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Title:
VINASSE IN BAKING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/060263
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a process for the production of a dough comprising adding vinasse.

Inventors:
Comini, Roberto (Via Cernuschi 1 Milano, I-20100, IT)
Lodigiani, Fabio (Via Pascoli 4 Corvino S. Quirico, I-27050, IT)
Zucchi, Gioia (Via Bezzecca 7 Oliveto Lario, I-22030, IT)
Hoogenes, Eric (De Olmen 16 AT Bergschenhoek, NL-2661, NL)
Application Number:
PCT/EP2002/001156
Publication Date:
August 08, 2002
Filing Date:
January 28, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DSM IP ASSETS B.V. (Het Overloon 1 TE Heerlen, NL-6411, NL)
Comini, Roberto (Via Cernuschi 1 Milano, I-20100, IT)
Lodigiani, Fabio (Via Pascoli 4 Corvino S. Quirico, I-27050, IT)
Zucchi, Gioia (Via Bezzecca 7 Oliveto Lario, I-22030, IT)
Hoogenes, Eric (De Olmen 16 AT Bergschenhoek, NL-2661, NL)
International Classes:
A21D2/14; A21D2/36; A21D8/04; (IPC1-7): A21D2/36; A21D2/14; A21D8/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO1989001025A21989-02-09
WO1988003365A11988-05-19
Foreign References:
DD292364A51991-08-01
US4828846A1989-05-09
GB939545A1963-10-16
FR2665613A11992-02-14
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 200047 Derwent Publications Ltd., London, GB; AN 2000-523216 XP002170179 "Bread production method" & RU 2 142 708 C (AKADEMIJA), 20 December 1999 (1999-12-20)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Van Heuvel, Margaretha (DSM N.V. DSM Patents & Trademarks, Office Delft P.O. Box 1 MA Delft, NL-2600, NL)
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Process for the production of a dough comprising adding vinasse.
2. Process according to claim 1 further comprising adding a mixture of acetic and lactic acid.
3. Process according to anyone of the preceding claims further comprising adding other processing aids with dough and/or the baked product thereof improving properties.
4. Process according to claim 3 wherein the processing aids are chemical additives and/or enzymes.
5. Process according to anyone of the preceding claims wherein the vinasse is obtained from fermentation processes using molasses as a raw material.
6. Process according to anyone of the preceding claims wherein the vinasse is depotassified.
7. Process according to any of claims 5 or 6 wherein the vinasse is obtained from a baker's yeast fermentation process using beet molasses as a raw material.
8. Process for the production of a baked product produced by the process as disclosed in anyone of claims 17.
9. A composition comprising vinasse and at least one other ingredient of a bread improving composition.
10. Use of vinasse as a bread improving agent.
11. Use of vinasse as a food ingredient.
Description:
VINASSE IN BAKING The present invention relates to processes for preparing a dough and baked products thereof. The invention further relates to the use of vinasse in the preparation of said doughs and baked products.

Baked products are prepared from a dough which is usually made from the basic ingredients flour, water and optionally salt. Depending on the baked products, other optional ingredients are sugars, flavours etceteras. For leavened products, primarily baker's yeast is used next to chemical leavening systems such as a combination of an acid (generating compound) and bicarbonate. In order to improve the handling properties of the dough and/or the final properties of the baked products there is a continuous effort to develop processing aids with improving properties. Dough properties that are to be improved comprise machineability, gas retaining capability, etcetera.

Properties of the baked products that may be improved comprise loaf volume, crust crispiness, crumb texture and softness, taste and flavour and shelf life. The currently existing processing aids can be divided into two groups: chemical additives and enzymes.

Yeast, enzymes and chemical additives are generally added separately to the dough. Yeast may be added as a liquid suspension, in a compressed form or as an active dry or instant dry yeast. The difference between these yeast formulations is the water-and yeast dry matter content. Liquid yeast has a yeast dry matter content of less than 25% (w/v). Cream yeast is a particular form of liquid yeast and has a dry matter content between 17 and 23% (w/v). Compressed yeast has a dry matter content between 25-35% (w/v) while the dry yeast formulations have a dry matter content between 92-98% (w/v). Enzymes may be added in a dry, e. g. granulated form or in dissolved form. The chemical additives are in most cases added in powder form. Also, processing aid compositions which are tailored to specific baking applications, may be composed of a dedicated mixture of chemical additives and enzyme.

The preparation of a dough from the ingredients and processing aids described above is well known in the art and comprises mixing of said ingredients and processing aids and one or more moulding and fermentation steps.

