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Title:
Water Treatment System
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/135239
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention is a water purification system without use of chemical substances. The essential parts of the system are as follows: a chamber with inlet and outlet for flowing incoming and outgoing air into and out of the chamber; at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp; at least one pair of magnetic rings; and a skeleton configured for occupying center volume of the chamber from top to bottom around central longitudinal axis of the chamber, where the skeleton has inner space for accommodating the at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp and at least one pair of holding elements for holding the at least one pair of magnetic rings around the at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp, where the purification system comprises concentric configuration to minimally perturb profile and distribution of the incoming and outgoing air, the at least one pair of magnetic rings are positioned in parallel relative each other and configured to induce maximal concentric magnetic flux field on molecules of the flowing incoming and outgoing air.

Inventors:
AMAR, Eli (1 Hamlachim St, 08 Rehovot, 7649008, IL)
SAMIMI GOLAN, Mati (11 Almog St, Modieen Macabim Reute, 71908, IL)
Application Number:
IL2019/050025
Publication Date:
July 11, 2019
Filing Date:
January 04, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
I.S.W.S LTD (39 Kalman Gavrielov St, 02 Rehovot, 7611202, IL)
International Classes:
C02F1/72; A61L9/20; A61L9/22; B01J19/08; B01J19/12; C01B15/029; F24F3/16
Foreign References:
US20070062883A12007-03-22
US5622622A1997-04-22
US5223105A1993-06-29
US4655933A1987-04-07
US9321655B22016-04-26
US9321665B22016-04-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SAADO, Hezi (P.O. Box 3090, 02 Tel-Aviv, 6103002, IL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

[Claim 1] A water purification system comprising:

a chamber comprising inlet and outlet for flowing incoming and outgoing air into and out of said chamber;

at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp;

at least one pair of magnetic rings; and

a skeleton configured for occupying center volume of said chamber from top to bottom around central longitudinal axis of said chamber, said skeleton comprising inner space for accommodating said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp and at least one pair of holding elements for holding said at least one pair of magnetic rings around said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp,

wherein said purification system comprises concentric configuration to minimally perturb profile and distribution of said incoming and outgoing air, said at least one pair of magnetic rings are positioned in parallel relative each other and configured to induce maximal concentric magnetic flux field on molecules of said flowing incoming and outgoing air.

[Claim 2] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising compressor air pump for injecting air into said chamber.

[Claim 3] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising electrical ballast UV radiation source, said UV radiation source is connected to local power supply with the related specifications of power.

[Claim 4] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp comprises two lamps with two wavelength ranges of 180-195 [nm] and 240-280 [nm]

[Claim 5] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp is a mercury filament or LED light with electrical connectors of two or four pins.

[Claim 6] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

chamber is made of a conductive material coated with chemically inert material.

[Claim 7] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

chamber comprises a housing frame, said housing frame is embedded inside said chamber.

[Claim 8] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said chamber further comprises external sleeve and top and bottom covers mechanically attached to top and bottom sides of said external sleeve and close top and bottom ends of said chamber.

[Claim 9] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

chamber further comprises a plurality of electrical outlets for power supply connections into and out of said system, said outlets are sealed with Teflon for vacuum.

[Claim 10] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising electrical breaker circuit for avoiding overloading of electrical current in said system.

[Claim 11] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising a plurality of gas flow meters, said gas flow meters are mounted inside or outside a box encapsulating said chamber.

[Claim 12] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising a plurality of power meter devices for monitoring and regulating electrical power, voltage and current operational values of said system.

[Claim 13] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising a plurality of fan cooling systems.

[Claim 14] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising remote control and monitoring unit for monitoring and controlling op erational values versus specified values of said system, said unit is configured to switch between on and off operating states mechanically or electronically and monitor voltage, electrical current, power supply and related devices.

[Claim 15] The water purification system according to claim 14, wherein said devices are selected from said at least one UV bulb/lamp, a fan and electronic flow meter.

[Claim 16] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising a venturi pipe attached to said outlet of said chamber for transporting radicalized/excited and ambient air into treated water reservoir.

[Claim 17] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising a water container or water reservoir in fluid communication with said chamber.

[Claim 18] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

chamber has a cylindrical geometrical shape with housing sleeve and housing frame with corresponding cylindrical geometrical shape.

[Claim 19] The water purification system according to claim 1, comprising three pairs of magnetic rings arranged in identical polarity configuration at top and bottom ends, center of and around main central longitudinal axis of said chamber, wherein each one of said pairs of magnetic rings comprises one ring with negative polarity and second ring with positive polarity, said polarity configuration is anti- symmetric configuration, said rings are mechanically held by said holding elements.

[Claim 20] The water purification system according to claim 19, wherein said magnetic rings generate magnetic field strength in the range of 103 to 106 gauss with sufficiently high magnetic flux for said chamber for a given air compression flow level with said geometry and dimensions.

[Claim 21] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

skeleton comprises inner longitudinal bars extending from top to bottom of said skeleton around inner space for accommodating said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp, outer longitudinal bars surrounding said inner bars and extending from top to bottom of said skeleton and holding elements extending inwardly from said outer bars and comprising recesses for holding said at least one pair of magnetic rings around said at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp, said inner bars, outer bars and holding elements forming a single solid unit of said skeleton.

[Claim 22] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

chamber and skeleton are made from aluminum.

[Claim 23] The water purification system according to claim 22, wherein inner surface of walls of said chamber and said skeleton are coated with Ti02

[Claim 24] The water purification system according to claim 22, wherein inner surface of walls of said chamber is coated with PVC.

[Claim 25] The water purification system according to claim 2, further comprising air diffuser connected to said compressor air pump on one end and to said chamber on other end.

[Claim 26] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising pre-filtering apparatus for cleaning ambient incoming air from im purities and contaminations before injecting it into said chamber.

[Claim 27] The water purification system according to claim 1, further comprising diffuser connected to outlet of said chamber for diffusing radicalized/ excited air into a water reservoir.

[Claim 28] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

magnetic rings are made of ferromagnetic materials made from rare earth magnets.

[Claim 29] The water purification system according to claim 28, wherein said materials are selected from Nd2Fe14B, SmCo5 Sm2Co17, composite magnetic materials, BaFe120i9 , MnBi, Ce(CuCo)5, strong permanent magnets made from aluminium, nickel, cobalt and iron and comprising small amounts of Cu, Ti and Nb, and ferrite materials of ferrimagnetic materials such as Fe203 and Fe304.

[Claim 30] The water purification system according to claim 28 or 29, wherein one ring of said at least one pair of magnetic rings is made from one of said magnetic materials and second ring of said at least one pair of magnetic rings is made from a metallic material that can be magnetized under induced external magnetic field,

[Claim 31] The water purification system according to claim 30, wherein said metallic material is iron or steel.

[Claim 32] The water purification and treatment system according to claim 1, further comprising a water cooling system.

[Claim 33] The water purification system according to claim 1, wherein said

system is configured to purify water in water reservoirs, systems and conduits.

[Claim 34] The water purification system according to claim 33, wherein said water reservoirs, systems and conduits are selected from drinking water supply systems, swimming pools and water piping.

[Claim 35] The water purification system according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said system is configured for purifying water in industry, farming, agriculture, gardening, recycling and urban use.

Description:
Title of Invention: Water Treatment System

Technical Field

[0001] This invention pertains to non-chemical water cleaning systems and particularly to systems and apparatus which utilize ambient air transformation into radicalized oxygen gas, which is further generated for water cleaning purposes.

Background

[0002] Water purification has turned an essential requirement due to continuous pollution of water and the need to supply drinkable water. Different methods, chemical and non chemical, are suggested for water purification. Regarding non-chemical methods, prior art and systems disclosed therein involve only partial aspects of a chamber model for purifying water and related functionalities by producing a purifying reactive gas or air. Accordingly, in all previous prior arts, the integration of the system components comprising UV radiation sources, magnetic field generating sources and air flowing means into the chamber are decoupled as much as possible to obtain the system maximum efficiency and optimal performance. As an example, in US patent No.

