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Title:
WATER-SOLUBLE AND/OR WATER-SWELLABLE HYBRID POLYMER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/108665
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer comprising: (i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof; (ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer comprising up to 100 mol-% repeating units according to Formula (1a): characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a polar solvent.

Inventors:
FISCHER, Dirk (Bahnhofstrasse 70, Hahnheim, 55278, DE)
BERZ, Katharina (Madame-Cherier-Str. 41, Seligenstadt, 63500, DE)
STARKULLA, Gundula (Schubertstrasse 26, Mainz, 55130, DE)
Application Number:
EP2017/081667
Publication Date:
June 21, 2018
Filing Date:
December 06, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CLARIANT INTERNATIONAL LTD (Rothausstr. 61, 4132 Muttenz, 4132, CH)
International Classes:
A61Q19/00; A61K8/81; C08B37/00; C08B37/08; C08F2/14; C08F220/58; C08F251/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010092875A12010-08-19
WO1998000094A11998-01-08
WO2013178700A22013-12-05
WO2013017262A12013-02-07
Foreign References:
US20110136718A12011-06-09
EP0816403A21998-01-07
US20040228809A12004-11-18
EP0550637A11993-07-14
US5104646A1992-04-14
EP2105127A12009-09-30
US2809971A1957-10-15
US3236733A1966-02-22
US3753196A1973-08-14
US3761418A1973-09-25
US4345080A1982-08-17
US4323683A1982-04-06
US4379753A1983-04-12
US4470982A1984-09-11
EP1084696A12001-03-21
Other References:
SRIVASTAVA A ET AL: "Modification of natural polymer via free radical graft copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid in aqueous media and study of swelling and metal ion sorption behavior", JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 114, no. 3, 1 November 2009 (2009-11-01), JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. USA, pages 1426 - 1434, XP002770901, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/APP.30006
A. POURJAVADI ET AL: "Modified carrageenan. 4. Synthesis and swelling behavior of crosslinked [kappa]C-g-AMPS superabsorbent hydrogel with antisalt and pH-responsiveness properties", JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 98, no. 1, 5 October 2005 (2005-10-05), US, pages 255 - 263, XP055379162, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.22162
MITHILESH YADAV ET AL: "Superabsorbent nanocomposite (alginate-g-PAMPS/MMT): Synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior", CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS, vol. 90, no. 1, 4 May 2012 (2012-05-04), APPLIED SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, LTD. BARKING, GB, pages 165 - 173, XP028432003, ISSN: 0144-8617, [retrieved on 20120511], DOI: 10.1016/J.CARBPOL.2012.05.010
KOUROSH KABIRI ET AL: "Chitosan-modified nanoclay-poly(AMPS) nanocomposite hydrogels with improved gel strength", POLYMER INTERNATIONAL, vol. 58, no. 11, 1 November 2009 (2009-11-01), GB, pages 1252 - 1259, XP055379190, ISSN: 0959-8103, DOI: 10.1002/pi.2652
DE JONG ET AL.: "Product developments in the bio-based chemicals arena", BIOFUELS, BIOPROD. BIOREF., vol. 6, 2012, pages 606 - 624
SRIVASTAVA ET AL.: "Modification of natural polymer via free radical graft copolymerization of 2-acrylamideo-2-methyl-1 -propane sulfonic acid in aqueous media and study of swelling and metal ion sorption behaviour", JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 114, no. 3, 2009, pages 1426 - 1434
SRIVASTAVA ET AL.: "Graft copolymerization of 2-Acrylamideo-2-methyl-1 -propane sulphonic acid onto xanthan gum by ascorbic/ bromate redox pair", PMSE PREPRINTS, vol. 90, 2004, pages 698 - 699
ADHIKARY ET AL.: "Synthesis, characterization, and application of amylopectin-graft-poly(AM-co-AMPS", JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, vol. 126, 2012, pages S1
RANA, V. ET AL., CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS, vol. 83, 2011, pages 1031 - 1047
"International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary", 1993
"CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook", 1992
"International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook"
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HOLMES, Rosalind (Industriepark Höchst / G 860, Frankfurt am Main, 65926, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent claims

1 . A water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer comprising:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer comprising up to 100 mol-%

repeating units according to Formula (1 a):

wherein

R1 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, Y is selected from O, CH2, C(CH3)H, or C(O)NR2 where R2 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl; A is O, aryl, phenyl, a linear or branched Ci-Ci2-alkyl, a linear mono-hydroxyalkylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkylene group with 3 to 6 carbon atoms; D is S(O), POH, POR3 or PO Q+ where R3 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl; and Q+ is H+, NH4+, organic ammonium ions [NHR5R6R7]+ wherein R5, R6, and R7 independently of one another is hydrogen, a linear or branched a Iky I group having 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, singularly or multiply unsaturated alkenyl group having 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C6-C22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono-hydroxyalkyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched dihydroxyalkyl group having 3 to 15 carbon atoms, and where at least one of the radicals R5, R6, and R7 is not hydrogen, or Q+ is Li+, Na+, K+, ½ Ca++, 1/2 Mg++, 1/2 Zn++, 1/3 Al+++, ¼ Zr+÷++ or combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a polar solvent.

2. The hybrid polymer according to claim 1 , wherein the synthetic polymer comprises at least 99 mol-% of repeating units according to Formula (1 a), preferably consists of repeating units according to Formula (1 a).

3. The hybrid polymer according to claim 2, wherein Q+ is FT, NH4+, Na+, more preferably Q+ is NH4+ or Na+.

4. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the repeating units according to formula (1 a) result from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl- 1 ,1 -dimethyl-2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and combinations thereof. 5. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the repeating units according to Formula (1 a) have a degree of neutralisation of from 50.0 to 100 mol-%, preferably from 80 mol-% to 100 mol-%, more preferably from 90.0 to 100 mol-%, even more preferably from 95.0 to 100 mol-%. 6. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the synthetic polymer comprises crosslinking or branching units, wherein the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a monomer comprising at least two olefinically unsaturated double bonds. 7. The hybrid polymer according to claim 6, wherein the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a crosslinker selected from the group consisting of methylenebisacrylamide; methylenebismethacrylamide; esters of unsaturated monocarboxylic and polycarboxylic acids with polyols, preferably di-acrylates and tri-acrylates and -methacrylates (e.g. glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee [GPTA]), more preferably butanediol and ethylene glycol diacrylatee and -methacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA); allyl compounds, preferably allyl (meth)acrylatee, triallyl cyan urate, diailyl maleate, polyaiiyi esters, tetraallyloxyethane, triailyiamine, tetraallylethylenediamine; allyl esters of phosphoric acid; and/or vinylphosphonic acid derivatives.

8. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the synthetic polymer is a crossl inked homopolymer of units resulting from the incorporation of acryloyldimethyltaurate.

9. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the polysaccharide polymer is xanthan gum.

10. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the polysaccharide polymer comprises glucose and/or galactose units.

1 1 . The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the structure of the hybrid polymer is such that the polysaccharide polymer is a backbone onto which the synthetic polymer is grafted.

12. The hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the radical precipitation polymerization is carried out in a polar solvent mixture comprising: I) water and II) a further compound.

13. A composition comprising:

(i) A hybrid polymer according to any of the preceding claims;

(ii) A carrier.

14. The composition according to claim 13, wherein the composition is selected from the group consisting of shampoo, body wash, facial cleanser, face mask, bubble bath, intimate wash, bath oil, cleansing milk, micellar water, make-up remover, cleansing wipes, hair mask, perfume, liquid soap, shaving soap, shaving foam, cleansing foam, day cream, anti-ageing cream, body milk, body lotion, body mousse, face serum, eye cream, sunscreen lotion, sun cream, face cream, aftershave lotion, pre-shaving cream, depilatory cream, skin-whitening gel, self-tanning cream, anti-acne gel, mascara, foundation, primer, concealer, blush, bronzer, blemish balm (bb) cream, eyeliner, night cream, eye brow gel, highlighter, lip stain, hand sanitizer, hair oil, nail varnish remover, conditioner, hair styling gel, hair styling cream, anti-frizz serum, scalp treatment, hair colorant, split end fluid, deodorant, antiperspirant, baby cream, insect repellent, hand cream, sunscreen gel, foot cream, exfoliator, body scrub, cellulite treatment, bar soap, cuticle cream, lip balm, hair treatment, eye shadow, bath additive, body mist, eau de toilette, mouthwash, toothpaste, lubricating gel, moisturizer, serum, toner, aqua sorbet, cream gel, styling mousse, dry shampoo, lip stick, lip gloss, hydro-alcoholic gel, body oil, shower milk, illuminator, lip crayon, hair spray, combing cream, and sunblock.

15. Use of the hybrid polymer according to any of claims 1 to 12 as a thickening agent, structurant, and/or rheology modifier.

Description:
WATER-SOLUBLE AND/OR WATER-SWELLABLE HYBR!D POLYMER

FIELD OF THE INVENT!ON

The present invention relates to a water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Cleansing and caring for the skin, scalp, and hair is very important for general hygiene e.g. for removal of unwanted materials such as sebum, oils, dirt, makeup, or for moisturisation, colouring or protection. Many cosmetic products require a certain minimum viscosity in order to achieve ease of application to the substrate and/or retention on the substrate to be treated. Many cosmetic products comprise viscosity-increasing or rheoiogy-influencing agents. These are often referred to as thickening agents, thickeners or gelling agents. Thickening agents used in cosmetics or personal hygiene products include viscous liquids such as

polyethylene glycol, synthetic polymers such as polyacrylic acid and vegetable gums. In the 1990s, innovative thickeners based on 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1 - propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and their salts were introduced into the market (EP0816403 and WO98/00094). In both homopolymer and copolymer form (e.g. Aristoflex ® AVC, Clariant), such thickeners are superior in many respects to the corresponding polycarboxylates (Carbopols).

Many materials employed in cosmetics are traditionally derived from crude oil. Environmental, economic and sustainability questions are restricting the use of products derived from this limited resource: synthetic surfactants, for example, have been blamed for environmental incidents, particularly vis-a-vis aquatic problems in rivers and lakes. Therefore, there is a desire to identify more sustainable and biodegradeable, yet gentle and effective materials. Indeed, consumers are very interested in "natural" products including products with a high percentage of "natural" compounds and/or compounds that are derived from renewable materials. Consumers perceive compounds derived from natural materials to be gentler and more environmentally friendly. Recent industrial developments in "bio-based" chemicals are summarised, for example, in de Jong et al, "Product developments in the bio-based chemicals arena", Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 6:606-624 (2012).

Compounds derived from natural materials have various other benefits, including increased biodegradability and also more sustainable availability because they are not based on a limited resource. Compounds derived from plant-based resources are particularly useful since the source compound can simply be regrown.

Consumers are also particularly comfortable with using compounds derived from well-known plants, especially those that are considered staple products.

US20040228809A1 , for example, discloses an aerosol or pump foam product for treating hair, said product comprising a composition for foam production and said composition comprising inter alia at least one cationic cellulose derivative and at least one chitosan. Cellulose and chitosan are both natural polymers (or derivatives thereof) and they are also both polysaccharides. Indeed, chitosan is derived from chitin, which is what the shells of crustaceans are made from.

However, some natural polymers or derivatives thereof have some performance drawbacks, such as leaving residues and/or poor solubility in an aqueous environment. Attempts have been made to combine 2-acrylamideo-2-methyl-1 - propane sulfonic acid monomers with polysaccharides - for example: Srivastava et al, Modification of natural polymer via free radical graft copolymerization of 2-acrylamideo-2-methyl-1 -propane sulfonic acid in aqueous media and study of swelling and metal ion sorption behaviour, Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2009), 1 14(3), 1426-1434; Srivastava et al, Graft copolymerization of

2-Acrylamideo-2-methyl-1 -propane sulphonic acid onto xanthan gum by ascorbic/ bromate redox pair, PMSE Preprints (2004), 90, 698-699; Adhikary et al,

Synthesis, characterization, and application of amylopectin-graft-poly(AM-co- AMPS), Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2012), 126(S1 ). However, these disclosures do not provide final polymers that have acceptable performance.

Furthermore, the polymers provided are not in a form that is sufficiently useful. There is a need, therefore, for providing polymeric thickening agents that can provide the excellent performance of modern polymers with the increased biodegradability as well as the more sustainable availability of natural-based polymers.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In a first aspect, the present invention relates to a A water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer comprising:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer comprising up to 100 mol-%

repeating units according to Formula (1 a):

CH, CR 1

I —

Y o

A— D

I - O Q (1 a) wherein

R 1 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, Y is selected from O, CH2, C(CH3)H, or C(O)NR 2 where R 2 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl; A is O, aryl, phenyl, a linear or branched Ci-Ci2-alkyl, a linear mono-hydroxyalkylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkylene group with 3 to 6 carbon atoms; D is S(O), POH, POR 3 or PO Q + where R 3 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl; and Q + is H + , NH 4 + , organic ammonium ions [NHR 5 R 6 R 7 ] + wherein R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 independently of one another is hydrogen, a linear or branched a Iky I group having 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, singularly or multiply unsaturated alkenyl group having 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C6-C22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono-hydroxyalkyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched dihydroxyalkyl group having 3 to 15 carbon atoms, and where at least one of the radicals R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is not hydrogen, or Q + is Li + , Na + , K + , 1 / 2 Ca ++ , 1 / 2 Mg ++ , 1 / 2 Zn ++ , 1/3 A\ +++ , ¼ Zr ÷+++ or combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a polar solvent.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 : Measurement of the correlation of viscosity with polymer level. P is polysaccharide polymer only; S is synthetic polymer only; M is a mixture of polysaccharide and synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer of polysaccharide and synthetic pursuant to the present invention. 1 and 2 refer to different types of synthetic polymer.

Fig. 2: Measurement of the correlation of viscosity stability at increasing electrolyte concentration. P is polysaccharide polymer only; S is synthetic polymer only; M is a mixture of polysaccharide and synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer of polysaccharide and synthetic pursuant to the present invention. 1 and 2 refer to different types of synthetic polymer. Fig. 3: Measurement of the temperature stability of the polymers via tan delta. P is polysaccharide polymer only; S is synthetic polymer only; M is a mixture of polysaccharide and synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer of polysaccharide and synthetic pursuant to the present invention. 1 and 2 refer to different types of synthetic polymer.

In Figs 4 and 5: pH stability measurements. P is polysaccharide polymer only; S is synthetic polymer only; M is a mixture of polysaccharide and synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer of polysaccharide and synthetic pursuant to the present invention. Figs 4 and 5 differ in the polysaccharide polymer used.

Fig 6A: Example synthesis of a hybrid polymer. The black line represents a polysaccharide polymer chain. An initiator covalently bonds with suitable sites on the polysaccharide polymer chain. Synthetic monomers are added (see under the arrow). The polysaccharide polymer is grated with synthetic polymers.

Fig 6B: Example hybrid polymer. In this case a carrageenan polysaccharide polymer is grafted with synthetic polymers.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions and general

In this document, including in all embodiments of all aspects of the present invention, the following definitions apply unless specifically stated otherwise. All percentages are by weight (w/w) of the total composition. "wt.-%" means percentage by weight. All ratios are weight ratios. References to 'parts' e.g. a mixture of 1 part X and 3 parts Y, is a ratio by weight. "QS" or "QSP" means sufficient quantity for 100 % or for 100 g. +/- indicates the standard deviation. All ranges are inclusive and combinable. The number of significant digits conveys neither a limitation on the indicated amounts nor on the accuracy of the

measurements. All numerical amounts are understood to be modified by the word "about". All measurements are understood to be made at 23 °C and at ambient conditions, where "ambient conditions" means at 1 atmosphere (atm) of pressure and at 50 % relative humidity. "Relative humidity" refers to the ratio (stated as a percent) of the moisture content of air compared to the saturated moisture level at the same temperature and pressure. Relative humidity can be measured with a hygrometer, in particular with a probe hygrometer from VWR ® International. Herein "min" means "minute" or "minutes". Herein "mol" means mole. Herein "g" following a number means "gram" or "grams". "Ex." means "example". All amounts as they pertain to listed ingredients are based on the active level ('solids') and do not include carriers or by-products that may be included in commercially available materials. Herein, "comprising" means that other steps and other ingredients can be in addition. "Comprising" encompasses the terms "consisting of and

"consisting essentially of. The compositions, formulations, methods, uses, kits, and processes of the present invention can comprise, consist of, and consist essentially of the elements and limitations of the invention described herein, as well as any of the additional or optional ingredients, components, steps, or limitations described herein. Embodiments and aspects described herein may comprise or be combinable with elements, features or components of other embodiments and/or aspects despite not being expressly exemplified in

combination, unless an incompatibility is stated. "In at least one embodiment" means that one or more embodiments, optionally all embodiments or a large subset of embodiments, of the present invention has/have the subsequently described feature. Where amount ranges are given, these are to be understood as being the total amount of said ingredient in the composition, or where more than one species fall within the scope of the ingredient definition, the total amount of all ingredients fitting that definition, in the composition. For example, if the

composition comprises from 1 % to 5 % fatty alcohol, then a composition comprising 2 % stearyl alcohol and 1 % cetyi alcohol and no other fatty alcohol, would fall within this scope. "Independently selected from," means that the referenced groups can be the same, different, or a mixture thereof, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Thus, under this definition, the phrase "X1 , X2, and X3 are

independently selected from noble gases" would include the scenario where X1 , X2, and X3 are all the same, where X1 , X2, and X3 are all different, and where X1 and X2 are the same but X3 is different.

"Molecular weight" or "M.Wt." or "MW" and grammatical equivalents mean the weight average molecular weight. Number Average molecular weight: Mn

The number average molecular weight is the statistical average molecular weight of all the polymer chains in the sample, and is defined by:

∑Ni where Mi is the molecular weight of a chain and Ni is the number of chains of that molecular weight. Mn can be predicted by polymerisation mechanisms and is measured by methods that determine the number of molecules in a sample of a given weight; for example, colligative methods such as end-group assay. If Mn is quoted for a molecular weight distribution, there are equal numbers of molecules on either side of Mn in the distribution.

Weight Average molecular weight: MW

The weight average molecular weight is defined by:

∑NiMi 2

∑ NiMi

Compared to Mn, MW takes into account the molecular weight of a chain in determining contributions to the molecular weight average. The more massive the chain, the more the chain contributes to MW. MW is determined by methos that are sensitive to the molecular size rather than just their number, such as light scattering techniques. If MW is quoted for the molecular weight distribution, there is an equal weight of molecules on either side of MW in the distribution.

The polydispersity index PDI is used as a measure of the broadness of a molecular weight distribution of a polymer, and is defined by:

MW

PDI =

Mn

The larger the PDI, the broader the molecular weight. A monodisperse polymer where all the chain lengths are equal (such as a protein) has an MW/Mn=1 .

"Viscosity" is measured at 25 °C viscosity in centipoise (cP) using an RVDV Brookfield viscometer with 10 - 90 % torque at 20 RPM, unless otherwise stated.

"Water-soluble" refers to any material that is sufficiently soluble in water to form a clear solution to the naked eye at a concentration of 0.1 % by weight of the material in water at 25 °C. The term "water-insoluble" refers to any material that is not "water-soluble". "Substantially free from" or "substantially free of means less than 1 %, or less than 0.8 %, or less than 0.5 %, or less than 0.3 %, or about 0 %, by total weight of the composition or formulation. "Hair" means mammalian keratin fibres including scalp hair, facial hair and body hair. It includes such hair still being attached to a living subject and also hair that has been removed therefrom such as hair swatches and hair on a doll/mannequin. In at least one embodiment, "hair" means human hair. "Hair shaft" or "hair fibre" means an individual hair strand and may be used interchangeably with the term "hair."

"Cosmetically acceptable" means that the compositions, formulations or

components described are suitable for use in contact with human keratinous tissue without undue toxicity, incompatibility, instability, allergic response, and the like. All compositions and formulations described herein which have the purpose of being directly applied to keratinous tissue are limited to those being cosmetically acceptable.