The preparation of baked products from such doughs is also well known in the art and may comprise molding and shaping and further fermentation of the dough followed by baking at required temperatures and baking times.

Chemical additives with improving properties comprise oxidising agents such as ascorbic acid, bromate and azodicarbonamide, reducing agents such as L-cysteine and glutathione, emulsifiers acting as dough conditioners such as diacetyl tartaric esters of mono/diglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearyl lactylate (SSL) or calcium stearyl lactylate (CSL), or acting as crumb softeners such as glycerol monostearate (GMS) etceteras, fatty materials such as triglycerides (fat) or lecithin and others.

As a result of a consumer-driven need to replace the chemical additives by more natural products, several enzymes have been developed with dough and/or baked product improving properties. Suitable enzymes may be selected from the group consisting of starch degrading enzymes, arabinoxylan-and other hemicellulose degrading enzymes, cellulose degrading enzymes, oxidizing enzymes, fatty material splitting enzymes, protein degrading enzymes.

The development of enzyme products however is a laborious and costly process and may take several years. Furthermore, cost effective application necessitates low cost prices which put high demands on the efficiency of (fermentation) production processes.

The present invention provides a process for the preparation of a dough comprising the addition of vinasse. It was surprisingly found that vinasse exerts an improving effect on the softness and the shelf life of the baked products of said doughs as well as on their taste and flavour properties. In addition, vinasse improves the colour of, in particular, dark breads such as whole meal breads. Further advantages of vinasse are its relatively low cost price as well as its natural character. These properties make vinasse a suitable food ingredient.

Vinasse is defined herein as the residue obtained after removal of the primary product in processes of the fermentation industry. Examples of such processes are the production of baker's yeast, alcohol, citric acid, amino acids and antibiotics.

Traditionally, vinasse is used as a fertilizer. Later on feed applications were developed using primarily depotassified vinasse. The latter can be obtained by adding sulphate and removal of the resulting potassium sulphate crystals (e. g. FR-A-1377487 and EP-A- 0794246). Depotassified vinasse can also be used in the present invention. The vinasse used in the present invention is preferably obtained from fermentation processes for the production of food-, feed-and/or pharmaceutical grade products, in which one or more

molasses, such as sugar beet and cane molasses, are used as a raw material. A preferred vinasse may be obtained from baker's yeast fermentation processes in which predominantly beet molasses is used. The vinasse used in the present invention preferably has a dry matter content between 40 and 75% which is obtained by concentrating the residue according to known methods such as evaporation. The vinasse may be added to the dough as the liquid described herein before or as a dry product made from said liquid by known methods such as spray-or drum drying. These dry products may additionally contain a suitable carrier such as maltodextrins and/or yeast cell walls.

Depending on the desired improving effect, vinasse has to be added in corresponding effective amounts. Preferably, vinasse may be added to a dough in an amount between 0.01-1.5 wt% (based on the amount of vinasse dry matter added to the amount of flour). For the production of white bread, vinasse may be added in an amount between 0.01 and 1.0 wt%, preferably between 0.05 and 0.5 wt% and more preferably between 0.1 and 0.25 wt% When added to the dough in these quantities, the vinasse predominantly enhances the taste and flavour properties of the white bread. For the production of wholemeal bread, vinasse may be added in an amount between 0.01 and 1.5 wt%, preferably between 0.1 and 1.25 wt% and more preferably between 0.5 and 1.0 wt%. When added to the dough in these quantities, vinasse improves various dough and baked product properties such as taste and flavour, crust colour, shelf life and crumb structure.

The invention further provides a process for the preparation of a dough which, in addition to adding vinasse, further comprises adding a mixture of lactic acid and acetic acid. The mixture may be added to the dough in an amount between 5 and 2000 ppm, preferably between 25 and 1500 ppm and more preferably between 50 and 1200 ppm, while the weight ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in this mixture may be between 5: 1 and 1: 1, preferably between 4: 1 and 2: 1 and more preferably between 7: 2 and 5: 2. One ppm is defined herein part per million on weight basis, i. e. 1 mg per kg. The addition of the lactic acid/acetic acid mixture expressed as ppm therefore means mg acid mixture (dry weight) per kg flour. The addition of this mixture further reinforces the by vinasse improved taste and flavour properties of the baked products.

