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Title:
A VALVE AND A MANUFACTURING METHOD OF A BEARING SURFACE FOR A VALVE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/202200
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a valve and particularly to a bearing surface for a valve and to a manufacturing method of the same. The valve comprises a valve body (1) with a main channel (2) extending between a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet, and a closing member (3) provided in said main channel (2). The valve further comprises a shaft (4) connected to said closing member (3) for moving the closing member (3) between an open and a closed position. Moreover, the valve comprises at least one bearing surface between the valve body (1) and the closing member (3) or the valve body (1) and the shaft (4), said bearing surface further comprising a plurality of cavities (5) filled with solid lubricant. An advantage of the claimed valve is that the lubricant is maintained longer on the bearing surfaces and thus lubrication periods and valve lifetime are increased.

Inventors:
HELLMAN, Jussi (Vanha Porvoontie 229, Vantaa, 01380, FI)
VIERIMAA, Kari (Vanha Porvoontie 229, Vantaa, 01380, FI)
Application Number:
FI2018/050284
Publication Date:
October 24, 2019
Filing Date:
April 20, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
METSO FLOW CONTROL OY (Vanha Porvoontie 229, Vantaa, 01380, FI)
International Classes:
F16C33/10; B29C64/153; F16C17/02; F16C17/04; F16C17/10; F16C33/12
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011072664A12011-06-23
WO2007094401A12007-08-23
Foreign References:
JP2010071397A2010-04-02
EP0167869A21986-01-15
EP3015200A12016-05-04
RU2089760C11997-09-10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KOLSTER OY AB (P.O.Box 204, Helsinki, Helsinki, 00181, FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A valve comprising:

a valve body (1) with a main channel (2) extending between a fluid in let and a fluid outlet, and

a closing member (3) provided in said main channel (2), and a shaft (4) connected to said closing member (3) for moving the clos ing member (3) between an open and a closed position, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that

the valve comprises at least one bearing surface between the valve body (1) and the closing member (3) or the valve body (1) and the shaft (4), said bearing surface further comprising a plurality of cavities (5) filled with solid lub ricant.

2. A valve according to claim 1, wherein

said bearing surface is an axial bearing surface bearing axial loads.

3. A valve according to claim 2, wherein

the valve comprises a cylindrical sleeve (6) or a ring with an end sur face (7), and

wherein the axial bearing surface is provided in said end surface (7).

4. A valve according to one of claims 2 to 3, wherein

the cylindrical sleeve (6) comprises a flange (8) in the end surface (7).

5. A valve according to one of claims 1-4, wherein

a second bearing surface is provided between the shaft (4) and the valve body, and wherein

the second bearing surface is a radial bearing surface bearing radial loads which comprises a plurality of cavities (5) filled with solid lubricant.

6. A valve according to claim 1, wherein

said bearing surface is a radial bearing surface bearing radial loads.

7. A valve according to claim 6, wherein

the radial bearing surface is provided in at least an inner (10, 25, 27) or outer circumferential surface (11, 26) of a cylindrical sleeve (6, 9, 12).

8. A valve according to claim 7, wherein

said cylindrical sleeve (10), which is provided with said radial bearing surface, is arranged between an outer cylindrical sleeve (14) and an inner cylin drical sleeve (6).

9. A valve according to one of claims 1-8, wherein sidewalls of the cavi- ties (5) comprise counterdrafts in order to promote holding of solid lubricant and/or entrapment of wear debris in said cavities.

10. A valve according to one of claims 1-9, wherein

the solid lubricant is deformable and displaceable by wear debris par ticles.

11. A method of manufacturing a bearing surface for a valve, using ad ditive manufacturing, comprising:

providing a base (A), and

forming at least one layer comprising cavities, and (B)

providing solid lubricant into said cavities (C).

12. The method of claim 11, wherein said layer is formed using metal lic powder.

13. The method of claim 11 or 12, wherein

the method comprises forming of several layers comprising cavities wherein

the position of the cavities is changed in at least some of the different layers and/or,

parameters that are atypical for forming a surface in additive manufac turing are used to provide cavities comprising counterdrafts.

