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Title:
VVER EMERGENCY COOLING SYSTEM SUMP PROTECTION DEVICE, FILTER MODULE OF SUMP PROTECTION DEVICE AND FILTER ELEMENT OF SUMP PROTECTION DEVICE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/004855
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention pertains to the field of emergency protection systems of nuclear power plants. More particularly, the invention relates to Emergency Core Cooling System under loss-of-coolant accidents, namely, to sump protection device (SPD) in the emergency cooling system of a VVER, to the filter module and filter element of the sump protection device. The purpose of the invention is to protect sumps from accumulation of debris in case of a loss-of-coolant accident. As a solution to the problem, we claim a VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device, comprising a system of filters installed at the intake opening of the upper part of the sump located in the reactor containment bottom and connected to the intake of emergency cooling system pipeline. It consists of header-connected filter modules preventing debris from entering the intake of emergency cooling system pipelines; each filter module has slotted grates on sides and on top, and filter elements arranged inside are designed as laterally slotted filtration pipes and perforated distribution tubes (inside the pipes) the inner cavities of which are connected to headers.

Inventors:
BEZLEPKIN, Vladimir Viktorovich (ul. Orbeli, 19-45Sankt-Petersburg, 3, 194223, RU)
KURCHEVSKY, Alexey Ivanovich (Zavodskoi pr, 34-36Kolpin, Sankt-Petersburg 7, 196657, RU)
KUKHTEVICH, Vladimir Olegovich (pr. Solidarnosti, 8/1-35Sankt-Petersburg, 2, 193312, RU)
MATYUSHEV, Leonid Aleksandrovich (ul. Metallurgov, 15-48Kolpin, Sankt-Petersburg 7, 196657, RU)
MITRYUKHIN, Andrey Gennad'evich (ul. Omskaya, 13-57Sankt-Petersburg, 3, 197343, RU)
Application Number:
RU2017/000471
Publication Date:
January 03, 2019
Filing Date:
June 30, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
JOINT STOCK COMPANY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DESIGN INSTITUTE FOR ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES ATOMPROEKT (ul. Savushkina, 82ASankt-Petersburg, 3, 197183, RU)
JOINT STOCK COMPANY "SCIENCE AND INNOVATIONS" (Staromonetny per, 26Moscow, 119180, RU)
International Classes:
G21C15/18; B01D29/15; B01D29/52; F16L55/24; G21C19/307
Domestic Patent References:
WO2014189968A22014-11-27
WO2015169751A12015-11-12
WO2001039208A12001-05-31
WO2015169752A12015-11-12
Foreign References:
CN101947397B2012-07-04
US20060075697A12006-04-13
US20110215059A12011-09-08
US20120037559A12012-02-16
US20080156712A12008-07-03
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHERNYKH, Ilya Vladimirovich (Goskorporatsia "Rosatom", Blok po upravleniyu innovatsiyami Chernykh I.V.,ul. Bolshaya Ordynka, 2, Moscow 7, 119017, RU)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device characterized in that it comprises a system of filters installed at the intake opening of the upper part of the sump located in the reactor containment bottom and connected to the intake of emergency cooling system pipeline. It consists of header-connected filter modules preventing debris from entering the intake of emergency cooling system pipelines; each filter module has slotted grates on sides and on top, and filter elements arranged inside are designed as laterally slotted filtration pipes and perforated distribution tubes (inside the pipes), the internals of which are connected to headers. 2. A sump protection device as defined in claim 1, wherein the filter element pipes are perforated with helical slots.

3. A sump protection device as defined in claim 1, wherein the filter element pipes are made of wire with slots between turns.

4. A sump protection device as defined in claim 3, wherein the wire has a triangular profile.

5. A sump protection device as defined in claim 4, wherein the wire profile cross-section does not exceed 1.0x2.0 mm.

6. A sump protection device as defined in claim 1, wherein the slot size is does not exceed 1 mm. 7. A filter module for VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device as defined in claim 1 characterized in that it has slotted grates on sides and on top, and filter elements arranged inside designed as a set of laterally slotted filtration pipes and perforated distribution tubes (inside the pipes), the inner cavities of which are connected to headers.

8. A filter module as defined in claim 7, wherein the filter element pipes are perforated with helical slots.

9. A filter module as defined in claim 7, wherein the filter element pipes are made of wire with slots between turns.

10. A filter module as defined in claim 9, wherein the wire has a triangular profile.

1 1. A filter module as defined in claim 10, wherein the wire profile cross-section does not exceed 1.0x2.0 mm.

12. A filter module as defined in claim 7, wherein the slot size does not exceed 1 mm.

13. A filter element for the VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device as defined in claim 1, designed as a laterally slotted pipe with a perforated distribution tube (located inside the pipe). The diameter of holes in the tube gets successively reduced down the flow.

14. A filter element as defined in claim 13, wherein the diameter of holes in the perforated distribution tube at its end down the flow does not exceed half the diameter of holes at the beginning of the tube.