4,655,933 to Johnson the ferromagnetic elements, which induce the magnetic flux fields inside the air flowing chamber are located outside or at the corners of the chamber, presumably to eliminate any unwanted perturbation which may be introduced into the ambient air gas which is flowing from inlet to outlet of this chamber, and degrade the whole system performances. As a result, in the related embodiments disclosed in Johnson, the mutual interaction between the ambient air molecules and the magnetic field, induced by the ferromagnetic rods in the disclosed configurations, is limited by the air chamber diameters and by its geometrical shape. These parameters are designed according to different considerations, which include the required air capacity and water cleaning rate. Unfortunately, such design rules and architecture do not leave enough room/degree of freedom for the person skilled in the art to design and make a highly efficient system, which is optimized per the requirements of a certain application and corresponding client needs. Similarly US patent No. 9,321,655 to Kolstad et al disclose similar method and apparatus, however with enhanced per formances due to magnetic rods in an anti- symmetric configuration that induce larger magnetic flux on the oxygen gas component of air. Due to the usage of ferromagnetic rods, Johnson and Kolstad suffer from the following problems that degrade the per formance of the ionization chamber: i. The magnetic field does not have a coaxial cylindrical symmetry, hence it introduces an non-concentric perturbation to incoming flowing ambient gas. The non-concentric distribution of radicalized gas results in a higher physical interaction between the chamber walls and ambient flowing gas profile which mimics the chamber cylindrical shape. As a result of this perturbation, a higher recombination rate is expected due to higher interaction between the oxygen radicals and ambient gas components ii. To achieve maximum performance, the magnetic rods and related polarization need to be aligned with respect to the ionization chamber, with respect to other magnetic rods in a given site and between adjacent sites. To overcome this, Kolstad et al embedded the magnetic rods inside long magnetic tubes. The magnetic rods solve the alignment issue however also occupy a significantly high amount of volume inside the ionization chamber lowering its capacity to conduct the compress ambient air. As a result, any minor increase in the rods diameter, which may increase the magnetic field in the chamber, may yield a significant reduction of the free volume of the ionization chamber, limiting the option to optimize the ionization chamber performances.

[0003] To compensate the mentioned deficiencies, one can increase UV power speci

fications or the compressed gas level. However, this can yield in unwanted thermal in stabilities and further degrade the ionization chamber performance.

[0004] All the required components in the ionization chamber, when correctly configured together may avoid unwanted side effects that can lower the system efficiency degrading its ionization rate and cleaning properties. Such unwanted side effects may be driven by unnecessary increase in the UV power radiation due to scattering and ab sorption and as a result, unwanted asymmetrical geometrical perturbation that limits the coupling between the UV and ambient gas. Alternatively, the UV power may be enhanced or the rate of compressed air increased. However, any change in the properties of the ionization chamber might modify thermal and other properties of the air flow and as a result degrade system efficiency. In another aspect, an inefficient magnitude of magnetic flux applied on oxygen paramagnetic gas molecules inside the chamber can result in inefficient system, which can function properly only at low com pression values of the flowing air.

[0005] Moreover, a too high compression gas value or UV power may result in higher gas temperature, significant increase in recombination rate of oxygen gas phase radicals back to their natural diatomic and/or neutral state. This is due to a relatively increased interaction between the oxygen gas molecules and chamber sidewalls and between the radicalized oxygen gas molecules and the other neutral oxygen, nitrogen and other non-radical air molecules.

[0006] It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide an efficient high per formance non-chemical water cleaning system.

[0007] It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a water cleaning system with ionization chamber with a concentric configuration to improve the production of ionized allotrope oxygen gas as the cleaning agent, which is introduced into water.

[0008] It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a system in which coupling of variables that influence oxygen allotrope production enhances water cleaning ef ficiency by the system.

[0009] It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus and a method which is scalable according to the volume of water reservoirs.

[0010] This and other objects and embodiments of the invention shell become apparent as the description proceeds.

Summary of Invention

[0011] The present invention pertains to non-chemical water purification, treatment and maintenance systems. In particular, the present invention pertains to systems which utilize modified air, which is radicalized/excited and introduced into a container of contaminated water with mechanical pressure pumps/compressor and gas guiding means. The aggressive electrical and chemical reaction of the air radicals and their related products with the contaminated water results in almost a complete elimination of the contaminations which are dissolved, flushed and drained out from the system leaving a very high degree of purified water. Chemical water purification systems are well known in the prior art. However, such treatment produces only partial water pu rification with additional chemical bi-products that carry side effects. As opposed to these systems, the present invention doesn’t utilize any supplemental materials such as chemical detergents or biocides, used for inorganic and organic infections, and does not have any side effects or unwanted bi-products. Similar non-chemical prior art systems were disclosed such as US Patent Nos. 4,655,933 and 9,321,665 as discussed above.

[0012] In view of the above, in one embodiment, the present invention provides a water pu rification system comprising:

a chamber comprising inlet and outlet for flowing incoming and outgoing air into and out of the chamber;

at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp;

at least one pair of magnetic rings; and

a skeleton configured for occupying center volume of the chamber from top to bottom around central longitudinal axis of the chamber, where the skeleton comprises inner space for accommodating the at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp and at least one pair of holding elements for holding the at least one pair of magnetic rings around the at least one UV radiation bulb/lamp,

wherein the purification system comprises concentric configuration to minimally perturb profile and distribution of the incoming and outgoing air, the at least one pair of magnetic rings are positioned in parallel relative each other and configured to induce maximal concentric magnetic flux field on molecules of the flowing incoming and outgoing air.

[0013] In another embodiment of the present invention, the air ionization chamber of the water purification and treatment system has a cylindrical geometrical shape comprising the housing sleeve which has a cylindrical geometrical shape, where the housing frame has a cylindrical geometrical shape.

[0014] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment further comprises sets of concentric cylindrical ferromagnetic rings arranged in a similar relative magnetic polarity or at relative opposite magnetic polarities at the top, center and bottom locations along the tube chamber main axis, wherein each set comprises a magnetic rings with opposite magnetic polarities. The rings are me chanically connected to the skeleton carrier with base holders.

[0015] In another embodiment of the present invention, the ionization chamber of the water purification and treatment system is made of aluminum material.

[0016] In another embodiment of the present invention, the ionization chamber of the water purification and treatment system is coated with PVC (Polyvinylchloride).

[0017] In another embodiment of the present invention, the housing frame is made of

aluminium and its UV bulb and ferromagnetic element skeleton carriers including the attached holders are made of steel/aluminium and are coated with stainless steel.

[0018] In another embodiment of the present invention, the air ionization chamber is

connected to a venturi pump for vacuum the active air from the chamber into the water treated pipe connected to drinking water systems of animals or irrigation systems or water reservoirs.

[0019] In another embodiment of the present invention, the housing frame of the water pu rification and treatment system is made of or coated with stainless steel.

[0020] In another embodiment of the present invention, the internal surface of the ionization chamber comprises a housing tube/sleeve frame, wherein the internal side of the tube/ sleeve housing frame and the top and bottom covers are coated with Ti0 2 .

[0021] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system further comprises a plurality of UV bulbs/lamps in suitable design and con figuration.

[0022] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system further comprising an air diffuser which is connected on one side to the air pump and the ionization chamber inlet on its other side.

[0023] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system comprises a venturi air pipe line, which is connected on one side to the air pump or air diffuser outlet and the ionization chamber inlet on its other side through an adaptor.

[0024] In another embodiment of the present invention, the external side of the ionization chamber comprises air and electrical inlets and outlets which are isolated with a Teflon material for vacuum isolation purposes.

[0025] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system further comprises a pre-filtering apparatus which is configured to clean the ambient air from impurities and contaminations before being injected into the cylindrical tube ionization chamber.

[0026] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system further comprises a water cooling system.

[0027] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system comprises several adaptors, which are connected to the chamber air inlet and outlet holes and other electrical holes. The adaptors are designed with threaded sides to enable a highly strong screwing mechanical attachment to the external pipes or electrical wire connections.