14. The method according to one of claims 12-13, wherein said solid lubricant is provided into said cavities by providing a layer of solid lubricant against said bearing surface, and

pressing the bearing surface towards said layer of solid lubricant to extrude said solid lubricant into the cavities of said bearing surface.

15. A bearing for a valve comprising at least one bearing surface (10, 11, 25, 26, 27), characterized in that

said bearing surface comprises a plurality of cavities (5) filled with sol id lubricant.

Description:
A VALVE AND A MANUFACTURING METHOD OF A BEARING SURFACE FOR A VALVE FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a valve and particularly to a bearing sur face for a valve and to a manufacturing method of the same. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] A low operating torque of a valve improves the usability, reliability and controllability of a valve. Traditionally valve components comprise, for ex ample, carbide coatings, which when in contact, lead to high friction coefficients, and further to high operating torques.

[0003] A problem in a valve is that lubrication solutions commonly used in bearings are difficult to implement, because the lubricant may come into contact with the fluid flowing through the valve. Therefore, a challenge is to ensure that the lubricant remains in place at the bearing surface.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0004] An object of the present invention is thus to provide a bearing surface and a method for manufacturing the same to overcome at least some of the above problems. The objects of the invention are achieved by what is stated in the inde pendent claims 1 and 12. The preferred embodiments of the invention are dis closed in the dependent claims.

[0005] The invention is based on the idea of providing a valve, which com prises a valve body with a main channel extending between a fluid inlet and a flu id outlet and a closing member provided in said main channel, and a shaft con nected to said closing member for moving the closing member between an open and a closed position ln addition, the valve comprises at least one bearing surface between the valve body and the closing member or the valve body and the shaft, and said bearing surface further comprises a plurality of cavities filled with solid lubricant.

[0006] An advantage of the claimed valve is that the lubricant is maintained longer on the bearing surfaces and thus lubrication periods and valve lifetime are increased.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] ln the following the invention will be described in greater detail by means of preferred embodiments with reference to the attached drawings, in which

[0008] Figure 1 illustrates an overall drawing of a valve arrangement, and

[0009] Figures 2a-2c are drawings illustrating a first, a second and a third embodiment of a bearing surface, respectively, and

[0010] Figure 3 is a block chart illustrating a method for manufacturing a bearing surface, and

[0011] Figures 4a-4f are drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment of a manufacturing method of a bearing surface, and

[0012] Figures 5a and 5b illustrate a preferred embodiment of providing solid lubricant into the cavities of the bearing surface.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0013] Figure 1 illustrates an overall drawing of a valve arrangement ln the example of Figure 1, the valve is a ball valve. Alternatively, the valve may also be a butterfly valve, for instance. Figure 1 shows a valve body 1 comprising of a main channel 2 extending between a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and a closing member 3 provided in said main channel 2. ln addition, the valve comprises a shaft 4 with a shaft shoulder 24, which shaft 4 is connected to said closing member 3 for mov ing the closing member 3 between an open and a closed position.

[0014] The valve further comprises at least one bearing surface and said bear ing surface is in fluid connection with fluid flowing in the main channel 2. ln Fig ure 1, said bearing surface is provided between the valve body 1 and the shaft shoulder 24, indicated by reference number 19, or the valve body 1 and the shaft 4, indicated by reference number 20, and comprises a plurality of cavities filled with solid lubricant. The bearing surface may also be provided between the valve body 1 and the closing member 3. A solid lubricant refers to a lubricant that re mains in a solid state throughout the operating temperature of the valve in ques tion.

[0015] Figure 2a illustrates a first embodiment of a bearing surface ln the embodiment of Figure 2a, a valve bearing comprises a cylindrical sleeve 6 with an end surface 7 and the cylindrical sleeve 6 further comprises a flange 8 in the end surface 7. ln the first embodiment, said bearing surface is an axial bearing surface bearing axial loads and said axial bearing surface is provided in said end surface 7. ln another example, a bearing surface may be provided on the inner circumfer ential surface 25 or on the outer circumferential surface 26 of the cylindrical sleeve 6, or on both surfaces ln any case, the bearing surface comprises a plurali- ty of cavities 5 that are filled with solid lubricant.