"Derivatives" includes but is not limited to, amide, ether, ester, amino, carboxyl, acetyl, acid, salt and/or alcohol derivatives of a given compound. In at least one embodiment, "derivatives thereof means the amide, ether, ester, amino, carboxyl, acetyl, acid, salt and alcohol derivatives.

"Monomer" means a discrete, non-polymerised chemical moiety capable of undergoing polymerisation in the presence of an initiator or any suitable reaction that creates a macromolecule e.g. such as radical polymerisation,

polycondensation, polyaddition, anionic or cationic polymerization, ring opening polymerisation or coordination insertion polymerisation. "Unit" means a monomer that has already been polymerised i.e. is part of a polymer.

"Polymer" means a chemical formed from the polymerisation of two or more monomers. The term "polymer" shall include all materials made by the

polymerisation of monomers as well as natural polymers. Polymers made from only one type of monomer are called homopolymers. Herein, a polymer comprises at least two monomers. Polymers made from two or more different types of monomers are called copolymers. The distribution of the different monomers can be random, alternating or block-wise (i.e. block copolymer). The term "polymer" used herein includes any type of polymer including homopolymers and

copolymers.

"Kit" means a package comprising a plurality of components. "Kit" may be referred to as "kit-of-parts". An example of a kit is, for example, a first composition and a separately packaged second composition and optionally application instructions.

Explanation of and benefits provided by the invention

Surprisingly, it has now been found that hybrid polymers can be synthesised that combine the advantages of modern, synthetic polymers with those of natural or naturally-derived polymers. Furthermore, such hybrid polymers can be

synthesised in a one-step process, rather than a process requiring multiple synthesis and/or purification steps. Indeed, the hybrid polymers herein described are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a polar solvent. This polymerization method results in the production of the hybrid polymer in a convenient form - powder form. Such solid form has the advantage that it is more economical to ship in view of the low weight and high concentration of active material (hybrid polymer), and lack of solvent. Furthermore, being in powder form reduces the risks associated with shipping and/or storing the product in liquid form - in terms of the product degrading in view of the molecules being able to move and react with other molecules such as the container walls and/or microbes being able to survive in the liquid and consume, grow in and/or contaminate the product.

The herein described one-step process providing powder form is achieved in view of the fact that precipitation polymerisation is used i.e. the product of the reaction is produced as an insoluble precipitate - the product crashes out of the reaction mixture. The precipitant thus is no longer soluble in the reaction mixture and thus has no influence on the rheology and viscosity of the reaction mixture.

Conventional radical graft polymerization as disclosed in the prior art results in a highly viscous gel. This has the disadvantage that once a certain viscosity level is reached, it is no longer possible to stir the reaction mixture in order to ensure even distribution of reactants and temperature. The viscosity, however, depends on the natural polymer used. Nevertheless, in most cases the reaction must be stopped relatively early and thus only a low yield of hybrid polymer can be produced.

Furthermore, the reaction product is soluble and thus in solution with solvent. For example, it is not acceptable for formulators using the hybrid polymer in e.g.

end-applications to supply them with a 50% solution of hybrid polymer. As a result, with conventional radical graft polymerization as disclosed in the prior art, further processing steps are required in order to remove the solvent from the product and thus increase the concentration level of hybrid polymer versus solvent - indeed it is preferred to remove as much solvent as possible. When considering Srivastava et al (2009), which is cited above in the Background section, it is clear from the section on page 1427 of Srivastava et al (2009) entitled "Procedure for grafting" that precipitation polymerization was not employed since it states that after the reaction has been stopped, the "graft copolymer was precipitated by pouring the reaction mixture into a water-methanol mixture and kept overnight", it is clear that radical precipitation polymerisation as per the present invention has not be employed in Srivastava et al (2009) because a subsequent precipitation step was needed in order to separate the hybrid polymer from the solution. A second disadvantage is that during the drying process of highly viscous gels is that insoluble surface/film-forming coatings and/or non-homogenous clumps result that have a high residual water content. It is not possible to completely exclude and/or remove water from such hybrid polymer produced in this way. Consequently, the present invention provides numerous advantages over the prior art efforts.

The details of the invention and its aspects are provided hereinafter.

FIRST ASPECT

The first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer. Hybrid polymer

The water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer may herein simply be referred to as 'hybrid polymer', for brevity. The hybrid polymer comprises (i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% polysaccharide polymer and (ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer. In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer comprises (i) from 10 wt.-% to 90 wt.-%, or from 15 wt.-% to 85 wt.-%, or from 20 wt.-% to 80 wt.-%, or from 25 wt.-% to 75 wt.-%, 30 wt.-% to 70 wt.-%, or from 35 wt.-% to 65 wt.-%, or from 40 wt.-% to 60 wt.-%, or from 45 wt.-% to 55 wt.-%

polysaccharide polymer and (ii) from 10 wt.-% to 90 wt.-%, or from 15 wt.-% to 85 wt.-%, or from 20 wt.-% to 80 wt.-%, or from 25 wt.-% to 75 wt.-%, 30 wt.-% to 70 wt.-%, or from 35 wt.-% to 65 wt.-%, or from 40 wt.-% to 60 wt.-%, or from 45 wt.-% to 55 wt.-% synthetic polymer. In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer has a weight ratio of polysaccharide polymer to synthetic polymer of from 70:30; or 60:40; or 50:50; or 40:60; or 30:70; or 20:80; or 10:90. In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer comprises at least 30 wt.-% polysaccharide polymer, by total weight of the hybrid polymer.

In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer is substantially free of species that release ammonia when the hybrid polymer is used e.g. employed in alkaline cosmetic compositions.

In at least one embodiment, the structure of the hybrid polymer is such that the polysaccharide polymer is a backbone onto which the synthetic polymer is grafted. In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer is a derived natural cosmetic ingredient. According to ISO 16128-1 :2016(E) a polymer is a derived natural cosmetic ingredient if it is of greater than 50% natural origin by renewable carbon content. The degree of natural origin can be quantified by renewable carbon content according to analytical procedure ASTM 6866-12, Method B.

Synthetic polymer

The hybrid polymer comprises synthetic polymer. "Synthetic polymer" herein means any polymer that is not a naturally-occurring polymer nor a derivative of a naturally-occurring polymer.

Units (a)

The synthetic polymer comprises up to 100 mol .-% repeating units accord

Formula (1 a):

CH - CR

I — I

I ii

A-D

I - O Q (1 a)

wherein

R 1 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, Y is selected from O, CH 2 , C(CH 3 )H, or C(O)NR 2 where R 2 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl;

A is O, aryl, phenyl, a linear or branched Ci-Ci2-alkyl, a linear mono- hydroxyalkylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkylene group with 3 to 6 carbon atoms; D is S(O), POH, POR 3 or PO " Q + where R 3 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl; and

Q + is H + , NH 4 + , organic ammonium ions [NHR 5 R 6 R 7 ] + wherein R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 independently of one another is hydrogen, a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, singularly or multiply unsaturated alkenyl group having 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C-6-C22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono-hydroxyalkyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched dihydroxyalkyl group having 3 to 15 carbon atoms, and where at least one of the radicals R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is not hydrogen, or Q + is Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , 1/3 Α ++ , ¼ Zr ++++ or combinations thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer consists of repeating units according to Formula (1 a).

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises repeating units according to Formula (1 ):

R2 wherein

R 1 and R 2 are independently selected from H, methyl or ethyl;

A is a linear or branched Ci-Ci2-alkyl group; and

Q + is H + , NH 4 + , an organic ammonium ion conforming to [NHR 5 R 6 R 7 ] + wherein R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 independently of one another is hydrogen, a linear or branched a Iky I group having 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, mono- or poly-unsaturated alkenyl group having 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C6-C22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono- hydroxyalkyl group having 2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched dihydroxyalkyl group having 3 to 15 carbon atoms, and wherein at least one of the radicals R 5 , R 6 , and R 7 is not hydrogen, or Q + is Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , 1 /3 Al +++ , or combinations thereof.

Preferably Q + is H + , NH 4 + , Na + , or K + . More preferably Q + is H + , NH 4 + , Na + , more preferably Q + is NH 4 + or Na + . In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one repeating unit (a) according to Formula (1 ) wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently selected from H, methyl or ethyl; A is a linear or branched Ci-Ci2-alkyl group; and Q + is H + , Li + , Na + , K + , 1 / 2 Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , 1 /3 ΑΓ ++ , or combinations thereof, preferably wherein Q + is Na + .

In at least one embodiment, Gf is NH4\ In at least one embodiment, Q ÷ is selected from the group monoalkylammonium, dialkylammonium,

trialkylammonium and/or tetraalkylammonium salts, in which the alkyl substituents of the amines may independently of one another be (Ci to C-22)-alkyl radicals or (C-2 to Cio)-hydroxyalkyl radicals.

NH 4 + is preferred because it is more soluble the favored solvent used in the polymer synthesis. Na + is preferred because of reduced likelihood of un preferred gases being produced during synthesis and also due to economic advantages.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one repeating unit according to Formula (1 ). In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises two or more different repeating units according to Formula (1 ), such as repeating units according to Formula (1 ) having different Q + counterions.

In at least one embodiment, the repeating units according to Formula (1 ) result from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl-2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and combinations thereof. Preferably the repeating units according to Formula (1 ) result from the incorporation of

acryloyldimethyltaurate. In at least one embodiment, the repeating units according to Formula (1 a) or (1 ) have a degree of neutralisation of between 0 mol-% and 100 mol-%. In at least one embodiment, the repeating units according to Formula (1 a) or (1 ) have a degree of neutralisation of from 50.0 to 100 mol-%, preferably from 80 mol-% to 100 mol-%, more preferably from 90.0 to 100 mol-%, even more preferably from 95.0 to 100 mol-%. Particular preference being given to a degree of neutralisation of more than 80 mol-%, more preferably more than 90 mol-%, even more preferably more than 95 mol-%.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises from 95 mol-% to 99.9 mol-%, or at least 95.5 mol-%, or at least 96 mol-%, or at least 96.5 mol-%, or at least 97 mol-%, or at least 97.5 mol-%, or at least 98 mol-%, or at least

98.5 mol-%, or at least 99 mol-%, or at least 99.5 mol-% of repeating units according to Formula (1 ). In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer is a homopolymer of repeating units according to Formula (1 ), preferably is a homopolymer of units resulting from the incorporation of acryloyldimethyltaurate. In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer is a crossl inked homopolymer of units resulting from the incorporation of acryloyldimethyltaurate.

Crosslinked and non-crosslinked homo- and co-polymers based on 2-acrylamido- 2-methyl-1 -propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) monomers and their salts are available from Clariant under their Aristoflex ® series.

Units (b): crosslinking or branching units

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises crosslinking or branching units, wherein the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a monomer comprising at least two olefinically unsaturated double bonds. In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units comprise least one oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus atom. In at least one

embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units result from monomers having a molecular weight of less than 500 g/mol. In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units are bifunctional or trifunctional crosslinking agents.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises from 0.01 mol-% to 10 mol-%, preferably from 0.01 mol-% to 5 mol-%, more preferably from

0.01 mol% to 3 mol% crosslinking or branching units, wherein the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a monomer comprising at least two olefinically unsaturated double bonds.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises two or more different crosslinking or branching units.

In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a monomer according to Formula (2)

wherein

R 1 is independently selected from H, methyl or ethyl; and

R 2 is a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, or is a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkylene group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms. A monomer according to Formula (2) has the advantage that grafted synthetic polymer can be predicted as a more brush-like synthetic polymer. However brush like synthetic polymers show different properties, as linear ones. For example depending on different comonomer units the solubility could in- or decreased. In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a monomer according to Formula (3)

wherein

R 1 is independently selected from H, methyl or ethyl; and R 2 is a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, or is a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkylene group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms;

D, E, and F are independently methyleneoxy (-CH2O), ethyleneoxy

(-CH2-CH2-O-), propyleneoxy (-CH(CH 3 )-CH 2 -0-), a linear or branched alkylene group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, singularly or multiply unsaturated alkenylene group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear mono-hydroxyalkylene group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched dihydroxyalkylene group having 3 to 6 carbon atoms; and

o, p, and q each independently are an integer from 1 to 50.

A monomer according to Formula (3) has the advantage that grafted synthetic polymer can be predicted as highly branched synthetic polymer. These highly branched grafted synthetic polymer could protect effective the polysaccharide against inadvertently biodegradation.

In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of a crosslinker selected from the group consisting of

methylenebisacrylamidee; methylenebismethacrylamidee; esters of unsaturated monocarboxylic and polycarboxylic acids with polyols, preferably di-acrylatees and tri-acrylates and -methacrylates (e.g. glycerol propoxylate triacrylate [GPTA]), more preferably butanediol and ethylene glycol diacrylate and -methacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylatee (TMPTMA); allyl compounds, preferably allyl (meth)acrylatee, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl maleate, polyallyl esters, tetraallyloxyethane, triallylamine,

tetraallylethylenediamine; allyl esters of phosphoric acid; and/or vinylphosphonic acid derivatives. In at least one embodiment, the crosslinking or branching units result from the incorporation of trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA).

Particularly preferred as crossi inkers for the polymers of the invention are glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA), pentaerythritol diacrylatee mono stearate (PEAS), hexanediol diacrylatee (HDDA), and hexanediol dimethacrylatee (HDDMA). Especially preferred is glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA).

Neutral units (c)

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer at least one neutral repeating structural unit.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises from 0.99 mol-% to 59.99 mol-%, preferably from 1 .99 mol-% to 44.99 mol-% of neutral repeating structural units. In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one neutral repeating structural unit selected from the group consisting of N-vinylformamide, N-vinylacetamide, N-methyl-N-vinylformamide, N-methyl-N- vinylacetamide, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-vinylcaprolactam, vinylacetate,

Ν,Ν-dimethylacrylamide, N-isopropylacrylamide, acrylamide, methylacrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, laurylpoly-ethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(10)-methacrylate, stearylpoly-ethoxy-(8)-methacrylate,

methoxypoly-ethoxy-(12)-methacrylate, and combinations thereof.

Anionic units (d)

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one anionic repeating structural unit.

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises from 1 .98 mol-% to 20 mol-%, preferably from 2.5 mol-% to 18 mol-% of anionic repeating structural units, wherein the anionic repeating structural units result from the incorporation of a monomer comprising at least one carboxylate anion, and wherein the anionic repeating structural units are different from units according to formula (1 ) and (1 a).

In at least one embodiment, the anionic repeating structural unit results from the incorporation of monomers according to formula (A): X R 1

H 2 C =C

(A)

Y O

M C— O " Z + wherein

R 1 and R 3 are H, methyl or ethyl, or C(0)O Z + ;

X, Y are selected from a covalent bond, O, CH 2 , C(0)0, OC(O), C(O)NR 3 or

NR 3 C(O);

M are selected from a covalent bond, -[C(O)0-CH2-CH2]n-, a linear or

branched alkylene group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear mono-hydroxyalkylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkylene group with 3 to 6 carbon atoms;

n is an integer from 1 - 5 and

Z + is H + , NH 4 + , an organic ammonium ion [HNR 5 R 6 R 7 ] +

wherein R 5 , R 6 and R 7 are independently hydrogen, a linear or branched alkyl group with 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenyl group with 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C-6 to C-22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono-hydroxyalkyl group with

2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkyl group with

3 to 10 carbon atoms, and wherein at least one of R 5 , R 6 and R 7 is not hydrogen, or Z + is Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , 1 /3 ΑΓ ++ , or combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the Z + is H + , NH + , Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , or 1 /3 Al +++ , preferably H + , NH 4 + , Li + , Na + or K + .

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one anionic repeating structural unit selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, carboxyethylacrylate, carboxyethylacrylate oligomers, 2-propylacrylic acid 2-ethylacrylic acid, and their respective alkali or alkaline earth metal salts.

Optional units (e)

In at least one embodiment, the synthetic polymer comprises at least one optional unit (e). In at least one embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of unsaturated carboxylic acids and their anhydrides and salts, and also their esters with aliphatic, olefinic, cycloaliphatic, arylaliphatic or aromatic alcohols having a carbon number of from 1 to 22. In at least one embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of functionalised (meth)acrylic acid esters, acrylic or methacrylic acid amidees, polyglycol acrylic or methacrylic acid esters, polyglycol acrylic or methacrylic acid amides,

dipropyleneglycolacrylic or methacrylic acid esters, dipropylenglycolacrylic or methacrylic acid amides, ethoxylated fatty alcohol acrylates or -methacrylates, propoxyl ated fatty alcohol acrylates or linear or cyclic N-vinylamides or

N-methylvinyl amides.

In at least one embodiment, the optional unit is an anionic repeating structural unit that results from the incorporation of monomers according to formula (A):

X R 1

H 2 C =C

(A)

Y O

M C— O " Z 4 wherein

R 1 and R 3 are H, methyl or ethyl, or C(O)O Z + ;

X, Y are selected from a covalent bond, O, CH 2 , C(O)O, OC(O), C(O)NR 3 or

NR 3 C(O); are selected from a covalent bond, -[C(0)O-CH2-CH2]n-, a linear or branched alkylene group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a linear mono-hydroxyalkylene group with 2 to 6 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkylene group with 3 to 6 carbon atoms;

is an integer from 1 - 5 and

is H + , NH 4 + , an organic ammonium ion [HNR 5 R 6 R 7 ] +

wherein R 5 , R 6 and R 7 are independently hydrogen, a linear or branched a Iky I group with 1 to 22 carbon atoms, a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenyl group with 2 to 22 carbon atoms, a C6 to C22 alkylamidopropyl group, a linear mono-hydroxyalkyl group with 2 to 10 carbon atoms or a linear or branched di-hydroxyalkyl group with 3 to 10 carbon atoms, and wherein at least one of R 5 , R 6 and R 7 is not hydrogen, or Z + is Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , 1 / 2 Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , 1/3 Al +++ , or combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the Z + is H + , NH 4 + , Li + , Na + , K + , ½ Ca ++ , ½ Mg ++ , ½ Zn ++ , or 1/3 ΑΓ ++ , preferably H + , NH 4 + , Li + , Na + or K + .

