of polymeric compounds such as polylactic acid, polglycolic acid, hydrogels, etc, or onto Iiposomes, microemuisions, micelles, unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles, erythrocyte ghosts, or spheroplasts. Such compositions will influence the physical state, solubility, stability, rate of in vivo release, and rate of in vivo clearance. Controlled or sustained release compositions include formulation in lipophilic depots (e.g., fatty acids, waxes, oils).

Also encompassed by the invention are methods of administering particulate compositions coated with polymers (e.g., poloxamers or poloxamines). Other embodiments of the compositions incorporate particulate forms protective coatings, protease inhibitors or permeation enhancers for various routes of administration, including topical, parenteral, pulmonary, nasal and oral. In one embodiment the pharmaceutical composition is administered parenterally, paracancerally, transmucosaily, tansdermaily, intramuscularly, intravenously, intraderma!iy, subcutaneously, intraperitonealy, intraventricularly, intracraniaily and intratumoraliy.

Further, as used herein "pharmaceutically acceptable carriers" are well known to those skilled in the art and include, but are not limited to, 0.01-0.1 M and preferably 0.05M phosphate buffer or 0.9% saline. Additionally, such pharmaceutically acceptable carriers may be aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. Examples of non-aqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Aqueous carriers include water, alcoholic/aqueous solutions, emulsions or suspensions, including saline and buffered media.

Parenteral vehicles include sodium chloride solution, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's and fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers such as those based on Ringer's dextrose, and the like. Preservatives and other additives may also be present, such as, for example, antimicrobials, antioxidants, collating agents, inert gases and the like.

Controlled or sustained release compositions administrate according to the invention include formulation in lipophilic depots (e.g. fatty acids, waxes, oils). Also comprehended by the invention are particulate compositions coated with polymers (e.g. poloxamers or poloxamines) and the compound coupled to antibodies directed against tissue-specific receptors, iigands or antigens or coupled to ligands of tissue-specific receptors.

Other embodiments of the compositions administered according to the invention incorporate particulate forms, protective coatings, protease inhibitors or permeation enhancers for various routes of administration, including parenteral, pulmonary, nasal and oral.

In yet another method according to the invention, a pharmaceutical composition can be delivered in a controlled release system. For example, the agent may be administered using intravenous infusion, an implantable osmotic pump, a transdermal patch, liposomes, or other modes of administration. In one embodiment, a pump may be used (see Langer, supra; Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1987); Buchwald et al. , Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al. , N. Engl. J. Med. 321 :574 (1989). In another embodiment, polymeric materials can be used. In yet another embodiment, a controlled release system can be placed in proximity to the therapeutic target, for example liver, thus requiring only a fraction of the systemic dose (see, e.g., Goodson, in Medical Applications of Controlled Release, supra, vol. 2, pp. 1 15-138 (1984). Other controlled release systems are discussed in the review by Langer (Science 249: 1527- 1533 (1990). The pharmaceutical preparation can comprise the anti-tumor compound alone, or can further include a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and can be in solid or liquid form such as tablets, powders, capsules, pellets, solutions, suspensions, elixirs, emulsions, gels, creams, or suppositories, including rectal and urethral suppositories. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include gums, starches, sugars, cellulosic materials, and mixtures thereof, The pharmaceutical preparation containing the antitumor compound can be administered to a patient by, for example, subcutaneous implantation of a pellet, in a further embodiment, a pellet provides for controlled release of anti-tumor compound over a period of time. The preparation can also be administered by intravenous, intra-arterial, or intramuscular injection of a liquid preparation oral administration of a liquid or solid preparation, or by topical application. Administration can also be accomplished by use of a rectal suppository or a urethral suppository.

The pharmaceutical preparations administrable by the invention can be prepared by known dissolving, mixing, granulating, or tablet-forming processes. For oral administration, the anti-tumor compound may be mixed with additives customary for this purpose, such as vehicles, stabilizers, or inert diluents, and converted by customary methods into suitable forms for administration, such as tablets, coated tablets, hard or soft gelatin capsules, aqueous, alcoholic or oily solutions. Examples of suitable inert vehicles are conventional tablet bases such as lactose, sucrose, or cornstarch in combination with binders such as acacia, cornstarch, gelatin, with disintegrating agents such as cornstarch, potato starch, alginic acid, or with a lubricant such as stearic acid or magnesium stearate.

Examples of suitable oily vehicles or solvents are vegetable or animal oils such as sunflower oil or fish-liver oil. Preparations can be effected both as dry and as wet granules. For parenteral administration (subcutaneous, intravenous, intra-arterial, or intramuscular injection), the anti-tumor compounds or their physiologically tolerated derivatives such as salts, esters, N-oxides, and the like are converted into a solution, suspension, or expulsion, if desired with the substances customary and suitable for this purpose, for example, solubilizers or other auxiliaries. Examples are sterile liquids such as water and oils, with or without the addition of a surfactant and other pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvants. Illustrative oils are those of petroleum, animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, or mineral oii. In general, water, saline, aqueous dextrose and related sugar solutions, and glycols such as propylene glycols or polyethylene glycol are preferred liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions.

The preparation of pharmaceutical compositions which contain an active component is well understood in the art. Such compositions may be prepared as aerosols delivered to the nasopharynx or as injectables, either as liquid solutions or suspensions; however, solid forms suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid prior to injection can also be prepared. The preparation can also be emulsified. The active therapeutic ingredient is often mixed with excipients which are pharmaceutically acceptable and compatible with the active ingredient. Suitable excipients are, for example, water, saline, dextrose, glycerol, ethanol, or the like or any combination thereof.

In addition, the composition can contain minor amounts of auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents. pH buffering agents which enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredient.

An active component can be formulated into the composition as neutralized pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the acid addition salts, which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed from the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, caicium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, 2- ethyiamino ethanol, histidsne, procaine, and the like.

For topical administration to body surfaces using, for example, creams, gels, drops, and the like, the anti-tumor compounds or their physiologically tolerated derivatives such as salts, esters, N-oxides, and the like are prepared and applied as solutions, suspensions, or emulsions in a physiologically acceptable diluent with or without a pharmaceutical carrier,

In another method according to the invention, the active compound can be delivered in a vesicle, in particular a liposome (see Langer, Science 249: 1527-1533 (1990); Treat et a!,, in Liposomes in the Therapy of Infectious Disease and Cancer, Lopez-Berestein and Fidler (eds.), Liss, N.Y,, pp. 353-385 (1989); Lopez-Berestein ibid., pp. 317-327; see generally ibid).

For use in medicine, the salts of the anti-tumor compound may be pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Other salts may, however, be useful in the preparation of the compounds according to the invention or of their pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds include acid addition salts which may, for example, be formed by mixing a solution of the compound according to the invention with a solution of a pharmaceutically acceptable acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, methanesulphonic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, carbonic acid or phosphoric acid.

The following Examples are provided herein to illustrate the invention, and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way.

xamples

Example 1

Ureidomustine (BO-1055) toxicity determined in a panel of human and murine benign tissue types.

To determine the toxicity of BO-1055 on non-malignant tissues, the inventors utilized the TT and alamar blue assays (Hamid et al. 2004) to measure ICso values on 29 different normal human, murine or primate cell and tissue types (Table 1 ). BO-1055 was evaluated on all 29 normal tissues. Of these, 24/29 were highly resistant (ICso >1 Q.Q->10G.O μΓπ) and 5 were moderately resistant (ICso 8,80-9.48 μΜ). The latter group included fallopian tube epithelium, fetal bone marrow stroma, cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in serum replacement medium, CAFC week 2 progenitors and CAFC week 5 hematopoietic stem cells.

Table 1. Cytotoxicity of water soluble ureidomustine (BQ-1055) on various human, murine and primate normal tissues in vitro*. 72hr cytotoxicity (IGso, μΜ).

* Description of benign cells used in Table 1. MSG: Castro-Maiaspina et al 1980 (first description of human mesenchymal stem cells and their progeny). Initial terminology CFU-F, current alternative nomenclature mesenchymal stromal cells (since only a minor fraction of the ceii population has self- renewing stem cell features). BMEC-hTERT: human bone marrow microvascular endothelium- hTERT immortalized (Franco et al. 2001 ). MSC-hTERT: human hTERT immortalized bone marrow MSG (MacKenzie et al. 2000). MRG5: human embryonic lung fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT (Franco et al 2001 , Wen et al 2006), Lung basal epithelium: immortalized with hTERT or SV40 (16HBE SV40+, BCI-NSI hTERT, BEAS2B SV40 T, CCD-33L.U , NL31-PE) (Shaykhiev et al 2013, Waiters et al 2013). NOSE: normal human ovarian epithelium. HS5, HS27A: adult human bone marrow stromal cells immortalized with papilloma virus (Roeckiein and Torok-Storb 1995). Renal fibroblasts were represented by an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) Raus sarcoma-transformed renal cell line (CV1 ) (Jensen et al. 1984). CB CD34+: human cord blood CD34+ cells (Mulioy et al 2003). CB CFG: Cord Blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CFC) in semi-solid colony assay (Chung et al 2005), SVGp 2: Astroglia an SV40 transformed human human fetal glial cell line.

Methods:

(i) CFC Assay

The toxicity of BO-1055 and other compounds on human hematopoietic progenitor cells, colony-forming Cells (CFC), was determined by culturing 500 purified human umbilical cord blood CD34* ceils/mi of Iscove's Modified Dulbecco Medium (IMDM) containing 1 .2% methylcellulose, 20 ng/mi human c-Kit Ligand (KL), 20 ng/ml human lL-3, 20 ng/mi human G-CSF, 8 units/ml human EPG, 80 μΜ 2-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM L-glutamine, 50 units/ml penicillin, 50 pg/ml streptomycin, 0.125 mM hemin (Sigma), and 20% serum replacement (Life Technology, Grand Island, NY) in the presence or absence of various dose of BO-1055 in triplicates. After 14 days, the colonies containing more than 50 cells/colony CFC were scored as CFC under a microscope and data were expressed as Mean ± S.D., n=3. (ϊή CAFC Assay;

The toxicity of BO-1055 on human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vitro was determined using the cobblestones area forming assay (CAFC)(Breems et ai, 1994, Jo et al. 2000). A co-culture of 200 purified human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells and MS-5 cells (murine stromal cells) was established in MEM alpha medium containing 12.5% fetal calf serum, 12.5% horse serum, 1 Q ~4 M monothiolglycerol, 10 "6 M hydrocortisone, 50 pg/ml gentamicin, and 2 mM glutamine with or without various doses of the tested chemical. Half of medium was replenished with fresh medium weekly in triplicates. After 5 weeks, CAFC numbers of co-cultures were scored under a phase contrast microscope as areas of >8 phase-dark cells beneath the stromal monolayer. For determining leukemic stem cells (LSC) the same assay was used but cultures are scored for cobblestone areas by 2 wks. Secondary re-passage of dissociated cobblestone area-forming cells onto fresh stroma was used to confirm the self-renewing ability of both HSC and LSC.

(Hi) Effect of BO-1055 on normal human tissues and human cancer tissues

2,000-4,000 suspension cells or 1 ,000-2,000 adherent tumor cells/well (in a 96- well or 384-well plate) were cultured in IMDM medium containing 10% FCS in the presence or absence of various dose of BO-1055 in triplicates. After 72 hours, the cultures were pulsed with Alamar Blue overnight, and the fluorescent intensity of resulted cultures was measured by a Synergy H1 plate-reader (BioTek inc). The suspension ceils include purified CB CD34+ cells, primary human leukemia CD34+ ceils, human leukemia and small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. The adherent cells were normal human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC), human bone marrow endothelial cells (BMEC), human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and various human solid tumor cell lines. When human CD34÷ ceils were used for drug screen, 500~1 ,000 cells/well were cultured in the presence of 20 ng/ml KL, 20 ng/ml IL-3, 20 ng/ml G-CSF and 6 units/mi EPO for 7-10 days prior to an addition of Alamar Blue.

As shown in Table 1 , ureidomustine has relatively low toxicity against a panel of normal human and murine tissue and cell types. The panel includes four bronchial epithelial cell lines, three of these immortalized by transduction with hTERT or SV40 T antigen (ICso >10.0-40.0μΜ). Epithelial lines obtained from normal human ovarian surface epithelium and Fallopian tube basal epithelium were also resistant to BO-1055 (ICso≥10,0-80, ΟμΜ). Endothelium was represented by a bone marrow microvascular endothelial line and by normal umbilical cord-derived vascular endothelium, both resistant to BO-1055 (ICso > 0-60.5μΜ). Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and myofibroblasts were represented by 14 cell lines. Murine and human fetal and adult bone marrow or lung-derived MSCs, fetal cutaneous MSCs, adipose tissue-derived MSG and primate renal fibroblasts were relatively resistant to BO-1055 (ICso 8.48>100 μΜ).

The benign human bone marrow stroma! ceil lines HS5 and HS27A immortalized by papilloma virus were also resistant to BO-1055 cytotoxicity (ICso >20-35.3μΜ). Normal human hematopoietic cells in the screening panel included purified cord blood CD34+ cells in either serum-free or fetal calf serum-containing suspension culture (ICso 9.01 -15.0 μΜ), or in semi-solid media colony-forming assay for hematopoietic progenitor cells/HPC (CFU-GM, BFUE, CFU-Mix (ICso 19.0μΜ). The cobblestone area-forming assay (Breems et al 1994, Jo et al 2000) was used for quantitation of week 2 CAFC (HPC) and the documentation of their relative resistance to BO-1055 (mean ICso 9.20 μΜ in n=4 independent cord blood samples). Cord blood hematopoietic stem ceils/HSC in week 5 CAFC assay were also relatively resistant to BO-1055 (mean ICso 9.10 μΜ in n=4 independent cord blood samples).