[0028] In another embodiment of the present invention, the radicalized and radiated air is pumped from the external pipe into the water tank or container, wherein the water may be stirred to achieve better results so that the pumped radicalized air is capable of producing the desired kinetics within the water.

[0029] In another embodiment of the present invention, the radicalized air purifies the water by the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) through aggressive reaction of oxygen radical molecules that react with the water molecules and contaminants within the water.

[0030] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification is done by direct interaction between the oxygen radical allotropes and the contaminants within the water.

[0031] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system further comprises a module that drains and flushes out contamination debris from the purified water.

[0032] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system is connected to various types of water reservoirs, systems and conduits such as drinking water supply systems, swimming pools and water piping, and may be used in various fields of industry, farming, agriculture, gardening recycling and urban use.

[0033] In another embodiment of the present invention, the water purification and treatment system injects compressed ambient air into the chamber, and transforms it into rad icalized/excited gas phase that comprises oxygen allotrope. The system further guides the allotrope through the chamber outlet and an external pipe into a water container or tank. [0034] In one aspect, the present invention pertains to a non-chemical water purification treatment system. In another aspect of the invention, the system is configured for treating and maintaining polluted or contaminated water using modified ambient air without any additional usage of supplemental materials such as chemical detergents or biocides.

[0035] In one embodiment of the present invention, the system is provided in a compact closed chamber for safety and mobility. In another embodiment of the present invention, the system is connected to various types of water reservoirs, systems and conduits such as drinking water supply systems, swimming pools and water piping. In still another embodiment, the system is used in various fields of industry, farming, agriculture, gardening, recycling and urban use.

[0036] In one particular aspect of the present invention, the system injects and compresses a modified ambient air through a cylindrical tube chamber that goes radicalization of the gases it contains, where said ambient air comprises mostly nitrogen and oxygen gas molecules. In a further aspect of the invention, the paramagnetic properties of the oxygen component of the ambient air comprising mostly diatomic oxygen gas molecules, are employed to focus and concentrate the oxygen molecules at certain locations in the tube chamber. This is done with permanent magnetic flux fields, which are located inside the ionization chamber and applied with a specific configuration of concentric ferromagnetic ring shape elements. These rings are located inside the cylindrical tube chamber along its main axis.

[0037] In a still further aspect of the invention, the oxygen molecules are exposed to UV light which is radiated from UV light source comprising two internal lamps with two different wavelength ranges of UV light, 180-195 and 240-280 [nm] respectively. The UV light sources generate hemolytic cleavage of chemical bond in the oxygen molecules, and induce it into several stable states of radical oxygen molecule products that compose an allotrope of different ionized oxygen molecules.

[0038] In one particular aspect of the invention, the stable oxygen radicals flow out of the cylindrical tube chamber by an applied external pressure and are directed into the water purification and treatment tank. In still another embodiment, the cylindrical tube chamber is made of inert material or coated within with inert material such as Ti0 2 designed for physical protection from the flowing radicalized oxygen gas.

[0039] In still another aspect of the invention, the radicalized and radiated air is pumped into the water, where the water are stirred for better results so that the pumped radicalized air can produce the desired kinetics within the water.

[0040] In still another aspect of the invention, the radicalized air purifies the water by the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) through aggressive reaction of air radical molecules, i.e., oxygen, which react with the water molecules and contaminants in the water. In still another aspect of the invention, in addition to the hydrogen peroxide in teraction, there is a direct interaction between the oxygen allotrope radicals and the contaminants.

[0041] In a still another aspect the invention, the system produces high degree of pu

rification and quality of water without introducing chemical and/or biological organic or inorganic bi-products or other side effects as in chemical water cleaning reactions.

In still another aspect of the invention, the system continuously supplies the modified radicalized air to the water to ensure constant purification and supply of purified water.

[0042] The present invention and disclosed system are designed for treatment purification and maintenance of polluted or contaminated water inside various large water housing containers, utilizing modified ionized air products without any other supplemental chemical materials such as chemical detergents or biocides used for inorganic and organic infections as done in several previous works.

Apparatus

[0043] The current system injects a compressed ambient air into an inlet of a cylindrical tube shape chamber to produce modified ambient air, transformed through a radicalization process upon exposure to UV light radiation at two different wavelength ranges of UV light 180-195 [nm] and 240-280 [nm]. The ambient oxygen gas component is highly reactive, where its paramagnetic properties are utilized to direct, focus and concentrate it at certain locations using external magnetic flux and magnetically activate it to higher magnetization levels required to enhance excitation process by UV radiation into its radical allotrope phase. The magnetic flux is generated by a certain con figuration of concentric ferromagnetic ring shape elements at certain locations inside the chamber. The ambient air, particularly the paramagnetic oxygen molecules which are magnetized by the magnetic field of the rings, is further radiated by the UV light radiation source, which induces its radical higher states of energy. The radicalized oxygen phase comprises an allotrope of several ionized and excited oxygen states and is directed to the tube chamber outlet by external pressure and pumped out into the contaminated water. The water may be stirred, producing the desired kinetics required to improve the solubility of the ionized oxygen radicals, which are pumped into the water. It is assumed that the modified air purifies the water by the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) through aggressive reaction of radical oxygen gas molecules, which further react with the contaminants, or alternatively by a direct in teraction between the oxygen gas molecule radicals and the contaminations. It is assumed that some part of the oxygen radicals are concentrated in small bubbles which serve as agents that conduct them to direct interaction with water contaminations. The contaminants are either modified or broken into harmless debris which may then be filtered, flushed and drained out of the water containers. The system continuously supplies the modified (active) air in a small bubbles formation to the water to ensure constant purification and supply of purified water.

Model

[0044] Modelling and design of non-chemical water treatment and purification systems such as the one presented in this application is in general a highly complex and non-trivial task which involves various considerations such physical, mechanical and other design considerations. Most of these considerations are derived mainly from several different physical mechanisms which affect directly the performance of the purification system, however also including some mutual interactions between these mechanisms. Hence, in order to yield a highly efficient water treatment and purification system, it is required to correctly employ these physical mechanisms to the ambient air molecules and in particular the paramagnetic oxygen gas molecules, while they flow/propagate through the ionization chamber. Such physical mechanisms and related considerations include the following:

[0045] Without limiting the invention to a specific model and embodiments, we assume a general model for the present invention and apparatuses. The general model and methods are applied to apparatus and method which produce oxygen radicals from natural air in a sealed tube with UV radiation, which is further subjected to magnetic field. The model essentially contains several components that need to be considered in the ionization chamber cleaning system. Moreover, in order to achieve a maximum ef ficiency of the said clearing system, one should consider as well the mutual in teractions between the said main components which include:

i. The geometrical shape and design the ionization chamber and its internal ar chitecture.

ii. The ambient air flow properties, including its kinetics which is driven by the compression level, paramagnetic properties and thermal properties.

iii. The magnetic 3D distribution, intensity and flux field.

iv. The UV radiation field which induces the ambient air gas into radicalized gas phase.

[0046] Essentially, the model of the present invention assumes a concentric apparatus with a UV radiation narrow bulb at the center of a cylindrical tube along the entire length of the tube and magnetic round rings made of ferromagnetic material, arranged in pairs around the UV bulb at selected distances. The UV bulb and magnetic rings are held by a central skeleton at a certain stable configuration. The air tube chamber has upper inlet for incoming air and lower outlet for outgoing air exposed to UV radiation and magnetic field. The concentric structure of the apparatus creates a magnetic field that spreads out from the centre of the tube, i.e., the location of the UV lamp/bulb, to the walls of the tube and vertically relative to the centre of the tube. The configuration of the magnetic rings generates a magnetic field that magnetically concentrates, attracting the oxygen molecules in it, due to its paramagnetic properties around a concentric axis at certain geometrical areas in the chamber. As a result of the applied compression pressure, the flux flow direction of the ambient gas in the tube shape ionization chamber is conducted along its longitudinal direction from its inlet to its outlet. The air molecules are mainly drifting, instead of diffusing, along the longitudinal axis of the tube ionization chamber towards the outlet. The local magnetic fields, which are generated by the pairs of rings along the longitudinal axis, temporarily attract oxygen molecules and induce their partial ionization together with the UV radiation. The com bination of directional longitudinal transport of the oxygen molecules by the air flux and the transverse and longitudinal direction of stable magnetic fields along the lon gitudinal axis of the tube yields an efficient time delay of the ambient neutral oxygen gas molecules at the areas with high magnetic flux and further contributes to their conversion to oxygen radicals or excited state oxygen molecules.