In at least one embodiment, the optional unit is an anionic structural unit that results from the incorporation of a monomer according to formula (A) wherein X is a covalent bond or is CH2. In at least one embodiment, the optional unit is an anionic structural unit that results from the incorporation of a monomer according to formula (A) wherein Y is a covalent bond, CH2, C(O)0, or C(O)NR 3 . In at least one embodiment, the optional unit is an anionic structural unit that results from the incorporation of a monomer according to formula (A) wherein M is a covalent bond,

-[C(O)0-CH2-CH2]n-, a linear or branched alkylene group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms. In at least one embodiment, the optional unit is an anionic structural unit that results from the incorporation of a monomer according to formula (A) wherein R 1 is H, methyl or ethyl; X is a covalent bond or is CH2; Y is a covalent bond, CH2, C(O)O, or C(O)NR 3 ; R 3 is H, methyl or ethyl; M is a covalent bond,

-[C(O)0-CH2-CH2]n-, a linear or branched alkylene group with 1 to 6 carbon atoms; Z + is H + , NH 4 + , Li + , Na + , K + , 1 / 2 Ca ++ , 1 / 2 Mg ++ , 1 / 2 Zn ++ , or 1/3 Al +++ , or combinations thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of N-vinylformamide,

N-vinylacetamide, N methyl-N-vinylformamide, N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), N vinylcaprolactam, vinylacetate, methylvinylether, ethylvinylether, methylallylether, ethylmethallylether, styrol, acetoxystyrol, methylmethallylether, ethylallylether, tert-butylacrylamide, Ν,Ν-diethylacrylamide, N,N-dimethylacrylamide, Ν,Ν-dimethylmethacrylamide, N,N-dipropylacrylamide, N-isopropylacrylamide, N-propylacrylamide, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methylacrylate, methymethylacrylate, tert-butylacrylate, tert-butylmethacrylate, n-butylacrylate, n-butylmethacrylate, laurylacrylate, laurylmethacrylate,

behenylacrylate, behenylmethacrylate, cetylacrylate, cetylmethacrylate,

stearylacrylate, stearylmethacrylate, tridecylacrylate, tridecylmethacrylate, polyethoxy-(5)-methacrylate, polyethoxy-(5)-acrylate, polyethoxy-(10)- methacrylate, polyethoxy-(10)-acrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(7)-acrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(8)-methacrylate, behenylpoly- ethoxy-(8)-acrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(12)-methacrylate, behenylpoly-ethoxy- (12)-acrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(16)-methacrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(16)- acrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, behenylpolyethoxy-(25)-acrylate, laurylpoly-ethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(7)-acrylate, laurylpolyethoxy- (8)-methacrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(8)-acrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(12)-methacrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(12)-acrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(16)-methacrylate,

laurylpolyethoxy-(16)-acrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(22)-methacrylate,

laurylpolyethoxy-(22)-acrylate, laurylpolyethoxy-(23)-methacrylate,

laurylpolyethoxy-(23)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(2)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy- (2)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(7)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(10)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(10)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy- (12)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(12)-acrylate cetylpoly-ethoxy-(16)- methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(16)-acrylate cetylpolyethoxy-(20)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(20)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy- (25)-acrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, cetylpolyethoxy-(25)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(7)-acrylate, stearylpoly- ethoxy-(8)-methacrylaie, stearylpolyethoxy-(8)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(12)- methacrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(12)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(16)- methacrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(16)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(22)- methacrylate, stearylpoly-ethoxy-(22)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(23)- methacrylate, stearylpoiyethoxy-(23)-acrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(25)- methacrylate, stearylpolyethoxy-(25)-acrylate, tridecylpolyethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, tridecylpolyethoxy-(7)-acrylate, tridecylpolythoxy-(10)-methacrylate,

tridecyl polyethoxy-( 10)-acrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-( 12)-methacrylate,

tridecyl polyethoxy-( 12)-acrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-(16)-methacrylate,

tridecyl polyethoxy-(16)-acrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-(22)-methacrylate, tridecyl poly- ethoxy-(22)-acrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-(23)-methacrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-(23)- acrylate, tridecyl poly-ethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, tridecyl polyethoxy-(25)-acrylate, methoxypolyethoxy-(7)-methacrylate, methoxy-polyethoxy-(7)-acrylate,

methoxypoly-ethoxy-(12)-methacrylate, methoxypolyethoxy-( 2)-acrylate, methoxypolyethoxy-(16)-methacrylate, methoxypolyethoxy-(16)-acrylate, methoxypolyethoxy-(25)-methacrylate, methoxy-polyethoxy-(25)-acrylate, acrylic acid, ammonium acrylate, sodium acrylate, potassium acrylate, lithium acrylate, zinc acrylate, calcium acrylate, magnesium acrylate, zirconium acrylate,

methacrylic acid, ammonium methacrylate, sodium methacrylate, potassium methacrylate, lithium methacrylate, calcium methacrylate, magnesium

methacrylatee, zirconium methacrylate, zinc methacrylate, 2-carboxyethylacrylate, ammonium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, sodium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, potassium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, lithium 2 carboxyethylacrylate, zinc 2-carboxyethylacrylate, calcium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, magnesium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, zirconium 2-carboxyethylacrylate, 2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomere, ammonium

2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, sodium 2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, potassium 2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, lithium 2 carboxyethylacrylate- oligomers, zinc 2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, calcium 2-carboxyethylacrylate- oligomers, magnesium 2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, zirconium

2-carboxyethylacrylate-oligomers, itaconic acid , sodium itaconate, potassium itaconate, lithium itaconate, calcium itaconate, magnesium itaconate, zirconium itaconate, zinc itaconate, 2-ethylacryl acid, ammonium 2-ethylacrylate, sodium 2-ethylacrylate, potassium 2-ethylacrylate, lithium 2-ethylacrylate, calcium

2-ethylacrylate, magnesium 2-ethylacrylate, zirconium 2-ethylacrylate, zinc 2-ethylacrylate, 2-propylacryl acid, ammonium 2-propylacrylate, sodium

2-propylacrylate, potassium 2-propylacrylate, lithium 2-propylacrylate, calcium 2-propylacrylate, magnesium 2-propylacrylate, magnesium 2-propylacrylate, zirconium 2-propylacrylate, zinc 2-propylacrylate, glycerin propoxylate triacrylate (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), pentaerythritoldiacrylate monostearate (PEAS), polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), and combinations thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of glycerine propoxylate triacrylate (GPTA) and trimethylolpropantriacrylate (TMPTA). In a preferred embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of N-vinylformamide, N-vinylacetamide, N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), N,N-diethylacrylamide, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methylacrylate, methylmethylacrylate, tert-Butylacrylate, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, 2-carboxyethylacrylate, 2-carboxyethylacrylate oligomers, itaconic acid glycerine propoxylate triacrylate (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate (PEAS) and polyethyleneglycol diacrylate.

In at least one embodiment, the optional unit results from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, styrenesulfonic acid, maleic acid, fu marie acid, crotonic acid, itaconic acid, and senecic acid. In at least one embodiment, the optional unit results from monomers selected from the group consisting of open-chain N-vinyl amides, preferably N-vinylformamide (VIFA), N-vinylmethylformamide, N-vinylmethylacetamide (VIMA) and N-vinylacetamides; cyclic N-vinyl amides (N-vinyl lactams) with a ring size of 3 to 9, preferably N-vinylpyrrolidones (NVP) and N-vinylcaprolactam;

amides of acrylic and methacrylic acid, preferably acrylamide, methacrylamide, N,N-dimethylacrylamide, N,N-diethylacrylamide, and N,N-diisopropylacrylamide; alkoxylated acrylamides and methacrylamides, preferably hydroxyethyl

methacrylate, hydroxymethylmethacrylamide; hydroxyethylmethacryl amide, hydroxypropylmethacrylamide, and mono[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]succinate; Ν,Ν-dimethylaminomethacrylate; diethylaminomethylmethacrylate; acrylamideo- and methacrylamideoglycolic acid; 2- and 4-vinylpyridine; vinyl acetate; glycidyl methacrylate; styrene; acrylonitrile; vinyl chloride; stearyl acrylate; lauryl methacrylate; vinyl idene chloride; tetrafluoroethylene; and combinations thereof.

Polysaccharide polymer

The hybrid polymer comprises from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer absorbs water and/or forms a gel or gum when immersed in water. In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is a natural gum or mucilage. Natural gums are useful because they are generally soluble in water due to the presence of an excessive number of -OH moieties which form hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

Suitable gums are disclosed in Rana, V. et al, Carbohydrate Polymers 83 (201 1 ) 1031 -1047 (see, in particular, Table 1 ). In at least one embodiment, the

polysaccharide polymer is a natural gum derived from a plant. In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, and combinations thereof. Chemically modified versions of such polymers may also be used.

"Modified polysaccharides" means that the polysaccharide polymer treated by one or more suitable physical, enzymatic or chemical process into another modified form of the polysaccharide polymer.

A modified form of the polysaccharide polymer treat by a suitable physical, enzymatic or chemical process mean e.g.:

Acidic treatment of polysaccharide polymer by the reaction with Acids (e.g. hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, or sulphuric acid) Alkaline treatment of polysaccharide polymer by the reaction with bases (e.g. Sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide)

bleached polysaccharide polymer by the reaction with peracetic acid, hydrogene peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sulfur dioxide, sulphites, potassium permanganate or ammonium persulfate.

Enzymatic modified form of the polysaccharide polymer by the treatment with encymes.

oxidised polysaccharide polymer by oxidation (e.g. with Sodium

hypochlorite)

- acetylated polysaccharide polymer by esterification with e.g. anhydrides hydroxypropyl Polysaccharide by reaction with propylene oxide

hydroxyethyl Polysaccharide by reaction with ethylene oxide

Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-linked D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monomers. Xanthan gum is composed of pentasaccharide repeat units, comprising glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of about 2.0:2.0:1 .0. Carrageenan is a linear sulfated polysaccharide that are extracted from red edible seaweeds. There are three main varieties of carrageenan, which differ in their degree of sulfation:

kappa-carrageenan has one sulfate group per disaccharide; iota-carrageenan has two sulfates per disaccharide; lambda carrageenan has three sulfates per disaccharide. All carrageenans are high-molecular weight polysaccharides made up of repeating galactose units and 3,6-anhydrogalactose, both sulfated and non-sulfated. The units are joined by alternating cr-1 ,3 and β-1 ,4 glycosidic linkages. Guar gum is a polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose and mannose: the backbone is a linear chain of β 1 ,4-linked mannose residues to which galactose residues are 1 ,6-linked at every second mannose, forming short side-branches. Guar gum is primarily the groand endosperm of guar beans.

Alginate may also be referred to in the literature as algin or alginic acid. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide derived from brown algae and is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1 -4)-linked β-D-mannuronate residues and

a-L-guluronate residues. In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer comprises glucose and/or galactose units. In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is a galactomannan. Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically, a (1 -4)-linked beta-D- mannopyranose backbone with branchpoints from their 6-positions linked to alpha-D-galactose, i.e. 1 -6-linked alpha-D-galactopyranose). In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is a guar gum or a guar gum derivative. In at least one embodiment, the guar gum derivative is selected from the group consisting of hydroxypropyl guar gum, carboxymethyl guar gum, carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar gum, and quaternary ammonium guar gum.

The polysaccharide polymer is substantially free of starch, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose, and derivatives thereof. Cellulose derivatives include for example cellulose ethers, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose. Such polysaccharides are either neither water-soluble nor water-swellable, or result in hybrid polymers that are not desirable from a performance perspective.

In at least one embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, derivatives thereof, and combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, and combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the polysaccharide polymer is xanthan gum.

Polymerisation

The components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent. Radical precipitation polymerisation has the advantage over other synthesis methods in that it results in a more useful level of polymer branching. In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation is grafting radical precipitation polymerisation.

In at least one embodiment, the radical precipitation polymerization is carried out in a polar solvent mixture comprising:

I) water and II) a further compound.

In at least one embodiment the compound II) is polar and organic.

In at least one embodiment the compound II) is one or more polar alcohols and one or more ketones.

In a preferred embodiment, the compound II) is selected from the group consisting methanol, ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, 1 -butanol, 2-butanol, dimethyl ketone, diethyl ketone, pentan-2-one, butanone, tetra hydro pyrane, tetra hydro furane, 2-methyl-tetrahydro furane, 1 ,3-dioxane, 1 ,4-dioxane, preferably 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, dimethyl ketone, tetrahydro furane, 2-methyl-tetrahydro furane, more preferably 2-methyl-2-propanol and dimethyl ketone. In a preferred embodiment, the solvent mixture contains from 0.5 up to 0 wt.-%, preferably from 1 up to 8 wt.-% and more preferably from 2 up to 5 wt.-% water.

In a preferred embodiment, the solvent mixture contains from 1 up to 99.5 wt.-%, preferably from 5 up to 95 wt.-% and more preferably from 10 up to 90 wt.-% 2-methyl-2-propanol.

In at least one embodiment, the monomers resulting in the units in the synthetic polymer (i.e. (a), optionally (b), optionally (c), optionally (d), optionally (e)) are/is neutralised with a base prior to the polymerisation, and/or the hybrid polymer after polymerisation is neutralised with a base. In at least one embodiment, the base is selected from bases comprising an ion selected the group consisting of Li + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Zn ÷+ , Α ++ , and combinations thereof; preferably wherein the base is selected from hydroxides, carbonates and hydrogen carbonates comprising an ion selected the group consisting of Li + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg , Zn ++ , Α ++ , and combinations thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, the polar solvent mixture comprises from 0.5 up to 10 wt.-% water, from 1 up to 98.5 wt.-% 2-methyl-2-propanol and from 1 up to 98.5 wt.-% dimethyl ketone, preferably from 0.5 up to 7.5 wt.-% water, from 5 up to 94.5 wt.-% 2-methyl-2-propanol and from 5 up to 94.5 wt.-% dimethyl ketone.

The preferred embodiments, as well as more detailed and preferred features of the polymerisation, are provided in the eighth aspect, which is combinable and compatible with the first aspect and thus incorporated herein by reference.

Example embodiments of the first aspect

In a preferred embodiment, the first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer comprising:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer consisting of repeating units resulting from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and

combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent.

In a preferred embodiment, the first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer comprising:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer consisting of: repeating units resulting from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and

combinations thereof; and crosslinking or branching units resulting from the incorporation of a crosslinking monomer selected from the group consisting of: glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA), pentaerythritol diacrylatee mono stearate (PEAS), hexanediol diacrylatee (HDDA), hexanediol dimethacrylatee (HDDMA), and

combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent.

In a preferred embodiment, the first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer consisting of:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer consisting of: repeating units resulting from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and

combinations thereof; and crosslinking or branching units resulting from the incorporation of a crosslinking monomer selected from the group consisting of: glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA), pentaerythritol diacrylatee mono stearate (PEAS), hexanediol diacrylatee (HDDA), hexanediol dimethacrylatee (HDDMA), and

combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent. In a preferred embodiment, the first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer comprising of:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% a combination of different water-soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymers selected from the group

consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan and alginate; (ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer consisting of: repeating units resulting from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and combinations thereof; and crosslinking or branching units resulting from the incorporation of a crosslinking monomer selected from the group consisting of: glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA), pentaerythritol diacrylatee mono stearate (PEAS), hexanediol diacrylatee (HDDA), hexanediol dimethacrylatee (HDDMA), and

combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent. In a preferred embodiment, the first aspect relates to a water-soluble and/or water- swellable hybrid polymer consisting of:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof;

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer consisting of: repeating units resulting from the incorporation of a monomer selected from the group consisting of acryloyldimethyltaurates, acryloyl-1 ,1 -dimethyl- 2methyltaurates, acryloyltaurates, acryloyl-N-methyltaurates, and

combinations thereof; and crosslinking or branching units resulting from the incorporation of a crosslinking monomer selected from the group consisting of: glycerol propoxylate triacrylatee (GPTA), trimethylolpropane triacrylatee (TMPTA), and combinations thereof;

characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent.

SECOND ASPECT

The second aspect relates to a composition. The composition comprises:

(i) a hybrid polymer according to the first aspect;

(ii) a carrier.

In at least one embodiment, the composition is a cosmetic composition. In at least one embodiment, the cosmetic composition is selected from the group consisting of shampoo, body wash, facial cleanser, cleansing masks, bubble bath, intimate wash, bath oil, cleansing milk, micellar water, make-up remover, cleansing wipes, perfume, liquid soaps, shaving soaps, shaving foams, cleansing foams, day creams, night creams, anti-ageing creams, body milks, body lotions, face serums, eye creams, sunscreen sprays, sun care milks, sun care creams, sun care gels, after-shave lotions, pre-shaving creams, depilatory creams, whitening creams, self-tanning creams, anti-acne gels, mascaras, foundations, primers, concealers, bb creams, eyeliners, highlighters, lip stains, hand sanitizers, nail varnish removers, conditioners, hair styling gels, hair styling creams, hair shine serums, scalp treatments, hair colourants, split end fluids, deodorants, antiperspirants, baby creams, insect repellent sprays, hand creams, foot creams, exfoliators, scrubs, and cellulite treatments.

Carrier

A carrier is useful for providing the compounds used in present invention in liquid form. In at least one embodiment, the carrier is a cosmetically acceptable carrier. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises at least 10 wt.-% water. Water is useful for economic reasons but also because it is highly cosmetically acceptable. Optionally the composition comprises water-miscible or water-soluble solvents such as lower alkyl alcohols. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises C1-C5 alkyl monohydric alcohols, preferably C2-C3 alkyl alcohols. The alcohols which may be present are in particular lower monohydric or polyhydric alcohols having 1 to 4 carbon atoms customarily used for cosmetic purposes, such as preferably ethanol and isopropanol.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a water-soluble polyhydric alcohol. In at least one embodiment, the water-soluble polyhydric alcohols are polyhydric alcohols having two or more hydroxyl groups in the molecule. In at least one embodiment, the water-soluble polyhydric alcohol is selected from the group consisting of: dihydric alcohols such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trimethylene glycol, 1 ,2-butylene glycol, 1 ,3-butylene glycol, 1 ,4-butylene glycol, tetramethylene glycol, 2,3-butylene glycol, pentamethylene glycol, 2-butene-1 ,4- diol, hexylene glycol, octylene glycol; trihydric alcohols such as glycerine, trimethylol propane, 1 ,2,6-hexanetriol and the like; tetrahydric alcohols such as penthaerythritol; pentahydric alcohols such as xylytol, etc.; hexahydric alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol; polyhydric alcohol polymers such as diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, diglycerine, polyethylene glycol, triglycerine, tetraglycerine, polyglycerine; dihydric alcohol alkyl ethers such as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, ethylene glycol monohexyl ether, ethylene glycol mono-2-methylhexyl ether, ethylene glycol isoamyl ether, ethylene glycol benzyl ether, ethylene glycol isopropyl ether, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, ethylene glycol dibutyl ether; dihydric alcohol alkyl ethers such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, diethylene glycol butyl ether, diethylene glycol methyl ethyl ether, triethylene glycol

monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol

monomethyl ether, propylene glycol monoethyl ether, propylene glycol monobutyl ether, propylene glycol isopropyl ether, dipropylene glycol methyl ether,

dipropylene glycol ethyl ether, dipropylene glycol butyl ether; dihydric alcohol ether esters such as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol diadipate, ethylene glycol disuccinate, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monopropyl ether acetate, propylene glycol monophenyl ether acetate; glycerine monoalkyl ethers such as xyl alcohol, selachyl alcohol, batyl alcohol; sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, maltitol,

maltotriose, mannitol, sucrose, erythritol, glucose, fructose, starch sugar, maltose, xylytose, starch sugar reduced alcohol, glysolid, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol,

POE tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, POP butyl ether, POP POE butyl ether,

tripolyoxypropylene glycerine ether, POP glycerine ether, POP glycerine ether phosphoric acid, POP POE pentanerythritol ether, and mixtures thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a cosmetically acceptable carrier selected from the group consisting of water, glycols, ethanol, and

combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises an aqueous, alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic carrier, and wherein the aqueous, alcoholic or aqueous- alcoholic carrier comprises water, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, 1 ,2-propylene glycol, 1 ,3-propylene glycol, isobutanol, butanol, butyl glycol, butyl diglycol, glycerol, or a mixture thereof; preferably wherein the aqueous, alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic solvent comprises water, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, 1 ,2-propylene glycol, 1 ,3-propylene glycol, glycerol, or mixtures thereof; more preferably wherein the aqueous, alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic carrier comprises water, isopropanol, 1 ,2-propylene glycol, 1 ,3-propylene glycol, or mixtures thereof; even more preferably wherein the aqueous, alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic carrier consists of water or consists of a mixture of water and an alcohol wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of isopropanol, 1 ,2-propylene glycol and 1 ,3-propylene glycol.

Natural carriers can also be used. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a carrier selected from the group consisting of plant oil, honey, plant- derived sugar compositions, and mixtures thereof.

Viscosity

In at least one embodiment, the composition has a viscosity of from 0 cPs to 20,000 cPs. In at least one embodiment, the composition has a viscosity of from

0.1 cPs to 10,000 cPs, or from 1 cPs to 5,000 cPs, or from 5 cPs to 3,500 cPs.

The viscosity measurement conditions are defined in the definitions section above.