Example 2

Toxicity of alkylating drugs Carboplatin, CispSatin, Temozo!omide, Melphalan, Bendamustine and Cyclophosphamide (active metabolite 4-HC) determined in a panel of human and murine normal tissue types.

The panel of 19 benign tissue types that was used to determine the cytotoxicity of BO-compounds was also used to screen for cytotoxicity of six commonly used alkylating drugs, carboplatin, cisplatin, temozolomide, melphalan, bendamustine and 4- HC (the active metabolite of cyclophosphamide) (Table 2).

Seven tissues were screened with carboplatin one was moderately sensitive (ICso of 1 .70 μΜ). and ]6/7were highly resistant (ICso of 32.8->1000 μΜ). 12/14 lines were resistant to cisplatin (ICso of >20.0->100 μΜ) but 2/3 bronchial lines was sensitive (ICso 3.80-4.10 μΜ) as were cord blood hematopoietic progenitors (ICso 1 .80 μΜ).

Temozolomide was evaluated on 7 tissues with 5 tissues highly drug resistant (ICso 20.0- >100.0 μΜ) with one, the murine MS5 stromal line, showing weak resistance (ICso 5.5 μΜ) and the other, HUVEC endothelium, moderately sensitive. MS5 was also quite sensitive to the other alkylating agents including melphalan

(ICso 1 .64 μΜ) and bendamustine (ICSQ 2.24 μΜ) and this was in contrast to the melphalan resistance of 13 other tissues tested (ICso 7.0-320.0 μ ).

Bendamustine was cytotoxic to SV40-immortalized bronchial epithelium (16HBESV40+ ICso 3.55 μΜ) and murine bone marrow stroma (MS-5 ICso 2.24 μΜ) but not to 10 other tissues tested (ICso 20.0-400.0 μΜ).

4-HC (the toxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide) had moderate cytotoxicity against 2 normal tissues (ICso 0.30-2.01 μΜ) and 5 were resistant (ICso 12.5-47.0 μΜ).

Table 2. in vitro 72 hr cytotoxicity (ICso M) of the alkylating drugs Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Temozolomide (TMZ), Melphalan (Melp), Bendamustine and 4-HC

(active metabolite of Cyclophosphamide) on various normal human, primate and murine tissues and teio erase- or SV40~immortalized normal tissues.

* Assay for IC50 determined by 72 hr alamar blue assay. nd=not determined

All the normal lines that were screened were resistant to carboplatin (7/7 IC50 23.0-

1 ,000.0

Example 3

The resistance of normal benign murine cells and human cord blood CD34+ ceils, hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to ureidomustine (BO-1055) cytotoxicity.

Figure 1 shows the effect of ureidomustine on the proliferation of human CB CD34+ HPC determined by wk 2 CAFC assay, and HSCs determined by the wk 5 CAFC assay (ΙΟδο 7.5-8.2μΜ). There was variation in the sensitivity among independent CB samples tested with a mean ICso of 9.20μΜ for wk2 CAFC (progenitor cells) and 9.10μΜ for wk5 CAFC (HSC) (Table 2).

Figure 2 demonstrates effect of ureidomustine on the proliferation of various normal cell types compared to a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ceil line. Normal cells: Human cord blood CD34+ cells (hu-CB-CD34+). This subpopuiation is enriched for hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC -30%) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC ~5%). BM-derived endothelial ceils (BMEC). Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSG), murine MS-5 (BM-MSC) and murine OP9 (BM- MSG) cells. Human AML MA-10 cells: (hu-CB-CD34 cells transduced with MLL-AF9 fusion gene, cytokine-dependent), The relative fluorescence intensity represents the fluorescence intensity in the presence of ureidomusiine divided by that in the absence of ureidomustine.

Figure 2 shows the cytotoxicity of serial dilutions of BO-1055 as determined on various normal murine and human tissue types compared to an LL-AF9 transformed leukemic ceil line. Normal control tissues, including human bone marrow endothelium (BMEC), human MSG cells and murine MS-5 and OP9 bone marrow stromal ceils were resistant to BO-1055 cytotoxicity (!Cso >10 μΜ), as were normal cord blood-CD34+ ceils (ICso>10 μΜ). This chemoresistance contrasts with the chemosensitivity seen with the MA-10 cell line derived from normal cord blood CD34+ cells retrovirally transfected with the MLL-AF9 leukemic translocation gene (IGso O.SS ) (Mulloy et al. 2003, Wunderlich and Mulloy 2009.) The introduction of a single leukemic gene into a normal HSC/HPC increased the toxicity of BO- 055 >30-fold.

Example 4

in vivo effects of BO-1055 treatment on peripheral blood hematologic parameters of norma! C57BI/8 mice

BO-1055 was administered to normal healthy mice using the MTD dose (30mg/kg) and frequency (every other day x5) of S.v. This dose and schedule of drug administration found to produce regression of tumor ceil line xenografts in Nude and NSG mice. There was no significant suppression in any of the 23/24 hematologic parameters evaluated (Table 3.). This is particularly striking in the case of neutrophils, red blood ceils and platelets, whose levels are the most frequent dose limiting toxicities seen in clinic evaluation of alkylating drug therapy. There was a 3-4-fold increase in monocytes. The only negative effect was a modest reduction in WBC numbers due to mild lymphopenia at day 10 in the BO-treated group.

Table 3. Complete Blood Counts in healthy C57BI/6 mice. Control PBS group n-4 or BO-1055 treated with 30mg/kg i.v on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 1Q. n~4. RBC values are 10 s /pL All other values are 10 3 /pL

E am le s

Pathofogicai evaluation of various tissues of mice bearing prostate 22Rv/HL2 tumor xenografts recovered after cessation of treatment with BO-1055. Figure 3 depicts the results of pathological examination of different organs from the ureidomustine (BO-1055), carbopiatin, and docetaxel-freated mice 42 days after starting of drug treatment.

The inventors have examined the primary toxicity of BO-1055 and two positive control compounds (Carbopiatin, Docetaxei) in nude mice bearing prostate 22Rv/HL2 tumor xenografts (orthotropic implantation in nude mice). The average body-weight of the drug-treated mice recovered on day 35-40, after cessation of treatment with BO- 1055, indicating that ureidomustine has low toxicity to the host. We have also examined the pathologic changes in these treated mice (Figure 3). Different organs of treated mice were removed, fixed, and stained on day 42 after onset of drug administration, for pathologicai examination.

There was no apparent pathological change in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney between the control group and the drug treated groups, indicating that ureidomustine and the two positive control compounds (Carbopiatin, Docetaxei) have very little toxicity to the host and the treated mice rapidly recovered their body weight after ceasing drug treatment.

Example 6 Blood Chemistry and Complete Blood Count of Nude mice with orthotopic implantation of the prostate ceil line 22Rv/HL2 24 hrs after BO-1055 treatment (30m/kg every second day for 42 days)

The blood was collected 24 hrs after the last treatment from the mice (n=3) bearing prostate 22Rv/HL2 (orthotropic implantation) for blood chemistry testing (Table 4) and complete blood count (Table 5). The results showed that AST (aspartate aminotransferase) was increased in all mice treated with Carbopiatin, Docetaxei, and BO 055 (Table 4). The bfood urea nitrogen (BUN) is slightly increased in the BO-1055 treated mice, but does not change the level of uric acid (UA) in blood. Tabie 4. Resu Its of Blood Chemistr y Test: blood was collected 24hrs after ti drug treatme tt of the mice (n~3),

The complete blood count (Table 5) revealed that BO-1055 and both carboplatin and docetaxe! lowered white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU), and the platelet (PLT) count. However, there is no significant difference in the degree of leukopenia resulting from treatment with the three compounds.

Tabie 5. Complete blood ceil counts in nude mice with an orthotopic implanted human prostate cancer ceil line 22Rv/HL2 and treated with BO-1055, carboplatin or docetaxel. (Blood was coiiected 24hrs after the last drug treatment n-3).

* BC values are 10 5 /pL All other values are 10 3 /pL

Example 7

Determination of the pharmacokinetic profile of BO-1055.

The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ureidomustine were evaluated in healthy male Sprague Dawley rats following a single intravenous and oral administration of BO-1055 (Tabie 6). A single intravenous dose was administered via an indwelling catheter in the jugular vein to a group of 2 male rats at a dose level of 1.0 mg/kg. The formulations were prepared as a solution in 5.0% w/v DMSO with 10% w/v Gremophor in distilled water. The test compound, BO-1055 was administered once via oral gavage to another group of 2 male rats at a dose Seve! of 10 mg/kg. The formulations were prepared as a solution in 0.5% w/v CMC in distilled water. Serial blood samples were collected from the jugular vein catheter up to 24 h post-dose from all animals in groups. Concentration levels of BO-1055 were determined in plasma using a validated LC-MS/MS assay with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 2.5 ng/mL. The plasma concentration-time data above the LLOQ at each dose level were used in the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters of BO-1055 using the validated program WinNonlin™, version 5.2.1.

Pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 6.

The key observations from the toxicokinetic portion of this study are: (i) No quantifiable levels at any sampling time of BO-1055 were found after oral administration of 10 mg/kg (LLOQ: 2.5 ng/mL); (ii) There is no oral absorption after oral administration of BO-1055 (iii) BO-1055 exhibited Sow plasma clearance (Mean CL: 18.00 mL/min/kg); (iv) Mean apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 0.15 L/kg; (v) BO-1055 has a half-life of ti/2 - 0.58 h in the rat model (n=2).

Table 6. Summary of Pharmacokinetic parameters of BO-1055 (ureidomustine)

group.

The inventors further studied the PK of BO-1055. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks, 5 male rats) were treated with BO-1055 as a single intravenous administration via femoral vein by bolus injection (over 1 min) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg in 0,9% normal saline (NS). Serial blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 80, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360 min after dosing. Concentration levels of BO-1055 were determined in piasma using a validated HPLC-photodiode array detection assay (Lin et al 2008), All pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out using the WinNonlin Standard Edition Version 1.0 (Scientific Consulting Inc., Apex, NC, USA). The results showed thai the mean apparent elimination half-life (ti/ 2 ) of BO-1055 was 0.77 h (46.4 min) (Table 7). The area under curve (AUG), clearance (CI) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 267+65.3 min Mg/mL, 39.4± 0.8 mL/min per kg and 13,4+6.17 pg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that BO-1055 has an acceptable PK profile with a rapid distribution and a slow elimination after administration (10 mg/kg, iv. injection) in rats. After a short intravenous administration time at the dose of 10mg/kg, ureidomustin was found to be quickly distributed to ail organs in the rats, and accumulated mainly in the kidney, with only a limited amount detected in the brain (Chien et al. 2013).

Table 7. Pharmacokinetic parameters of BO-1055 (ureidomustine) following administration (10 mg/kg, via intravenous injection in rats (n-5) (Chien et al. 2013)

tl 2: half-life; AUG: the area under curve;

CI: Clearance; Cmax: maximum concentration

Example 8

Mechanism of action of ureidomustine i) Ureidomustine induces DNA inter-strand cross-linking Kapuriya et a! 2011)

The mechanism of action of ureidomustine was investigated by alkaline agarose gei shifting assay and compared with the alkylating drug Melphalan. The gel shows that ureidomustine is able to induce DNA inter-strand cross-linking, suggesting that DNA cross-linking may be the main mechanism of action for this agent.

Figure 4 shows a representative DNA cross-linking gel shift assay for ureidomustine (BO-1055) at various concentrations as indicated. Control iane shows single stranded DNA (SL), while cross-linking (CL) shown in all tested lanes is DNA double-stranded cross linking. Melphalan (1 and 10 μΜ) was used as a positive control.

ii) Ureidomustine induces G2M arrest (Kapuriya et ai 2011).

The inhibitory effect of ureidomustine on cell cycle distribution was studied in human non-smail lung carcinoma H1299 cells. Ureidomustine treatment induced significant G2/M arrest in these cells. Furthermore, the inventors also found increased sub-G1 populations following ureidomustine treatment (Fig. 5).

Figure 5 shows cell cycle inhibition in human non-smail cell lung adenocarcinoma Hi 299 by treating with ureidomustine.

(iii) Absorption, Distribution, iVletabonsm, and Elimination (ADWfE) studies of BO-1055

ADME studies were carried out and are summarized in Table 8. The Caco-2 intestinal cells penetration test indicates that compound BO-1055 cannot penetrate the intestinal cells and pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the drug cannot be administered and absorbed following oral administration. The drug/protein binding rate is high (99%) indicating that this can provide a drug reserve allowing slow drug release. The microsome stability test was 75%, indicating the compound may be removed via hepatic metabolism. Low hERG binding indicated that the tested compound is unlikely to produce cardiac toxicity.

Table 8. Summary of ear!y ADME studies of ureidomustine

Example 9

Preclinical in vivo studies of ureidomustine (BO-1055)

i) Non-GLP acute 14-day toxicity of ureidomustine following intravenous injection in ICR mice.

The inventors have studied the acute intravenous injection 14-day toxicity of ureidomustine in ICR mice to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in tumor xenografted mice and optimize the drug treatment conditions (e.g. dosage and schedule), ureidomustine at different doses (50, 80, 70, 80, and 100 mg/kg in double distilled water) and a vehicle control group, were administrated to six ICR mice per group. The mice were observed for 14 days and mortality and body weight were recorded and the median lethal dose (LDso) of ureidomustine was determined (Table 9). Acute mortality was first seen at 70 mg/k (1/6mice) <1 hr after drug administered and at 80 mg/kg all mice died in < 1 hr. The LDso of BO-1055 in these normal mice was 70mg/kg.