[0047] Furthermore, the time exposure of the radicalized and/or excited magnetized oxygen molecules in the presence of a magnetic field is proportional to the magnetic field forces and is inversely proportional to the effective kinetic energy of the oxygen molecules, which is derived from the compressed gas level. The paramagnetic oxygen gas molecules are attracted to specific areas of high magnetic flux field and then activated to higher magnetic activation levels and further ionized by the UV radiation bulb. Hence, the design and architecture of the magnetic field, which results in its specific distribution, is a highly important factor in the efficiency of the ionization process. Moreover, the magnetic flux field and the kinetic flux of the air molecules determine the temporary concentration of the radicalized and/or excited oxygen molecules and their ionization rate. The radicalized and/or excited oxygen molecules component is enveloped by the incoming flux of the ambient air. The kinetic in teraction between these two components, comprising radicalized and/or excited gas and ambient neutral air and their further interaction and collisions with the ionization chamber walls including its internal skeleton, magnetic rings and UV bulb, drive the recombination rate of the radicalized gas into ambient gas or decay of the excited state. The geometrical shape of the ionization chamber and its internal design are also highly important factors that directly influence its performance and efficiency. As a result, for a given magnetic field architecture, the higher the gas compression level the lesser the magnetic activation enhancement impact on the oxygen gas molecule ionization/ex citation rate.

[0048] Further, the higher the air flux and the lower the intensity of the magnetic field, the lesser the time of stay of the radical oxygen in the magnetic field, on the one hand, and the lesser the recombination of the radicalized/excited oxygen molecules and return to neutral state on the other hand. The lower the air flux and the higher the intensity of the magnetic field, the greater the time of stay of the oxygen radicals in the magnetic field and the lesser their recombination and decay to neutral state.

[0049] In a one embodiment of the present invention, the optimization of the chamber is set according to the following main parameters, which are the geometrical shape and design of the chamber. This design includes its internal architecture comprising the skeleton that carries the magnetic rings and accommodates the UV bulbs and its influence on ambient air flow properties, kinetics which is driven by the compression level, paramagnetic properties and thermal properties, magnetic field distribution, intensity and flux field and UV radiation field, which induces transformation of ambient air into radicalized/excited gas phase. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the dimensions of the magnetic rings are proportional to the dimensions of the chamber. Further, optimization of dimensions of a plurality of rings, internal con figuration in a specific magnetic site, which induce the magnetic field intensity dis tribution and magnetic flux field inside the chamber, is done according to the required radicalization/excitation rate. Also included in evaluation of optimized relative di mensions are the chamber dimensions, geometrical shape, architecture and design, ambient air flow compression level, including kinetics, and paramagnetic and thermal properties and UV radiation field which induces radicalization/excitation of ambient air.

[0050] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the magnetic field configuration comprises a plurality of magnetic sites, each site is configured to accommodate one pair of magnetic rings in a similar or opposite magnetic polarity. In a further em bodiment of the present invention, the magnetic field induced by the rings in each magnetic site varies from 10 3 to l0 +6 gauss with sufficient magnetic flux, which is required for a given rate of radicalization/excitation at a certain air compression level and chamber parameters such as geometrical shape and design, internal architecture, ambient air flow properties, including kinetics, air paramagnetic and thermal properties, magnetic field distribution, intensity and flux field and UV radiation field which induces the ambient air into radicalized/excited state. In a further embodiment of the present invention, each magnetic site comprises a pair of magnetic rings with ge ometrical shape, size, and polarities. In still another embodiment, the contribution of the configuration of the magnetic site to the magnetic field and magnetic field flux in the chamber free volume, including close to its sidewalls, and corresponding con tribution in proximity to the magnetic site are considered for inducing radicalization/ex citation of air.

[0051] In a one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the chamber has a

cylindrical shape with two different volumes and lengths of 892 and , with similar internal and external diameters of and . In still another embodiment, the ferromagnetic rings are made of NdFeB (Grade N42) material coated with Ni-Cu-Ni (Nickel) and have a width of with external diameter of , internal diameter of and thickness of . In still another embodiment, the diameters of the internal and external pipes at the input and the output of the chamber are . The UV lamps have lengths corresponding to the chamber lengths with nominal powers of 21 and 39 watts, respectively. The water reservoir for purification is in volumes in the range of 1000-10000 litters.

[0052] In one embodiment of the present invention, the magnetic rings are made of ferro magnetic materials made from rare earth magnets. In particular, the materials are selected from Nd 2 Fe 14 B, SmCo 5 Sm 2 Co 17 , composite magnetic materials such as BaFe 12 O IQ , MnBi, Ce(CuCo) strong permanent magnets such as, Alnico IV/V and Alcomax, which are trade names for composite materials made from alloys of aluminium, nickel and cobalt with iron with additional small amounts of Cu, Ti and Nb and ferrite materials of ferrimagnetic materials such as Fe 2 0 3 and Fe 3 0 4 . In a further embodiment of the present invention, the magnetic field configuration is generated by a plurality of magnetic ring pairs accommodated by a plurality of magnetic sites, wherein each magnetic site comprises one pair of rings comprising one ring made from one of the magnetic materials listed above and one ring made of a metallic material that can be magnetized under induced external magnetic field, such as iron and steel.

[0053] The system physical modeling detailed in the previous paragraph may result in

various design approaches which can be used for different water purification systems. Such approaches should consider the following main aspects and interactions between the main components of the ionization chamber as follows:

• The air properties include the gas flowing kinetic properties, internal

properties inside the ionization chamber, which are affected by the chamber geometrical properties, such as its geometrical shape, dimensions, internal design and materials from which it is made.

• The gas thermal properties such as its temperature and pressure conditions, which are affected by several main factors such as, the external pressure applied on the gas by the compressor, UV heating source/power in addition to all possible other heating sources, which are introduced into the system and may destabilize its thermal properties.

• The gas molecules internal interactions, such as all possible interactions

between the ambient radicals including their mutual interactions and in teractions with the chamber side walls and all possible obstacles in the chamber while they flow trough it. To avoid a degradation of the system ef ficiency, it is required to introduce some cooling mechanisms to sustain a stable thermal state with low variations. • The interaction between the magnetic flux fields and paramagnetic gas molecules induced by the magnetic field, which both magnetically activates and concentrates the paramagnetic oxygen gas molecules into certain areas of high magnetic fields while they flow through the ionization chamber.

• The internal interaction between the paramagnetic oxygen gas molecules, which are activated to higher magnetic energy levels to enhance the ionization probability and rate by the UV radiation.

• The UV radiation source that excites the diatomic oxygen gas molecules into their multivalent allotropic gas phase, comprising several stable states. The UV radiation source is generating hemolytic cleavage of chemical bonds in the air molecules, particularly in the oxygen gas molecules, which flow through the magnetic field resulting in their ionization/excitation and formation of allotropic radicalized/excited gas phase.

• Another aspect is that the oxygen radicals/excited molecules are transported into the water reservoir and their product is, therefore, a variant oxidative reagent that may be expressed as hydrogen peroxide upon reaction with water molecules and different types of oxygen radicals. All types of reagents are reactive oxidants that react with susceptible materials with a potential to be reduced by donating an electron to stabilize the unstable oxygen molecule radicals or reducing the hydrogen peroxide to its stable compounds of water and oxygen.