Viscosity may be important for anti-drip reasons. Dripping can be inconvenient for the user. Furthermore, more viscous compositions can be useful for measured dispensing. In at least one embodiment, the composition has a viscosity of from

0 cPs to 1 ,000 cPs. This viscosity range is advantageous when the composition is in the form of a facial cleanser in view of the need for distribution on skin and ability to rinse off. In at least one embodiment, the composition further comprises a viscosity- modifying substance. The viscosity-modifying substance is preferably a thickening polymer. In at least one embodiment, the thickening polymer selected from the group consisting of: copolymers of at least one first monomer type, which is chosen from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, and at least one second monomer type, which is chosen from esters of acrylic acid and ethoxylated fatty alcohol; crossl inked polyacrylic acid; crossl inked copolymers of at least one first monomer type, which is chosen from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, and at least one second monomer type, which is chosen from esters of acrylic acid with do- to Cso-alcohols; copolymers of at least one first monomer type, which is chosen from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, and at least one second monomer type, which is chosen from esters of itaconic acid and ethoxylated fatty alcohol; copolymers of at least one first monomer type, which is chosen from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, at least one second monomer type, which is chosen from esters of itaconic acid and ethoxylated C10- to C3o-alcohol and a third monomer type, chosen from Ci-to C-4-aminoalkyl acrylates; copolymers of two or more monomers chosen from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic esters and methacrylic esters; homopolymers of acryloyldimethyltaurate; crossl inked homopolymers of acryloyldimethyltaurate; copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and salts of acryloyldimethyltaurate; copolymers of salts of acryloyldimethyltaurate and monomers chosen from esters of methacrylic acid and ethoxylated fatty alcohols; copolymers of salts of acryloyldimethyltaurate, methacrylic acid and monomers chosen from and alkylated acrylamid; salts of acryloyldimethyltaurate and N-vinyl pyrrol idone; salts of acryloyldimethyltaurate, methacrylic acid and monomers chosen from esters of methacrylic acid;

hydroxyethylcellulose; hydroxypropylcellulose; hydroxypropylguar; glyceryl polyacrylate; glyceryl polymethacrylate; copolymers of at least one C2-, C3- or C-4-alkylene and styrene; polyurethanes; hydroxy propyl starch phosphate;

polyacrylamide; copolymer of maleic anhydride and methyl vinyl ether crosslinked with decadiene; carob seed flour; guar gum; xanthan; dehydroxanthan;

carrageenan; karaya gum; hydrolyzed corn starch; copolymers of polyethylene oxide, fatty alcohols and saturated methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (e.g.

PEG-150/stearyl alcohol/SMDI copolymer); and mixtures thereof. pH

In at least one embodiment, the composition has a pH value of from 2.0 to 12.0, preferably from 3.0 to 9.0, more preferably from 4.5 to 8. By varying the pH value, a composition can be made available that is suitable for different applications.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an alkalizing agent or pH adjusting agent. In at least one embodiment, ammonia or caustic soda is suitable, but water-soluble, physiologically tolerable salts of organic and inorganic bases can also be considered. In at least one embodiment, the pH adjusting agent is selected from ammonium hydrogen carbonate, ammonia, monoethanolamine, ammonium carbonate. In at least one embodiment, the alkalizing agents is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-2-methyl-1 -propanol, 2-amino-2- methyl-1 ,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1 ,3-propanediol, tris(hydroxyl-methyl)- aminomethane, 2-amino-1 -butanole, tris-(2-hydroxypropyl)-amine,

2,2-iminobisethanol, lysine, iminourea (guanidine carbonate), tetrahydro-1 ,4- oxazine, 2-amino-5-guanidin-valeric acid, 2-aminoethansulfonic acid,

diethanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methyl ethanolamine, isopropanolamine, diisopropanolamine, triisopropanolamine, giucamine, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and magnesium oxide, and mixtures thereof.

To establish an acidic pH value, and acid can be included. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an acid selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, and mixtures thereof. Citric acid is most preferred in that it has high consumer acceptance. In at least one embodiment, the acidic pH is adjusted with a buffer such as a phosphate buffer, a TRIS buffer or a citric buffer. The buffers may be used alone or in combination with an acid. Form

In at least one embodiment, the composition is in liquid form. In an alternative embodiment, the composition is in solid form. Optionally, the composition is in powdered or granulated form. This is advantageous in that it is not needed to ship liquid, which is typically heavy over long distances, and thus has economic and environmental benefits. A solid form can be achieved by spray drying the composition or the employment of a rotary evaporator. The composition can be converted into liquid form after it has been shipped e.g. by adding water.

Surfactants

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a surfactant or surfactant system. In at least one embodiment, the surfactant or surfactant system comprises a surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants, zwitterionic surfactants and/or amphoteric surfactants.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a total amount of surfactant of from 0.01 wt.-% to 70 wt.-%, from 0.1 wt.-% to 40%, from 1 wt.-% to 30%, from 2 wt.-% to 20 wt.-%.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an anionic surfactant. In at least one embodiment, the anionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of (Cio-C2o)-alkyl and alkylene carboxylates, a Iky I ether carboxylates, fatty alcohol sulfates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates, alkylamide sulfates and sulfonates, fatty acid alkylamide polyglycol ether sulfates, alkanesulfonates and

hydroxyalkanesulfonates, olefinsulfonates, acyl esters of isethionates, -sulfo fatty acid esters, alkylbenzenesulfonates, alkylphenol glycol ether sulfonates, sulfosuccinates, sulfosuccinic monoesters and diesters, fatty alcohol ether phosphates, protein/fatty acid condensation products, alkyl monoglyceride sulfates and sulfonates, alkylglyceride ether sulfonates, fatty acid methyltaurides, fatty acid sarcosinates, sulforicinoleates, acylglutamates, and mixtures thereof. The anionic surfactants (and their mixtures) can be used in the form of their water-soluble or water-dispersible salts, examples being the sodium, potassium, magnesium, ammonium, mono-, di-, and triethanolammonium, and analogous alkylammonium salts. In at least one embodiment, the anionic surfactant is the salt of an anionic surfactant comprising 12 to 14 carbon atoms. In at least one embodiment, the anionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, sodium trideceth sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium myreth sulfate, and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an acylglycinate surfactant. In at least one embodiment, the acylglycinate surfactant conforms to the formula (Y):

wherein

R 1 a is a linear or branched, saturated alkanoyl group having 6 to 30, preferably 8 to 22, particularly preferably 8 to 18, carbon atoms or is a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenoyl group having 6 to 30, preferably 8 to 22 and particularly preferably 12 to 18 carbon atoms, and Q a + is a cation. In at least one embodiment, Q a + is selected from the group consisting of Li + , Na + , K\ Mg ++ , Ca ++ , Α ++ , NH 4 + , a monoalkylammmonium ion, a dialkylammonium ion, a trialkylammonium ion and a

tetraalkylammonium ion, or combinations thereof. Optionally R 1a is, independently from one another, selected from (Ci-C-22)-alkyl radicals or (C2-Cio)-hydroxyalkyl radicals. In at least one embodiment, the

acylglycinate surfactant is selected from sodium cocoylglycinate and potassium cocoylglycinate. In at least one embodiment, the acylglycinate surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (Y), wherein R is Ci 2 alkyl or CM alkyl. In at least one embodiment, the acylglycinate surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (Y), wherein R is

Ci6 alkyl or Cia alkyl.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a glutamate surfactant corresponding to formula (Z) or a salt thereof: R CO N H CH COOH (Z)

R' wherein

R' is HOOC-CH2-CH2- or M + OOC-CH 2 -CH 2 - wherein M + is a cation; and

wherein R is a linear or branched, saturated alkanoyl group having 6 to 30, preferably 8 to 22, more preferably 8 to 18, carbon atoms or is a linear or branched, mono- or polyunsaturated alkenoyl group having 6 to 30, preferably 8 to 22 and more preferably 12 to 18 carbon atoms. In at least one embodiment, M + is a metal cation. In at least one embodiment, SVT is selected from the group consisting of Li + , Na + , K + , Mg ++ , Ca ++ , Α ++ , NH 4 + , a monoalkylammmonium ion, a dialkylammonium ion, a trialkylammonium ion and a tetraalkylammonium ion, or combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the glutamate surfactant is selected from sodium cocoyl glutamate and potassium cocoyl glutamate. In at least one embodiment, the glutamate surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (Z), wherein R is C12 a Iky I or C14 alkyl. In at least one embodiment, the glutamate surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (Z), wherein R is C16 alkyl or C18 alkyl. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.01 wt.-% to

30 wt.-%, or 1 wt.-% to 25 wt.-%, preferably from 5 wt.-% to 20 wt.-%, more preferably from 12 wt.-% to 18 wt.-% anionic surfactant.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a non-ionic surfactant.

In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic surfactant has an HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) of greater than 12. Optionally, the non-ionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of ethoxylated or ethoxylated/propoxylated fatty alcohols with a fatty chain comprising from 12 to 22 carbon atoms, ethoxylated sterols, such as stearyl- or lauryl alcohol (EO-7), PEG-16 soya sterol or PEG-10 soya sterol, polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block polymers (poloxamers), and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of ethoxylated fatty alcohols, fatty acids, fatty acid glycerides or alkylphenols, in particular addition products of from 2 to 30 mol of ethylene oxide and/or 1 to 5 mol of propylene oxide onto Ce- to C22-fatty alcohols, onto C12- to C22-fatty acids or onto a Iky I phenols having 8 to 15 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, C12- to C-22-fatty acid mono- and diesters of addition products of from 1 to 30 mol of ethylene oxide onto glycerol, addition products of from 5 to 60 mol of ethylene oxide onto castor oil or onto hydrogenated castor oil, fatty acid sugar esters, in particular esters of sucrose and one or two Ce- to C-22-fatty acids, INCI: Sucrose Cocoate, Sucrose Dilaurate, Sucrose Distearate, Sucrose La urate, Sucrose Myristate, Sucrose Oleate, Sucrose Palmitate, Sucrose Ricinoleate, Sucrose Stearate, esters of sorbitan and one, two or three Ce- to C22-fatty acids and a degree of ethoxylation of from 4 to 20, polyglyceryl fatty acid esters, in particular of one, two or more Ce- to C22-fatty acids and polyglycerol having preferably 2 to 20 glyceryl units, alkyl glucosides, alkyl oligoglucosides and alkyl polyglucosides having Ce to C22-alkyl groups, e.g. decylglucoside or

laurylglucoside, and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohol ethoxylates (alkylpolyethylene glycols), alkylphenol polyethylene glycols, alkylmercaptan polyethylene glycols, fatty amine ethoxylates (alkylaminopolyethylene glycols), fatty acid ethoxylates (acyl polyethylene glycols), polypropylene glycol ethoxylates (Pluronics ' " ), fatty acid alkylol amides, (fatty acid amide polyethylene glycols), N-alkyl-, N-alkoxypolyhydroxy-fatty acid amide, sucrose esters, sorbitol esters, polyglycol ethers, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a fatty N-methyl-N- glucamide surfactant. In at least one embodiment, the fatty N-methyl-N-glucamide surfactant conforms to the formula (X):

(X)

is a linear or branched a Iky I or alkenyl group having from 3 to 30 carbon atoms. In at least one embodiment, R is an alkyl group having from 3 to

30 carbon atoms.

In at least one embodiment, R is a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon group which can be linear or branched and can have from 3 to 20 carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain, preferably linear or branched. Branched means that a lower a Iky I group such as methyl, ethyl or propyl is present as substituent on a linear alkyl chain. In at least one embodiment, R is selected from the group consisting of

1 - propyl, 2-propyl, 1 -butyl, 2-butyl, 2-methyl-1 -propyl (isobutyl), 2-methyl-2-propyl (tert-butyl), 1 -pentyl, 2-pentyl, 3-pentyl, 2-methyl-1 -butyl, 3-methyl-1 -butyl,

2-methyl-2-butyl, 3-methyl-2-butyl, 2,2-dimethyl-1 -propyl, 1 -hexyl, 2-hexyl, 3-hexyl,

2- methyl-1 -pentyl, 3-methyl-1 -pentyl, 4-methyl-1 -pentyl, 2-methyl-2-pentyl,

3- methyl-2-pentyl, 4-methyl-2-pentyl, 2-methyl-3-pentyl, 3-methyl-3-pentyl,

2.2- dimethyl-1 -butyl, 2,3-dimethyl-1 -butyl, 3,3-dimethyl-1 -butyl, 2-ethyl-1 -butyl,

2.3- dimethyl-2-butyl, 3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl, 1 -heptyl, 1 -octyl, 1 -nonyl, 1 -decyl, 1 -undecyl, 1 -dodecyl, 1 -tetradecyl, 1 -hexadecyl and 1 -octadecyl. Suitable fatty

N-methyl-N-glucamide surfactants are described in WO2013/178700 and

EP0550637, which are incorporated herein by reference. In at least one

embodiment, the N-methyl-N-glucamide surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (X), wherein R is C12 alkyl or C alkyl. In at least one embodiment, the N-methyl-N-glucamide surfactant is selected from those conforming to formula (X), wherein R is C16 alkyl or C18 alkyl. N-methyl-N- glucamide surfactants are available from Clariant under their GlucoTain ® brand.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 1 wt.-% to 20 wt.-%, more preferably from 2 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, even more preferably from 3 wt.-% to 7 wt.-% non-ionic surfactant.

In at least one embodiment, the amphoteric surfactants are selected from the group consisting of N-(Ci2-Cie)-alkyl-p-aminopropionates and N-(Ci2-Cie)-alkyl-p- iminodipropionates as alkali metal salts and mono-, di-, and trialkylammonium salts; N-acylaminoalkyl-N,N-dimethylacetobetaine, preferably N-(Ce-Cie)- acylaminopropyl-N,N-dimethylacetobetaine, (Ci2-Ci8)-alkyl-dimethyl- sulfopropylbetaine, amphosurfactants based on imidazoline (trade name: Miranol ® , Steinapon ® ), preferably the sodium salt of 1 -([3-carboxymethyloxyethyl)-1 -

(carboxymethyl)-2-laurylimidazolinium; amine oxide, e.g., (Ci2-Ci8)-alkyl-dimethyl- amine oxide, fatty acid amidoalkyldimethylamine oxide, and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a betaine surfactant.

Optionally, the betaine surfactant is selected from Ce- to Ci8-alkylbetaines. In at least one embodiment, the betaine surfactant is selected from the group consisting of cocodimethylcarboxymethylbetaine, lauryldimethylcarboxymethylbetaine, lauryldimethylalphacarboxyethylbetaine, cetyldimethylcarboxymethylbetaine, oleyldimethylgammacarboxypropylbetaine and laurylbis(2- hydroxypropyl)alphacarboxyethyl betaine and combinations thereof. Optionally, the betaine surfactant is selected from Ce- to Ci8-sulfobetaines. In at least one embodiment, the betaine surfactant is selected from the group consisting of cocodimethylsulfopropylbetaine, stearyldimethylsulfopropylbetaine, Iauryldimethyl- sulfoethylbetaine, laurylbis(2-hydroxyethyl)sulfopropylbetaine, and combinations thereof. Optionally, the betaine surfactant is selected from carboxyl derivatives of imidazole, the Ce- to Cie-alkyldimethylammonium acetates, the Ce- to

Ci8-alkyldimethylcarbonylmethylammonium salts, and the Ce- to Ci8-fatty acid alkylamidobetaines, and mixtures thereof. Optionally, the Ce- to Cie-fatty acid alkylamidobetaine is selected from coconut fatty acid amidopropylbetaine,

N -coco nut fatty acid amidoethyl-N-[2-(carboxymethoxy)ethyl]glycerol (CTFA name: Cocoamphocarboxyglycinate), and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.5 wt.-% to

20 wt.-%, preferably from 1 wt.-% to 10 wt.-% amphoteric surfactant.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a surfactant system. In at least one embodiment, the surfactant system comprises at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of lauryl sulfate, laureth sulfate, cocoamido- propylbetaine, sodium cocoylglutamate, lauroamphoacetate, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the surfactant system comprises sodium laureth sulphate, sodium lauryl sulphate, and optionally cocamidopropyl betaine. In at least one embodiment, the surfactant system comprises sodium laureth sulphate, Potassium Cocyl Glutamate, and cocamidopropyl betaine.

Conditioning agent

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a conditioning agent. In at least one embodiment, the conditioning agent is a water insoluble, water dispersible, non-volatile, liquid that forms emulsified, liquid particles. In at least one embodiment, the conditioning agent is a silicone (e.g., silicone oil, cationic silicone, silicone gum, high refractive silicone, and silicone resin), an organic conditioning oil (e.g., hydrocarbon oils, polyolefins, and fatty esters), or combinations thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the conditioning agent is a silicone, and wherein the composition comprises from 0.01 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, or from 0.1 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% silicone conditioning agent, by total weight of the composition. Suitable silicone conditioning agents, and optional suspending agents for the silicone, are

described in US 5,104,646. In at least one embodiment, the composition

comprises a silicone gum selected from the group consisting of

polydimethylsiloxane, (polydimethylsiloxane) (methylvinylsiloxane) copolymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (diphenylsiloxane) (methylvinylsiloxane) copolymer, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a terminal aminosilicone. "Terminal aminosilicone" as defined herein means silicone comprising one or more amino groups at one or both ends of the silicone backbone. In at least one embodiment, the composition is substantially free of any silicone compound comprising pendant amino groups. In an embodiment, the composition is substantially free of any silicone compound other than terminal aminosilicones. In at least one embodiment, the amino group at least one terminus of the silicone backbone of the terminal aminosilicone is selected from the group consisting of primary amines, secondary amines and tertiary amines. In at least one

embodiment, the composition comprises a terminal aminosilicone conforming to Formula (S):

(R F )aG 3 -a-Si-(-OSiG 2 )n-0-SiG3-a(R F )a (S) wherein

G is hydrogen, phenyl, hydroxy, or Ci-Ca alkyl, preferably methyl;

a is an integer having a value from 1 to 3, preferably 1 ;

b is 0, 1 or 2, preferably 1 ;

n is a number from 0 to 1 ,999;

R F is a monovalent radical conforming to the general formula C q H 2q L, wherein q is an integer having a value from 2 to 8 and

L is selected from the following groups: -N(R T )CH 2 -CH2-N(R T ) 2 ; -N(R T ) 2 ;

-N(R T ):JA " ; -N(R T )CH 2 -CH 2 -NR T H 2 A-; wherein R T is hydrogen, phenyl, benzyl, or a saturated hydrocarbon radical, preferably an alkyl radical from having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; A " is a halide ion.