In addition to the addition of vinasse or the vinasse/acid mixture, other processing aids with dough-and/or bread improving properties can be added. These processing aids can be enzymes and/or chemical additives. Suitable enzymes may be

selected from the group consisting of starch degrading enzymes such endo-and exoamylases, arabinoxylan-and other hemicellulose degrading enzymes such as xylanases (also known as pentosanases or hemicellulases) and arabinofuranosidases, cellulose degrading enzymes suchs as cellulases, oxidizing enzymes such as glucose oxidase, sulfhydryl oxidase, hexose oxidase, pyranose oxidase, and lipoxygenase, fatty material splitting enzymes such as lipases, phospholipases and galactolipases and protein degrading enzymes such as proteases and exopeptidases (carboxypeptiases and aminopeptidases). Chemical additives with improving properties comprise oxidising agents such as ascorbic acid, bromate and azodicarbonate, reducing agents such as L- cysteine and glutathione, emulsifiers acting as dough conditioners such as diacetyl tartaric esters of mono/diglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearyl lactylate (SSL) or calcium stearyl lactylate (CSL), or acting as crumb softeners such as glycerol monostearate (GMS) etceteras, fatty materials such as triglycerides (fat) or lecithin and others.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for the production of a baked product from a dough that is produced by the methods described herein before.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a bread improving composition comprising vinasse and one or more other ingredients of a bread improving composition.

Examples of such ingredients are processing aids such as enzymes (e. g. alpha amylase, hemicellulase, glucose oxidase, lipase, phospholipase) or chemical additives (e. g. vitamine C) as are described in more detailed herein before, or a suitable inert carrier such as flour or starch.

Example 1 Effect of vinasse on the properties of white bread Four doughs were prepared according to the following recipe; 2 kg flour for white bread, 1200 gram water, 100 gram fresh yeast, 40 gram salt and 20 gram of an alpha- amylase and ascorbic acid comprising bread improver (NATURALE, DSM-Bakery Ingredients, Lacchiarella, Italy). Vinasse was added as indicated in Tables 1 and 2. All ingredients for each dough were mixed for 2 minutes at 70 rpm in a 40 liter regular spiral mixer type Treemme and further for 7 minutes at 140 rpm in the same mixer. During the total mixing process the bowl speed was 20 rpm. After the mixing each dough was left 20 minutes for conditioning at ambient temperature. After this the doughs were cut in equivalent 500 gram pieces, which were each formed in the typical"Batard"shape. After this the doughs were proofed for 60 minutes at 30°C and 80% relative humidity. After

proofing the top surface was cut and the breads were baked at 210 °C for 40 minutes.

Two hours after baking, the breads were evaluated visually. After 6 and 24 hours the baked breads were evaluated with respect to their keepability. After 0 and 24 hours the baked breads were evaluated on taste and flavour. All these properties were judged by a panel of 3 experienced bakers comparing the properties of the breads baked with vinasse with those of a control bread lacking vinasse (standard bread). The results are summarized in the Tables 1 and 2 below.

Table 1. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard; + = improved Baking Addition Crust Crumb characteristic None (standard bread) 0 0.225 wt% vinasse 0 Table 2. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard, + = improved, ++ = large improvement Additions to standard Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking: 6h 24h Oh 24h Oh 24h None 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.225 wt% vinasse + + + + + +

Example 2 Effect of vinasse on the properties of wholemeal bread Three doughs were prepared each with the following recipe; 500 g wheat flour (de Grutterij, Rotterdam), 300 gram water, 4 gram dry yeast (Fermipane, DSM Bakery ingredients, Delft, The Netherlands), 10 gram sucrose, 20 gram shortening (margarine, Blue Band) and 10 gram salt. Vinasse was added as indicated in Tables 3 and 4. All ingredients for each dough were mixed for 20 minutes in a regular mixer. After the mixing each dough was left 30 minutes for conditioning at ambient temperature. After this the doughs were proofed for 50 minutes at 30°C and 80% relative humidity. After proofing, the breads were baked at 210°C for 70 minutes. After 2 hours the baked breads were evaluated visually. After 2,6 and 12 hours the baked breads were evaluated on keepability, taste and flavour. The results are summarised in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard; + = improved Baking Addition Crust Crumb characteristic None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0. 45 wt% vinasse Darker Softer 0. 90 wt% vinasse Darker Softer Table 4. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard; + = improved; ++ = large improvement Addition Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking 2h 6h 12h 2h 6h 12h 2h 6h 12h None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 wt% vinasse 0 + + + + + 0 + ++ 0.90 wt% vinasse 0 + ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ Example 3 Effect of vinasse and a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid on the properties of white bread Three doughs were prepared according to the following recipe; 2 kg flour, 1200 gram water, 100 gram fresh yeast, 40 gram salt and 20 gram of an alpha-amylase and ascorbic acid comprising bread improver (NATURALE, DSM-Bakery Ingredients, Lacchiarella, Italy). Vinasse and a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid (weight ratio lactic- /acetic acid = 3 : 1) were dosed as indicated in Tables 5 and 6. The preparation of the dough and the bread and the evaluation of the baked breads were carried out as described in Example 1. The results are summarized in the Tables 5 and 6.