[0016] ln Figure 2a, said cylindrical sleeve 6 comprises a flange 8. Alternative ly, said cylindrical sleeve 6 may be constructed without said flange 8. The length of said cylindrical sleeve 6 may also vary and the cylindrical sleeve 6 may, for in stance, be shaped as a ring ln another example, the valve bearing comprises two ring-shaped cylindrical sleeves wherein both comprise axial bearing surfaces on their respective end surfaces and the said bearing surfaces are arranged to face each other.

[0017] Said cylindrical sleeve 6 may be used in two different locations of a valve, as illustrated in Figure 1 by reference number 22. ln the upper locations the shaft 4 of the valve extends through the cylindrical sleeve 6 and in the lower loca tion a lower shaft or protrusion 23 may extend through the cylindrical sleeve 6. lf the bearing surface is provided on the inner circumferential surface 25 of the cy lindrical sleeve 6, the bearing surface makes contact with the shaft 4 and if the bearing surface is provided on the outer circumferential surface 26 of the cylin drical sleeve 6, the bearing surface makes contact with the valve body 1.

[0018] Figure 2b illustrates a second embodiment of a bearing surface ln the second embodiment, the bearing surface is a radial bearing surface bearing radial loads ln the second embodiment, a valve bearing comprises a cylindrical sleeve 9 where the bearing surface is provided in an inner circumferential surface 10 of said cylindrical sleeve 9. Alternatively said bearing surface may be provided only on the outer circumferential surface 11 or furthermore, on both the inner 10 and the outer circumferential surface 11. Said bearing surface comprises a plurality of cavities 5 that are filled with solid lubricant. Alternatively, the cavities may be replaced with through holes.

[0019] The cylindrical sleeve 9 may be utilized in the corresponding locations as the cylindrical sleeve 6 has been illustrated in Figure 1, for instance lf the bear ing surface is provided on the inner circumferential surface 10 of the cylindrical sleeve 9, the bearing surface makes contact with the shaft 4 and if the bearing surface is provided on the outer circumferential surface 11 of the cylindrical sleeve 9, the bearing surface makes contact with the valve body 1.

[0020] Figure 2c illustrates a third embodiment of a bearing surface ln the third embodiment, a valve bearing comprises an inner cylindrical sleeve 6, a mid dle cylindrical sleeve 9, an outer cylindrical sleeve 12, and a first 7, a second 10 and a third bearing surfaces 11, wherein the first bearing surface 7 is an axial bearing surface bearing axial loads and the second 10 and the third bearing sur- faces 11 are radial bearing surfaces bearing radial loads.

[0021] ln this embodiment, the second 10 and the third radial bearing surfac es 11 are arranged on the inner and outer circumferential surfaces of the middle cylindrical sleeve 9, respectively. Furthermore, said middle cylindrical sleeve 9 is arranged between an outer cylindrical sleeve 12 and an inner cylindrical sleeve 6. The valve bearing illustrated in Figure 2c may be utilized in the corresponding locations as the cylindrical sleeve 6 has been illustrated in Figure 1, for instance.

[0022] ln the third embodiment shown in Figure 2c, the first bearing surface is provided in an end surface 7 of the inner cylindrical sleeve 6 and the second and third bearing surfaces are provided, respectively, on the inner 10 and outer 11 circumferential surfaces of the middle cylindrical sleeve 9. The first 7, second 10 and third bearing surfaces 11 comprise of a plurality of cavities 5 filled with solid lubricant.

[0023] ln Figure 2c, said cylindrical sleeve 6 comprises a flange 8. Alternative ly, said cylindrical sleeve 6 may be constructed without said flange 8. The length of said cylindrical sleeve 6 may also vary and the cylindrical sleeve 6 may, for in stance, be shaped as a ring.