Description:
VVER Emergency Cooling System Sump Protection Device, Filter Module of Sump Protection Device and Filter Element of Sump Protection Device.

The present invention pertains to the field of emergency protection systems of nuclear power plants. More particularly, the invention relates to Emergency Core Cooling System under loss-of-coolant accidents, namely, to sump protection device (SPD) in the emergency cooling system of a VVER, to the filter module and filter element of the sump protection device.

The main requirement for the emergency protection system in the process of design, analysis and operation of a nuclear reactor is that the protection system shall ensure safety in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (maximum design-basis accident). Any unexpected loss of coolant flow through the reactor core can result in serious consequences for the nuclear power plant as a whole. Loss of flow may result from a failure of a reactor coolant pump or a valve or from a rupture of the main pipeline at the reactor pressure vessel inlet or outlet.

Accidents result in coolant leaks. This water may be carrying solid foreign particles resultant from destruction of thermal insulation of adjacent pipes or other reactor structures. Water with foreign particles will flow to the lowest part of the reactor building, into the pits (sumps). Power plants are equipped with safety systems that pump water back to various reactor cooling systems.

Emergency sumps under the reactor containment are designed for intake of primary coolant and chemically active solutions accumulated during loss-of-coolant accidents, after safety systems are switched to the mode of solution circulation within the containment.

Energy of rupture causes destruction of equipment within the containment and saturation of the coolant with debris.

Debris produced under the containment in a loss-of-coolant accident can be broken into several categories according to its properties:

latent debris;

debris resultant from destruction of thermal insulation structures;

debris resultant from destruction of anti-corrosive coatings;

chemical debris resultant from contact of coolant with equipment and structures within the containment.

Debris accumulated on filtration surfaces of the sumps shall not cause head losses leading to the reduction of cavitation margin of safety system pumps below permissible level, deaeration or surge of coolant boiling. Concentration of debris and its fractional breakdown shall not affect heat removal from the reactor plant and operability of equipment in the safety system recirculation loop during emergency and post-accident period. The design of the sump protection device shall not cause coolant funneling in any operation conditions.

Therefore, sumps are safety-related assemblies and shall be equipped with protective debris catches. Such devices are designed to clear the coolant from debris to the extent sufficient to ensure its sustained recirculation by safety system pumps until the reactor building and the reactor plant reach full cooldown. The catches shall have high structural strength and reliability in operation.

There are flat cloth filters available, which are installed in the bottom of a pit (sump), above the intake opening of the bleeding pipelines in the emergency reactor cooling system. Filters can be equipped with reinforcing elements or have stiffeners. (WO2015169752, 2015), (US2006075697, 2006). The main disadvantage of such devices is that they are installed at the bottom, and are not very efficient in the layer of debris accumulating after accidents due to frequent clogging. Filter flushing of the assemblies described above is time-consuming and requires considerable hydrodynamic forces due to unsteady flow across filter section.

There are filter modules for emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, designed from filter elements, which are concentric perforated tubes, with filter medium in between. (US201 10215059, 201 1), or hollow meshed tubes (US20120037559, 2012).

Such devices are characterized by the above-mentioned drawbacks, as well as by the fact that due to the absence of flow distributors, the layer of debris is deposited unevenly over the filtration surface, which leads to the loss of its operational efficiency. Low efficiency of filters may result in loss of flow head, which reduces cavitation margin of safety systems pump below the permissible level, causes deaeration and boiling of the coolant. Filters installed in the intake openings of pipelines are forced to have small dimensions, which results in their ineffectiveness. Filter modules with flow distributors (US20080156712, 2008) provide flow distribution among filter modules, but the flow over the surface of the filter element is irregular, which may result in formation of an uneven debris layer and funneling in the coolant flow. This source is the closest to the proposed one.

As mentioned above, accidents involving rupture of nuclear reactor primary pipeline result in double-ended leakages of the coolant into the containment. This process is associated with a significant release of mass and energy into the containment in the form of superheated steam-air mixture.

As a result, the reactor gets dehydrated, and the core is heated up by core decay heat. At the same time, pressure and temperature under the containment grow. From the pipeline break the primary coolant enters the lower space of the containment. Release of mass and energy causes destruction of equipment and anti-corrosive coatings under the containment and filling of the coolant with debris.

The Emergency Core Cooling System, which includes a passive part, high-pressure and low-pressure emergency injection systems, is designed to protect the reactor from overheating and core meltdown. Pressure is reduced and heat is removed from the containment by the sprinkler system. Boron solution reserve is used for operation of all systems at the first stage of an accident. In this mode, the coolant from the tank enters the reactor and then through the pipeline break is released into the lower containment space. As soon as the tank empties, all systems are switched to recirculation of the accumulated coolant.

From that moment on, the coolant containing a significant amount of debris (which may lead to failures of circulation loop elements and loss of protection functions of the systems) starts to be supplied to the circulation loop of nuclear reactor emergency core cooling system (ECCS).

The purpose of the invention is to provide coolant purification and to maintain its sustained circulation by protecting the sump from debris accumulation.