[0054] Considering the previous modeling, we suggest the following embodiments: In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, we propose a fully concentric design for said system comprising a tube shape cylindrical ionization chamber, cylindrical elongated UV radiation bulb and at least one magnetic site comprising of least two magnetic rings which are located symmetrically around the chamber central axis. The magnetic rings are positioned on a skeleton aluminum structure which is designed to hold them in a specific configuration aligning them relative to the ionization chamber central axis, other rings in the specific magnetic site, and other magnetic sites in the ionization chamber. The skeleton structure, including its localized magnetic sites, is designed to minimally perturb the profile and distribution of the incoming flowing ambient and radicalized air components. The magnetic rings can be positioned in parallel, symmetric or anti-parallel, anti-symmetric, magnetic polarization and are configured to induce a maximal concentric magnetic flux field on the compressed air flowing molecules. The magnetic rings radius and shape are defined according to specific requirement of the magnetic flux field, minimizing as well the interaction with the flowing gas. As a result, the radicalized/excited gas profile mimics the magnetic field concentric profile and hence minimally interacts with ambient air flowing components, significantly reducing their mutual interactions and interactions with the chamber walls, internal skeleton and rings. The chamber diameter and length, diameter of the UV radiation bulb and length are selected according to bench mark requirements of required compression level of gas which are predefined by certain required ap plication. These specifications also concern the required operation power and cleaning rate of water of said certain application. After setting these parameters, the magnetic field profile and distribution are set and optimized to achieve the required cleaning in a certain air compression level. As specified, in the current design, the chamber benefits from the concentric design of the magnetic field which significantly reduces the specified interaction of the ionization chamber mentioned above.

[0055] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the ionization chamber design

employs a method which utilizes strong interaction between several main physical mechanisms, such as interaction between the oxygen molecules with the magnetic field and UV radiation source while maintaining interaction between gas molecules and other physical mechanisms as low as possible. Such mechanisms may be the air gas flowing profile properties and its thermal properties. This method and design are different from previous prior arts that describe non-chemical water treatment and pu rification systems, and suggest weak coupling interaction between all the physical mechanisms that control the system. In other words the main objective of this system is to ionize/excite oxygen gas molecules in a most efficient way possible to their rad icalized allotropic states, while maintaining as possible normal flow field inside the chamber. Another objective is to suppress the probability and possible recombination mechanisms of the radicalized/excited gas back to diatomic oxygen ground state, while it propagates in the ionization chamber to the air outlet. As a result, we employ a cylindrical symmetric, concentric design of a tube chamber, where both magnetic field and the UV radiation source are located in close proximity to and positioned along the central axis . In addition, as will be further described, the applied magnetic fields comprise two or three sets of concentric cylindrical ferromagnetic rings arranged in the same polarity or opposite polarities according to the configurations in Figs. 6A, C-E, occupying an effective small portion from the total volume of the tube chamber, at the top and bottom ends and center of the tube, where each set of rings comprises negative ring and positive magnetic poles. As a result of this design, it is assumed that the para magnetic oxygen gas molecules, are concentrated at strong magnetic flux field lines and benefit from a highly strong internal magnetic interaction between with externally applied magnetic field. Additionally, they are in close proximity to the UV radiation ionization source. As a result, the molecules are magnetically activated rather easily into higher magnetization levels with the aid of UV radiation, and are excited to oxygen allotropic phase with a higher generation rate with respect to prior art systems. In addition, due to the highly efficient ionization/excitation rate, the UV radiation source can also operate in rather lower power, introducing a lower average heat magnitude and variations into the oxygen gas molecules that surround it. Hence, it improves its coupling efficiency of the oxygen gas molecules due to elimination of unwanted scattering by neighbor ambient air molecules, such as nitrogen. The compressor pump applied pressure can be lowered and reduce that amount of unwanted components of turbulent flow. In addition, the magnetic chamber geo metrical design, including the configuration of ferromagnetic concentric rings, are configured to introduce only minor perturbation into the air flow with minor unwanted turbulent flow side effects. This is achieved with special geometrical design of the tube chamber that takes into account the gas normal flow and ferromagnetic rings and UV bulb/lamp that occupy only a small portion of volume of the chamber. As a result, small perturbations are introduced into the air flow. Further, the ferromagnetic rings induce concentric magnetic field profile along the tube chamber central axis. The rad icalized/excited oxygen gas molecules mostly flow close to the tube chamber central longitudinal axis, and experience a small number of recombination events that return them back to their natural oxygen diatomic state. This is due to a relatively small average number of interactions with the chamber sidewalls, easier coupling with the UV radiation and less unwanted scattering events of the UV radiation from the nitrogen gas molecules that degrade the oxygen ionization rate. This is opposed to prior art systems that aim at achieving low coupling between all main physical mechanisms of the system, and accordingly locate at least one of the two main system components, UV lamp and or ferromagnetic elements, externally to the air flow chamber. The system of the present invention employs a cylindrical geometrical con figuration for the tube chamber, ferromagnetic rings and UV lamp/bulb, which are located inside the chamber. This maximizes interaction, i.e. radicalization/excitation rate, and minimally perturbs the gas flow profile within the chamber to avoid unwanted turbulent gas flow side effects. It further lowers the recombination process of the rad icalized/excited oxygen to diatomic phase, which can degrade the water treatment and purification efficiency. It is believed that the disclosed system benefit from the high / enhanced water purification and treatment efficiency, as demonstrated in the ex perimental results. As described in the physical modeling section, this benefits from several important contributing factors to yield enhanced water purification and treatment quality.

Brief Description of Drawings

Brief Description of the Drawings

[0056] Fig. 1 shows a schematic illustration of a box diagram of the water purification and treatment system.

[0057] Fig. 2 shows the internal design of the water purification system.

[0058] Fig. 3 shows a front view image of the water purification and treatment system.

[0059] Figs. 4A-B show schematic design of the air ionization chamber assembly, where (A ) shows a top perspective view of the external housing assembly, and (B) shows a side perspective view of both internal and external structures and assembly.

[0060] Figs. 5A-D show the design of assembly parts of air ionization chamber.(A) shows exploded top perspective view of the external housing assembly parts; (B) is an exploded side perspective view of internal and external assembly parts; (C) and (D) show zoom-in views of (B) and (A) with and without the ferromagnetic rings, re spectively, at the holding seating of the ferromagnetic rings.

[0061] Figs. 6A-E show experimented configurations with and without magnetic rings, which are attached to the inner sekeleton inside the ionization chamber.

[0062] Figs. 7A-B - (A) show top view images of colour intensity of a DPD (N, N Diethyl- 1,4 Phenylenediamine Sulphate) gauge device filled with water from the water container, which is attached to ionization chamber with a certain amount of oxygen radicals. (B) shows the corresponding DPD intensity value colour table.

[0063] Figs. 8A-B show experimental graph results of radical's concentration (A) and steady state time stabilization (B) in different air compression flows.

[0064] Fig. 9 shows a graph of the radical concentration measurements in a steady state for different compression flow values.

[0065] Fig. 10 shows graphs of radical concentration experimental results versus different air compression flows multiplied by the corresponding stabilization steady state time.

[0066] Fig. 11 shows a graph of the calculated average oxygen radical flux density for different compression flow values.

Detailed Description of the Drawings

[0067] Figs. 1 and 2 show schematic box diagram and design for water purification and treatment system (100), where a real image of one optional embodiment of the system is shown at Fig 3. The water purification system main part comprises: an optional fan cooling system (1), which is required to thermally stabilize and regulate the tem perature water purification and treatment system as a result of possible unwanted internal or external heating sources. Pending on thermal cooling requirements, the cooling system can employ an air fan, a water cooling or other cooling system; a cylindrical air flow ionization chamber (2) made of aluminium, PVC or other chemically inert material, coated with Ti0 2 on its internal side ; an electrical ballast (3) for a UV light bulb/lamp, with specifications of power (Watts, Amps, Volts), connected to the local power supply; an electrical breaker circuit (4), added to avoid overloading of the electrical current inside the system; a plurality of gas flow meter devices (5) that can be based on electrical or a mechanical flow rate measurement principles, where flow meters can be configured inside or outside the purification system box (100) and located anywhere inside or outside the purification and treatment site pending on system requirements. The gas flow meters monitor and regulate the current air gas flow volumetric rate inside the system (measured in values of Litter Per Minute, LPM). A plurality of power meter devices (6) are located in any location at the water purification and treatment site and further monitor and regulate the operational values, the system electrical power, voltage and electrical currents. In another em bodiment this system is remotely controlled. A plurality of electrical outlets (7) enables power supply connections inside and outside the purification and treatment system.