[0024] Alternatively, the third embodiment may be constructed without the middle cylindrical sleeve ln this case, at least the outer circumferential surface 26 of the inner cylindrical sleeve 6 and/or the inner circumferential surface 27 of the outer cylindrical sleeve 12 are provided with bearing surfaces comprising a plu rality of cavities 5 filled with solid lubricant ln yet another alternative, the em bodiment may be constructed without the outer cylindrical sleeve 12. ln yet an other alternative, the embodiment may be constructed without the inner cylindri cal sleeve 6.

[0025] Figure 3 is a block diagram illustrating manufacturing of a bearing sur face. The block diagram of Figure 3 may be utilized for manufacturing a bearing surface as illustrated in Figures 2a-2c, for instance.

[0026] ln block A of Figure 3, a base is provided. The base may be a metallic base, for instance ln block B, at least one layer comprising cavities is formed on said base. The layer may be formed using metallic powder, which powder may further comprise a Co-alloy, for instance. Furthermore, in one example, the meth od may comprise forming of several layers comprising cavities and the position of the cavities is changed in at least some of the different layers to provide cavities comprising counterdrafts ln this context, counterdrafts refer to features in the sidewalls of said cavities that are protruding from the sidewall towards the center of said cavity ln yet another example, said layers are formed using metallic pow der.

[0027] ln block C, solid lubricant is provided into said cavities. The tempera ture range of use for the solid lubricant is typically -200 °C - +200 °C, but may be up to 600 °C and said solid lubricant may, for instance, be a mixture of lubricant and binder components lt may comprise chemical compounds, such as sulphides or fluorides. Using the manufacturing method illustrated in Figure 3 is advanta geous, as the valve bearing component and the cavities for the solid lubricant can be manufactured at the same time ln addition, formation of cavities with coun terdrafts would not be possible using subtractive manufacturing methods.

[0028] Figures 4a-4f illustrate an advantageous embodiment of a manufactur ing method for a bearing surface lt is to be understood that the embodiment of Figures 4a-4f is merely an example of a possible manufacturing method for a bearing surface, which can be utilized in the embodiments of Figures 1 to 3, for instance ln Figure 4a, a metallic base 13 is provided ln Figure 4b, a layer of me tallic powder 14 is spread onto the base and said layer is melt with a focused laser beam 15. The laser beam 15 melts the metallic powder 14 from the locations where it is being focused to and leaves unmelt powder elsewhere resulting in a layer with cavities 5 in predetermined locations, where the laser beam 15 has not melt said metallic powder 14. The diameter of said cavities is in the range of 1-3 mm, and preferably approximately 2.5 mm.

[0029] Figure 4c illustrates a bearing surface comprising cavities after the beam has melt said metallic powder from predetermined locations ln Figure 4d, a succeeding layer of metallic powder has been added on top of the first layer and the succeeding layer has been melt using a focused laser beam ln Figure 4e a third layer of metallic powder has been spread and melt on top of the previous layer for forming a bearing surface comprising cavities ln Figure 4f, the base plate is removed from the bearing surface. Alternatively, the base plate may re main attached to the bearing surface. The bearing surface is typically, but no al ways, post-processed. Said post-processing may comprise, for example, machin ing, peening, heat treating, thermochemical surface hardening or coating.

[0030] The position of said predetermined locations is changed in at least some of the different layers to provide cavities comprising counterdrafts 16. This is further illustrated in the example of Figures 4c-4f, where the progression of layer build-up of a bearing surface is illustrated. The displacement of layers in Figures 4c-4f is exaggerated and not in scale for improved illustration ln the ex- ample of Figure 4e, the resulting counterdrafts 16 comprise one layer but a coun terdraft may also comprise several layers. Alternatively, the side walls of the cavi ties may, for instance, be curved for creating counterdrafts.

[0031] ln the example of Figures 4a-4f, a powder bed additive manufacturing method is described for manufacturing a bearing surface for a valve. However, other additive manufacturing methods, such as directed energy deposition (DED), may be used as well.

[0032] ln additive manufacturing, different manufacturing parameters are frequently used for internal parts of an object and for external part of an object. Another alternative to implement counterdrafts into said sidewalls of said cavi ties is to apply manufacturing parameters commonly used for internal parts of an object, to manufacture the sidewalls of said cavities.