The technical result of the claimed solution lies in ensuring steady flow onto the filtration surface and preventing uneven accumulation of debris, as well as providing uniform flow over the surface of the filter element.

As a solution to the problem, we claim a VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device, comprising a system of filters installed at the intake opening of the upper part of the sump located in the reactor containment bottom and connected to the intake of emergency cooling system pipeline. It consists of header-connected filter modules preventing debris from entering the intake of emergency cooling system pipelines; each filter module has slotted grates on sides and on top, and filter elements arranged inside are designed as laterally slotted filtration pipes and perforated distribution tubes (inside the pipes) the inner cavities of which are connected to headers.

In the preferable embodiment, the filter element pipes are perforated with helical slots. The filter element pipes are preferably made of wire with slots between turns.

In the preferable embodiment, the wire shall have triangular profile.

The wire cross-section shall not exceed 1.0x2.0 mm,

with slot size not more than 1 mm.

We also claim a filter module for the VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device with slotted grates on sides and on top, and filter elements arranged inside designed as a set of laterally slotted filtration pipes and perforated distribution tubes (inside the pipes) the inner cavities of which are connected to headers.

In the preferable embodiment, the filter element pipes are perforated with helical slots.

The filter element pipes are preferably made of wire with slots between turns.

In the preferable embodiment, the wire shall have triangular profile.

The wire cross-section shall not exceed 1.0x2.0 mm,

with slot size not more than 1 mm.

We also claim a filter element for the VVER emergency cooling system sump protection device designed as a laterally slotted pipe with a perforated distribution tube (located inside the pipe). The diameter of holes in the tube gets successively reduced down the flow.

Preferably, the diameter of holes in the perforated distribution tube at its end down the flow shall not exceed half the diameter of holes at the beginning of the tube.

Such design of the device allows to remove debris from the coolant and to maintain its sustained recirculation by safety system pumps until full cooldown of the containment and the reactor plant.

The claimed device is shown in the drawings, where Fig.1 is a general view of the bottom part of the reactor containment including sump openings and filter modules installed above them; Fig. 2 is a layout of filter modules installed above the sump intake; Fig. 3 is a top view of the sump port; in Fig. 4 is a general view of the filter module; Fig. 5 shows the filter element, Fig. 6 shows flow circulation scheme through the filter module.

As shown in the figures, at the bottom of the nuclear reactor containment (1) there are sumps (2), which are topped with filter modules (3) connected to the intake (6) of reactor emergency cooling system pipelines with the help of headers (4) via the intake (5) of the sump (2). The filter module (3) comprises a lateral slotted grate (7), top slotted grate (8) interconnected via top and bottom panels (9) and (10) (respectively) with the filter elements (1 1) fixed in between. The filter elements (1 1) are designed as filtration pipes (12) with distribution tubes (13) (located inside them) with holes (14) and (15) which get successively reduced in size down the flow.

The device operates in the following manner:

The reactor containment bottom (1) is of considerable size, which results in minimum coolant flow rate and creates a possibility for debris to settle along the coolant way to the sumps (2). The threshold velocity of debris that has reached the floor exceeds the settling velocity of debris in the flow. The filter modules (3) are placed at certain height from the bottom level. This provides for additional retention of debris that has reached the floor. Before entry into the sumps (2) and then into the intake (6) of the reactor emergency cooling system pipelines the coolant with debris passes through the filter modules (3) installed on top of the sumps (2) and connected with the sump (2) intake opening (5) by means of headers (4). Next, the coolant enters the filter module (3) through the lateral slotted grate (7) and top slotted grate (8). The outer surface of the slotted grates (7) and (8) has holes with clear dimensions of 17x170 mm, which provides entrapment of particles larger than 17 mm. The internal part of the slotted grates (7) and (8) forms inclined channels of rectangular shape and provides for deposition of particles with settling velocity over 0.017 m/s characteristic size of more than 200 μιη for particles and fibers of class 4 and higher. The filter elements (11) are designed as filtration pipes (12) with openings. Openings of the filter elements (11) are rectangular helical slots, the length of which significantly exceeds their width. The slot width is 1 mm based on the minimum permissible particle size in the circulation system. The slotted shape of openings compared to the square one of the grid or perforated plate, reduces the risk of its clogging with particles smaller than the slot size when they simultaneously approach the slot. Via filtration pipes with holes (12), the flow enters distribution tubes (13) (inside the pipes) with openings (14) and (15), which get reduced in size down the flow. The surface area of the filter elements (1 1) is much larger than the area of the intake (6), which results in a substantially irregular flow of the coolant through the filter surface. To prevent this, distribution tubes (13) are installed inside the filter elements (11), they connect the internal cavity of the filter element (1 1) to the intake opening (6). The distribution tubes (13) have holes (14) and (15) of different diameters distributed throughout the length, which ensures uniform flow distribution over the filtering surface. The flow of coolant free from debris is discharged through the intake (6) to the pipeline of the reactor emergency cooling system.