In at least one embodiment, the terminal aminosilicone corresponding to Formula (S) has a=1 , q=3, G=methyl, n is from 1000 to 2500, alternatively from 1500 to 1700; and L is -N(CH:i) 2 . A suitable terminal aminosilicone corresponding to Formula (S) has a=O, G=methyl, n is from 100 to 1500, or from 200 to 800, and L is selected from the following groups: -N(R T )CH 2 -CH 2 -N(R T ) 2 ; -N(R T ) 2 ; -N(R T ) 3 A " ; -N(R T )CH 2 -CH 2 -NR T H 2 A ~ ; wherein R T is selected from hydrogen, phenyl, benzyl, or a saturated hydrocarbon radical, preferably an alkyl radical from having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; A " is a halide ion, alternatively L is -NH2. In at least one embodiment, the terminal aminosilicone is selected from the group consisting of bis-aminomethyl dimethicone, bisaminoethyl dimethicone, bis-aminopropyl dimethicone, bis-aminobutyl dimethicone, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the viscosity of the terminal aminosilicone is from 1 ,000 to

30,000 CPs, or from 5,000 to 20,000 cPs measured at 25 °C.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.1 wt.-% to

20 wt.-%, or from 0.5 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, or from 1 wt.-% to 6 wt.-% terminal aminosilicone, by total weight of the composition.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a high melting point fatty compound. The high melting point fatty compound has a melting point of 25 °C or higher. In at least one embodiment, the high melting point fatty compound is selected from the group consisting of a fatty alcohol, fatty acid, fatty alcohol derivative, fatty acid derivative, and mixtures thereof. Non-limiting examples of the high melting point compounds are found in International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary, Fifth Edition, 1993, and CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook, Second Edition, 1992. The composition may comprise from 0.1 wt.-% to 40 wt.-%, or from 1 wt.-% to 30 wt.-%, or from 1 .5 wt.-% to 16 wt.-%, or from 1 .5 wt.-% to 8 wt.-% of a high melting point fatty compound, by total weight of the composition. This is advantageous in view of providing improved conditioning benefits such as slippery feel during the application to wet hair, softness and moisturized feel on dry hair. In at least one embodiment, the fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of: cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a linear fatty alcohol, wherein the linear fatty alcohol is also comprised in a lamellar gel matrix. The lamellar gel matrix is suitable for providing various conditioning benefits such as slippery feel during the application to wet hair and softness and moisturized feel on dry hair. The linear fatty alcohol may comprise from 8 to 24 carbon atoms. In at least one

embodiment, the linear fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of: cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, the weight ratio of total linear fatty alcohol to terminal aminosilicone is from 0.5:1 to 10:1 , or from 1 :1 to 5:1 , or from 2.4:1 to 2.7:1 . In at least one embodiment, the lamellar gel matrix comprises a cationic surfactant and a high melting point fatty compound. In view of providing the lamellar gel matrix, the cationic surfactant and the high melting point fatty compound are contained at a level such that the weight ratio of the cationic surfactant to the high melting point fatty compound is in the range of from 1 : 1 to 1 : 10, or from 1 : 1 to 1 :6.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a cationic surfactant. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.05 wt.-% to 3.0 wt.-%, or from 0.075 wt.-% to 2.0 wt.-%, or from 0.1 wt.-% to 1 .0 wt.-%, of cationic surfactant by total weight of the composition. In at least one embodiment, the cationic surfactant is comprised in a lamellar gel matrix. In other words, the composition comprises a lamellar gel matrix and the lamellar gel matrix comprises the cationic surfactant. In an embodiment, cationic surfactant is according to Formula (C):

71

R 74

(C) wherein

at least one of R 71 , R 72 , R 73 and R 74 is selected from an aliphatic group of from 8 to 30 carbon atoms, an aromatic, alkoxy, polyoxyalkylene, alkylamido, hydroxyalkyl, aryl, or an alkylaryl group having up to 22 carbon atoms;

the remainder of R 71 , R 72 , R 73 and R 74 are independently selected from the group consisting of an aliphatic group consisting of from 1 to 22 carbon atoms, and an aromatic, alkoxy, polyoxyalkylene, alkylamido, hydroxyalkyl, aryl or alkylaryl group having up to 22 carbon atoms;

X is selected from the group consisting of: halogen, acetate, citrate, lactate, glycolate, phosphate, nitrate, sulfonate, sulfate, alkylsulfate, alkyl sulfonate radicals, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the cationic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, methyl sulfate or ethyl sulfate, and stearyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, methyl sulfate or ethyl sulfate. It is believed that a longer a Iky I group provides improved smoothness and soft feeling on wet and dry hair, compared to cationic surfactants with a shorter a Iky I group. It is also believed that such cationic surfactants can provide reduced irritation, compared to those having a shorter a Iky I group.

In at least one embodiment, the cationic surfactant is a di-long alkyl quatemized ammonium salt selected from the group consisting of: dialkyl (14 - 18) dimethyl ammonium chloride, ditallow alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, dihydrogenated tallow alkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, dicetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the cationic surfactant is a tertiary amido amine having an alkyl group of from 12 to 22 carbons. The tertiary amido amine may be selected from the group consisting of stearamidopropyldimethyl-,

stearamidopropyldiethyl-, stearamidoethyldiethyl-, stearamidoethyldimethyl-, palmitamidopropyldimethyl-, palmitamidopropyldiethyl-, palmitamidoethyldiethyl-, palmitamidoethyldimethyl-, behenamidopropyldimethyl -,

behenamidopropyldiethyl-, behenamidoethyldiethyl-, behenamidoethyldimethyl-, arachidamidopropy Idimethy 1 -, arachidamidopropyldiethyl-,

arachidamidoethyldiethyl-, and arachidamidoethyldimethyl-amine,

diethylaminoethylstearamide, and mixtures thereof. A tertiary amido amine may be used in combination with an acid. The acid is typically used as a salt-forming anion. In an embodiment, the acid is selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, malic acid, hydrochloric acid, 1 -glumatic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the cationic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of cetyltrimonium chloride (CTAC), stearyltrimonium chloride (STAC), behentrimonium methosulfate, stearoylamidopropyldimethyl amine (SAPDMA), distearyldimethylammonium chloride, and mixtures thereof. Hairstyling polymers

In at least one embodiment, the composition further comprises a hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: amphoteric hairstyling polymers, zwitterionic hairstyling polymers, anionic hairstyling polymers, non-ionic hairstyling polymers, cationic hairstyling polymers, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.01 wt.-% to 20 wt.-%, or from 0.01 wt.-% to

16 wt.-%, or from 0.01 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, or from 1 wt.-% to 8 wt.-%, or from 2 wt.-% to 6 wt.-% of hairstyling polymer.

In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a water-compatible hairstyling polymer, alternatively a water-soluble hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the composition is substantially free of a water-incompatible hairstyling polymer. An example of a water-incompatible hairstyling polymer includes an Acrylates/t-Butylacrylamide Copolymer which is a copolymer of tert-butyl acrylamide and one or more monomers of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or one of their simple esters (e.g. Ultrahold ® 8 from BASF). Balance ® CR from Akzo Nobel, which is an acrylates copolymer of two or more monomers of (meth)acrylic acid or one of their simple esters, is water-compatible. The octylacrylamide/acrylate/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer Amphomer ® is also water-compatible. In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a latex hairstyling polymer. The composition may comprise a cationic hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymers is selected from from group consisting of those with primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary amino groups. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymer has a cationic charge density, and wherein the cationic charge density is from 1 to 7 meq/g. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymer comprises quaternary amino groups. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymer is a homo- or copolymer where the quaternary nitrogen groups are contained either in the polymer chain or as substituents on one or more of the monomers. The ammonium group-containing monomers can be copolymerized with non-cationic monomers. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyiing polymer comprises cationic monomers where the cationic monomers are unsaturated compounds that can undergo radical polymerization and which bear at least one cationic group. In at least one embodiment, the cationic monomers are selected from the group consisting of: ammonium-substituted vinyl monomers such as, for example, trialkylmethacryloxyalkylammonium, trialkylacryloxyalkylammonium,

dialkyldiallylammonium and quaternary vinylammonium monomers with cyclic, cationic nitrogen-containing groups such as pyridinium, imidazolium or quaternary pyrrolidones, e.g. alkylvinylimidazolium, alkylvinyl pyridinium, or

alkylvinylpyrrolidone salts. The alkyl groups of these monomers may be lower a Iky I groups such, as for example, Ci- to Cz-alkyl groups, and may also be are Ci- to C-3-alkyl groups. In at least one embodiment, cationic hairstyiing polymer comprises ammonium group-containing monomers being copolymerized with non-cationic monomers. The non-cationic monomers may be selected from the group consisting of:

acrylamide, methacrylamide, alkyl- and dialkylacrylamide, alkyl- and

dialkylmethacrylamide, alkyl acrylate, alkyl methacrylate, vinylcaprolactone, vinylcaprolactam, vinylpyrrolidone, vinyl esters, for example vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, propylene glycol or ethylene glycol, and mixture thereof. The alkyl groups of these monomers may be Ci- to Cz-alkyl groups, and may be Ci- to Cs-alkyl groups. In at least one embodiment, cationic hairstyiing polymer comprises at least one quaternary amino group. Suitable polymers with at least one quaternary amino group include, for example, those described in the CTFA Cosmetic

Ingredient Dictionary under the designations 'polyquaternium' such as

methylvinylimidazolium chloride/vinylpyrrolidone copolymer (polyquaternium-16) or quaternized vinylpyrrolidone/dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer

(polyquaternium-1 1 ; Gafquat ® 755N-PW from ISP) as well as quaternary silicone polymers or silicone oligomers such as, for example, silicone polymers with quaternary end groups (quatemium-80). In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic hairstyling polymer being of synthetic origin. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymers of synthetic origin are selected from the group consisting of: poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride); copolymers from acrylamide and dimethyldiallylammonium chloride; quaternary ammonium polymers, formed by the reaction of diethyl sulfate with a copolymer from vinylpyrrolidone and

dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, especially vinylpyrrolidone/dimethylaminoethyi methacrylate methosulfate copolymer (e.g. Gafquat ® 755 N; Gafquat ® 734);

quaternary ammonium polymers from methylvinylimidazolium chloride and vinylpyrrolidone (e.g. Luviquat ® HM 550 from BASF; Luviquat ® Hold from BASF; polyquaternium-46 [vinylcaprolactam {VCap}, vinylpyrrolidone {VP} and

quaternized vinylimidazole {QVi}] from BASF; Luviquat ® FC 905 from BASF

[polyquaternium-16]); Luviquat Supreme ® from BASF (polyquaternium-68, quaternised copolymer of vinyl pyrrolidone, methacrylamides, vinyl imidazole and quaternized vinyl imidazole); polyquaternium-35; polyquaternium-57; polymers from trimethylammonium ethyl methacrylate chloride; terpolymers from

dimethyldiallylammonium chloride, sodium acrylate and acrylamide (e.g. Merquat ® Plus 3300); copolymers from vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl

methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyllauryldimethylammonium chloride; terpolymers from vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, and vinylcaprolactam (e.g. Gaffix ® VC 713);

vinylpyrrolidone/methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride copolymers (e.g. Gafquat ® HS 100); copolymers from vinylpyrrolidone and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate; copolymers from vinylpyrrolidone, vinylcaprolactam, and

dimethylaminopropylacrylamide; poly- or oligoesters formed from at least one first type of monomer that is selected from hydroxyacids substituted with at least one quaternary ammonium group; dimethyl polysiloxane substituted with quaternary ammonium groups in the terminal positions; and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic hairstyling polymer being of natural origin. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymers being of natural origin are selected from the group consisting of: cationic derivatives of polysaccharides, for example, cationic cellulose derivatives, starch, guar, and mixtures thereof. Cationic derivatives of polysaccharides may be represented by the general formula (D):

G-O-B-N + -R a -R b -R c X- (D) wherein

G is an anhydroglucose residue, for example, starch or cellulose

anhydroglucoses;

B is a divalent bonding group, for example, alkylene, oxyalkylene polyoxyalkylene or hydroxyalkylene;

R a , R b and R c are independently from one another, alkyl, aryl, alkylaryl, arylalkyl, alkoxyalkyl or alkoxyaryl, any of which can have up to 22 carbon atoms, wherein the total number of carbon atoms in R a , R b and R° is may be a maximum of 20.

In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic cellulose derivative being selected from the group consisting of: those that have at least one quaternary ammonium group, e.g. a copolymer made of hydroxyethyl cellulose and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (polyquaternium-4), or the reaction product made of hydroxyethyl cellulose and an epoxide substituted with a trialkyl ammonium group (polyquaternium-10), wherein the alkyl groups can have 1 to 20 carbon atoms, or wherein the alkyl group is methyl. In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic cellulose derivative having a molecular weight of from 100,000 Da to 600,000 Da, or from 200,000 Da to 400,000 Da. In at least one embodiment, the cationic cellulose derivative has a nitrogen content, wherein the nitrogen content is from 0.5 wt.-% to 4 wt.-%, or from about 1 .5 wt.-% to 3 wt.-%. In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic cellulose derivative being polyquaternium-4. Polyquaternium-4 is sold under the trade names Celquat ® HIOO and Celquat ® L200, of which Celquat ® L200 is especially preferred.

In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is a cationic latex hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the cationic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: polyquaternium-4, polyquaternium-1 1 , polyquaternium-16, polyquaternium-68, mixtures thereof, and mixtures of polyquaternium-68 with a non-ionic hairs tyling polymer. In at least one

embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of:

polyquaternium-4, polyquaternium-1 1 , polyquaternium-68, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a chitosan, a chitosan salt or a chitosan derivative. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises less than 0.1 wt.-% by weight chitosan, chitosan salts and chitosan derivatives. In another embodiment, the composition is substantially free from chitosan, chitosan salts and chitosan derivatives. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a hairstyling polymer selected from the group consisting of:

polyquaternium-4, polyquaternium-1 1 , polyquaternium-16, polyquaternium-68, mixtures thereof; or from the group consisting of: polyquaternium-4,

polyquaternium-68, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a hairstyling polymer selected from the group consisting of: polyquaternium-4, polyquaternium-1 1 , polyquaternium-68, mixtures thereof; or from the group consisting of: polyquaternium-4, polyquaternium-68, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises less than 0.5 wt.-% of a cationic hairstyling polymer by total weight of the composition.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an amphoteric or zwitterionic hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the amphoteric or zwitterionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of:

copolymers formed from alkylacrylamide, alkylaminoalkyi methacrylate, and two or more monomers from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid as well as, if necessary, their esters, especially copolymers from octylacrylamide, acrylic acid,

butylaminoethyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate and hydroxypropyl

methacrylate (octylacrylamide/acrylate/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, for example Amphomer ® from Akzo Nobel); copolymers, that are formed from at least one of a first type of monomer that possesses quaternary amino groups and at least one of a second type of monomer that possesses acid groups; copolymers from fatty alcohol acrylates, alkylamine oxide methacrylate and at least one monomer selected from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid as well as, if necessary, acrylic acid esters and methacrylic acid esters, especially copolymers from lauryl acrylate, stearyl acrylate, ethylamine oxide methacrylate and at least one monomer selected from acrylic acid and methacrylic acid as well as, if necessary, their esters; copolymers from methacryloyl ethyl betaine and at least one monomer selected from methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid esters; copolymers from acrylic acid, methyl acrylate and methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride (polyquaternium-47); copolymers from

acrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride and acrylates or copolymers from acrylamide, acrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride,

2-amidopropylacrylamide sulfonate and dimethylaminopropylamine

(polyquaternium-43); oligomers or polymers, producible from quaternary

crotonoylbetaines or quaternary crotonoylbetaine esters. In at least one

embodiment, the composition comprises an amphoteric or zwitterionic latex hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: polyquaternium-47,

octylacrylamide/acrylate/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymers, and mixtures thereof.

The hairstyling composition may comprise an anionic hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the anionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: acrylates copolymers of two or more monomers of (meth)acrylic acid or one of their simple esters (e.g. Balance ® CR from Akzo Nobel);

acrylates/hydroxyesters acrylates copolymers including those being copolymers of butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, ethyl acrylate and

hydroxyethyl methacrylate (e.g. Acudyne™ 1000 from Dow Personal Care);

terpolymers of acrylic acid, ethyl acrylate, and N-tert-butylacrylamide; crossl inked or uncrosslinked vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymers; terpolymers of tert- butylacrylate, ethyl acrylate and methacrylic acid; sodium polystyrenesulfonate; copolymers of vinyl acetate, crotonic acid and vinyl propionate; copolymers of vinyl acetate, crotonic acid and vinyl neodecanoate; aminomethylpropanol/acrylate copolymers; copolymers of vinyl pyrrol idone and at least one further monomer selected from among acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters and methacrylic acid esters; copolymers of methyl vinyl ether and maleic acid monoalkyl esters; aminomethylpropanol salts of copolymers of allyl methacrylate and at least one further monomer selected from among acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters and methacrylic acid esters; crossl inked copolymers of ethyl acrylate and methacrylic acid; copolymers of vinyl acetate, mono-n-butyl maleate and isobornyl acrylate; copolymers of two or more monomers selected from among acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters and methacrylic acid esters, copolymers of octylacrylamide and at least one monomer selected from among acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters and methacrylic acid esters; polyesters of diglycol, cyclohexanedimethanol, isophthalic acid and sulfoisophthalic acid; polyurethanes; and copolymers of polyurethane and acrylates. e.g. polyurethane-14/AMP-acrylates polymer blend (e.g. DynamX ® from Akzo Nobel). Suitable polyester polymers include polyester-5 polymers, for example AQ ® 48 Ultra Polymer, (diglycol/CHDM/isophthalates/SIP copolymer [a copolymer of diethylene glycol, 1 ,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and the simple esters of isophthalic acid and sulfoisophthalic acid]), AQ ® 55 S, and AQ ® 38 S, all from Eastman Chemical Company. Also suitable is a polyvinylmethacrylic acid/maleic acid copolymer (Omnirez ® 2000 from ISP). Anionic latex hairstyling polymers are also suitable. In at least one embodiment, the anionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: polyurethane-1 (e.g. Luviset ® P.U.R. from BASF), polyurethane-14/AMP-acrylates copolymer blend (e.g.

DynamX ® from Akzo Nobel), acrylates copolymers of two or more monomers of (meth)acrylic acid or one of their simple esters (e.g. Balance ® CR from Akzo Nobel), and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the anionic hairstyling polymer is polyurethane-1 .

The composition may comprise a non-ionic hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a non-ionic hairstyling polymer, wherein are non-ionic hairstyling polymer is a homo- or copolymer that is formed from at least one of the following monomers: vinylpyrrolidone, vinylcaprolactam, vinyl esters such as, for example, vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylamide,

methacrylamide, alkyl- and dialkylacrylamide, alkyl- and dialkylmethacrylamide, alkyl acrylate, alkyl methacrylate, propylene glycol or ethylene glycol, where the a Iky I groups in these monomers may be Ci- to Cz-alkyl groups or Ci- to Ca-a!kyl groups. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a homopolymer selected from the group consisting of: vinylcaprolactam, vinylpyrrolidone,

N-vinylformamide and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate, terpolymers of vinylpyrrolidone, vinyl acetate and vinyl propionate, polyacrylamides; polyvinyl alcohols as well as polyethylene glycol/polypropylene glycol copolymers; and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: polyvinylpyrrolidone/dimethylaminopropylaminoacrylates copolymer (Aquaflex ® SF 40 from ISP); isobutylene ethylmaleinimide/hydroxy

ethylmaleinimide copolymer (Aquaflex ® FX 64 from ISP);

vinylcaprolactam/polyvinylpyrrolidone/dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer (Advantage ® from ISP); and mixtures thereof. Non-ionic latex hairstyling polymers are also suitable. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: polyvinylpyrrolidone (K90, 85, 80, 60, 30), polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers (PVP/VA 64), terpolymers of vinylpyrrolidone, methacrylamide and vinylimidazole (e.g. Luviset ® Clear from BASF), and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: PVP K 60, 30, and PVP/VA 37/64. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic hairstyling polymer is selected from the group consisting of: PVP K60 and PVP/VA 37/64. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an anionic latex hairstyling polymer. In at least one embodiment, the anionic latex hairstyling polymer is a urethane-based polymer, for example polyurethane-34 (Baycusan ® from Bayer). Polyurethane-34 is described in EP2105127A1 . In at least one embodiment, the hairstyling polymer is the latex hairstyling polymer polyurethane-34.

In at least one embodiment, the anionic hairstyling polymer and/or cationic hairstyling polymer is present in neutralized or partially neutralized form. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a neutralising agent, and wherein the neutralising agent is selected from the group consisting of: potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, triisopropanolamine (TIPA), 2-aminobutanol, 2-aminomethyl propanol (AMP), aminoethylpropandiol, dimethyl stearamine (Armeen 18 D), sodium silicate, tetrahydroxypropyl ethylenediamine (Neutral ® TE), ammonia (Nhb), triethanolamine, trimethylamine (Tris Amino Ultra), aminomethylpropandiol (AMPD) and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the neutralising agent is 2-aminomethyl propanol.