The system further comprises compressor air gas (8). A regular clean air enters into the compressor or the air is pre-filtered from impurities and contaminations before it enters the ionization chamber with a specific filtering system and is further compressed into the cylindrical tube ionization chamber (2) with the air compressor device (8) (filtering system not shown in the figure). The compressor pressure values range between 0.1 and 10 [bar] with a flow rate of 2-25 LPM. Fig. 3 shows one optional setup, in which the air compressor pump (8) is connected to gas flow meter devices (5) and through it to the ionization chamber with air pipes (8a, 8b), respectively. The ionization camber is connected to the external water reservoir inlet (not shown in the related figures) through air gas pipe (2a). To improve air intake into the ionization tube chamber, the compressor can be connected to an air diffuser and/or venturi air pipe line. In another embodiment, to improve air flow from the ionization chamber to the water reservoir, the air pipe (2a) is replaced with a venturi pipe line that guides it efficiently to con taminated water housing container. In another embodiment of the present invention, the radicalized air flow rate is enhanced by a secondary air compressor or vacuum pump, located at the output pipe (2a) at different positions. In such configuration, the secondary air compressor or vacuum pump, push or suck, respectively, the radicalized air toward the diffuser, which is located inside the treated water container or water reservoir. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the air compressor device is connected to the output pipe (2a) in proximity to its connection to the ionization chamber outlet. The connection is made with a T- shape air junction element. In this setup, the connection can optionally utilize a non-retum air valve connected to the air compressor output and avoid any leak of radicalized air flow or leak into the compressor. The air that flows out of the compressor collides with the radicalized air and accelerates it toward the diffuser which is connected in proximity to its connection to the diffuser device. The connection is done through output pipe (2a) outlet, via a T- shape air junction element. A non-retum air valve can be connected to avoid leak of radicalized air into the pump. The radicalized air is accelerated by the air pump toward output pipe outlet into the diffuser.

[0068] Furthermore, the system comprises a remote control and monitoring unit (9) that monitors and controls the system operational values versus their specified ones and can be mechanically or electronically switched between ON and OFF operating states. The monitoring unit monitors the voltage and power supply to the system and particularly voltage and power values of the UV lamp, fan, electronic flow meter and other units in the system.

[0069] Figs. 4A-B and 5A-D show schematic design of the air ionization chamber in its assembled and unassembled state, respectively. Fig. 4A shows a top perspective view of the external housing of the air ionization chamber, where its assembled parts are shown in Fig. 5A. Fig. 4B shows a side perspective view of the chamber internal and external structural design, where the assembled parts are shown in Fig. 5B. As shown in these figures, the air ionization chamber shown in Figs. 4A and 5A, comprises: A cylindrical housing tube/cylindrical sleeve (16). The tube/sleeve may be made of aluminium and PVC (Polyvinyl chloride which is chemically inert) coated on its internal side with Ti0 2 layer to avoid oxidation and damage by the flowing ambient and radicalized air; A frame/skeleton structure (13), with a cylindrical geometrical shape and symmetry. The skeleton may be made of aluminium stainless steel or any hard metal. The skeleton (13) is embedded inside the tube/sleeve housing structure (16 ). The frame/skeleton structure is designed with two holding elements (13a, 13b) for holding the magnetic rings and an internal space for the UV light bulb/lamp (14). The skeleton may further comprise holding elements (10a, 10b, 10c) from top to bottom at selected distances from each other for holding ferromagnetic rings in a specific con figuration (15a, 15b, 15c). The holding elements or seatings may be made of stainless steel and coated with titanium. The holding elements (10a, 10b, 10c) may form a single solid unit with the skeleton. The inner space in the skeleton for the UV lamp is essentially a cage formed by bars along the z-axis and around the centre of the skeleton. The space has openings in proximity to the skeleton bottom and top sides.

[0070] The magnetic field configuration comprises three sets of concentric cylindrical ferro magnetic rings (15a, 15b, 15c) arranged at selected polarity, occupying an effective small portion of the total volume of the tube chamber. The rings are positioned along the z-axis of the skeleton, particularly at top and bottoms sides and center of the tube chamber main axis, where each set comprises magnetic negative and positive poles rings (15e, ). In one particular embodiment, the rings are arranged with the same polarity. Generally, the tube and housing are made from chemically and mechanically durable or resistant materials. The UV bulb/lamp (14) can comprise two internal lamps that radiate at two wavelength ranges of 180-195 [nm] and 240-280 [nm], and can be designed and produced in two different types and configuration of either mercury filament or LED light. Further, the lamps electrical connector configurations can include 2 or 4 pins and be located at different locations at their sides depending on the light bulb/lamp type. As shown in Fig. and 5D, each of the ferromagnetic ring seating comprises two cylindrical slots (10e,10f) configured to mechanically hold two corre sponding ferromagnetic rings (15e,15f). This design yields a closely packed con figuration for the ferromagnetic rings and the UV bulb/lamps (14) located along the central longitudinal axis of the air ionization chamber. The ferromagnetic rings are configured to be located close to the UV bulb/lamp radiation source surrounding it at three main locations along the central axis of the air ionization chamber, thus creating three main coupling ionization impact points between the UV radiation and the flowing ambient air .Interaction specifically impacts the paramagnetic oxygen component along the ambient air trajectory in the air ionization chamber. The external sleeve structure (16) is mechanically attached to top (11) and bottom (12) covers, disks shaped, made of aluminium or stainless steel materials and further coated by Ti0 2 layer. The top and bottom covers/caps are configured with one or two holes re spectively. The central holes in the top (11a) and bottom (12a) covers are used as the inlet and outlet for the air flowing through ionization camber, respectively. The bottom housing cover may further be designed with a special second input hole (12b) to enable insertion of electrical wiring into and out of the air ionization chamber. In another em bodiment, the internal chamber area, including the housing frame (13), holding elements and chamber cover internal side are coated with Ti0 2 to avoid oxidation and damage by the flowing gas inside the chamber.

[0071] To enable electrical and vacuum functionalities the inlet and outlet holes are made out of SS (Stainless Steel) resistant material. The covers are mechanically attached to aluminium/SS housing frame (13) at its top and bottom bases (17a, 17b) and external tube structure (16). The external connections of the ionization chamber are sealed with Teflon to ensure the required vacuum condition for air that flows inside the chamber. The attachment to the top and bottom bases (17a, 17b) are done with special screws, inserted into holes (17c) at the frame top and bottom sides. A plurality of adapter and fastening elements are added to the air and electrical inlets and outlets to enable insertion of electrical input and output lines without affecting internal atmospheric pressure. These elements are also used to enable removal of air from the ionization chamber through specially designed air outlets.

Example

[0072] In what follows, we have explored the ionization chamber performances and ex perimental properties and demonstrate its cleaning properties. To this end, we have employed two particular designs and embodiments of the present invention comprising two ionization chambers with two different volumes and lengths of 892 and , with similar internal and external diameters of and . The ferromagnetic rings made out of NdFeB (Grade N42) material coated by Ni-Cu-Ni (Nickel) with a width of with external diameter of , internal diameter of and thickness of .

[0073] The UV bulbs/lamps had corresponding lengths corresponding to the ionization

chamber lengths with nominal powers of 21 and 39 watts, respectively.

[0074] To demonstrate the ionization chamber cleaning properties, it was connected to a water reservoir with volume of 1000 litters. For experimental purposes, the ionization chamber with the smaller/higher volume was connected to a small container with volume of 4 litters. The UV radiation lamp was identical in all experiments and demonstrations. The internal and external pipe diameters at the input and the output of the ionization chamber were .