Table 5. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard; + = improved Baking Additions Crust Crumb characteristic None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0.108 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0. 18 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 100 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix Table 6. Properties of the breads; 0 = standard, + = improved, ++ = large improvement Additions to standard Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking 6h 24h 48h Oh 6h 24h Oh 6h 24h None 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.108 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 + + 0 0 + + 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0.18 wt% vinasse 000+++++++ 100 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix

Example 4 Effect of vinasse and a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid on the properties of wholemeal bread Five doughs were prepared according to the following recipe; 2 kg ready-to-use multicereal flour (Mix 4-Cereali) composed of flour from weak wheat, rye, barley and oats further comprising wheat gluten, alpha-amylase and ascorbic acid (E300), 1200 gram water, 100 gram fresh yeast and 40 gram salt. Vinasse and a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid (weight ratio 3: 1) were added as indicated in Tables 7 and 8. The preparation of the dough and the bread and the evaluation of the baked breads were carried out as described in Example 1. The results are summarized in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7. Properties of the breads; 0 =standard; + = improved Baking Additions Crust Crumb characteristic None (standard bread) 0.18 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 100 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture 0.36 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 200 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture 0.54 wt% vinasse 0, 0 0 300 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture slightly darker 0.72 wt% vinasse O O, darker O, softer 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture Table 8. Properties of the breads; 0= standard, + = improved, ++ = large improvement Additions Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking: 6h 24h 48h Oh 6h 24h Oh 6h 24h None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.18 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 100 ppm lactic/actic acid mixture 0.36 wt% vinasse 0 + 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 200 ppm lactic/actic aci mixture 0.54 wt% vinasse 0+0++++++ 300 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture 0.72 wt% vinasse O + + ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mixture Example 5 Effect of vinasse, a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid, and the combination of vinasse and the mixture of lactic-and acetic acid on the properties of white bread To be able to compare directly the effects of the single components (vinasse and lacticlacetic acid) and their combination, a baking trial was carried out in which all items

were baked at one day. By doing so the strengths of the contributions of the different components to keepability and flavor could be obtained. Four doughs were prepared according to the following recipe: 2 kg flour, 1200 gram water, 100 gram fresh yeast, 40 g salt, and 20 gram of an alpha-amylase and ascorbic acid comprising bread improver (NATURALE, DSM-Bakery Ingredients, Lacchiarelia, Italy). Vinasse and a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid (weight ratio lactic-/acetic acid = 3 : 1) were dosed as indicated in Table 9 and 10. The preparation of the dough and the bread and the evaluation of the baked breads were carried out as described in Example 1. The results are summarized in the Tables 9 and 10.

Table 9. Properties of the breads: 0 = standard ; + improved; ++ large improvement Baking Additions Crust Crumb characteristics None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0.132wt% vinasse000 0.108 wt% vinasse 0 0 0 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0 0 0 Table 10. Properties of the breads: 0 = standard; + improved; ++ large improvement Additions Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking: 6h 24h 48h Oh 6h 24h Oh 6h 24h None (standard) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.132 wt% vinasse + + 0 + + 0/+ 0 0 0 0.108 wt% vinasse + 0 0 ++ ++ + 0 + + 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 60 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Example 6 Effect of vinasse, a mixture of lactic-and acetic acid, and the combination of vinasse and the mixture of lactic-and acetic acid on the properties of wholemeal bread A similar test as described in Example 5 was also done in wholemeal bread preparation. Four doughs were prepared according to the recipe described in Example 4 and the method described in Example 1. Vinasse and a mixture of lactic/acetic acid (weight ratio lactic-/acetic acid = 3 : 1) were dosed as indicated in Tables 11 and 12. The evaluation of the baked breads was carried out as described in Example 1. The results are summarized in Table 11 and 12.

Table 11. Properties of the breads : 0 = standard; + = improved Baking Additions Crust Crumb characteristic None (standard bread) 0.90 wt% vinasse 0 darker softer 0.72 wt% vinasse 0 darker softer 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0 0 0

Table 12. Properties of the breads: 0 = standard; + = improved; ++ = large improvement Additions Keepability Flavour Taste Evaluation time after baking: 6h 24h 48h Oh 6h 24h Oh 6h 24h None (standard bread) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.90 wt% vinasse0++++0/++++ 0. 72 wt% vinasse 0 + + ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 400 ppm lactic/acetic acid mix 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0 0