Auxiliaries

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises additives common in cosmetology, pharmacy, and dermatology, which are hereinafter called auxiliaries. In at least one embodiment, the auxiliary is selected from the group consisting of oily substances, emulsifiers, coemulsifiers, cationic polymers, film formers, superfatting agents, stabilizers, active biogenic substances, glycerol,

preservatives, pearl izing agents, dyes and fragrances, solvents, opacifiers, functional acids, and also protein derivatives such as gelatin, collagen

hydrolysates, natural or synthetic-based polypeptides, egg yolk, lecithin, lanolin and lanolin derivatives, fatty alcohols, silicones, deodorants, substances with a keratolytic and keratoplastic action, enzymes, and/or carriers/solvents.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises water soluble vitamins and their derivatives, water soluble amino acids and their salts and/or derivatives, viscosity modifiers, dyes, nonvolatile solvents or diluents (water soluble and insoluble), pearlescent aids, thickeners, foam boosters, additional surfactants or nonionic co-surfactants, pediculocides, pH adjusting agents, perfumes,

preservatives, chelants, proteins, skin active agents, sunscreens, UV absorbers, vitamins, niacinamide, caffeine, minoxidil, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% vitamins and amino acids, by total weight of the composition. The composition may also comprise pigment materials such as inorganic, nitroso, monoazo, disazo, carotenoid, triphenyl methane, triaryl methane, xanthene, quinoline, oxazine, azine, anthraquinone, indigoid, thionindigoid, quinacridone, phthalocianine, botanical, natural colors, including: water soluble components such as those having C.I. Names. The composition may comprise from 0 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% pigment materials. The composition may comprise from 0 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% antimicrobial agents. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an oily substance, which is any fatty substance which is liquid at room temperature (25 °C). In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises oily substance selected from the group consisting of silicone oils, volatile or nonvolatile, linear, branched or cyclic, optionally with organic modification; phenylsilicones; silicone resins and silicone gums; mineral oils such as paraffin oil or vaseline oil; oils of animal origin such as perhydrosqualene, lanolin; oils of plant origin such as liquid triglycerides, e.g., sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, rice oil, jojoba oil, babusscu oil, pumpkin oil, grapeseed oil, sesame oil, walnut oil, apricot oil, macadamia oil, avocado oil, sweet almond oil, lady's-smock oil, castor oil, triglycerides of caprylic/capric acids, olive oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, argan oil, abyssinian oil, and coconut oil;

synthetic oils such as purcellin oil, isoparaffins, linear and/or branched fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters, preferably guerbet alcohols having 6 to 18, preferably 8 to 10, carbon atoms; esters of linear (C-6-G13) fatty acids with linear (C6-C20) fatty alcohols; esters of branched (C6-C13) carboxylic acids with linear (C-6-C20) fatty alcohols, esters of linear (Ce-Cie) fatty acids with branched alcohols, especially 2-ethylhexanol; esters of linear and/or branched fatty acids with polyhydric alcohols (such as dimerdiol or trimerdiol, for example) and/or guerbet alcohols; triglycerides based on (C-6-C10) fatty acids; esters such as dioctyl adipate, diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate; propylene glycols/dicaprylate or waxes such as beeswax, paraffin wax or microwaxes, alone or in combination with hydrophilic waxes, such as cetylstearyl alcohol, for example; fluorinated and perfluorinated oils; fluorinated silicone oils; mixtures of the aforementioned compounds.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a non-ionic coemulsifier. In at least one embodiment, the non-ionic coemulsifier is selected from adducts of from 0 to 30 mol of ethylene oxide and/or from 0 to 5 mol of propylene oxide with linear fatty alcohols having 8 to 22 carbon atoms, with fatty acids having 12 to 22 carbon atoms, with aikylphenols having 8 to 15 carbon atoms in the a Iky I group, and with sorbitan or sorbitol esters; (C12-C18) fatty acid monoesters and diesters of adducts of from 0 to 30 mol of ethylene oxide with glycerol; glycerol monoesters and diesters and sorbitan monoesters and diesters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and, where appropriate, their ethylene oxide adducts; adducts of from 15 to 60 mol of ethylene oxide with castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil; polyol esters and especially polyglycerol esters, such as polyglyceryl polyricinoleate and polyglyceryl poly-12-hydroxystearate, for example. Likewise suitable are mixtures of compounds from one or more of these classes of substance. Examples of suitable ionogenic coemulsifiers include anionic emulsifiers, such as mono -, di- or tri-phosphoric esters, but also cationic emulsifiers such as mono-, di-, and tri-alkyl quats and their polymeric derivatives.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a cationic polymer.

Suitable cationic polymers include those known under the INCI designation "Polyquaternium", especially Polyquaternium-31 , Polyquaternium-16,

Polyquaternium-24, Polyquaternium-7, Polyquaternium-22, Polyquaternium-39, Polyquaternium-28, Polyquaternium-2, Polyquaternium-10, Polyquaternium-1 1 , and also Polyquaternium 37 & mineral oil & PPG trideceth (Salcare SC95), PVP-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer,

guar-hydroxypropyltriammonium chlorides, and also calcium alginate and ammonium alginate. It is additionally possible to employ cationic cellulose derivatives; cationic starch; copolymers of diallylammonium salts and acrylamides; quaternized vinylpyrrolidone/vinylimidazole polymers; condensation products of polyglycols and amines; quaternized collagen polypeptides; quaternized wheat polypeptides; polyethyleneimines; cationic silicone polymers, such as

amidomethicones, for example; copolymers of adipic acid and

dimethylaminohydroxypropyldiethylenetriamine; polyaminopolyamide and cationic chitin derivatives, such as chitosan, for example. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a superfatting agent. As superfatting agents it is possible to use substances such as, for example, polyethoxylated lanolin derivatives, lecithin derivatives, polyol fatty acid esters, monoglycerides, and fatty acid alkanol amides, the latter serving simultaneously as foam stabilizers. Moisturizers available include for example isopropyl palmitate, glycerol and/or sorbitol.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a stabiliser. As stabiliser it is possible to use metal salts of fatty acids, such as magnesium, aluminum and/or zinc stearate, for example.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a care additive. The compositions can be blended with conventional ceramides, pseudoceramides, fatty acid N-alkylpolyhydroxyalkyl amides, cholesterol, cholesterol fatty acid esters, fatty acids, triglycerides, cerebrosides, phospholipids, panthenol and similar substances as a care additive.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a preservative or preservative system. Examples of suitable preservatives include benzyl alcohol, piroctone olamine, phenoxyethanol, parabens, pentanediol, benzoic acid/sodium benzoate, sorbic acid/potassium sorbate, and other organic acids used to provide antimicrobial protection. Preservation boosting ingredients include anisic acid, lactic acid, sorbitan caprylate, ethylhexylglycerin, caprylyl glycol, octanediol, and similar substances. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises

0.01 to 5 wt.-%, particularly preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 1 wt.-% of at least one preservative. Suitable preservatives are the substances listed in the International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 9 th Edition with the function

"preservatives". In at least one embodiment, the preservative is selected from the group consisting of phenoxyethanol, benzyl paraben, butyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isobutyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, DMDM hydantoin and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a preservative selected from the group consisting of cetyltri methyl

ammoniumchloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzethonium chloride,

diisobutylethoxyethyldimethyl benzylammoniumchloride, sodium N-lauryl sarcosinate, sodium-N-palmethylsarcosinate, Lauroylsarcosine,

N-myristoylglycine, potassium-N-laurylsarcosine, trimethylammoniumchloride, sodium aluminium chlorohydroxylactate, triethylcitrate,

tricetylmethylammoniumchloride, 2,4 ! 4'-trichloro-2 , -hydroxydiphenylether

(Triclosan), phenoxyethanol, 1 ,5-pentandiol, 1 ,6-hexandiol,

3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide (Triclocarban), diaminoalkylamide, L-lysine

hexadecylamide, heavy metal citrate salts, salicylate, piroctose, zinc salts, pyrithione and its heavy metal salts, zinc pyrithione, zinc phenol sulfate, farnesol, ketoconazol, oxiconazol, bifonazole, butoconazole, cloconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, enilconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, miconazole, sulconazole, tioconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, terconazole, naftifine, terbinafine, selenium disulfide, Octopirox ® , methylchloroisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, AgCI, chloroxylenol, sodium salts of

diethylhexylsulfosuccinate, sodiumbenzoate, phenoxyethanol, benzylalkohol, phenoxyisopropanol, paraben, such as butyl-, ethyl-, methyl- und propylparaben, and their salts, pentandiol, 1 ,2-octanediol, ethyihexyigiycerin, benzylalcohol, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, lactic acid, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDMH), sodium salts of hydroxy methyl glycinate, hydroxyethylglycine of sorbic acid and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the preservative is selected from the group consisting of

phenoxyethanol, benzyl paraben, butyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isobutyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, DMDM hydantoin and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition is substantially free of parabens.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an anti-fungal substance. In at least one embodiment, the anti-fungal substance is selected from the group consisting of ketoconazole, oxiconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, cloconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, enilconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, miconazole, sulconazole, tioconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, terconazole, naftifine and terbinafine, zinc pyrithione, octopirox, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a total amount of anti-fungal substance in the composition of from 0.1 wt.-% to 1 wt.-%. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a pyridinethione anti-dandruff particulates, for example 1 -hydroxy-2-pyridinethione salts, are highly preferred particulate anti-dandruff agents. The concentration of pyridinethione antidandruff particulate may ranges from 0.1 % to 4 %, by weight of the composition, preferably from 0.1 % to 3 %, more preferably from 0.3 % to 2 %. Preferred pyridinethione salts include those formed from heavy metals such as zinc, tin, cadmium, magnesium, aluminum and zirconium, preferably zinc, more preferably the zinc salt of 1 -hydroxy-2- pyridinethione (known as "zinc pyridinethione" or "ZPT"), more preferably

1 -hydroxy-2-pyridinethione salts in platelet particle form. Salts formed from other cations, such as sodium, may also be suitable. Pyridinethione anti-dandruff agents are described, for example, in US2809971 ; US3236733; US3753196; US3761418; US4345080; US4323683; US4379753; and US4470982. It is contemplated that when ZPT is used as the anti-dandruff particulate in the compositions herein, that the growth or regrowth of hair may be stimulated or regulated, or both, or that hair loss may be reduced or inhibited, or that hair may appear thicker or fuller. Functional acids are acidic substances used to impart a clinical functionality to the skin or hair upon application. Suitable functional acids include alpha hydroxy acids, beta-hydroxy acids, lactic acid, retinoic acid, and similar substances.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an astringent. In at least one embodiment, the astringent is selected from the group consisting of

magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, zinc oxide, oxide hydrates, aluminium oxide hydrate (boehmite) and hydroxide, chlorohydrates of calcium, magnesium, aluminium, titanium, zirconium or zinc. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.001 wt.-% to

10 wt.-%, or from 0.01 wt.-% to 9 wt.-%, or from 0.05 wt.-% to 8 wt.-%, or from 0.1 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% astringent.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a deodorising agent. In at least one embodiment, the deodorising agent is selected from the group consisting of allantoin, bisabolol, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.001 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, or from 0.01 wt.-% to

9 wt.-%, or from 0.05 wt.-% to 8 wt.-%, or from 0.1 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% deodorising agent. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a sun protection agent and/or UV filter. Suitable sun protection agents and UV filters are disclosed in WO2013017262 A1 (published on 7 th Feb 2013), from page 32, line 1 1 to the end of page 33. In at least one embodiment, the sun protection agent and/or UV filter is selected from the group consisting of 4-amino benzoic acid,

3-(4'-trimethylammonium)-benzylide-boran-2-one-methylsulf ate, camphor benzalkonium methosulfate, 3,3,5-trimethyl-cyclohexylsalicylate, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzophenone, 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid and potassium-, sodium- und triethanolamine salts thereof, 3,3 ' -(1 ,4-phenylene dimethine)-bis-(7,7- dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1 ]-heptane-1 -methane sulfonic acid) and its salts, 1 -(4-tert.-butylphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-1 ,3-dion, 3-(4 ' -sulfo)- benzylidene-bornane-2-one its salts, 2-cyan-3,3-diphenyl-acrylic acid-(2- ethylhexylester), polymers of N-[2(and 4)-(2-oxoborn-3-ylidenmethyl)benzyl]- acrylamide, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid-2-ethyl-hexylester, ethoxylated ethyl-4- amino-benzoate, 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid-isoamylester, 2,4,6-tris-[p-(2- ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)anilino]-1 ,3,5-triazine, 2-(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl)-4-methyl-6- (2-methyl-3-(1 ,3,3,3-tetramethyl-1 -(trimethylsilyloxy)-disiloxanyl)-propyl)phenol, 4,4'-[(6-[4-((1 ,1 -dimethylethyl)-amino-carbonyl)phenylamino]-1 ,3,5-triazin-2,4- yl)diimino]bis-(benzoic acid-2-ethylhexylester), 3-benzophenone, 4-benzophenone (acic), 3(4'-methylbenzyliden)-D,L-camphor, 3-benzylidene-camphor, salicylic acid- 2-ethylhexylester, 4- dimethyl aminobenzic acid-2-ethylhexylester, hydroxy-4- methoxy-benzophenone-5 sulfonic acid and the sodium salt thereof, 4-isopropyl benzylsalicylate, N,N,N-trimethyl-4-(2-oxoborn-3-ylidenemethyl) anilium methyl sulfate, homosalate (INN), oxybenzone (INN), 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid and its sodium, potassium, and triethanolamine salts, octylmethoxy cinnamic acid, isopentyl-4-methoxy cinnamic acid, isoamyl-p-methoxy cinnamic acid, 2,4,6-trianilino-(p-carbo-2'-ethylhexyl-1 '-oxy)-1 ,3,5-triazine (octyl triazone) phenol, 2,2(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-methyl-6-(2-methyl-3-(1 ,3,3,3-tetramethyl-1 - (trimethylsilyl)oxy)-disiloxanyl)propyl (drometrizole trisiloxane) benzic acid,

4,4-((6-(((1 ,1 -dimethylethyl)amino)carbonyl)phenyl)amino)-1 ,3,5-triazine- 2,4-diyl)diimino)bis,bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester) benzoic acid, 4,4-((6-(((1 ,1 - dimethylethyl)amino)-carbonyl)phenyl)amino)-1 ,3,5-triazine-2,4- diyl)diimino)bis,bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester), 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-D,L-camphor (4-methylbenzylidene camphor), benzyl idene-camphor-sulfonic acid, octocrylene, polyacrylamidomethyl-benzylidene-camphor, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (octyl salicylate), 4-dimethyl-aminobenzoeacidethyl-2-hexylester (octyl dimethyl PABA), PEG-25 PABA, 2 hydroxy-4-methoxybenzo-phenone-5-sulfonic acid

(5-benzophenone) and the sodium salt thereof, 2,2'-methylene-bis-6-(2H- benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(tetramethyl-butyl)-1 ,1 ,3,3-phenol, the sodium salt of 2-2'-bis- (1 ,4-phenylene)1 H-benzimidazole-4,6-disulfonic acid, (1 ,3,5)-triazine-2,4-bis((4-(2- ethyl-hexyloxy)-2-hydroxy)-phenyl)-6-(4-methoxyphenyl), 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano- 3,3-diphenyl-2-propenoate, glyceryl octanoate, di-p-methoxy cinnamic acid, p-amino-benzoic acid and its ester, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane, 4-(2- -glucopyranoxy)propoxy-2-hydroxybenzophenone, octyl salicylate, methyl- 2,5-diisopropyl cinnamic acid, cinoxate, dihydroxy-dimethoxybenzophenone, disodium salts of 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,5'-disulfobenzophenone, dihydroxybenzophenone, 1 ,3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-4,4-dimethyl-1 ,3-pentanedione, 2-ethylhexyl-dimethoxybenzyliden-dioxoimidazolidinpropionate , methylene-bis- benztriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol, phenyldibenzimidazoltetrasulfonate, bis- ethylhexyloxyphenol-methoxyphenol-triazine, tetrahydroxybenzophenone, terephthalylidendicamphor-sulfonic acid, 2,4,6-tris[4,2- ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)anilino]-1 ,3,5-triazine, methyl-bis(trimethylsiloxy)silyl- isopentyl trimethoxy cinnamic acid, amyl-p-dimethylaminobenzoate, amyl-p- dimethylamino benzoate, 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethylaminobenzoate, isopropyl-p- methoxy cinnamic acid/diisopropyl cinnamic acid ester, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxy cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid and the tri hydrate, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonate sodium salt, phenyl-benzimidazole sulfonic acid, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.001 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 5 wt.-%, even more preferably from 0.1 wt.-% to 3 wt.-%, most preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 1 wt.-% sun protection agent and/or UV filter. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a photoprotective substance in an amount of from 0.01 to 10 wt.-%, or from 0.1 to 5 wt.-%, particularly preferably from 0.2 to 2 wt.-%. The photoprotective substances include, in particular, all of the photoprotective substances specified in EP 1 084 696, which is incorporated herein by reference. In a preferred embodiment, the photoprotective substance is selected from the group consisting of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, methyl methoxycinnamate, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, polyethoxylated

p-aminobenzoates, and combinations thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises an anti-oxidant. In at least one embodiment, the anti-oxidant is selected from the group consisting of amino acids, peptides, sugars, imidazoles, carotinoids, carotenes, chlorogenic acid, Iipoic acid, thiols, thiol glycosyl esters, thiol N-acetyl esters, thiol methyl esters, thiol ethyl esters, thiol propyl esters, thiol amyl esters, thiol butyl esters, thiol lauryl esters, thiol palmitoyl esters, thiol oleyl esters, thiol linoleyl esters, thiol cholesteryl esters, thiol glyceryl esters, dilaurylthiodipropionate, distearylthiodipropionate, thiodipropionic acid, metal chelators, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, folic acids, vitamin C, tocopherol, vitamin A, stilbenes, derivatives and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the anti-oxidant is selected from the group consisting of glycine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, urocaninic acid, D,L-carnosine,

D-carnosine, L-carnosine, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, dihydrolipoic acid, aurothiogiucose, propylthiouracil, thioredoxine, glutathione, cysteine, cystine, cystamine, buthioninsulfoximine, homocysteinsulfoximine, buthioninsulfone, penta- , hexa-, heptathioninsulfoximine, hydroxyfatty acids, palmitic acid, phytinic acid, lactoferrin, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, humic acid, bile acid, bilirubin, biliverdin, EDTA, EGTA, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, butylhydroxyanisol, trihydroxybutyrophenone, ubichinon, ubichinol, ascorbylpalmitate,

Mg-ascorbylphosphate, ascorbylacetate, vitamin E acetate, vitamin A palmitate, carnosine, mannose, ZnO, ZnSO4, selenium methionine, stilbenes, superoxide dismutase, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of vitamin A, vitamin A derivatives, vitamin E, vitamin E derivatives, and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.001 wt.-% to 10 wt.-%, preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 5 wt.-%, even more preferably from 0.1 wt.-% to 3 wt.-%, most preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 1 wt.-% antioxidant. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a dye or pigment. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises at least one pigment. Suitable dyes and pigments are disclosed in WO2013017262A1 in the table spanning pages 36 to 43. These may be colored pigments which impart color effects to the product mass or to hair, or they may be luster effect pigments which impart luster effects to the product mass or to the hair. The color or luster effects on the hair are preferably temporary, i.e. they last until the next hair wash and can be removed again by washing the hair with customary shampoos. In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a total amount of from 0.01 wt.-% to 25 wt.-%, preferably from 5 wt.-% to 15 wt.-% pigment. In at least one embodiment, the particle size of the pigment is from 1 micron to 200 micron, preferably from

3 micron to 150 micron, more preferably 10 micron to 100 micron. The pigments are colorants which are virtually insoluble in the application medium, and may be inorganic or organic. Inorganic-organic mixed pigments are also possible.