Table 9, The acute intravenous injection 14-day toxicity of ureidomustine in norma! ICR mice

aN/'N: Number of mice found dead/Number of mice observed. Post dosing (hrs) coiumn shows the number of deaths that occurred within the 1st hr after drug injection or in the subsequent 3 hrs. SD ~ study day number after the injection of BO-1055.

bLDSO: Median Lethal Dose. The LDso is calculated as 70 mg/kg with 95% confidence interval of 58.8 ~ 107.2 mg/kg. The formula is Log dose = 1.73 + 0.0233 probit K.

cVehic!e: dd water is) Studies on ERG inhibition and early ADIV!E studies of ureidomustine, The inventors examined the cardiac safety of ureidomustine using the hERG FP assay [Deacon et al. 2007]. The human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) encodes the inward rectifying voltage gated potassium channel in the heart (IKr) that is involved in cardiac repolarization. Inhibition of the hERG current causes QT interval prolongation resulting in potentially fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmia. A number of drugs have been withdrawn from late stage clinical trials due to these cardio toxic effects; therefore, it is important to identify inhibitors early in drug discovery. hERK inhibition was studied using the hERG Fluorescence Polarization Assay to measure the binding of ureidomustine to the hERG receptor. The assay is based upon the ability of the test compound in displaying a fluorescent tracer from hERK receptor (PredictorTM hERG membrane) that produces a change in optical signal. The assay was performed in a black 383-well assay plate by determining the dose-response binding curve from the competitive binding of the test compound with fluorescent tracer. The ICso of hERG-specific binding by ureidomustine was 12.8 ±1 .64 μΜ (n=3) versus astemizoie (ICso 0.007 μΜ), indicating weak or no inhibition and little likelihood of cardiac arrhythmic side effects. The concentration-response curves for ureidomustine are shown in Figure 6.

Figure 8 shows the results of evaluation of BO-1055 cardiotoxicity by hERG inhibition evaluation. Based on binding inhibition by BO-1055 (ICso 12.6 μΜ) compared to doxorubicin (ICso 0.03± 0.03), a drug with weii-known cardiotoxicity dose limiting toxicity, it was determined to be unlikely that the BO-1055 would exhibit cardiac arrhythmic side effects.

Example 10

Studies on the Caco-2 permeability and P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers by ureidomustine (Table 8).

(i) P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers:

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Permeability glycoprotein) is a very well investigated efflux pump of the Mufti Drug Resistant genes (MDR) subfamily. P-gp is energy dependent transporter protein involved in effluxing a number of drugs and impedes their absorption intracellular^. Permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers is used to predict human permeability of drug candidates, to perform in-depth mechanistic and absorption studies and to study the effects of transporters on permeability and transporter-mediated drug- drug interactions.

The Caco-2 permeability assay is considered to be the industry gold standard for in vitro prediction of in vivo human intestinal permeability and bioavailability of oraiiy administered drugs. The Caco-2 permeability assay uses an established method for predicting the absorption of therapeutic compounds across the GIT by measuring the rate of transport across a contiguous Caco-2 eel! monolayer. Measuring transport apical to basolaterai (A→B) and basoiateral to apical (B→A) across the ceii monolayer enables calculation of an efflux ratio and determines if a compound undergoes active efflux. The Caco-2 assay measures the passage of a test compound from a donor chamber into an acceptor chamber through a porous membrane on which a confluent Caco-2 monolayer forms a cellular barrier.

The results of Caco-2 permeability assay showed that the Papp coefficient of BO- 055 in A→B direction was not defected. The Papp coefficient in the B→A direction was 7.05x10-8 cm/sec. The mass balance of BO- 055 in A→B and B→A directions was< 50%. A mass balance of > 80% gives an acceptable approximation of the Papp. A significant fraction of BO-1055 disappeared during the transport experiment, a poor mass balance resulted and the Papp obtained became unreliable.

The result of this study is that ureidomustine is considered to be a very low permeable drug, indicating that this agent has poor oral absorption. In addition, the study on the P-gp mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers of ureidomustine showed that the P-gp efflux ratio (B→A/A→B) is »2, indicating that this agent does not inhibit P-gp. The studies suggest that ureidomustine is not suitable for oral administration.

(ii) Microsome Stability

Drug metabolism or xenobiotic biotransformation plays an important role in drug discovery since it affects clearance, haif-!ife and oral bioavailability, Liver is the principal organ involved in metabolism of xenobiotics. Liver microsomes are subcellular fractions comprising predominantly of endoplasmic reticulum containing cytochrome P450 enzymes, flavin-monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and epoxide hydrolase and hence provide a useful model of Phase I metabolism. Phase I reactions comprise oxidation, reduction and/or hydrolysis and require NADPH as a cofactor. Thus, incubation of potential drug candidates with Siver microsomes can provide a measure of their inherent metabolic vulnerability towards these enzymes.

The metabolic stability of BO-1055 in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) was studied with 7-Ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) as a positive control. The results are shown in Table 10. Table 10 demonstrates that the apparent half- lives of BO-1055 and 7-EC in RLM were 29.7 and 23.5 min, respectively. BO-1055 was more stable than 7-EC in the pooled RLMs. Table 10, Summary of metabolic stability parameters of BO-1055 and 7- ethoxycoumarin incubated in rat liver microsomes for BO min.

17-EC: 7-Ethoxycoumarin.

2RLM: Pooled rat liver microsomes.

Plasma stability and protein binding of BO-1055 (ureidomustine)

In drug discovery, the information on drug-p!asma protein binding is valuable in evaluating and understanding, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-related properties and the pharmacokinetic profile of drug candidates. The binding of BO-1055 to plasma proteins of rat was studied by spiking BO-1055 (20 μΜ) into rat plasma and diaiyzing against buffer until equilibrium was achieved. Concentrations of the BO-1055 in plasma and buffer were determined to calculate percentages of the drug that were unbound or bound to plasma proteins.

The results are shown in Figure 7 and Table 1 1 . The mean bound values were 99.68, 99.69, 92.01 , and 75.17% for incubation times of 2, 4, 6, and 24 h, respectively at a nominai spiked concentration of 20 μΜ (Fig. 7 and Table 1 1 ). Figure 7 shows a time course to reach equilibrium of BO-1055 binding to rat plasma proteins using a multi- equilibrium dialysis method.

Table 11. Mean fractional binding determination of BO~1Q55 in rat plasma

Exam e 12

BO-1055 (ureidomustine) has a broad spectrum of antitumor activity.

The cytotoxicity of ureidomustine to variety of human solid tumor, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cell lines was examined. As shown in Table 12, the ICso values of ureidomustine against the tested cell lines were in sub-μΜ range in 30%. Whereas in a pane! of 29 benign ceil types none had ICso values of <5.00 μΜ and 27% had ICso values of >20->100 μΜ. Table 12. Panel of Human Cancer Ceil lines, Primary Patient Tumor Samples and multiple types of normal tissues used for cytotoxicity evaluation. Total number of lines of each cancer type/subtype and number separate columns showing number of lines per group sensitive to BO-1055 cytotoxicity (ICso <1.QQpM) or with intermediate sensitivity (ICso 1.QQ-4,99pM), low resistance (ICso 5.00-9.99 μΜ) and high resistance (ICso≥10.0 μΜ).

Total No. lines normal +tumor 199 52 44 18 84

Example 1 3

BO-1055 cytotoxicity (SCso μΛΛ) against human cancer cell lines and primary human tumor samples in vitro and in vivo in xenograft models.

The cytotoxicity of BO-1055 was evaluated against panels of human cancer cell lines in vitro, Comparisons were made with other therapeutic alkylating agents and conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Where in vivo studies were undertaken, data is presented on tumor growth kinetics with and without BO-1055 treatment using xenograft models in Nude or NSG mice.

Data are presented in alphabetic order based on tumor type and subtypes.

Leukemi a

It is estimated that in 2012 there were 352,000 cases of leukemia of all types wide and 265,000 deaths, with incidence and mortality rates varying across the

I) Subtypes of Leukemia:

Leukemia can be subdivided into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid or lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, T-cell or B-cell subtypes), bi-phenotypic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, T-cell or B-cell subtypes) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The latter has both a chronic phase and acute phase blastic crisis. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CM L) is another variant form presenting as a mye!odysplastic syndrome characterized by abnormal clonal myeloid proliferation and by progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A sub group of CMML is characterized by a t(5;12)(q33;p13) balanced chromosomal translocation that fuses PDGFRp to an ets-like gene tel ( Golub ef al 1994). The FAB classification based on morphology recognizes 8 leukemia subgroups, but more recent sub-classifications are based on molecular features.

The development of effective treatment strategies for most forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has languished for the past several decades. There are a number of reasons for this, including the considerable heterogeneity of this disease and paucity of molecular markers that can be used to predict clinical outcomes and responsiveness to different therapies.

The inventors have evaluated the cytotoxicity of ureidomustine against the human T-cell leukemia line CCRF-CEM, a subline, CGRF-CEM/Taxoi that is 330-fold resistant to taxol, and a subline CCRF-CEMA BL that is 880-fold resistant to vinblastine. As shown in Table 13, BO-1055 has only a 9.4- or 6.2-fold reduced cytotoxicity to CCRF-CEM/Taxol and CGRF-GE /VBL, respectively, in comparison with the corresponding IC50 of the parent CCRF-CEM cell line, indicating that this agent is not significantly cross-resistance to either Taxol or Vinblastine. This data also supports other evidence showing that that BO-1055 is not a good substrate for the membrane multidrug resistance transporters (i.e., p-glycoprotein) nor does it interact with mutated tubulin.

Table 13. Ureidomustine (BO-1055) toxicity to the human T-ceii leukemia ceil line CCRF-CM and on Paciitaxel-resistant (CCRF-CEM/Taxol) or vinbiastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) sublines (ICso M)

a CCRF-CEM/Tax is 330-times more resistant to the parental cell lines CCRF-CEM; b CCRF-CEM/BVL is 980-times more resistant to the parental ceil lines CCRF-CEM; c Numbers in the brackets are fold of cross-resistant determined by comparison with the corresponding ICso of the parent cell line.

si) Development of IVILL-AF9- immortal zed human hematopoietic cells Sines Chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult, and therapy-induced acute leukemias. So far, about 80 different direct MLL fusions and about 120 reciprocal MLL fusions have been characterized at the molecular level. The MLL-AF9 fusion gene originates from the translocation t(9; 1 )(p22;q23) and is associated with aggressive leukemias of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineage in infants, whereas in adults, this translocation is mainly associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Depending on extrinsic cues, human neonatal CD34 + cells are readily immortalized along either the myeloid or lymphoid lineage upon MLL-AF9 expression and give rise to mainly lymphoid leukemia in immuno-compromised mice. In contrast, immortalization of adult bone marrow CD34 + cells is more difficult to achieve and is myeloid-biased, even when MLL-AF9 is expressed in purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (Norton et ai. 2013). Transcriptome analysis identified enrichment of HSC but not progenitor gene signatures in MLL-AF9-expressing cells.

Although not observed in adult cells, neonatal cells expressing MLL-AF9 were enriched for gene signatures associated with poor prognosis, resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and MYC signaling. These results indicate that neonatal cells are inherently more prone to MLL-AF9~mediated immortalization than adult cells (Horton et al. 2013). Mulloy and associates (Wei et al 2008) have shown that expression of MLL-AF9 in human CD34+ cells induces acute myeloid, lymphoid, or mixed-lineage leukemia in immuno-deficient mice. Some leukemia stem cells (LSC) were multipotent and could be lineage directed by altering either the growth factors or the recipient strain of mouse, highlighting the importance of micro-environmental cues. Other LSC were strictly lineage committed, demonstrating the heterogeneity of the stem cell compartment in MLL disease. Targeting the Rac signaling pathway by pharmacologic or genetic means resulted in rapid and specific apoptosis of MLL-AF9 ceils, suggesting that the Rac signaling pathway may be a valid therapeutic target in MLL-rearranged AML. As expected for immortal ceils, all of the cell lines we have tested are telomerase positive.

Whether the MLL-AF9 proteins are activating hTERT expression/activity themselves or are promoting the growth of a cell that normally expresses hTERT remains to be determined. MLL t(9:1 1 ) is believed to be prognosticaSly favorable in AML-M5 compared to other genetic alterations involving MLL. MLL is a histone methyltransferase deemed a positive global regulator of gene transcription. This protein belongs to the group of histone-modifying enzymes comprising transactivation domain 9aaTAD and is involved in the epigenetic maintenance of transcriptional memory.

' ύ ' ή WILL-AF9 cell Vines used for evaluation of BO-1055 cytotoxicity

a) Growth factor-dependent & cell density growth dependent ceil lines. Human cord blood CD34+ cells transduced with MLL-AF9 gene: MA-10, MA-18. Human bone marrow CD34+ cells transduced with MLL-AF9 gene: A-23. Human cord blood CD34+ cells transduced with MLL-AF9 and N-ras genes: MA-9.3, MA-9,8. b) Growth factor independent leukemic ceil lines. Human MA-10 cells transduced with Flt3 ITD (W51 ) were adapted to In vitro proliferation without growth factors (Moore Laboratory), Human AML cell lines THP-1 (MLL-AF9); MOL -13 (MLL-AF9 & Flt3 ITD); Kasumi (AML1-ETO); MV4;1 1 (MLL-AF4 & Fit3 ITD); Set2 (Jak2 V617); HEL (Jak2 V617). iv) BO-1055 is highly cytotoxic to acute myeloid leukemic cell lines, but not to leukemic cell lines with mutated JAK2T,

As shown in Table 14 and Fig. 8, BO-1055 was highly cytotoxic to 3/7AML ceil lines (ICso 0.18-0.45 μΜ), moderately cytotoxic to one (ICso 1.50 μΜ), with two JAK2 V617 mutant lines highly resistant (ICso≥10 μΜ) and one AML-ETO AML line highly resistant (ICso 80.0 μΜ). The cell lines developed by transduction of MLL- AF9 into normal CB CD34+ cells (MA10, MA18) or adult BM CD34+ cells (MA23), were uniformly highly sensitive to BO-1055 (ICso 0.25-0.40uM (Fig 8). The normal CB CD34+ cells transduced with two oncogenes were also highly sensitive to BO-1055, either MLL- AF9+Flt3lTD transduced (ICso 0.40uM) or MLL-AF9+N-RASmut (ICso 0.81-2.91 uM). When compared to the cytotoxicity against normal CB CD34+ (ICso 9.9-10.2uM) it can be concluded that the introduction of the MLL-AF9 oncogenic fusion genes into a normal CB or BM CD34+ cell increases BO-1055 cytotoxicity 25-40-fold. The addition of a second oncogene (FltSITD or N-Ras) did not further enhance sensitivity to BO-1055 over that observed with MLL-AF9 only.

v) BO-1055 is highly cytotoxic to acute myeloid leukemia stem cells in some molecular subtypes but not in others.