[0075] Figs. 6A-E show perspective side view images of different configurations of the magnetic rings inside the ionization chamber. The magnetic rings are carried by holding elements (10) of the skeleton inside the ionization chamber. As shown in Fig. 4B, the magnetic rings are symmetrically aligned relative to the main longitudinal central axis of the holding element (10) around the UV bulb (14) and the main central axis of the ionization cylindrical chamber. Fig. 6A shows a perspective side view image of the anti- symmetric magnetic field configuration comprising two magnetic sites located at two sides of the carrier holding device (10) inside the ionization chamber. In this configuration, each of the magnetic site comprises two magnetic rings (15e, ). The ring polarity is marked as (SN, S = South, N = North), where each ring is positioned in opposite magnetic polarization with its norths pole at its proximal side and South Pole at its distal side, i. e. (SN) (NS). This configuration is marked as the reference configuration in one preferred embodiment of the present invention. Fig. 6B shows a perspective side view image of the magnetic field configuration comprising ionization chamber with no magnetic fields. Fig. shows the symmetric configuration of the magnetic field in another embodiment of the present invention. The related con figuration comprises two magnetic sites, which are located at two sites of the holding element (10) inside the ionization chamber. Each magnetic site comprises two magnetic rings (15e, ). The magnetic rings in each site in this configuration are po sitioned in the same magnetic polarization direction, which is directed from ionization chamber inlet to its outlet from north to south poles, respectively, i. e. (NS) (NS). Fig. 6D shows another optional anti- symmetric magnetic field configuration comprising magnetic rings in another embodiment of the present invention. This configuration comprises two magnetic sites located at the two sides of the holding element (10) and ionization chamber. Each site comprises two magnetic rings (15e, ), which are po sitioned in opposite magnetic polarization with their south magnetic pole at their proximal sides and north magnetic pole at their distal sides, (NS) (SN). Fig. 6E shows the anti- symmetric magnetic field configuration comprising magnetic rings in another preferred embodiment of the present invention. The configuration comprises three magnetic sites located along the central axis and at two sides of the holding element ( 10), as shown in Fig. 4E. In this configuration, each magnetic site comprises two magnetic rings (15e, ), which are positioned in an opposite magnetic polarization with their norths magnetic pole at their proximal side and south magnetic poles at their distal sides, i.e., (SN) (NS) three magnetic sites.

[0076] In this measurement, the dissolved DPD at certain density of radicles results in a certain colour and related colour intensity. Experiments performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and on ionization chamber without magnetic field shown in Fig. 6A. Experiments conducted by a chemical DPD gauge showed inside small water which has been attached to ionization chamber.

[0077] Fig. 7A shows top view images of a DPD gauge crucible filled with coloured water which indicates presence of some oxygen radical concentration. The DPD gauge is filled with water and dissolved DPD material and a certain amount of oxygen radicles, which results in a certain colour intensity. The experimental results for the ionization chamber setup, presented in Figs. 1-5, reflect experiments done with a small partially closed small size water container with veturi pump and a diffuser at its outlet. The container internal volume was 4 litters which and filled to almost full capacity with a 3.7 litters of water. The experiments were conducted for different air compression flow values of F=4 - 14 litter/min. Furthermore, the experimental results shown in the related table were performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in the anti symmetric reference configuration, (SN) (NS), with two magnetic sites, shown in Fig. 6A, and ionization chamber without magnetic field, as shown in Fig. 6B. The ex perimental results were arranged in a table according to oxygen gas radical flow value and specific configuration inside the ionization chamber. The ionization chamber (2) was turned to ON "state" to generate the oxygenated gas radicals, which flew into the water container trough venturi pump (2a) and a diffuser. The water container reaches a steady state after time, TO. After the water container reaches a steady state, a chemical DPD measurement is performed. The DPD chemical measurements are performed by inserting the DPD gauge into the water container in a connected vessel configuration.

A DPD pill is then inserted into the DPD gauge, quickly dissolved inside the DPD gauge water and performs a chemical reaction with the radicals that enter the gauge top side from the water container. The chemical interaction modifies the colour of the water in the attached test water container. At the end of the chemical reaction between the oxygen radicles and DPD in the water container, the color of the radicalized water is modified from a transparent water regular color to a dark pink color, depending on the radicals concentration inside the gauge device.

[0078] The values of the corresponding intensity are evaluated by using the DPD color intensity table shown in Fig. 7B. The specific DPD color-intensity scale is calibrated for ionized chlorine. However, preliminary experiments establish that it is interacts with oxygen radicals and hydrogen peroxide. To use this table experimentally without performing an accurate modelling of the chemical reaction between the radicals and the DPD, we have performed preliminary experiments. In these experiments, we have tested the ionization chamber without magnetic field with and without a UV bulb at different compression flows. In the experiments without an active UV bulb, we found that water color in the container was transparent as the regular water color. In further experiments, we turned the UV bulb on, and set the compression flow to a value of F=4 litter/min. At steady state, we noticed color change that suggested a certain con centration of radicals, see Fig. 7A table, second column at top side. By increasing the magnitude values of the compression flow in the range of 4-14 litter/min the color intensity is linearly increased, suggesting higher concentration of free radicals and H 2 0 2 in the water, see Fig. 7A, second column and Fig. 8A. This clearly indicates linear correlation trend between the compression flow magnitude and variation in the intensity of the measured color of the water, shown in Fig. 8A, for ionization chamber in a configuration without magnetic field. This proves a linear correlation to the radicals concentration which is theoretically expected to be proportional to the com pression flow magnitude assuming first order reaction of the radicals with DPD in the water. Asa result, we have shown that we can use DPD color intensity table to evaluate the relative level of the radicals concentration at different compression flow values and with different configurations. This is, however without exact quantification of these concentration values. Hence, we have modified the units of the intensity scale from [mg/min] to arbitrary unit ones marked as [AU].

[0079] Without limiting the invention to the following theoretical discussion, these ex

periments show that radicalized/excited oxygen gas exits through the ionization chamber outlet assisted by venturi pipe (2a) and diffuser (not shown) into the water container. This results in several reactant/product phases comprising: i. A main component of free radicals encapsulated inside air bubbles containing various oxygenated allotropic oxygen radicals; ii. H 2 0 2 , Hydrogen Peroxide, produced upon chemical reaction between the oxygenated radicalized gas and the water in the container iii. Short life-time free radicals that do not chemically react with water. There might be other types chemical reactants/products which flow out of the ionization chamber into the water container.

[0080] Experiments were performed with ionization chamber connected to a small water container, using the DPD experimental gauge setup shown in Fig. 6, for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and for ionization chamber without magnetic field shown in Fig. 6B.

[0081] Without limiting the invention to the following experimental discussion, it has been noticed and hence it is assumed that the main reactants that participate in the cleaning processing of the contaminated water and further chemically interact with DPD are components i and ii. Furthermore, we found reacting/product component i (free radicals which are encapsulated inside air bubbles) to be the most reactive. . The main phase of the radicals are bubbles that diffuse into water in the container, flow up into the air-water interface due to buoyancy forces, thereby creating arrays of bubbles along that interface. In the practical cleaning mode with the ionization chamber, the bubbles that flow through the water reservoir serve as agents that deliver the radicals to direct interaction with the various contaminations which flow inside the treated water. The bubbles, which do not interact with contaminations, flow up and float at the air-water interface as a result of buoyancy forces. Due to various physical reasons, the partial percentage of the floating bubbles that do not react with contaminations have an average finite life time which results in their explosion into the surrounding air and/or into the treated water. Another component of bubbles that dissolves in the water releases the encapsulated free radicals into the treated water. These mechanisms produce secondary reduction mechanism with liquid hydrogen peroxide.

[0082] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the water reservoir is fully or at least partially closed. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the water reservoir is subjected to a high intrinsic internal pressure along the air-water interface as a result of the ejected gas phase of the radicalized/excited gas. This is also in ac cordance with Henry’s Law regarding equilibrium between liquid and gas phase con centrations of any particular species. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the atmospheric pressure is enhanced by an external pressure applied to the water reservoir. In both previous embodiments, there is enhanced interaction of the oxygen gas radicals that flow above the water with water in the reservoir, which results in another generation mechanism of H 2 0 2 liquid which further cleans the contaminated water. All said reactants comprising free radicals inside the bubbles and H 2 0 2 react with the dissolved DPD , thereby modifying the water color in the water container.