Preference is given to inorganic pigments. The advantage of inorganic pigments is their excellent resistance to light, weather and temperature. The inorganic pigments may be of natural origin. In at least one embodiment, the inorganic pigment is selected from the group consisting of chalk, ochre, umber, green earth, burnt sienna, graphite, and combinations thereof. The pigments may be white pigments, such as, for example, titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, black pigments, such as, for example, iron oxide black, colored pigments, such as, for example, ultramarine or iron oxide red, lustre pigments, metal effect pigments, pearlescent pigments, and fluorescent or phosphorescent pigments, where preferably at least one pigment is a colored, nonwhite pigment. In at least one embodiment, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of metal oxides, hydroxides and oxide hydrates, mixed phase pigments, sulfur-containing silicates, metal sulfides, complex metal cyanides, metal sulfates, chromates and molybdates, and the metals themselves (bronze pigments), and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of titanium dioxide (CI 77891 ), black iron oxide (CI 77499), yellow iron oxide (CI 77492), red and brown iron oxide (CI 77491 ), manganese violet (CI 77742), ultramarine (sodium aluminum sulfosilicates, CI 77007, Pigment Blue 29), chromium oxide hydrate (CI 77289), Prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide, CI 77510), carmine (cochineal), and combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of pearlescent and colored pigments based on mica which are coated with a metal oxide or a metal oxychloride, such as titanium dioxide or bismuth oxychloride, and optionally further color-imparting substances, such as iron oxides, Prussian blue, ultramarine, carmine etc. and where the color can be determined by varying the layer thickness. Such pigments are sold, for example, under the trade names Ron a ® , Colorona ® , Dichrona ® and Timiron ® by Merck, Germany. In at least one embodiment, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of organic pigments such as sepia, gamboge, bone charcoal, Cassel brown, indigo, chlorophyll and other plant pigments. In at least one embodiment, the pigment is selected from the group consisting of synthetic organic pigments such as azo pigments, anthraquinoids, indigoids, dioxazine, quinacridone, phthalocyanine, isoindolinone, perylene and perinone, metal complex, alkali blue and diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises from 0.01 wt.-% to

10 wt.-%, preferably from 0.05 wt.-% to 5 wt.-%, of at least one particulate substance. Suitable substances are, for example, substances which are solid at room temperature (25 °C) and are in the form of particles. In at least one embodiment, the particulate substance is selected from the group consisting of silica, silicates, aluminates, clay earths, mica, insoluble salts, in particular insoluble inorganic metal salts, metal oxides, e.g. titanium dioxide, minerals and insoluble polymer particles are suitable. The particles are present in the composition in undissolved, preferably stably dispersed form, and, following application to the keratin substrate and evaporation of the solvent, can deposit on the substrate in solid form. A stable dispersion can be achieved by providing the composition with a yield point which is large enough to prevent the solid particles from sinking. An adequate yield point can be established using suitable gel formers in a suitable amount. In at least one embodiment, the particulate substance is selected from the group consisting of silica (silica gel, silicon dioxide) and metal salts, in particular inorganic metal salts, where silica is particularly preferred. Metal salts are, for example, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides, such as sodium chloride or potassium chloride; alkali metal or alkaline earth metal sulfates, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate.

In at least one embodiment, the composition comprises a direct dye. Preferred among the direct dyes are the following compounds, alone or in combination with one another: Hydroxyethyl-2-nitro-p-toluidine, 2-hydroxyethylpicramic acid, 4-nitrophenylaminourea, tri(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)carbenium chloride (Basic Violet 2), 1 ,4-di-amino-9,10-anthracenedione (Disperse Violet 1 ), 1 -(2-hydroxy- ethyl)amino-2-nitro-4-[di(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]benzene (HC Blue No. 2), 4-[ethyl- (2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-1 -[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene hydrochloride (HC Blue No. 12), 1 -amino-4-[di(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene

hydrochloride (HC Red No. 13), 4-amino-1 -[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 3), 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-3-nitrophenol,

1 - amino-5-chloro-4-[(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 10), 5-chloro-1 ,4-[di(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 1 1 ),

2- chloro-6-ethylamino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol,

4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-3-nitro-1 -trifluoromethylbenzene (HC Yellow No. 13), 8-amino-2-bromo-5-hydroxy-4-imino-6-{[3-(trimethylammonio)-p henyl]amino}- 1 (4H)-naphthalenone chloride (C.I. 56059; Basic Blue No. 99),

1 -[(4-aminophenyl)azo]-7-(trimethylammonio)-2-naphthol chloride (C.I. 12250; Basic Brown No. 16), 1 -[(4-amino-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-7-(trimethylammonio)-2- naphthol chloride (Basic Brown No. 17), 2-hydroxy-1 -[(2-methoxyphenyl)azo]-7- (trimethylammonio)naphthalene chloride (C.I. 12245; Basic Red No. 76), 3-methyl- 1 -phenyl-4-{[3-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]azo}pyrazol-5-one chloride (C.I. 12719; Basic Yellow No. 57) and 2,6-d iam ino-3-[(pyrid in-3-yl )azo] pyrid ine as well as the salts thereof. Particularly preferred among the aforesaid direct dyes are the following compounds, alone or in combination with one another: hydroxyethyl-2- nitro-p-toluidine, 2-hydroxyethylpicramic acid, 4-nitrophenylaminourea, tri(4-amino-

3- methylphenyl)carbenium chloride (Basic Violet 2), 1 ,4-di-amino- 9,10-anthracenedione (Disperse Violet 1 ), 1 -(2-hydroxy-ethyl)amino-2-nitro-4-[di(2- hydro-xyethyl)amino]benzene (HC Blue No. 2), 4-[ethyl-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-1 - [(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene hydrochloride (HC Blue No. 12), 1 -amino-

4- [di(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene hydrochloride (HC Red No. 13), 4-amino-1 -[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 3), 4-amino-3- nitrophenol, 4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-3-nitrophenol, 1 -amino-5-chloro-4-[(2,3- dihydroxypropyl)amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 10), 5-chloro-1 ,4-[di(2,3- di hydroxy propyl)- amino]-2-nitrobenzene (HC Red No. 1 1 ), 2-chloro-6-ethylamino- 4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol, 4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-3-nitro-1 - trifluoromethylbenzene (HC Yellow No. 13), 8-amino-2-bromo-5-hydroxy-4-imino- 6-{[3-(trimethylamrnonio)-phenyl]arnino}-1 (4H)-naphthalenone chloride

(C.I. 56059; Basic Blue No. 99), 1 -[(4-aminophenyl)azo]-7-(trimethylammonio)-2- naphthol chloride (C.I. 12250; Basic Brown No. 16), 1 -[(4-amino-2- nitrophenyl)azo]-7-(trimethylammonio)-2-naphthol chloride (Basic Brown No. 17), 2-hydroxy-1 -[(2-methoxyphenyl)azo]-7-(trimethylammonio)naphthalene chloride (C.I. 12245; Basic Red No. 76), 3-methyl-1 -phenyl-4-{[3- (trimethylammonio)phenyl]azo}pyrazol-5-one chloride (C.I. 12719; Basic Yellow No. 57) and 2,6-diamino-3-[(pyridin-3-yl)azo]pyridine as well as the salts thereof. In at least one embodiment, the total quantity of direct dyes in the composition amounts to 0.01 to 15 wt.-%, preferably 0.1 to 10 wt.-%, most preferred 0.5 to 8 wt.-%.

THIRD ASPECT

A third aspect relates to the use of the hybrid polymer according to the first aspect as a thickening agent, structurant, and/or rheology modifier.

In at least one embodiment, the hybrid polymer is used in a cosmetic composition.

FOURTH ASPECT

A fourth aspect relates to a kit comprising the composition according to the second aspect and a formulation selected from the group consisting of hair conditioning formulations, hair styling formulations, intensive conditioning formulations, skin moisturizing formulations, and combinations thereof. FIFTH ASPECT

A fifth aspect relates to a container comprising a package comprising a receptacle comprising the composition according to the second aspect and wherein the package comprises a closure for containing the composition in the receptacle. SIXTH ASPECT

A sixth aspect relates to method for cleansing hair and/or skin comprising applying the composition according to the second aspect onto hair and/or skin.

SEVENTH ASPECT

A seventh aspect relates to the use of the composition according to the second aspect as a cosmetic agent. EIGHTH ASPECT

An eighth aspect relates to a polymerisation process for synthesising a water- soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer comprising:

(i) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% water-soluble and/or water-swellable

polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, carrageenan, guar gum, chitosan, alginate and combinations thereof; and

(ii) from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-% synthetic polymer as defined in the first aspect; characterised in that the components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent. Preferably the polymerisation is grafting radical precipitation polymerisation.

In at least one embodiment, the monomer(s) resulting in units in the synthetic polymer are/is neutralised with a base prior to the polymerisation, and/or the hybrid polymer after polymerisation is neutralised with a base. In at least one embodiment, wherein the base is selected from bases comprising an cation selected the group consisting of NH 4 + , Li + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Zn ++ , ΑΓ ++ , Zr ++++ and mixtures thereof; preferably wherein the base is selected from hydroxides, carbonates and hydrogen carbonates comprising an ion selected the group consisting of NH + , Li + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Zn ++ , Α ++ and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the base is selected from the group consisting of gaseous ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydrogen carbonate, potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydrogen carbonate, lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, calcium hydrogen carbonate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, preferably sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydrogen carbonate, potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, even more preferably sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, most preferably sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate.

In at least one embodiment, the solvent is an organic or inorganic solvent having a highly inert behaviour in free-radical polymerisation reactions and which

advantageously allow the formation of medium or high molecular weights, or mixtures of such solvents. The choice of chemistry and level of solvent is important in view of ensuring the dispersion and dissolving of the units making up the hybrid polymer in the reaction mixture. Furthermore, the hybrid polymer as it is synthesised should not result in the build-up of clumps and/or adhesions in the reaction mixture or on the equipment. It is advantageous that no significant agglomerates and adhesions build up within the stirring equipment because of the risk of damage and extension cleaning requirements. In at least one embodiment, the solvent has a boiling point of from 20 °C to 1 10 °C, or from 40 °C to 95 °C, or from 50 °C to 90 °C. In at least one embodiment, the solvent is a polar solvent. In at least one embodiment, the solvent is selected from the group consisting of water, lower alcohols, and mixtures of water and lower alcohols. In at least one embodiment, the solvent is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, acetone, iso-, sec- and t-butanol, hydrocarbons having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, and mixtures and emulsions thereof. In at least one

embodiment, the solvent is a mixture of water and a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, acetone, iso-, sec- and t-butanol, hydrocarbons having 1 to 30 carbon atoms. In at least one embodiment, the solvent is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, 1 -butanol, 2-butanol, dimethyl ketone, diethyl ketone, tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, 1 ,4-dioxane, preferably ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, 1 -butanol, 2-butanol, dimethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, even more preferably 2-propanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, dimethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, most preferably 2-methylpropan-2-ol and dimethyl ketone. In at least one embodiment, the solvent is a mixture of water and a solvent is selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, 1 -butanol, 2-butanol, dimethylketone, diethylketone, tetrahyd ropy ran, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, 1 ,4-dioxane, preferably ethanol, 1 -propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, 1 -butanol, 2-butanol, dimethylketone,

tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, even more preferably 2-propanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, dimethylketone, tetrahydrofuran,

2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1 ,3-dioxane, most preferably 2-methylpropan-2-ol and dimethyl ketone. In at least one embodiment, the solvent mixture comprises from 0.1 wt.-% to 30 wt.-% water, or from 0.5 wt.-% to 25 wt.-% water, or from 1 wt.-% to 20 wt.-% water, preferably from 0,5 wt.-% to 15 wt.-% water. It is advantageous to ensure that the level of water in the solvent is 30 wt.-% or below in view of reduced likelihood of clumping during the polymerisation process. Such build-up of clumps can put the stirring mechanism under undesirable strain. In at least one embodiment, the solvent mixture comprises from 1 wt.-% to 99.5 wt.-% preferably from 5 wt.-% to 95 wt.-%, more preferably from 10 wt.-% to 90 wt.-%

2-methylpropan-2-ol. In at least one embodiment, the solvent mixture is

2-methylpropan-2-ol and dimethyl ketone. In at least one embodiment, the solvent mixture comprises from 0.5 to 10 wt.-% water, from 1 wt.-% to 98.5 wt.-%

2 methylpropan-2-ol and from 1 wt.-% to 98.5 wt.-% dimethyl ketone, preferably from 0.5 wt.-% to 7.5 wt.-% water, from 5 wt.-% to 94.5 wt.-% 2-methylpropan-2-ol and from 5 wt.-% to 94.5 wt.-% dimethyl ketone, most preferably from 1 wt.-% to 5 wt.-% water, from 7.5 wt.-% to 91 .5 wt.-% 2-methylpropan-2-ol and from

7.5 wt.-% to 91 .5 wt.-% dimethyl ketone.

In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation takes place in the temperature range of from 0 °C to 150 °C, or from 10 °C to 100 °C, or from 20 °C to 90 °C, or from 30 °C to 80 °C, or from 30 °C to 70 °C, or from 40 °C to 60 °C, or from 50 °C to 70 °C.

In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation takes place at either atmospheric pressure or under elevated or reduced pressure. In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation may also be performed under an inert gas atmosphere, preferably under nitrogen gas. In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation is carried out in the presence of an initiator. The initiator is used for initiating the polymerisation. In at least one embodiment, the initiator is selected from high-energy electromagnetic rays, mechanical energy, a chemical initiator, or combinations thereof. In at least one embodiment, the initiator is a radical-producing initiator. In at least one

embodiment, the initiator is selected from the group consisting of organic peroxides, persulfates, azo initiators, and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the initiator is an organic peroxide selected from the group consisting of benzoyl peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, di-tert-butyl hydroperoxide, triphenylmethyl hydroperoxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, cumene

hydroperoxide, dilauroyl peroxide (DLP), and mixtures thereof.

In at least one embodiment, the initiator is an azo initiator selected from the group consisting of azo-bis-isobutyronitrile, 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2.4-dimethyl valeronitrile), 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), dimethyl 2,2'-azobis(2- methyl propionate), 2,2'-azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile), 1 ,1 '-azobis(cyclohexane-1 - carbonitrile), 2,2'-azobis[n-(2-propenyl)-2-methyl-propionamide], and mixtures thereof. In at least one embodiment, the initiator is an azo initiator selected from the group consisting of azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and azobisamideopropyl hydrochloride (ABAH).

In at least one embodiment, the initiator is a persulfate selected from the group consisting of potassium peroxidisulfate, potassium peroxidisulfate, ammonium peroxidisulfate, potassium peroxi mono sulfat, sodium peroximonosulfate, ammonium peroximonosulfate, and mixtures thereof. Organic persulfates are also useful.

In at least one embodiment, the initiator is selected from the group consisting of inorganic peroxy compounds, such as (NH 4 )2S2Oa, K2S2O8 or H2O2, for example, where appropriate in combination with reducing agents (e.g., sodium hydrogensulfite, ascorbic acid, iron(ll) sulfate) or redox systems comprising as reducing component an aliphatic or aromatic sulfonic acid (e.g., benzenesulfonic acid, toluenesulfonic acid, etc.).

In at least one embodiment, the initiator is a mixture of a redox initiator and an azo initiator. This has the advantage that a redox initiator system generates significant amount of -O * radicals on polysaccharide backbone and azo initiator will deliver enough active synthetic polymer chains. The combination of a redox initiator and an azo initiator will increase the amount of grafted synthetic polymer chains on polysaccharide backbone.

In at least one embodiment, the initiator is a mixture of ammonium peroxidisulfate and sodium sulfite, potassium peroxidisulfate and sodium sulfite, ammonium peroxidisulfate and ascorbic acid, sodium peroxidisulfate and ascorbic acid, ammonium peroxidisulfate and Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylene diamine, potassium peroxidisulfate and Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylene diamine, ammonium

peroximonosulfate and Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylene diamine, ammonium

peroximonosulfate and ascorbic acid, ammonium peroximonosulfate and thiourea, ammonium peroximonosulfate and malonic acid, ammonium peroximonosulfate and glycolic acid, ammoniumperoxi-monosulfate and malic acid, 2-hydroxy-2- sulfonatoacetic acid and sodium sulfite, 2-hydroxy-2- sulfonatoacetic acid and ammonium peroximonosulfat, 2-hydroxy-2- sulfonatoacetic acid and

Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylendiamin, tert.-butylhydroperoxide and

Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylendiamin, 2-hydroxy-2-sulfonatoacetic acid and

tert.-butylhydroperoxide.

In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation comprises the step of treating the water-soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymer with water prior to polymerisation. This water treatment step preferably results in a homogenous distribution of water molecules in the polysaccharide polymer. In at least one embodiment, the polymerisation comprises the step of recovering the hybrid polymer after polymerisation. In at least one embodiment, the filtrate following filtration of the polymerisation product comprises 5 wt.-% or less of solid material.

EXAMPLES

The examples which follow are intended to illustrate the subject matter of the invention, though without restricting it thereto. General synthesis example

The water-soluble and/or water-swellable hybrid polymer comprises (i) water- soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymer; and (ii) synthetic polymer. Components (i) and (ii) are polymerised by radical precipitation polymerisation in a solvent. Preferably the polymerisation is grafting radical precipitation

polymerisation. Firstly, to the water-soluble and/or water-swellable polysaccharide polymer (component [i]) a defined amount of water is added, which is then combined with the monomers used for the synthetic polymer (component [ii]) that have been dispersed or dissolved in solvent. The solvent is preferably a solvent mixture of 2-methylpropan-2-ol and water or a mixture of 2-methylpropan-2-ol, dimethylketone and water where the level of water in the solvent mixture is below 30 wt.-% by total weight of the solvent mixture. The polymerisation reaction is started for example by a radical-releasing initiator combined with a redox-initiator. The synthetic polymer is preferably thus polymerised at the same time as the hybrid polymer is synthesised. The polymerisation reaction is preferably carried out between 30 °C and 70 °C and over a timeframe of at least 30 minutes. The hybrid polymer is produced in the solvent mixture as a white, voluminous precipitate. The hybrid polymer is recovered from the solvent via evaporation or drying means (e.g. vacuum drying) and/or via pressurised filtration or distillation. Indeed, even a low level of solvent remaining in the final product is unacceptable.

In some cases, the monomer(s) resulting in the structural units for the synthetic polymer is/are neutralised prior to the start of synthesis. In this case, the acid groups of the monomers are replaced by a base. However, the neutralisation of the acid groups on the synthetic polymer can also occur after the radical precipitation polymerisation has occurred.

Example 1 :

In a 1 -Liter Quickfit round bottom flask equipped with a reflux condenser, sub surface gas inlet tubing, inner temperature sensor and overhead agitator 374 g dry 2-methylpropan-2-ol and 6g deionized water was dosed. 75 g ACD T was charged. The ACDMT was neutralized to a pH of 7 to 8 by injection of gaseous ammonia above the surface. The temperature was kept below 40 °C. Then 13.2 g of xanthan gum with a homogenous water content of 3 wt.-% and 1 .77 g

Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylene diamine was dissolved/dispersed in the reaction mixture. At agitation of 200 rpm nitrogen was inject subsurface for 1 h. During this time the temperature of the reaction mixture was raised and stabilized to 60 °C with help of a water bath. At 60 °C the pH was readjusted to a pH of 7 to 8. Then the reaction was initiated by a continuously dosing of a mixture containing 20 g

2-methylpropan-2-ol, 1 .95 g tert.-butylhydroperoxide (70% in water) and 0.83 g dimethyl 2, 2'-azobis(2-methyl propionate) (V601 ) over approximately 120 min. After the complete dosage was reached the reaction mixture was heated to a gentle reflux for two hours.

The hybrid polymer is produced in the solvent mixture as a white, voluminous precipitate. The hybrid polymer is recovered from the solvent via evaporation or drying means (e.g. vacuum drying) and/or via pressurised filtration or distillation. Indeed, even a low level of solvent remaining in the final product is unacceptable.