BO-1055 cytotoxicity to leukemic stem ceils (LSC) was determined using six primary pediatric AML samples of different molecular subtypes. The assay for LSC was undertaken using the MS5 co-culture assay with measurement of week 2 cobblestone area-forming cells ((Schuringa et al 2004, Chung et ai 2005, Moore et a! 2007). As shown in Tabie 14, LSCs from three patient samples were very sensitive to BO-1055 (IC-50 0.12-0.90 μΜ). These examples are poor prognosis molecular subtypes (Monosomy 7, LL-AF9 and FltSITD) indicating that BO-1055 may be an effective therapy in this group of AML that otherwise have a very poor prognosis. The patients with del17 and good prognosis NPM1 mutation and Inversion 16 were more sensitive to BO-1055 {IC506.25-7.0 μΜ) than normal HSCs but the therapeutic window was narrow

Tabie 14. IC50 (μΜ) of BO-1055, Temozolomide (TZM) and Melphalan on a panel of 27 leukemia cell lines including AML, T-ALL and primary patient samples of AML of different molecular subtypes and HSC transformed with MLL-AF9±NRAS or FltSITD.

(vi) Dose-response analysis of BO-1055 cytotoxicity comparing normal CB CD34+- ceils to AML and A.Mon.L cell lines and oncogene-transduced CD34+ ceils,

As shown in Fig. 8 and Table 14, normal hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB CD34+FBS or SF) were resistant to BO- 055 (ICso 9.9-10.2μΜ). In contrast, the A. Mon. L cell lines THP1 and MOLM13 were highly sensitive (ICso 0.18-0.45μΜ). The CB- derived MLL-AF9 transduced lines MA- 10 and MA-18 and the BM-derived MLL-AF9 transduced line MA-23 were highly sensitive to BO-1055 cytotoxicity (ICso 0.25-0.40 μΜ), The MA10 W51 ceil line (CB MLL-AF9+Flt3ITD) was maintained as growth factor independent and growth factor (hG -CSF or hlL-3) dependent sub-Sines. The former was more resistant to BO-1055 cytotoxicity (ICso ~10μ ) than the latter (ICso 0,28- 0.40μ ). The MA-9.3 and MA-9.8 CB MLL-AF9+NRAS lines diverged in sensitivity to BO1055 with the former being highly sensitive (ICso 0.81 μΜ) and the latter less sensitivity (ICso 2.91 μΜ).

Fig. 9 shows effect of BO-1055 on the proliferation of growth factor dependent

MA-10-W51 cells (normal CD34+ transduced with MLL-AF9 fusion gene and mutated FitSITD). A dose titration comparison of BO-1055 and BO-1978 on growth factor dependent MA-10-W51 cells shows that both compounds were highly cytotoxic, with BO-1978 more so than BO-1055.

(vii) "Therapeutic Window" of BO-1055, four alkylating drugs, a microtubule binding drug, topoisomerase inhibitors, an HSP90 inhibitor and an anthracyclirse antitumor antibiotic, determined by comparison of ICso against 5 normal human tissues and three malignant leukemias- an A!V!L ceil line, a primary A1V1L and a primary B-ALL.

The therapeutic window obtained with BO-1055 on the MV4; 11 AML ceil line and primary pediatric A L-2 and B-ALL cells emphasizes BO-1Q55s lack of toxicity on normal bronchial epithelium (Bci-NSI), Fallopian tube epithelium (FTEC), endothelium (HUVEC), bone marrow mesenchymal stroma (huMSC), and normal cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ ceils, CFC). This contrasted with the high cytotoxicity of BO-1055 against the leukemias (Table 15), Of note is the lack of a therapeutic window with the alkylating drugs 4-HC (active metabolite of cyclophosphamide), bendamustine, cisplatin, topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide and SN38, the HSP90 inhibitor PU-H71 , an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic (doxorubicin) and a microtubule binding alkaloid (vincristine), due primarily to their toxicity to normal CFC. Table 15. Therapeutic window determinations of BO-1055, alkylating drugs and other chemotherapeutic drugs, comparing their toxicity (ICso μΜ) against five normal human tissue types to toxicity against an AML cell line (MV4;11), a primary AML (AML-2) and a primary B-ALL,

1. Chemical CD3¾ HUVEC J u ISC NSI FTEC ¥4;11 ;

BO-1055 50.00 168.87 ' 66.67 Ί 33.33 266.67 1.00

4-HC 1 ,34 27.00 27.00 12.00 8.33 1.00

Benamustine 0.17 2.50 5.00 2.50 6.67 .OO

!Vtelphalan 7.00 [ 320.00 160.00 ND ND ND

Cisplatin 0.75 6.25 2.50 3.75 ! 12.50 1 ,00

Doxorubicin 10.53 I 18.42 23.68 26.32 328.95 1.00 ;

Etoposide 0.23 I 0.90 180.00 1.28 512.82 1.00 I

PUH71 1 ,00 I 7.78 14.00 33,33 1777.8 too

SN-38 1 ,17 I 68.67 33.33 83.33 333*33 100

Vincristine 5.20 i 0.56 14.0 _ 444_.44__ 555.56 100

2. Chemical CD34+ THUVEC " FTEC ML-2 """"

B6-1055 48.00 I 160.00 64.00 128.00 256.00 1.00

4-HC 0.64 ! 12.96 12.96 5.76 I 4,00 1.00

Benamustine 0.50 i 7.50 15.00 7.50 20.00 1 00

MeljDhaian 1.00 ! 45.71 22.86 ND 45.71 1.00

Cisplatin 0.10 j 0.83 0.33 0.50 1.67 1,00

(visi) Determination of tumor-initiating cell frequency in xenografts of THP-1 monocytic leukemia with and without exogenous hGM-CSF administration.

In order to determine the number of leukemic ceils needed to ensure engraftment, NSG mice were injected i.v. with from 1x10 3 -3x10 6 GFP-Luciferase transduced THP-1 AML cells into eight NSG mice.

Four engrafted mice were not further treated (FIG. 10A) and four were implanted s.c. with an osmotic minipump (A!zet) at the time of tumor injection that released 1 pg of human GM-CSF per day over 40 days (FIG. 10B). Mice in both groups were bioimaged at 7 weeks.

As shown in Fig.10A and 1QB, in the absence of exogenous human GM-CSF engraftment was only detected with the highest dose of THP-1 cells (3x10 6 ). Increased engraftment was evident in mice treated with hGM-CSF with both 1x10 6 and 1x10 5 -30- fold increase in detection of tumor-initiating ceils in this cell line.

(ix) BO-1055 treatment of NSG mice transplanted with the human MLL-AF9- translocated AML cell line IV1V4;11. MSG mice were transplanted with 10 5 MV4; 1 1 -GFP/Luciferase transduced cells injected i.v. into each of ten male 12 vvk-o!d NSG mice. The cytotoxicity of BO-1055 (30mg/kg every second day beginning on d14 x5) was determined in 5 NSG mice with 5 control mice receiving media alone.

FIG. 1 1 shows the results of this experiment. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with MV4-1 1 -GFP-Luciferase cells; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with MV4-1 1 -GFP-Luciferase cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

As shown in Fig 1 1 , 4/5 control mice (the left panel) showed rapidly growing tumor by day 28 with one mouse with only low engraftment. In the BO-1055 treated group (the right panel) at this time there was a very significant reduction in tumor engraftment compared to a week earlier with no tumor detected in 2 mice and very small tumor remaining in 3 mice. By day 28 there was no significantly detectable tumor in any of the five BO-1055 treated mice. In the control group at this time two mice had been euthanized due to massive tumor and the remaining mice showed extensive tumor requiring their euthanasia shortly after the day 28 imaging. x) BO-1055 treatment of NSG mice transplanted with the human MA1 Q cells expressing GFP/Lucsferase

MA10 is an hGM-CSF-dependent AML cell line developed by retroviral transduction of the LL-AF9 fusion oncogene and the activating Fit3 mutation (FitlTD) into normal human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. In the absence of GM-CSF in vitro or in vivo in NSG mice, MA10 ceils did not proliferate. GM-CSF is species restricted, the human cytokine has no activity in mice and mouse GM-CSF is not active on human cells.

The inventors showed that daily i.p. injections of 1 ,ug of human GM-CSF into NSG mice transplanted with MA10 ceils would support their engraftment and expansion (data not shown). The inventors also showed that s.c. implantation of an osmotic minipump (Afzet) releasing 1 ug/day of human GM-CSF for 42 days would sustain the continued expansion of MA10 cells. Figure 12 demonstrates the results of transplantation i.v. of one million MA10 cells expressing GFP/Luciferase in NSG mice with no cytokine support (left) or with administration of human GM-CSF by minipump implant (right). Bioimaging was done at 28 days.

Figure 12 shows comparative engraftment of A 0 with or without the minipump at day 18 post i.v. injection of one miiSion cells. By 18-25 days there was significant leukemia engraftment demonstrated by luciferase bioimaging only in the presence of GM-CSF (two mice on the right) with no engraftment without hGM-CSF (two mice on left). This dramatic response of a human leukemia xenograft to BO- 055 monotherapy was particularly remarkable since, in contrast to nude mouse xenografts there was no functional NK cell or residual T or B-cell function that could facilitate tumor eradication after drug debulking by a chemotherapeutic agent.

xi) Xenograft studies of BO-1055 in NSG mice transplanted with MA-10-W51 cord b!ood CD34+ ce!!s transduced with MLL-AF9 and a constitutively active Flt3 interna! tandem duplication ( 51) and treated with single dose BO-1055,

NSG mice (group of six) were implanted s.c with minipumps producing hGM-CSF and were injected i.v. with 10 6 MA-10-W51 ceils representing a poor prognosis leukemia developed by transduction of cord blood CD34+ ceils with MLL-AF9 and FltSITD oncogenes. At 10 days after leukemic cell injection a single dose of BO-1055 of 30mg/kg was administered to half the mice with the remainder getting an injection of media alone.

As shown in Fig. 13, this leukemia grew slowly but by day 50 was clearly engrafted in all control mice (on the left) whereas in the BO-1055 treated mice (on the right), it was undetectable or borderline engrafted at best. This tumor suppressive effect was particularly remarkable since it was obtained with only a single dose of 30mg/kg BO-1055. xii) In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of BO-1055 against a primary (SVSLL-AF9+) pediatric AML. A sample of bone marrow from a pediatric patient with MLL-AF9+ AML was obtained at diagnosis and transduced with a lentivector expressing a GFP/luciferase fusion gene. GFP+CD34+ cells were isolated by FACS and 10 s eel! injected i.v. into each of six 12 wk old NSG mice. Mice were imaged at intervals and at day 35 after initial engraftment, half the mice began BO-1055 treatment (30mg/kg every other day x5) and half received control medium.

As shown in Fig.14, there was no detectable leukemia in the treated mice whereas all the control mice had progressively growing leukemia. One mouse in the treated group died 24hrs after initiation of treatment but unrelated to therapy. BO- 055 treated mice showed tumor regression with no detectable tumor by day 47 (4 days after the last drug treatment). χϊϊί) Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis of NSG mice engrafted with second passage MLL-AF9+AML-2.

As shown in Fig. 15, NSG mice injected i.v with 6x10 6 cells from a primary AML sample from a pediatric patient with MLL-AF9+ leukemia all died by 160 days whereas the group treated with BO-1055 (30mg/kg Q10D2x) beginning at day 7 after leukemic cell injection lived 48 days longer. This response was particularly significant in view of the relatively large number of leukemic cells injected, and the poor prognosis phenotype of the leukemia. xiv) In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of BO-1055 against a primary pediatric B-ALL.

A sample of bone marrow from a pediatric patient with B-ALL was cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of BO-1055 titrated over a dose range from 0.001- 20,0pm,

The dose response curve was compared to that obtained using normal cord blood CD34+ cells maintained in FBS-containing media or in serum free media (Fig.16) BO-1055 was highly cytotoxic to the B-ALL ceils (ICso 0.30μΜ) while the normal cord blood CD34+ cells in either FCS-containing media or in serum-free medium ("serum replacement" medium with supplements), were relatively resistant to BO-1055 toxicity (ICso 8.5- 10.5μΜ). The B-ALL ceils were then transduced with a lentivirus vector expressing a GFP/Luciferase fusion gene and GFP+ CD34+ ceils were selected by FACS (Fig.17). xv) FACS analysis of primary B-ALL.

Figure 17 demonstrates the results of the experiment whereby primary B-ALL

Cells were separated by Ficoll density gradient and light density cells further selected by a CD34 affinity column and then FACS analyzed for CD34 and CD19 expression.

By combined CD34 and the B-cell marker CD19 in FACS analysis, 19.3% of cells in the primary sample were CD34. The vast majority of these CD34 ceils ¥/ere CD34+CD19+ double positive. After affinity column separation, 100% were CD34+ and 98.4% were double positive CD34+CD19+ (Fig. 17). xvi) , Organ distribution of primary pediatric B-ALL cells after transplantation in NSG mice.