[0083] It is clear from the experimental results that in all experiments the water color is modified to a darker intensity color, suggesting radicals concentration in a certain percentage in the water container. Furthermore, in the reference anti- symmetric magnetic configuration, the color is darker for each compressed gas flow level. This is particularly relevant relative to the configuration without magnetic field. The ex perimental results show that the darkest color is achieved for the anti- symmetric magnetic configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, for compression flow of F=4 litter/min. The less darker color is achieved at such compression flow with the configuration of the ionization chamber without magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B. This clearly indicates that the highest contrast and hence ionization chamber performance are achieved at compression flow of F=4 litter/min. A quantification of the experimental results was done by converting the modified color intensities into values of arbitrary units using the intensity table shown in Fig. 7B, where the experimental values are presented in Figs. 8A.

[0084] Figs. 8A-B show the full DPD experimental results demonstrated in Fig. 7. The ex perimental results performed for different air compression flows in the ionization chamber presented in Figs. 1-5, with the anti- symmetric magnetic configuration, are shown in Fig. 6A, and ionization chamber without magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B. In both configurations, the ionization chamber is attached to a small water container. Fig. 8A shows the radical concentration, n, at different compression flow values. Fig. 8B shows the steady state time stabilization, TO , of the system. Experiments were performed inside a small water container, using the DPD experimental gauge device, shown in Fig. 7A. Experiments were performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and for the ionization chamber without magnetic field shown in Fig. 6B. For the configuration of ionization without magnetic field, the concentration grows linearly with the measured increase of compression flow values, as demonstrated by the liner fit grow trend in Fig. 8A. The steady state time sharply decreases with the measured increased compression flow, as shown in Fig. 8B. These results were expected for the cylindrical ionization chamber which was geometrically designed to effectively operate at high compression flows such as the ones tested in the corresponding experiments. For the ionization chamber with the anti- symmetric magnetic field configuration, the maximum results were achieved for compression flow values of F=4 litter/min, and degraded linearly with compression flow as predicted by the linear fit drop trend, shown in Fig. 8B.

From both Figs. 8A-B graphs, it is clear that a highest dynamic response with the lowest stabilization time, TO , with maximum concentration of radicals, n , were achieved for ionization with the anti- symmetric magnetic field at compression flow of F=4 litter/min. Particularly, in that configuration and compression flow, the stabi lization time, TO m , is almost a 1/3 of the corresponding stabilization time without magnetic field, TO 0 , where the radicals concentration is between 8-9 time greater, i.e. TO m ~ TO 0 /3 where n m ~ n 0 /9 . The radicals concentration trend versus the air gas compression flow is shown in Fig 9.

[0085] In further experiments, we compared the dynamic performances of the ionization chamber for different configurations of magnetic rings, as presented in Figs. , C-E. These configurations represent some exemplary optional embodiments of the ionization chamber system. Experiments were performed at compression rate, F , of 4-14 litter/min. The magnetic field configurations in Figs. , C-D, comprise two magnetic sites located around the cylindrical ionization chamber main longitudinal axis, close to its bottom and top ends and adjacent to its air inlet and outlet, re spectively. The magnetic field configuration in Fig. 6E comprises three magnetic sites, with one site additional to the two previous magnetic sites, which is located at the center of the cylindrical ionization chamber. We measured the stabilization time, TO, for each configuration which correlates with the ionization chamber dynamic response. The experimental results for the anti- symmetric configurations, presented in Fig. 6A and Figs. 6D-E, show improvement pronounced in a lower stabilization time over all the measured compression rate of 4-14 litter/min, with respect to the symmetric con figuration in Fig. . We attribute this improvement to the higher magnetic fluxes generally generated by anti- symmetric magnetic field configurations, in which each pair of magnetic rings, in all magnetic sites, is positioned in opposite magnetic po larities, with an identical magnetic orientation inside a certain magnetic configuration.

[0086] Fig. 9 shows a graph of the normalized radicals concentration measurement results performed at steady state in different compression flow values. Measurements were performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and were normalized to ionization chamber with no magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B. From the graph results, which is also shown the previous graph, it is clear that the optimum of the normalized concentration trend reaches a maximum of n m _ 8-9/ 0 times the corresponding concentration of the chamber without magnetic field, n 0, at compression flow of F=4 litter/min and drop sharply to a factor of n m ~2n 0 . This result suggests that in the current magnetic anti symmetric configuration, the magnetic field is highly effective around air compression value of F=4 litter/min and drops its efficiency with the increase compression magnitude values. To characterize well the dynamic response of the tested ionization chamber in the current preferred embodiment of the present invention, we have plotted the normalized measured DPD concentration values versus parameter, x, in Fig. 10, which is equal to the compression air flow by the stabilization time TO, i.e., x=F*T0. The unit of this parameter is [Litter] and measures the amount of air which is required to be compressed in order to reach a steady state with a certain concentration. This parameter is characteristic of the ionization chamber dynamic efficiency. We note that measurements performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and were normalized to ionization chamber with no magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B.

[0087] Fig. 10 shows graphs of the radicals concentration experimental results versus com pression air flow multiplied by the stabilization time TO for different compression flow, F . Measurements were performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A and ionization chamber con figuration without magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B. From these results it appears that for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in an anti- symmetric reference con figuration, the ionization chamber dynamic efficiency for x m =60 litter at F=4 litter/ min, is 3 times higher with respect to same parameter ionization chamber con figuration without magnetic field with corresponding value of x 0 =170 litter. The con centration of the reference anti- symmetric configuration is n ~8-9 times higher than that of the chamber without magnetic field. We found that this ionization camber has a superior dynamic efficiency, x , at compression flow values between F=4-10 litter/ min, and a superior concentration of radicals, n , between F=4-14 litter/min. The graphs of the concentration of radicals n 0 , and of stabilization time, TO, versus the compression flow versus the dynamic efficiency parameter, x=F*TO shown in Figs. 8A-B and Fig. 10, are considered as most important characteristics of the ionization chamber. We use these results as benchmark trends for ionization chamber opti mization without the magnetic field combined with high or low compression flows as required by the ionization chamber.

[0088] The previous experiments were performed for a small container with a size of 4 litter s. Hence we aim at achieving a parameter value that does not depend on the container volume and diameter and generates an accurate characteristic of the ionization chamber. Accordingly, we have modelled an approximated equation for the average radicals flux density, F .

1.1 (F a /F o ) ~(n m /n 0 )*(T0 e /T0 a ) ,

where the radicals flux with and without a magnetic field is linearly modelled as a multiplication of the radical density fluxes, F m , F 0 , with the corresponding stabi lization times, Tm 0, T0 0 , as follows:

12 n m -F m *Tm 0 /V, and n 0 ~ F o 0 0 /V ,

where V is the container volume, N m , n and N 0 , n„ are the total number of radicals and their related concentrations, with and without magnetic fields, which are also related as follows: n m =N m / V , n 0 = N 0 / V . Fig. 11 shows a graph of the normalized calculated average radicals flux density for different compression flow values. Measurements were performed for ionization chamber with magnetic rings in anti- symmetric reference configuration, shown in Fig. 6A, and normalized to ionization chamber with no magnetic field, shown in Fig. 6B. The results were normalized to calculated average radicals flux density and reached a maximum flux density of, F m ~ 25 F 0 , times the corresponding concentration of the chamber without magnetic field, F 0 , at compression flow of F=41itter/min. Flux density drops sharply to a factor of F m ~ 2 F 0 . The value predicted by this model is significantly higher than the measured one as shown for radicals concentration presented in the graph in Fig. 8A. Despite the fact that the linear approximation is not accurate, it gives some approximation for the actual contribution and impact of the magnetic field on en hancement of the ionization process, calculated for the anti- symmetric configuration in Fig. 6A, and with respect to the configuration with no magnetic field shown in Fig. 6B