[0033] ln this example, first, a 3D-model of a bearing surface having cavities without counterdrafts, is provided and second, using said 3D-model, a valve bear ing surface is manufactured using additive manufacturing wherein parameters commonly used for internal parts of an object are used to manufacture the side walls of cavities in order to form counterdrafts on the sidewalls of said cavities. Furthermore, without departing the scope of this example, said counterdrafts may be formed using any parameters that are atypical for forming a surface in additive manufacturing. Typically, in additive manufacturing, parameters for manufacturing surfaces are chosen such that the surface of the product is smooth ln this context, atypical parameters refer to parameters that are deliberately used to manufacture a rough or uneven surface.

[0034] Using parameters commonly used for internal parts of an object in creases the surface roughness, and therefore, the friction coefficient on said side- walls of said cavities, as increased surface topography acts as counterdrafts. This promotes holding of solid lubricant in said cavities, that is, the shape of the side- walls of the cavities promotes solid lubricant presence at the bearing surface for longer time periods.

[0035] Figures 5a and 5b illustrate, by way of example, a possible method of providing solid lubricant into the cavities of a bearing surface manufactured ac cording to the method of Figures 4a to 4e, for instance ln the embodiment illus trated of Figure 5a, a layer of solid lubricant 17 is provided against a bearing sur face. This is followed by pressing the bearing surface towards said layer of solid lubricant 17 to extrude said solid lubricant into the cavities 5 of said bearing sur face. The embodiment of Figure 5a may also comprise moving the bearing surface back and forth in a direction perpendicular to the pressing direction to enhance the extrusion of solid lubricant into said cavities 5.

[0036] Figure 5b illustrates the bearing surface after the solid lubricant has been introduced into the cavities 5 of the bearing surface comprising coun terdrafts 16. Said counterdrafts 16 prevent the solid lubricant from departing said cavities therefore increasing lubrication periods. During valve operation, the bearing surface undergoes a cyclic mechanical loading which elastically deforms the bearing surface in micro-scale. Furthermore, the friction heat elevates the temperature of bearing surface and counter-surface, which results in thermal ex pansion and deformation of the said surfaces lnelastic permanent deformation also occurs, and that is associated with wear and wear loss of material on the sur faces. These deformations change the shape and volume of the cavities, and an equivalent small volume of deformable, displaceable solid lubricant is pushed out from cavities into contact of bearing surface and counter-surface. Also, despite lubrication, wear occurs at contact surface, and mechanics such as galling and micro-welding generate loose wear debris lf this debris remains on the contact surface, it acts as abrasive in the sliding contact of the contact surfaces. The cavi ties of bearing surface act as traps for the loose wear debris particles. The size of cavities is intentionally made larger than the typical largest size of the majority of wear debris particles. Once the debris particle moves into a cavity, it may displace an equal amount of the displaceable solid lubricant in the cavity, and thereafter the counterdrafts and the deformable solid lubricant remained in the cavity en hance the entrapment of the debris in the cavity. Each trapped debris particle displaces solid lubricant which then ends up to bearing surface.

[0037] ln the embodiment of Figure 1, the valve arrangement comprises two shafts; one above the closing member and one below the closing member. Alter natively, a valve arrangement may only comprise one shaft ln the embodiment of Figure 5a, the layer of solid lubricant 17 is provided between the bearing surface and a block of material 18, which may be, for instance, a steel plate. Alternatively, said layer of solid lubricant may be provided between two bearing surfaces facing each other ln this alternative, the bearing surfaces are pressed towards each oth er and moved in a direction perpendicular to the pressing direction in order to enhance the extrusion of solid lubricant into said cavities.

[0038] Valves are also frequently used in operating conditions with increased temperatures, high operating pressures and corrosive fluids. The operating condi tions therefore set requirements for the valve material selection lt is therefore advantageous to use materials that can be endure high stresses in an environ ment with increased temperature and acidic fluids, for instance.

[0039] lt will be obvious to a person skilled in the art that, as the technology advances, the inventive concept can be implemented in various ways. The inven- tion and its embodiments are not limited to the examples described above but may vary within the scope of the claims.