NSG mice were transplanted with either 2 million CD34+ B-ALL cells or 2 million unseparated cells. Following engraftment, the organ distribution was determined by FACS analysis using monoclonal antibodies to human CD34 and human CD 9 (Table 16). Massive spleen enlargement was evident with splenic cellularities of 310-400 million ceils, an increase in cellularity compared to normal NSG mice of 30-40-foid. The 63-74% of this increase was due to expansion of human CD19+ cells and of these, 50- 54% were CD34+ B-ALL ceils. The engrafted cells also extensively infiltrated the bone marrow with 37-56 million cells per femur and of these 92-96% were human CD19+ and 68-81 % were human GD34+CD19+. The B-ALL cells were also present in the peripheral blood (1 % human CD34+CD19+ and 2% CD34-CD19+ cells)

Table 16. Engraftment and tissue distribution human primary B-ALL cells following transplantation in NSG mice.

: xvii) Effect of BO-1055 on NSG Mice transplanted i.v. with Primary Pre-B-ALL- GFP-Lu Ce!is

The six mice transplanted with the primary Pre-B-ALL cells used in Fig 19 showed rapid tumor growth and suppression of tumor growth within 7 days of initiation of BO-1055 treatment (Q10D2x beginning at day 7) (Fig. 18).

FIG. 18 shows four bioimaging photograph panels of three mice each. The three panels on the left show mice which were only injected with Pre-B-ALL CD34-GFP- Luciferase cells and control media; and the three panels on the right show mice which were injected with Pre-B-ALL CD34-GFP-Luciferase ceils and were further treated with ureidomustine.

By 71 days, control mice had extensive tumor infiltration, primarily within the bone marrow of the spine and cranium whereas one of the two surviving BO-1055 treated mice had no detectable tumor and the other had small leukemia foci primarily in the heads of the femur and humerus. A third mouse died of causes unrelated to tumor development or therapy. This data shows a significant 2 iog reduction of tumor growth in the BO-1055 treated mice. A Kap!an-Meyer survival curve calculated for primary B-ALL tumor-bearing mice in the xenograft study with or without BO-1055 treatment is shown in Fig. 19. This schedule of BO-1055 had a very significant effect on overall survival of tumor-bearing mice with the drug treated group surviving -100 days longer than the control-treated group,

Example 13B

LUNG CANCER

There were 1.6 million cases of lung cancer world-wide in 2014. There were 224,210 new cases in the US with 159,260 deaths and a 5-year survival of 16.8%. If diagnosed at an early stage (IA) 5-year survival is 49% but if diagnosed at stage IV it is

1 %.

(i) Lung cancer subtypes.

Lung cancer is a large and exceptionally heterogeneous family of malignancies.

Over 50 different histological variants are explicitly recognized within the 2004 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system (Brambilla et al. 2001). Lung cancers are broadly dassified by histological type into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

(ii) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

NSCLC can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, large eel! carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent (40% of all lung cancers) followed by squamous (30%), small-cell (13-15%), and large-cell (9-10%) (Travis et al. 2004). Rare subtypes are giant cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, rhabdoid carcinoma and papillary adenocarcinoma. Bronchioa!veolar carcinoma is a subtype of adenocarcinoma that occurs more frequently in women non-smokers and has a better prognosis. Numerous cell lines have been derived from these subtypes, and some lines may have features of more than one subtype e.g. adenosquamous lines, Mutations in the K-Ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10-30% of lung adenocarcinomas and about 4% of non-small-cell lung carcinomas involve an EML4- ALK tyrosine kinase fusion gene (Sasaiki et ai 2010). Mutations and amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are common in NSCLC and provide the basis for treatment with EGFR-inhibitors, Her2/neu is affected less frequently (Dempke et ai. 2010). Other genes that are often mutated or amplified are c-MET, NKX2-1 , LKB1 , PIK3CA and BRAF (Dempke et al. 2010, Dela Cruz et ai. 201 1).

{Ill} Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 compared to four alkylating drugs on a pane! of 43 NSCLC cell Sines,

An extensive panel of NSCL lines was assembled to cover morphological subtypes including adenocarcinoma (30 lines), adenosquamous (4 lines) and squamous (9 lines).

Table 17 shows the ICso values of BO-1055 compared to four other alkylating chemotherapeutic agents- the alkylating platinum drugs carbopiatin and cispiatin, and the alkylating drugs melphalan and BCNU (bendamustine) on a panel of 45 human cell lines representative of non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and cell lines showing mixed adeno- and squamous morphology. Of these, 38 lines were evaluated for BO- 055 cytotoxicity and 18 were found to be resistant (ICso >10u ), 6 were weakly resistant (ICso 5.0-9.9uM), 13 were weakly sensitive (ICso 1.0- 4.9) and only 1 was highly sensitive (ICso <1.0uM). In the adenocarcinoma group 9/28 lines were in the moderately to highly BO-1055 chemo-sensitive group, including lines with mutations in EGFR, KRAS (x2) HER2/4, EML4-ALK (x2), TP53, BRAF, and deleted SMARCA4. In the squamous and adeno-squamous group 5/12 lines were moderately sensitive and 7/12 were moderately to highly resistant to BO-1055. Oncogenes upregulated or mutated in the moderately sensitive group included PIK3C, KRAS, FGFR, CDKN2A, and TP53.

From these observations it can be concluded that the cytotoxicity of BO-1055 is not significantly determined by the mutation status of the cancer since ceil lines with the same mutation can be sensitive or resistant. The molecular basis for differential sensitivity to BO- 055 in lung cancer cell lines remains to be determined. Table 17, The cytotoxicity (ICso pM) of BO-1055 compared to 4 alkylating drugs, carhopiatm ' , cispiatin, meiphaian, and BCNU on 30 NSCLC adenocarcinomas ! 4 lung adeno-squaniQUS ceil lines, and 9 iung squamous ceil cancer iines.

(iv) Large-Ceil Lung Carcinoma (LCLC).

Of the non-sma!l cell lung cancers, this type is usually discovered at a later stage. LCLCs tend to grow quickly and spread to nearby lymph nodes and into the thoracic wall. It also can spread to more distant organs, even when the tumor in the lung is relatively small. There are approximately 20,000 new cases annually in the U.S.

One clinically significant subtype of LCLC is "large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (LCNEC), which is believed to derive from neuroendocrine cells. In addition, a "subvariant", called "combined large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma" (or c-LCNEC), is recognized under the new WHO classification. To be designated a c-LCNEC, the tumor must contain at least 10% LCNEC cells, in combination with at least 10% of other forms of NSCLC. (v) Cytotoxicity of 42 BO-compounds against 4 Large-Cell Lung Cancer Lines. The inventors have evaluated the cytotoxicity of BO-1055 42 to four Large-Cei! Lung Cancer lines (H1299, H299, H460, and SHP77). As shown in Tab!e 18, the tested cell lines were in the moderately to highly chemo-sensitive to BO-1055. Table 18. Cytotoxicity (ICso μΜ) of BO-1Q55 against four Large-Ceil Lung Cancer iines. (Note SHP77 is considered to be a derivative of SCLC or to he mixed SCLC/LCLC)

(vi) . Small-Ge!i Lung Carcinoma (SCLC),

This lung carcinoma is derived from neuroepithelial or neuroendocrine ceils of the bronchioles and may express CD44. The cells contain dense neurosecretory granules which give this tumor an endocrine/paraneop!astic syndrome association. Most cases arise in the larger airways, grow quickly and spread early in the course of the disease with 60-70% metastasis at presentation.

(vii) Combined small-cell lung carcinoma (c-SCLC).

This is considered a variant of CLC under the current World Health Organization lung tumor classification scheme. It is a multiphase lung cancer that contains a component of SCLC admixed with one (or more) components of NSCLC. While the true incidence of c-SCLC is unknown, case series suggest that they may account for as many as 25% to 30% of all cases of SCLC, and for 4% to 6% of all lung cancer cases. EGFR mutations are very rare (<5%) in "pure" SCLC, but they are considerably more common (about 15%-20%) in c-SCLC. These positive tumors are more likely to respond to treatment with EGFR-TKS's, c-SCLC appear to express female hormone (i.e. estrogen and/or progesterone) receptors in a high (50%-67%) proportion of cases, similar to breast carcinomas.

However, it is at present unknown whether blockade of these receptors affects the growth of c-SCLC. fviii) Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 on variant forms of small cell lung cancer ceil lines.

Three examples of the variant form of SCLC are provided by the NCI cell lines H82, H21 1 and H526. As shown in Table 19, two lines were highly sensitive to BO-1055 (IC-50 0.34-0.39μΜ), while one was moderately sensitive (ICso 2.00μΜ)

Table 19. Cytotoxicity (ICso μΜ) of BO-1055 on three variant Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (ICso μΜ ± S.D.)

(ix) Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 on a panel of SCLC lines compared to the toxicity of other alkylating drugs and chemotherapeutic agents.

Eleven SCLC lines, including classic and variant forms of SCLC, were evaluated for BO-1055 72hr cytotoxicity using the aiamar blue assay (Table 20). Six lines including 3 classic and 3 variant were very sensitive (ICso 0.05-0.39μΜ) with a Therapeutic Index (Ti) range of 25-200. One was moderately sensitive (ICso 2.00μΜ) with a Tl of 5 and four, including 2 classic and 2 variant were resistant (ICso 20-40μ ) with a Tl of 0.4-1.6. The three alkylating agents (cisplatin, melphaian and BCNU (carmustine)) also showed high cytotoxicity against some lines, and resistance with others.

With cisplatin treatment, 3/19 lines were highly sensitive (ICso <1 .0μΜ), 14/19 were moderately sensitive (ICso 1.0-4.9μ ) and 2/19 were highly resistant (ICso >10.0μΜ).

Similarly, with melphaian, 4/16 lines were highly sensitive, 5/16 moderately sensitive, 2/16 moderately resistant and 5/16 highly resistant. All lines tested were high!y resistant to BCNU/carmustine, The anthracycline antitumor antibiotic doxorubicin was highly cytotoxic to all 17 lines it was tested on. Doxorubicin is not a component of any of the main protocols for combination chemotherapy of SCLC, possible a reflection on the potential severe side effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. Vincristine was highly cytotoxic to 18/17 lines with one moderately sensitive. VP-16/etoposide showed a mixed patter of toxicity with 6/16 lines highly sensitive, 5/16 moderately sensitive, 2/16 moderately resistant and 3 highly resistant. There was no evidence of cross resistance between alkylating agents and BO-1055. For example, the H82 line was very sensitive to BO-1055 but highly resistant to cispiatin, meiphalan and BCNU as weli as etoposide, and was the most resistant of all lines tested to doxorubicin.

Table 20. Cytotoxicity (ICso μ ) of BO-1055 compared to three alkylating drugs (Cispiatin, Meiphalan, BCNU/Carmustine), an anthracyclin antitumor antibiotic (Doxorubicin/A driamycin), a vinca alkaloid tubulin binder and cell cycle inhibitor (Vincristine/Oncovin) and a topoiso erase II inhibitor (VP-16/Etoposide) screened on a pane! of 21 SCLC cell lines, including classical and variant examples.

(x) Determination of the Therapeutic Window of BO-1055 on the SCLC ceU line H526 compared to other alkylating drugs and chemotherapeutic agents.

The Therapeutic Window" (TW) was calculated from in vitro cytotoxicity determinations (ICso values) of BO-1055 on the malignant cell line, in this example (Table 20) the SCLC variant line H526, compared to the cytotoxicity of the compound on a panel of normal human tissues. The benign tissues included (a) human umbilical cord as a neonatal source of endothelial cells (HUVEC); (b) adult human bone marrow mesenchymal cells (huMSC); (c) normal human lung bronchial epithelium immortalized by retroviral transduction of hTERT (Bci-NSI); (d) normal human Fallopian tube basal epithelium immortalized by retroviral transduction of hTERT (FTEC) and (e) human cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic cells, a population comprised of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC 5%) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (CFC 95%) of the erythroid, granulocyte/monocyte, megakaryocyte and B-lymphocyte lineages.

There was an excellent therapeutic window of 100-533-fold for BO 055 between its toxicity against H526 and lack of toxicity against the panel of normal tissues screened. This was in marked contrast to the significantly smaller therapeutic window evident in the comparison with other drugs, including the alkylating drugs 4- Hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), bendamustine, melphalan and cisplatin, and also with the topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide, SN38, the HSP90 inhibitor PUH71 and the microtubule binding alkaloid Vincristine.

Table 21. The therapeutic window (TW) obtained with BO-1055 on the H526 variant SCLC cell line compared to its lack of toxicity on normal epithelium, endothelium, mesenchymal stroma and normal hematopoietic progenitor ceils (CFC). Data normalized to a value of 1.00 for H526.

Chemicals i CD34+ ! HUVEC T huMSC I Bci- [. FTEC ! H526

BO-1055 ! 100.0 ] 333 = 33 tl 33.33 ! 266.67 i 533.33 I LOO

-HC 1.68 33.75 33.75 15.00 10.42 1.00 Benamustine 1.60 24.00 48.00 24.00 64.00 ί .1.0.6...

elphalan Ϊ.20 10.00 4.00 6.00 20.00 i loo "" [

Cisp!atin 33.33 Γ 58.33 75.00 83.33 1041.7 M .oo 4

Doxorubicin 0.23 0.90 180.00 1.28 512.82 I LOO 1

Etoposide 0,75 5.83 10.50 25.00 Ί 333.3 [ 1.00 !

PUH7T 0.70 40.00 20.00 50.00 200.00 loo Ί

SN-38 ; 8.67 0.93 _j 23.33 740.74 925,93 I loo ]

(xi) In vivo studies of NSG mouse xenografts of the Small Cell Lung Cancer cell Sine H526 treated with BO-1055,

Xenografts of GFP/Luciferase-labeled H526 were established in groups of ten NSG male mice aged 12wks by subcutaneous injection of 50,000 tumor ceils, Luciferase bioimaging was done at day 12 and five mice were then injected intravenously with 30mg/kg BO-1055 and 5 mice with culture medium as the control BO-1055 or control medium injections were repeated every second day from day 12 to day 30 and bioimaging done at day 12 at baseline and at day 21 , 26 and 30 during drug treatment.

FIG. 20 shows eight bioimaging photograph panels of five mice each. The four panels on the left show mice which were only injected with GFP-Lu-SCLC H526 ceils and control media; and the four panels on the right show mice which were injected with SCLC H526 cells and were further treated with ureidomustine.

As can be seen in Fig. 20, progressive tumor growth was seen in 4/5 control mice from d12 to d30 (one mouse had engrafted tumor at baseline but did not show progressive tumor growth, in BO-1055-treated mice no tumor was detectable through d26 and at d30 3/5 treated mice were still tumor-free.

The data was expressed as total photon emissions in Fig. 21 that shows between day 20 and 30 there was a two log difference in total photon emission between the treated and control mice.

(xii) in Vivo studies of nude mice bearing SCLC H526 xenografts treated with BO- 1055 The inventors also evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of BO-1055 in nude mice bearing SCLC H526 xenograft. Four mice were treated with BO-1055 with 40mg/kg, via intravenous injection, once every two days for four times. Irinotecan (30 mg/kg, once every day for 8 times, iv injection, n=4) and etoposide (30 mg/kg, once every two days for 6 times, iv injection, n=4) were used as the positive control. As shown in Figures 22A and 22B, BO-1055 is more effective than Irinotecan or etoposide.

Mice bearing tumor were sacrificed when the tumor volume was greater than 2000 mm 3 . The controi and positive control mice were sacrificed on 47d; the BO-1055 treated mice (n=4): 3/4 complete remission (CR) -+on 28d, 2/4 CR on 32d; 1/4 CR on 77d.

Example 13C

LYMPHOMA

Lymphomas are tumors of the lymphatic system and are 3-4% of all cancers and the 7th most common form of cancer in adults and the 3rd most common in children. There were 566,000 cases worldwide in 2012 and 305,000 deaths.

There are dozens of subtypes of iymphoma, some are considered curable while others have a very poor prognosis. Therapeutic options involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and surgery.

A number of these subtypes are discussed below.

(i) Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

This form of Iymphoma is marked by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. There are two major types of Hodgkin Iymphoma, the most common is the Nodular sclerosis form found mostly in young adults. The second-most common form is the Mixed-cellularity subtype most common in men and more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage. The Epstein-Barr virus is involved in 70% of these cases.

(is) Non-Hodgksn lymphoma (NHL)

There were 70,800 new cases of NHL in the U.S. in 2014 and of these, 10% were T-cell lymphomas and 90% B-cell lymphomas. There are a number of subtypes of B-cell NHL with differing prognoses and therapeutic response.

(iii) Follicular lymphoma

This is the second most common form of lymphoma in the United States and Europe with 14,180 new cases in 2014. It occurs in older adults, usually involves lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen, associated with t(14;18) translocation overexpressing Bci-2 St is most often indolent, and grows very slowly. There is no known cure; however, more than 85% of patients live for at least five years after diagnosis, and 50% live longer than 12 years. Drugs such as bendamustine (Treanda) and lenaiidomide (Revlimid), usually in combination with rituximab, have been shown to be effective for this subtype and can be used as part of first-line treatment. Over time, follicular lymphoma may turn into DLBCL which then requires more aggressive treatment.

(iv) Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

This lymphoma mainly affects people from their teenage years to their early 30s.

Many patients are cured with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, even with this treatment, about 20 percent of patients have progressive disease. (v) Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma not otherwise specified

This is the most common T-celS lymphoma and usually presents as a mix of small to large CD3+ lymphoid cells with irregular nuclear contours. It can be further subdivided into several rare variants but all are often disseminated and generally aggressive tumors.

(vi) IVlycosis fungoides

This is the most common cutaneous lymphoid malignancy presenting with localized or more generalized skin lymphoid cell infiltration and is generally indolent. In a more aggressive variant, Sezary's disease, there is skin erythema and peripheral blood involvement. Overall survival at 5 years is 75% (vii) Diffuse Large B-Celi Lymphoma (DLBCL)

This is the most common form of lymphoma. It comprises -35% of NHL In North America and 60% of all aggressive cases. There were 21 ,240 new cases in the U.S. in 2014. DLBCL can be subdivided into those with a germinal center B-cell (GCB) origin and those with an activated B-cell (ABC) origin. DLBCL is an aggressive form of NHL that involves organs other than the Symph nodes about 40% of the time.

(viii) Establishment of a panel of Lymphoma cell lines incorporating human DLBCL cell tines representing ABC and GBC subgroups; human Mantle Cell Lymphoma lines and a murine B-cell Lymphoma.

(a) Cell lines and methods: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines LY1 , Ly8, Ly10, Ly18 were cultured in IMDM medium and Ly3, Ly19, SUDHL-4, SUDHL-6, Pfeifer, Parage, Toledo, Karpas-422, HBL1 , U2932 were cultured in RPMI. Mantle ceil lymphoma (MCL) cell lines JEKO-1 , Mino, Granta-519, NECB-1 ,

Z-138, REC-1 and HBL2 were cultured routinely in RPMI medium. All medium was supplemented with 10% FBS, 1 % L-glutamine, 1 % penicillin, and streptomycin. Cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) or from MSKCC investigators after authenticated by STR profiling at GRCF DNA Services (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,

Maryland) using a Profiling Kit (PowerPlex 6HS).

(b) Spontaneous murine B-celi lymphoma. We have also maintained a CD19+ B- cell lymphoma that arose spontaneously in a Nude mouse, by repeated passages in NSG mice following either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection plus Matrsgei or by intravenous injection. This primary lymphoma is similar to the human DLBCL and was used to determine cytotoxicity of BO-compounds with treatment in vitro in the presence or absence of murine MS5 stromal cells that are necessary for long-term in vitro maintenance of the lymphoma cells. fix) Phenotype and molecular features of the Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines, As shown in Table 25, the twelve human Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma cell lines used to evaluate BO-1055 cytotoxicity were examples of DLBCL that could be further subdivided into subtypes based on derivation from germinal center B-ceSIs (GCB) or activated B-cells (ABC). Eight of the lines had TP53 mutations and seven had the BCL2 t(14;18) translocation. This translocation is present in -70% of follicular lymphomas and -30% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Other types of BCL2 gene rearrangement or amplification were found in two lines and three lines had wild type (wt) BCL2. The BCL8 gene was wild type in 5/10 lines, amplified in 3/10. translocated in one and deleted in one.

The BCL6 gene status was matched to the level of BCL6 protein produced by each cell line. Myc was amplified or rearranged in 4/12 lines.

Table 22 also shows the clinical status of the patient at the time the cells were obtained for cell line production. Five lines were obtained at the time of first diagnosis and seven at relapse. Cytogenetic studies of the lines showed that 3 had normal numbers of chromosomes, 5 were hyperdiploid and 3 were near tetraploid or hypertetraploid.

Table 22. Origin and molecular features of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines of Germinal Center B-ceil (GCB) subtype or Activated B-ceil (ABC) subtype.

Mut= mutated gene, Wt- wild type gene, Amp=amplified gene, " Rea=Rearrangement,

Del=deleted gene, Trans=franslocated, Dx= at diagnosis, Rel= at relapse, nd=not determined.

(x) Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 on lymphoma cell lines.

The in vitro cytotoxicity of BO-1055 was determined on: (a) sixteen human DLBCL cell lines, 12 of the GCB subgroup and 4 of the ABC subgroup: (b) seven human mantle ceil lymphoma lines and (c) one primary murine B-ceii lymphoma in the presence or absence of a supportive stromal monolayer (Table 23).

Based on 21 -25 lines evaluated, the three lymphoma subgroups and the murine B-cell lymphoma did not diverge significantly in overall drug responsiveness.

Table 23, Comparison of the cytotoxicity (IC50 μΜ) of BO-1055 screened against

24 lymphoma lines, including examples of human DLBCL subtypes GBC and ABC,

Mantle Ceil Lymphoma and a spontaneous murine B-ceil lymphoma.

(xi) Comparison of cytotoxicity of BO-1055 and 33 chemotherapeutic agents including pathway targeting agents, HSP90 and HSP70 inhibitors, proteasome inhibitor, cispiatin, doxorubicin, and bortezomib, screened against 40 lymphoma ceil lines.

The cytotoxicity (ICso μΜ) of BO-1055 was compared to that of a panel of anticancer drugs-compounds that including pathway targeting agents, HSP90 and HSP70 inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, cisplatin, doxorubicin, and bortezomib, These were evaluated for cytotoxicity against various lymphoma cell lines, including human DLBCL GBC and ABC subtypes, mantle cell lymphoma, as shown in Table 24. This Table shows data (ICso μΜ) that is available on publically accessible site (Broad Institute, Sanger Institute) and data generated by Drs T.L. Su and Lee of Academica Sinica, Taiwan and Dr M.A.S. Moore and colleagues at MSKCC.

(a) Properties of compounds evaluated for cytotoxicity comparison with BO- 1055 in Table 24,

ARN: ARN-231 ovarian cancer stem cell inhibitor (Moore MA unpublished),

TT46 HSP70 inhibitor (Kang et al 2014).

PUH71 : HSP90 inhibitor (Ambati et al. 2014a, Jhaveri et al. 2014).

17-AAG/ Tanespimycin: HSP90 inhibitor (Jhaveri et al. 2014).

Bort : BortezomibA elcade: Proteasome inhibitor.

Clsp: Cisplatin alkylating platinum drug. Doxo: Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic,

TK: TKI258, Dovitsnib, an EGFR, FGFR1 , PDGFRbeta, VEGFR-1 , KDR inhibitor. Phase3 Novartis.

AEW:AEW541 , an IGFR inhibitor, preclinical, Novartis.

SOR: Sorafenib/Nexavar, Flt3, c-KIT, PDGFR , RET, Raf kinase B, Raf kinase C, VEGFR-1 , KDR, FLT4 inhibitor, FDA approve 2005. Bayer

TOPO: Topotecan/Hycamtin, a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. FDA approved 1996. GlaxoSmithKline.

(b) Cytotoxicity of various compounds described in (xiii) (a) on a panel of various human lymphomas cell lines representing different tumor subgroups

Ten lines were highly sensitive (ICso 0.1 1 -0.87μΜ), 6 lines were moderately sensitive (ICso 1 .95-4.14μΜ), 6 lines were moderately resistant (ICso 5.08-8.95μΜ) and only 1 line was highly resistant (ICso 12.5μΜ)„ Of 27 lines screened with BO-1055, 1 1 Iines were highly sensitive (defined as ICso <1 μΜ) with ICso 0.12-0.84μΜ. 14 lines were moderately sensitive (defined as ICso 1 .00- 4.99μΜ) with ICso from 1.08-4.90μΜ (Tl 2.04-9.03). Two Iines were resistant (ICso >10.0μ ). Evaluation of BO-1055 cytotoxicity upon sub-classification of the DLBCL 5 Iines into ABC and GBC types did not reveal significant differences. In the ABC group of 4 cell Iines one line was very sensitive (ICso <1 ,0 μΜ) and three were moderately sensitive (ICso 1 .0-4.9 μΜ).

In the GBC group of 10 Iines, 4 were very sensitive, 4 were moderately sensitive, 1 was moderately resistant and 1 was highly resistant to BO-1055. TP53 status did not 0 seem to determine BO-1055 sensitivity since eight Iines with TP53 mutations had a range of ICso values (0.29-4.90μΜ), as did 4 TP53 wild type Iines (ICso 0.12-7.02μΜ). BCL2 mutation status likewise did not determine BO-1055 toxicity since the Iines with WT Bcl2 had an ICso range of 0.12 to >10.0μΜ and the mutated/rearranged/amplified BCL2 Iines had a similar range (ICso 0.29-4.9μΜ).

5

Table 24. The cytotoxicity (ICso μΜ) of BO-1055 compared to various anticancer agents including pathway targeting agents, HSP90 and HSP70 Inhibitors, proteasome inhibitor, cispiatin, doxorubicin, bortezomib, screened against various lymphoma cell lines including human DLBCL GBC and ABC subtypes, 0 mantle cell lymphoma.

that originated in a NOD-SCID-IL2Rynu!l mouse. Cytotoxicity determined on lymphoma cells with no stromal support. On co-culture with irradiated MS5 stroma cytotoxicity (ICso) of BO-1055 was 0.80 μΜ and of Cisplatin was >10.0μΜ "Data on BO-1055 generated by Dr M.A.S Moore at MSKCC and Dr T.L. Su at Academia Sinica. Data on ARN generated by Dr M.A.S. Moore and colleagues at MSKCC. Data on TT46 and PUH71 from Drs G. Chiosis, M.A.S. Moore and E Caldas at MSKCC. Data on isofludalone, synthesized by Dr S Danishefsky and colleagues at MSKCC, was generated by Dr MAS Moore and colleagues at MSKCC. Data on SAHA, first developed at MSKCC, was from multiple sources.

(xii) Cytotoxicity of combinations of BO-1055 and doxorubicin on DLBCL (ABC subtype) ceil line OGY-LY3,

Combination indices (CSs) were calculated using the Chou-Talaiay method (Chou and Tala!ey 1984) which stipulates that a CI > 1 indicates antagonism, a Ci = 1 indicates an additive effect, and a CI < 1 indicates synergy. Multiple studies have established that Chou-Talaiay analysis is applicable to drug-drug interactions (Chou 2010). OCY-LY3 cells were incubated for 72 h with increasing concentrations of drugs (8 fold serial dilutions from 20uM-0.02uM) as single drug or drug combination (Cte corresponds to ICso for respective drug). After treatment, the ceils were assessed by Alamar Blue.

Fig, 23A: Proliferation inhibition curve and ICso obtained by GraphPad Prism. Figure Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 or Doxorubicin as monotherapy or in combination on the DLBCL (ABC subtype) cell line OCI-LY3.

Fig. 23B: Proliferation inhibition curve and ICSO obtained by GraphPad Prism. C. Normalized. Fa-Ci Plot: Effect oriented.

Fig. 23C: Isobologram for combination of BO-1055 and Doxorubicin: Left: BO1055 Cte + DOXO Var. Right: DOXO Var + BO1055 Cte (Chou 2010). Dose oriented - where C! < 1 = Synergism; Cl=1 = Additive; CI > 1 = Antagonism. Values were calculated by GompuSyn software (Chou and Talalay 1984, Chou 2010),

Isobologram: (xiii) Cytotoxicity of combinations of BO-1055 and HSP inhibitors (PUH71, TT46), bortezomib, and doxorubicin determined on DLBCL (G8C) cell lines.

Drugs were titrated at 7-9 different concentrations in combination with BO-1055 at its ICso or drugs were added at a dose corresponding to the ICso of each and combined with 7-9 different concentrations of BO-1055. The target cell lines were 12 human DLBCL ceil iines of the GBC subgroup. The results of the combination studies on DLBCL (GBC) eel! iines using a combination of: 1 ) BO-1055 and the HSP90 inhibitor PUH71 ; and 2) BO-1055 and HSP70 inhibitor TT46 are shown in Table 25 which gives the ICso data for each drug in single agent treatment and the combination index for the combined therapy, wherein one drug is used at its ICso μΜ, and the other drug is titrated over 8 serial dilutions (Chou 2010).

In Comb-1 , BO-1055 is a variable and the HSP inhibitors are used at their ICso μΜ dose, in Comb-2,PUH71 or TT46 is a variable, and BO-1055 is used at its ICso μΜ dose. The upper section of Table 25 presents data for PUH71 , while the bottom section of Table 25 presents data for TT46.

Of the 11 evaluable data sets with BO-1055 and PUH71 , PUH71 was synergistic with BO-1055 in both combinations against Z-138 but in contrast, TT46 was antagonistic in both combinations against the same cell line. PUH71 was dually antagonistic to GRANTA whereas TT46 was synergistic in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2 against GRANTA. Both HSP inhibitors were antagonistic against REC-1 in both combinations with BO-1055. PUH71 was dually synergistic with BO-1055 against MINO whereas TT46 was synergistic with BO-1055 against this cell line only in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2. Both PUH71 and TT46 were synergistic with BO-1055 against NECB1 in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2.

Table 25, The potential additive or synergistic cytotoxicities of BO-1055, and of PUH71, TT46, bortezomib, and doxorubicin determined on DLBCL (GBC) eel! iines

LY18 0.189 Synergistic

(xiv) Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)

MCL is one of the rarest of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), comprising about 8% of NHL cases (4980 new cases in 2014). it most often appears in people older than 60 and is much more common in men than women by a ratio of 4 to 1. There are -15,000 patients with MLC presently in the U.S.

it results from a malignant transformation of a CDS positive antigen-naive pre- germinal center B-cell within the mantle zone that surrounds the normal lymph node germinal center follicles, in humans, the CDS gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 1 1 . CDS serves to mitigate activating signals from the BCR so that the B-1 cells can only be activated by very strong stimuli (such as bacterial proteins) and not by normal tissue proteins. The MCL cells can metastasize to other lymph nodes or tissues, such as the marrow, liver and gastrointestinal tract. MCL is identified by overexpression of the cyclin D1 protein due to a translocation at t(1 1 ;14)(q13;q32). Additional genetic abnormalities involving the p53 pathway, are important for disease development and progression (see Table 25). MCL is difficult to treat and seldom considered cured. Median survival times were about 3 years, but are now estimated as approaching 8 years for new patients.

(xv) Cytotoxicity of BO-1055. Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, PacUtaxel and Panobinostat on !Vlantle Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

As shown in Table 28, the mean ICso±SD (μΜ) values of BO-1055 on various MCL ceil lines were as follows;

JEKO-1 (0.266±0.27),

Z-138 (0.182±0.15),

HBL2 (0.161±0.34),

The inventors' results indicated that BO-1055 has a significant therapeutic window (50-100-fold) between its toxicity against human B-cell lymphomas and various normal human cell types. Treatment with BO-1055 resulted in accumulation of cells in S-phase and up-regulation of proteins involved in DNA repair [MRE1 1 , p-P95/NBS1 (ser343), RAD50, p-ATR (ser428)] while Bcl-6, an important B-cell lymphoma biomarker, was down-regulated.

Table 26. Cytotoxicity (ICso μΜ) of BO-1055 on a panel of 7 human Mantle Ceil Lymphoma eel! lines. For comparison; cytotoxicity data is shown for doxorubicin (DNA intercalating anthracy line), pacUtaxel (microtubule binding drug), cispiatin (alkylating platinum drug), and panobinostat (HDAC inhibitor).

(xvi) Measurement of the Therapeutic Window of BO-1055, four alkylating drugs and four other chemotherapeutic agents on the IVICL Vine JEKO-1 compared with five norma! tissues.

The Therapeutic Window (TW) was calculated from the ICso data presented in

Table 26 that shows the 72hr cytotoxicity (!CsouM) obtained with eleven compounds against a panel of benign tissues and the MCL cell line J EKO-1 .

Table 27 shows the calculated therapeutic window for each compound, The upper part of Tab!e 27 shows the ICso μΜ values for the ten compounds against the five normal human tissues and the MCL cell line JEKO-1 . The lower part of the table expresses the data as the fold difference of the IC50 values between the benign tissues relative to the IC50 on Jeko-1 .

BO-1055 has the best TW of all the drugs screened when normal hematopoietic cell toxicity is used as a determinant of potential dose limiting toxicity. The TW comparing the MCL data to the non-hematopoietic normal tissues further supports the position of BO-1055 as a highly active antineoplastic drug with remarkable selectivity and minimal damage to normal tissues at a drug dose that is highly toxic to malignant cells. The TW of BO-1055 observed when comparing other benign tissues to the MCL lines is also excellent due to lack of significant toxicity to normal epithelium, endothelium, and mesenchymal stroma.

There was a lack of a therapeutic window with the alkylating drugs 4-HC, Bendamustine and Cispiatin as well as with Etoposide, HSP90 inhibitor PU-H71 and Topoisomerase inhibitor SN38 due to the toxicity of these drugs to normal hematopoietic progenitor cells.

ICSG (μΜ) was determined on cord blood hematopoietic progenitors (CD34+ cells,

CFC), endothelium (HUVEC), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (huMSC), human hTERT immortalized epithelium of lung bronchus (Bci-NSI) and Fallopian tube (FTEC).

Tabie 27. Measurement of the Therapeutic Window (TW) of BO-1055 on the MCL line JEKO-1 compared! to the TW for doxorubicin, etoposide, PU 71, SN-38, vincristine, and four alkylating drugs.

The data shown in Table 27 (Iower panel) identifies a therapeutic window (TW) between the drug dose that is toxic to the malignant cells but not to the normal cells tested. This ranged from 30-296 fold for BO-1055 which was the least myelotoxic of the 1 1 drugs that were screened.

4-HC, the active metabolite of cyclophosphamide, was also highly toxic to CD34+ cells and to normal epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

Bendamustine and Meiphalan had high TVV values against normal epithelium, endothelium and mesenchyme but only a limited window when evaluated against CD34+ cells (1.60-6.36 foid). Cisp!atin had a limited window (1 ,6-8,0) on epithelium and mesenchyme, a modest window on endothelium (50 fold) but was significantly limited by hematopoietic toxicity,

The topoisomerase Π inhibitor Etoposide is also limited by high toxicity to CD34+ ceils, as confirmed by its documented bone marrow suppressive side effects when used in chemotherapy of cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, myeloid leukemias, and glioblastoma multiforme (Hande 1998), It has also been used in a conditioning regimen prior to a bone marrow or biood stem cell transplant.

SN-38 is the active metabolite of irinotecan, a semisynthetic analogue of the natural alkaloid camptothecin and is a potent topoisomerase 1 inhibitor (1000 times more active than irinotecan itself), in vitro cytotoxicity assays show that the potency of SN-38 relative to irinotecan varies from 2- to 2000-fold (Pommier et al. 2010). The TW for SN-38 is 250-2,500 for non-hematopoietc tissues but is only 8.75 on CD34+ cells which is in agreement with the observation that the SN-38 metabolite is responsible for causing the symptoms of diarrhea, myeiosuppression and extreme immunosuppression experienced by -25% of the patients administered irinotecan.

The TW determinations for the HSP90 inhibitor PUH71 suggest the possibility of hematopoietic and vascular endothelial toxicity issues, although the latter may be a positive feature if it can selectively inhibit tumor neoangiogenesis.

The vinca alkaloid Vincristine is a tubulin-binding drug that inhibits assembly of microtubule structures and blocks metaphase replication. It is used to treat non- Hodgkin's lymphoma as part of the CHOP chemotherapy regimen, and for Hodgkin's lymphoma as part of MOPP, COPP and BEACOPP. It has also been used to treat multiple myeloma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and Wilrn's tumor. It is also used to induce remission in ALL with dexamethasone and L-asparaginase, and in combination with prednisone to treat childhood leukemia. It has been used as an immunosuppressant in treating chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura. The TW on both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells is suggestive of a myelosupressive and vascular damaging potential of the drug. The main side effects are chemotherapy- induced peripheral neuropathy that can be progressive and irreversible. Alopecia occurs in 20-75% of treated patients and it is also myelosuppressive and induces leukopenia and thrombocytopenia,

(xvis) Drug combination cytotoxicity studies with BO-1055 and bortezomib, doxorubicin, HSP90- and HSP-70 inhibitors on mantle cell lymphoma cell lines.

The possible additive or synergistic cytotoxic actions of combinations of BO-1055 with bortezomib/velcade, doxorubicin, and heat shock protein inhibitors PUH71 (HSP90 inhibitor) and TT46 (HSP70 inhibitor) were determined against a panel of human mantle cell lymphoma ( LC) cell lines represented by Jeko-1 , HBL2, Z-138, REC-1 , Granta, Mino, and NECB1. These data are shown in Tables 28 and 29.

One set of data was obtained by maintaining BO-1055 at a single concentration corresponding to its ICso as a single agent determined against the cell line, and then evaluated for interactive cytotoxicity by combining BO-1055 with titrated concentration of each drug over a 7-9 fold range of drug concentrations for 72 hrs and determining cytotoxicity/inhibition of metabolic activity (ICso) by aiamar blue assay.

A second set of date was obtained by combining one drug at its ICso as a single agent with BO-1055 titrated over a 7-9 fold range of drug doses and undertaking an ICso determination at 72 hrs.

With 5 evaiuable lines, BO-1055 and velcade were synergistic cytotoxic with both combinations against 2 lines (Z-138, MINO), antagonistic in both combinations against 1 line (REC-1) and synergistic with combo-1 and antagonistic with combo-2 against 2 lines (RANTA, NECB1 ). With BO-1055 and doxorubicin both combinations were synergistic against 2 lines, (Z-138, MINO), both combinations were antagonistic against 1 line (REC-1 ) and 2 lines were synergistic with combo-1 and antagonistic against combo-2 (RANTA, NECB1 ).

Thus, the individual MCL lines showed marked variation in response to the drug combinations, but their responses to velcade and bortezomib were identical. In contrast, the same panel of MCL lines showed different responses to HSP90 inhibition compared to HSP70 inhibition (Table 29). PUH71 was synergistic with BO-1055 in both combinations against Z-138 but in contrast, TT46 was antagonistic in both combinations against the same cell line. PUH71 was duai!y antagonistic to GRANTA whereas TT46 was synergistic in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2 against GRANTA, Both HSP inhibitors were antagonistic against REC-1 in both combinations with BO-1055. PUH71 was dually synergistic with BO-1055 against MINO whereas TT46 was synergistic with BO-1055 against this cell line only in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2. Both PUH71 and TT46 were synergistic with BO-1055 against NECB1 in combo-1 and antagonistic in combo-2.

Table 28. Efficacy of combined treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma lines with BO- 1055 and Doxorubicin or Velcade (bortezomib)

IC 50 (uM) values are referred to respective single drug or drug combination treatment. Synergism: CI < 0.9, Additive: 0.90 < C! < 1.10, Antagonism: CI > 1 .10

29. Efficacy of combined treatment of Mantle Ceii Lymphoma cell lines -1055 and HSP90 inhibitor PUH71 or HSP70 inhibitor TT46

Antagonistic Cell Lines Comb-1 Comb-2 CI (Fa=0.5) Ef

BO1055 ΤΓ46 BO1055 (Var) TT46 (Var) Comb-1 Comb-1

TT46 (Cte) BO1055 (Cte) Comb-2 Comb-2

IC 50 (uM) values are referred to respective single drug or drug combination treatment. Synergism: CI < 0.9 Additive: 0.90 < CI < 1 .10 Antagonism: CI > 1 .10

(xviii) Xenograft model of Mantle Cell Lymphoma and tumor suppression produced by BO- 1055

The Jako-1 mantle cell lymphoma cell line was labeled with GFP/Luciferase and 500,000 cells injected intravenously into each of 10 NSG female mice at 12 wks of age.

S Luciferin bioimaging was undertaken at day 15 and at this time point 5 mice were injected i.v. with BO-1055 (30mg/kg) every other day for 10 days and 5 mice received a similar schedule of administration of a placebo (culture medium). Animals were imaged at intervals as shown in Figure 24.

The control group showed progressive tumor growth up to 7 weeks post tumor transplantation (one mouse in this control group died before d32 but this mortality was probably unrelated to the tumor). The BO-1055-treated mice showed a dramatic suppression of tumor growth and by 7 wks (25 days after the end of drug treatment) there was no grossly observable tumor in any of the five mice. Gradual recurrence of tumor was detected by sensitive bioimaging in the treated group, beginning at day 41 (Fig. 24). All control mice were euthanized at 7 weeks due to tumor burden. BO-1055- treated mice were ail alive at 75 days when the study was terminated.

Example 14C

SARCOMA

There were an estimated 60,000 cases of sarcoma world-wide in 2013/14 and 3,020 new cases annually in the U.S with 1 ,460 deaths with the 5 year survival of 66.6%, The lifetime risk of developing sarcoma is 0.1 %. There are more than 70 histologic sarcoma subtypes. The progression of and prognosis for any particular sarcoma depends on the subtype as well as the grade. The two major subdivisions are Osseous sarcomas (20% of cases) and Soft Tissue Sarcomas (80% of cases).

(i) Osteosarcoma.

This is an aggressive malignant tumor that arises from primitive mesenchymal cells and exhibits osteobiastic differentiation and production of malignant osteoid. Osteosarcoma comprises 2.4% of all malignancies in pediatric patients, and about 20% of all primary bone cancers. It is the eighth-most common form of childhood cancer and the most common histological form of primary bone cancer in children and young adults. It is a rare condition that is diagnosed in only about 1 ,000 individuals in Europe and the USA per year with approximately 300 deaths per year.

(ii) Synovia! Cell Sarcoma.

This sarcoma usually occurs in young adults, most commonly in the arms or legs next to a joint, but they rarely invade the joint itself. The most common site is adjacent to the knee. Unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, synovial cell sarcomas are often painful. Treatment usually consists of radical excision with radiation and chemotherapy or amputation combined with chemotherapy.

(iii) Rhabdomyosarcomas.

These cancerous tumors of the striated or skeletal muscle and are one of the most common types of soft tissue sarcoma, and account for about half the soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in children. They most commonly grow in the arms or legs but can also develop in the head or neck or in the urinary or reproductive organs. There are several different types, including pleomorphic, alveolar, embryonal and botryoid. (sv) Leiomyosarcoma (Smooth Muscle Tumor) and Uterine Sarcoma

These sarcomas are cancerous tumors of the smooth muscle. They most commonly occur in the organs (e.g. Gl tract and the uterus). The average age of patients is 60 years. Of the tumors occurring in the Gl tract 61 % occur in the stomach, 29% in the small bowel, and 10% in the colon. Symptoms of GS or uterine leiomyosarcomas are significant bleeding and pain. Metastases occur in more than half of patients. Metastases usually occur in the lungs except in Gl tumors, which often metastasize in the liver. Treatment for uterine leiomyosarcoma is total abdominal hysterectomy.

(v) Gastrointestinal Sarcoma, otherwise known as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

GIST develops in the stroma of the stomach and intestines and is characterized by activating c-Kit mutations. It is treated with Gleevec®.

(vs) Kaposi's Sarcoma.

Kaposi's Sarcoma is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the tissues under the skin or mucous membranes that line the mouth, nose and anus. There are three groups of patients for Kaposi's sarcoma. The first group typically includes older men of Jewish, Italian or Mediterranean heritage. This type of Kaposi's usually progresses slowly over 10-15 years. Patients commonly develop a bluish lesion on the front of the lower leg, which typically spreads to multiple lesions. After some time, the disease can spread to other organs. The second group of Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in patients who have received organ transplant. Due to the Immunosuppressive treatment following a transplant, patients' immune systems are weakened thus are more susceptible to infection. The third group of Kaposi's sarcoma is found in AIDS patients. This group is referred to as epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. Due to the weakened immune system cause by the HIV virus, Infections and other diseases such as Kaposi's can invade the body, Kaposi's sarcoma in people with AIDS usually spreads more quickly and can be found in many parts of the body. Radiation therapy is usually the treatment for Kaposi's; however, when lesions have spread to the organs, chemotherapy is often used as well.

(vii) Liposarcoma.

This is the most commonly diagnosed soft tissue tumor and is among the largest category of sarcomas reported. These tumors usually develop in the deep fatty tissue. They most commonly occur in the thigh, behind the knee, the groin, the gluteal area or in the retroperitoneum. Liposarcomas are usually malignant and rarely are from a preexisting lipoma, which is a non-cancerous tumor. They are most commonly found in adults between 30 and 60 years old and are slightly more common in men than women. Metastases to the lymph nodes occur in approximately 10% cases. (viii) Chondrosarcoma.

These tumors develop from cartilage cells.

(ix) Ewing's sarcoma (ES)

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are bone or soft tissue sarcomas that are found primarily in adolescents and young adults, with peak occurrence between ages 10 and 20 (Burchill 2008). ES is genetically characterized by chromosomal translocation involving the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene. Translocation of EWSR1 on chromosome 22 to chromosome 1 1 occurs in 85% of ES cases, forming the fusion protein product EWS-FLI1 (de Alava & Gerald 2000). In addition, fusion product EWS-ERG is identified in 10% of cases. The EWSR1 breakpoint appears to be a hot spot for genetic translocations and can promiscuously bind other C-terminal genes in other sarcoma subtypes such as clear ceil sarcoma, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma and others. FLU, ERG and other ETS genes contain the DNA-binding domain and EWS-FLI1 protein functions as an aberrant transcription factor regulating malignant transformation to ES. The prognosis of patients with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma remains dismal and 5-year survival usually does not exceed 30% despite the development of systemic therapies (Jiang et al. 2015),

(x) Leiomyosarcoma. These tumors develop from smooth muscle in abdominal and pelvic organs and blood vessels.

Cytotoxicity of BO-1055 in a panel of 28 human sarcoma ceil lines

DNA cross-Sinking agents continue to be an important part of chemotherapy for pediatric sarcomas. In the current investigation, the inventors found that BO-1055 exhibits significant cytotoxicity against cell growth of various sarcoma cell line in vitro and in tumor xenograft models. The inventors determined the efficacy of BO-1055- mediating cytotoxicity in Ewing's sarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Osteosarcoma, and Desmopiastic Small Round Blue Cell Tumor (DSRCT) cell lines and compared that with Temazolamide, Melphalan, and Doxrubicin. (Table 30) (Ambati et al. 2014a,b).

BO-1055 was highly toxic to 8/9 Ewing's cell lines (ICso 0.14-0.61 μΜ) and moderately toxic to 1/9 (ICso 1.04μΜ). Similarly, BO-1055 was highly toxic to 4/5 rhabdomyosarcoma lines (ICso 0.08-0.40μΜ) but one line (S S-CTR embryonal type) was highly resistant (ΙΟδο≥10.0μΜ). The two Desmopiastic small round cell tumor lines were moderately sensitive to BO-1055 (ICso 2.41-3.74μΜ). In contrast, 3 of 5 osteosarcoma lines were highly resistant to BO-1055 (ICso≥10.0- >100.0μΜ). one line was highly sensitive (ICso 0.45μΜ), and one moderately sensitive (ICso 2.67μΜ).

Temozo!amide (T Z) toxicity was determined on 9 lines and of these, 3 were Ewing's sarcoma and highly resistant (ICso 245.0-405. ΟμΜ) as were 5/6 rhabdomyosarcoma lines (ICso 191.0->1 ,000.0μΜ). The RH30 (Alveolar type) rhabdomyosarcoma line was moderately resistant to TMZ (ICso 9,0μΜ) but highly sensitive to BO-1055 (ICso 0.24μΜ). Melphalan was highly cytotoxic to the eight Ewing's and Rhabdomyosarcoma lines it was tested against (ICso 0.0001 -0.020μΜ).

Doxorubicin was highly cytotoxic to all the lines it was screened against, including three Ewing's sarcomas (ICso 0.005-0.38μΜ). Two osteosarcoma lines that were highly resistant to BO-1055 were highly sensitive to doxorubicin (ICso 0.025- 0.090μΜ) as was the one Rhabdomyosarcoma line tested(IC5o 0.01 1 μΜ). The results demonstrate that BO-1055 is more cytotoxic than TMZ, but is less potent than melphalan and doxorubicin against the cell growth of sarcoma eel! lines tested. Table 30. BO-1055 cytotoxic activity was determined in a panel of 28 human sarcoma cell lines representing 4 tumor subtypes:- Desmop!astic small round cell tumors (DSRCT) n~2, Ewing's n-11, Osteosarcoma n~5 and Rhabdomyosarcoma n-9

DSRCT=Desmop!astic small-round-cell tumor; TMZ=Temozoiomide ; 2Melph=Melphalan ; 2 Doxo=Doxorubicin. 3 ND= not determined; 4 Mixed connective and soft tissue, fibroblast (xi) BO-1055 induces cell cycle arrest in G2IM phase in A673 Ewing's sarcoma cells and A204 Rhabdomyosarcoma cells

Cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induced by BO-1055 in the A873 Ewing's sarcoma cell line and the A204 Rhabdomyosarcoma cell line was determined by flow cytometry (Fig. 25A). Fig. 25A shows the results of flow cytometric analysis of A873 cell line using 7-AAD (for viability testing) and Annexin V-APC (for apoptosis) staining at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours at indicated concentrations of BO-1055.

The results revealed that BO-1055 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/ phase in both cell lines in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner.

Fig. 25B shows a graphical representation of the percentages of apoptotic and dead cells at different time points after BO-1055 treatment.

Fig. 25C shows a graph of caspase 3/7 activity in A673 cells at 48h and 72h after treatment with BO-1055.

Fig. 25D is a graphical representation of the percentage of dead A673 cells at 12,

24, 48 and 72 hrs after different doses of BO-1055 were applied.

Fig. 25E is a graphical representation of the percentage of apoptotic A673 cells at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after different doses of BO-1055 were applied. (xii) BO-1055 inhibited A873 Ewing's sarcoma in a methyiceiluiose culture oncosphere formation assay

The inventors studied the inhibition A673 Ewing's sarcoma in methyiceiluiose culture by onco-sphere formation assay (Fig. 28A and 28B).

Fig. 26A shows inhibition of A673 Ewing's sarcoma onco-sphere formation in methyiceiluiose culture following treatment with various concentrations of BO-1055 or 4- Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. 50% inhibition of sphere formation was seen with 1 .00 μΜ 4-HC and with <0.10 μΜ BO-1055.

Fig. 26B shows oncosphere formation in methyiceiluiose.

The results showed BO-1055 was more cytotoxic than the 4- Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, which was used as the positive control. (xiii) in vitro synergistic cytotoxicity of BO-1055 against the A673 Ewing's sarcoma cell fine In combination with different chemotherapeutic agents,

The inventors evaluated the cytotoxic effect of BO-1055 on the A873 Ewing's sarcoma cell line using a combination of BO-1055 with different chemotherapeutic agents, such as topotecan, SN-38, doxorubicin, and PU-H71.

As shown in Figs. 27A-D, there was synergistic cytotoxicity of BO-1055 against A673 Ewing's sarcoma cell line by combining it with different chemotherapeutic agents tested.

Specifically, varying concentrations of BO-1055 and the second drug were applied simultaneously in a lattice format in a 96 well plate and the cytotoxicity is quantified using Alamar blue cell proliferation assay. Then, Fa-combination index (CI) plot and normalized isobolograms were generated using Compusyn software for each combination.

Fig. 27A shows the isobologram of a combination of BO-1055 and topotecan; Fig. 27B shows the isobologram of a combination of BO-1055 and SN-38;

Fig. 27C shows the isobologram of a combination of BO-1055 and doxorubicin; and

Fig. 27D shows the isobologram of a combination of BO-1055 and PU-H71. This combination exhibits synergism against Ewing's sarcoma cells in vitro.

(xiv) BO-1055 exhibits potent therapeutic efficacy against Ewing's sarcoma tumor xenografts in NSG mice.

The therapeutic efficacy of BO-1055 in NSG mice bearing Ewing's sarcoma xenografts was determined. As shown in Figs. 3 A-E, BO-1055 caused complete regression of tumor growth in nude mice at the dose of 30mg/kg four doses by tail vein injection. A complete regression of tumors was noted in the treated group,

NSG mice (n=5 per group) bearing A673 Ewing's sarcoma xenografts of approximately 100mm 3 size were given 5 doses of BO-1055 at 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg doses by tail vein injection. The results are shown in Figs. 28A-C.

Fig. 28A shows a plot of tumor volume which was measured twice a week. Fig. 28B shows Kaplan-Meier survival curves in mice. Fig. 28C shows a plot of weights of the treated mice.

Nude mice (n=5) per group bearing A204 rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts were treated with BO-1055 at a dose of 30mg/kg on alternate days for five doses by tail vein inj. The results are shown in Figs. 28D and 28E.

Fig. 28D shows a plot of tumor size.

Fig. 28E shows a plot of weights of the treated mice.

Complete regression of tumors was noted in the treated group,

(xv) BO-1055 effectively inhibited Ewing's sarcoma xenografts, a cyeiophosphamide-resfstant xenograft in NSG mice

BO- 055 was used against a cyclophosphamide-resistant xenograft of a Ewing's sarcoma primary patient tumor sample transplanted subcufaneousiy into NSG mice. When the tumors in NSG mice reached 100mm 3 , mice were randomized into control and drug treatment groups. Mice in the control groups received PBS injections, mice in the drug treatment group received an MTD dose of cyclophosphamide (70mg/kg) as an intraperitoneal injection every other day for 3 doses (shown by shorter arrows in Fig. 29). Tumor growth was not inhibited in the cyclophosphamide treated mice. When the tumors reached≥500mm 3 , treatment was started with BO-1055 at a dose of 30mg/kg. iv injection, every other day for 4 doses (shown by longer arrows). Note regression of cyclophosphamide-refractory tumors upon treatment with BO-1055.

The results are shown in Fig. 29. As one can see, BO-1055 inhibited a cyclophosphamide-resistant xenograft established in NSG mice (second passage) from a patient with relapsed Ewing's sarcoma who had been treated with two alkylating agents as upfront treatment. References

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