Example 2:

In a 1 -Liter Quickfit round bottom flask equipped with a refux condenser, sub surface gas inlet tubing, inner temperature sensor and overhead agitator 187 g dry 2-methylpropan-2-ol, 187 g dimethylketone and 6 g deionized water was dosed. 88 g ACDMT was charged. The ACDMT was neutralized to a pH of 7 to 8 by addition of 35.32 g sodium hydrogenecarbonate. The temperature was kept below 40 °C. Then 4.5 g of guar gum with a homogenous water content of 3 wt.-% and 0.64 g Ν,Ν,Ν',Ν'-tetramethylene diamine was d issol ved/d ispersed in the reaction mixture. At agitation of 200 rpm nitrogen was inject subsurface for 1 h. During this time the temperature of the reaction mixture was raised and stabilized to 60 °C with help of a water bath. At 60 °C the pH was readjusted to a pH of 7 to 8. Then the reaction was initiated by a continuously dosing of a mixture containing 20 g 2-methylpropan-2-ol, 2.3 g tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (70% in water) and 1 .47 g dimethyl 2, 2'-azobis(2-methyl propionate) (V601 ) over approximately 120 min. After the complete dosage was reached the reaction mixture was heated to a gentle reflux for two hours. The hybrid polymer is produced in the solvent mixture as a white, voluminous precipitate. The hybrid polymer is recovered from the solvent via evaporation or drying means (e.g. vacuum drying) and/or via pressurised filtration or distillation. Indeed, even a low level of solvent remaining in the final product is unacceptable. According to the general procedure and Examples 1 and 2, all other hybrid polymer examples in Table 1 are synthesised by correspondingly adjusting water content, monomer and initiator composition.

Hybrid Polymer Examples

Polymer Example Table 1 :

Example solids Solvent" Water Polysaccaride Monomer Initiator

polymer I t-BHP TMEDA V601 [wt.-% polymer] [g] [g] [Name / wt.-%] [Name / wt.-%] [mol-%] [mol-%] [mol-%]

1 18.1 A, 374 6 Xanthan gum 15.0 AMPS 85.0 4.00 4.0 1.00

2 18.5 A, 374 6 Xanthan gum 80.2 AMPS 19.7 6.01 6.0 2.50

3 18.8 B, 374 6 Guar gum 4.9 AMPS 95 1 4.01 4.0 1.50

4 17.8 A, 374 6 Guar gum 70.0 AMPS 30.0 4 48 4 5 2.01

5 20.0 A, 374 6 C itosan 30.0 AMPS 70.0 3.03 3.0 2 02

6 19.0 B, 374 6 C itosan 14.9 AMPS 85.1 3.04 3.0 2 25

7 20.0 A, 374 6 Carrageenan 40.0 AMPS 60.0 3.01 3.0 2.03

8 23.1 A, 374 6 Carrageenan 50.0 AMPS 50.0 3.51 3.5 2.03

9 20.0 B, 374 6 Alginic acid 20.0 AMPS 80.0 3.07 3.0 1.50

10 20.0 A, 374 6 Alginic acid 65.0 AMPS 35.0 3.30 3.3 1.49

1 1 20.0 B, 374 6 Xanthan gum 25.0 AMPS 75.0 3.00 3.0 1.50

12 20.0 A, 374 6 Xanthan gum 55.0 AMPS 45 0 3.02 3.0 2.00

13 20.0 A, 374 6 Xanthan gum 60.0 AMPS 40.0 3.98 3.9 2.00

14 17.8 B, 374 6 Xanthan gum 7.5 AMPS 92.4 3.50 3.5 2.25

15 16.3 B, 374 6 Guar gum 22.4 AMPS 77 5 2 99 3.0 1.49

16 20.0 A, 374 6 Guar gum 45 0 AMPS 55 0 3.51 3.5 1.51

17 20.0 A, 374 6 Guar gum 35.0 AMPS 65.0 3.75 3.7 1.52

18 20.0 A, 374 6 Guar gum 52.5 AMPS 47.5 3.01 3.0 1.52

19 20.0 B, 374 6 Carrageenan 27 5 AMPS 72 5 3.08 3.1 1.99

20 20.0 A, 374 6 Carrageenan 67.5 AMPS 32.5 3.48 3.5 2.08

21 20.0 A, 374 6 Carrageenan 47 5 AMPS 52 5 4.00 4.0 1.51

22 20.0 A, 374 6 Carrageenan 62.5 AMPS 37 5 4.00 4.0 1.99

KEY: AMPS = ACDMT = acryloyldimethyltaurate, V601 = dimethyl 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionate), TBHP = tert.butylhydroperoxide, TMEDA = Ν,Ν,Ν' , '-tetramethylethylene diamine, FF6 = Bruggolit®FF6, "Solvent A = 2-methylpropan-2-ol, "Solvent B = 2-methylpropan-2- ol / dimethylketone (1 :1 mixture).

EXAMPLE COMPOSITIONS

The following compositions comprise Hybrid H, which is the hybrid polymer according to the first aspect. Example Composition 1 : After Sun Cream Gel

Procedure:

I Mix A, then add B.

II Mix C.

III Stir II into I.

IV Add D to III.

V Finally homogenize the emulsion.

Example Composition 2: Sun Milk SPF 15

A Ethylhexyl Stearate 7.00 %

Decyl Oleate 5.00 % Plantasens ® Natural Emulsifier HE 20 3.00 %

(Clariant)

Cetearyl Glucoside (and) Sorbitan Olivate

Dimethicone 2.00 %

Octocrylene 7.00 %

Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane 2.50 %

Ethylhexyl Salicylate 4.50 %

B Water Ad 100 %

Glycerin 3.00 %

C Hybrid H 1 .00 %

D Nipaguard ® POM (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol (and) Piroctone Olamine

(and) Methylparaben

E Citric Acid q.s.

Procedure:

I Mix the components of A and melt at approx. 80°C.

II Mix the components of B and stir until homogenous, heat up to 80°C. III Add C to I.

IV Add III to II and homogenize with a high shear mixer at 19.000 rpm for 2 min.

V Cool down to room temperature while stirring (200rpm).

VI Add D to V and stir at 200rpm until homogenous.

VII Finally adjust the pH with E to 6.5.

Composition 3: Liquid Soap

A Water Ad 100 %

Glycerin 3.00 %

1 ,2-Propanediol 2.00 %

Hybrid H 3.00 %

B Genapol ® LRO liquid (Clariant) 20.00 %

Sodium Laureth Sulfate Genagen ® CAB 818 (Clariant) 4.00 % Cocamidopropyl Betaine

GlucoTain ® Clear (Clariant) 2.00 % Capryloyl/Caproyi Methyl Glucamide

c Nipaguard™ DMDMH (Clariant) 0.40 %

DMDM Hydantoin

Fragrance 0.20 %

Sodium Cloride 0.50 %

D Citric Acid 0.10 %

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A.

II Mix phase B and add to I.

III Add phase C in the given order.

IV Stir until homogeneous.

V Adjust pH to 5.5.

Example Composition 4: Effect Shower Gel

A Genapol ® LRO liquid (Clariant) 30.00 %

Sodium Laureth Sulfate

Genagen ® CAB 818 (Clariant) 6.00 % Cocamidopropyl Betaine

Hostapon ® KCG (Clariant) 5.00 % Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate

B Water Ad 100 %

C Hybrid H 1 .40 %

D Nipaguard ® DMDMH (Clariant) 0.50 %

DMDM Hydantoin

Cirebelle 104 Blue 1 .00% Sythetic Wax Procedure:

I Mix the components of A and B until complete dissolved.

II Add C and stir until the solution is free of lumps.

III Add D to II.

IV Finally adjust the pH if necessary.

Example Composition 5: Facial Cleanser

Procedure:

I Add Polymer to water and stir until homogeneous.

II Add the ingredients of phase B to I in the given order.

III Adjust pH to 4.0 with phase C.

IV Add D. Example Composition 6: Mascara

A Hydroxyethylcellulose 0.50 %

Hybrid H 0.50 %

1 , 2-Propyleneglycol 1 .00 %

Magnesium Aluminium Silicate 1 .00 %

Triethanolamine 99% 1 .50 %

Water Ad 100 %

B Stearic Acid 3.00 % SilCare ® Silicone 41 M15 (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Caprylyl Methicone

SilCare ® Silicone 31 M50 (Clariant) 2.00 %

Caprylyl Trimethicone

Tego ® Care 450 4.00 %

Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate

Polybutene. 2.00 %

Beeswax 2.50 %

Plantasens ® Olive Wax S51 (Clariant) 2.50 %

Hydrogenated Olive Oil

Microcrystalline Wax 3.50 % c Iron Oxides 10.0 %

D Phenonip™ ME (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,

Ethylparaben

E Baycusan ® C 1004 2.00 %

Polyurethane-35

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A. Then heat to 80 °C while stirring.

II Mix ingredients of phase B and heat to 80 °C.

III Add C to B and homogenize.

IV Add A to III while homogenizing (4 min, 20000rpm), stir vigorously until 35 - 40 °C.

V Add D and stir until homogeneous.

VI Add E and stir until homogeneous then stir until room temperature.

Example Composition 7: BB Cream SPF 15

A Water Ad 100 %

Glycerin 2.00 %

Hybrid H 1 .00 % B Hostaphat ® KW 340 D (Clariant) 3.00 % Triceteareth-4 Phosphate

Cetearyl Alcohol 2.00 %

Octocrylene 7.00 %

Butyl ethoxydibenzoyl methane 2.50 %

Ethyl hexyl Salicylate 4.50 %

Plantasens ® Olive LD (Clariant) 2.00 % Hydrogenated Ethylhexyl Olivate (and)

Hydrogenated Olive Oil Unsaponifiables

12-15 Alkyl Benzoate 8.00 %

Plantasens ® Olive Squalane (Clariant) 2.00 % Squalane

Plantasens ® Shea Butter (Clariant) 1 .00 % Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter

XIAMETER ® PMX-200 Silicone Fluid 200 CS 2.00 % Dimethicone

C Chroma-Lite ® Black 0.05 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron Oxides

Chroma-Lite ® Red 0.20 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron Oxides

Chroma-Lite ® Yellow 0.60 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron Oxides

Titanium Dioxide 5.00 %

Butylene Glycol 4.00 %

D Plantasens ® Natural Vitamin E (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Tocopherol

Panthenol 0.50 %

Gatuline ® Age Defense 2 1 .00 % Aqua (and) Juglans Regia (Walnut) Seed

Extract

Sodium Hyaiuronate 0.40 %

Orgasol ® 4000 EXD NAT COS Caresse 1 .00 % Nylon-6/12

Fragrance 0.20 %

Nipaguard ® POB (Clariant) 0.80 % Phenoxyethanol (and) Piroctone ( Diamine

(and) Benzoic Acid

E Citric Acid q.s.

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A until dissolved. Then heat to 80 °C.

II Mix ingredients of phase B and heat to 80 °C.

III Premix phase C then add to B and homogenize gently by using Ultra- Turrax.

IV Pour III into I and homogenize gently by using Ultra-Turrax.

Then stir until 35 °C.

V Add phase D in the given order and stir until homogeneous.

VI Adjust the pH to 5.5 to 6.0 with phase E.

Example Composition 8: O/W Foundation

A Water Ad 100 %

Hybrid H 1 .00 %

Magnesium Aluminium Silicate 1 .00 %

B Piantasens ® Natural Emulsifier HP10 4.50 %

(Clariant)

Sucrose Polystearate, Cetearyl Alcohol,

Olea Europaea (Olive) Oil Unsaponifiables

SiiCare ® Silicone 31 M50 (Clariant) 2.00 % Caprylyl Trimethicone XIAMETER ® PMX-200 Silicone Fluid 100 CS 2.00 % Dimethicone

Caprylic/ Capric Triglyceride 5.00 %

Plantasens ® Olive Wax S51 (Clariant) 1 .50 %

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil

c Chroma-Lite ® Black 0.10 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron

Oxides

Chroma-Lite ® Red 0.40 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron

Oxides

Chroma-Lite ® Yellow 1 .20 %

Mica (and) Bismuth Oxychloride (and) Iron

Oxides

Titanium Dioxide 7.00 %

Dicaprylyl Carbonate 4.00 %

Butylene Glycol 3.00 %

D Plantasens ® Natural Vitamin E (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Tocopherol

Orgasol ® 4000 EXD NAT COS Caresse 1 .00 %

Nylon-6/12

Fragrance 0.20 %

Nipaguard ® POB (Clariant) 0.80 %

Phenoxyethanol (and) Piroctone Olamine

(and) Benzoic Acid

E Citric Acid q.s.

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A and homogenize gently by using Ultra-Turrax, then stir and heat to 70 °C.

II Mix ingredients of phase B and heat to 70 °C. III Premix phase C then add to B and homogenize gently by using Ultra- Turrax.

IV Pour III into I and homogenize gently by using Ultra-Turrax. Then stir until 35 °C.

V Add phase D and stir until homogeneous.

VI Adjust the pH to 5.5 to 6.0 with phase E.

Example Composition 9: Liquid Highlighter

A Water Ad 100 %

Bentonite 1 .00 %

B Hybrid H 1 .00 %

C Liquiwax™ PolyIPL 2.00 %

Stearyl/PPG-3 Myristyl Ether Dimer

Dilinoleate

Plantasens ® Olive Wax S51 (Clariant) 2.00 %

Hydrogenated Olive Oil

Stearic Acid 1 .20 %

Isostearic Acid 0.90 %

D Water 5.00 %

Sodium Hydroxide 0.12 %

E Orgasol ® 4000 EXD NAT COS Caresse 1 .50 %

Nylon-6/12

Timiron ® Super Gold 2.50 %

Mica, Titanium Dioxide

Xirona ® Indian Summer 2.50 %

Silica (and) Iron Oxides

F Panthenol 0.50 %

Cyclopentasiloxane 7.50 %

Phenonip™ ME (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,

Ethylparaben

Tocopheryl Acetate 1 .00 % Procedure:

I Phase A: disperse Bentonite in water.

II Add B to I and mix until dissolved, then heat to 80°C.

III Melt C at 80°C.

IV Add III to II while homogenizing (2 min, 20000 rpm).

V Premix D, add to IV and stir until homogeneous.

VI Add E to V and stir until cool (35°C).

V Add F and stir until room temperature.

Example Composition 10: Lipstain

Procedure:

I Mix the components of A and stir until dissolved.

II Add B and stir until the solution is homogeneous.

III Add C and stir until dissolved.

IV Finally adjust the pH to 6.5 to 7.0, if necessary.

Example Composition 1 1 : Eyeliner Gel

A Water Ad 100 %

Glycerin 1 .00 % Hybrid H 2.00 %

B Phenonip™ ME (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,

Ethylparaben

C PVP 1 .50 %

Water 10.00 %

D Timiron ® Super Gold 12.00 %

Mica, CI77891, Titanium Dioxide

Procedure:

I Mix the components of A and stir until dissolved.

II Add B and stir until the solution is homogeneous.

III Premix C separately, then add to II and stir until dissolved.

IV Add D while stirring.

V Finally adjust pH to 7.5.

Example Composition 12: After Shave Balm

A Hostaphat ® KL 340 D (Clariant) 2.00 %

Triiaureth-4 Phosphate

Octopirox ® (Clariant) 0.05 % Piroctone ( Diamine

B Plantasens ® Abyssinian Oil (Clariant) 2.00 %

Crambe Abyssinica Seed Oil

Isopropyl Isostearate 3.00 %

Plantasens ® Inca Inchi Serum (Clariant) 1 .00 % Plukenetia Volubilis Seed Oil (and)

Phytosterols (and) Olea Europaea (Olive) Oil Unsaponifiables (and) Beeswax

C Water Ad 100 %

Polyglykol 400 (Clariant) 3.00 % PEGS

Allantoin 0.30 % D Hybrid H 1 .50 %

E Dimethicone 1 .00 %

F Citric Acid q.s.

G Phenonip™ ME (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,

Ethylparaben

Procedure:

I Mix and dissolve the components of A.

SI Add B into I.

111 Mix and dissolve the components of C.

IV Add D into II.

V Add III to IV and stir at about 200 rpm for one hour.

VI Add E to V and stir for 30 min.

VII Adjust the pH with F to 5.5.

VIII Add G to VI and stir.

IX Finally homogenize.

Example Composition 13: Sprayable Body Milk

A Hostaphat ® KL 340 D (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Trilaureth-4 Phosphate

Mineral Oil 8.00 %

Isopropyl Palmitate 3.00 %

Cetearyl Alcohol 0.50 %

Caprylic/ Capric Triglyceride 2.00 %

Glyceryl Stearate 0.50 %

SilCare ® Silicone 41 M15 (Clariant) 1 .00 % Caprylyl Methicone

B Hybrid H 1 .00 %

C Water ad 100 %

Glycerin 5.00 % D Ethanol 5.00 %

Tocopheryl Acetate 1 .00 %

E Nipaguard ® POM (Clariant) 1 .00 %

P enoxy ethanol, Methylparaben, Piroctone

( Diamine

Procedure:

I Melt A at 60°C, then add B.

II Heat C to 60°C.

III Stir II into I, and stir until cool.

IV Add the components of D one after another to III at 35°C.

V Add E and then finally homogenize the emulsion.

Example Composition 14: Body Lotion for Men

A Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride 3.50 %

Plantasens ® Olive LD (Clariant) 3.00 % Hydrogenated Ethylhexyl Olivate (and)

Hydrogenated Olive Oil Unsaponifiables

Myristyl Myristate 2.50 %

Cetearyl Alcohol 2.00 %

Octyldodecanol 1 .00 %

Glyceryl Stearate Citrate 1 .50 %

B Hybrid H 1 .20 %

C Water ad 100 %

Glycerin 5.00 %

D Ethanol 3.00 %

Tocopheryl Acetate 1 .00 %

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice 1 .00 %

Nipaguard ® POM (Clariant) 1 .00 % Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Piroctone

Olamine Fragrance 0.20 %

E Sodium Hydroxide q.s.

Procedure:

I Melt the components of A at approx. 70°C.

II Mix the components of C and heat to approx.70°C.

III Add B to I when completely melted.

IV Add C to III.

V At 35°C add the components of D to IV.

VI Adjust the pH with E to 6.0 to 6.5. Example Composition 15: Anti-Ageing Cream Gel

Mix the components of A and melt at 60°C.

Add B and solve while shaking lightly.

Add C. Solve D in E and add to III

Add F to IV at 35°C.

Example Composition 16: Light Day Cream

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A, stir for 5 minutes and homogenize during 1 min using Ultra-Turrax.

II Add B and heat to 75°C.

III At Temperature, homogenize gently during 1 min using Ultra-Turrax.

IV Cool down under stirring.

V Below 40°C add C and stir.

VI Adjust pH with D to 5.5. Example Composition 17: Caring Night Cream

Procedure:

I Mix ingredients of phase A and heat to 75°C.

II Mix ingredients of phase B and heat to 75°C.

III At Temperature, pour phase B into phase A and homogenize gently by using Ultra-Turrax.

IV Cool down under stirring.

V Below 40°C add C and stir.

VI Adjust pH with D to 5.5.

Example Composition 18: Sprayable Hair Styling Gel

A Hybrid H 0.90 %

B Water Ad 100 % c Genapol ® LA-230 (Clariant) 4.00 %

Laureth-23

Diaformer ® Z-632N (Clariant) 4.50 %

A crylates/Stearyl Acrylate/Ethylamine Oxide

Methacryiate Copolymer

Dipropylene Glycol 1 .00 %

Polyglykol 400 0.50 %

PEGS

Nipaguard™ DMDMH (Clariant) 0.50 %

DMDM Hydantoin

Panthenol 0.50 %

D Emulsogen ® HCO 040 (Clariant) 0.50 %

PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil

Fragrance 0.30 %

Procedure:

I Add A to B while stirring. Stir until a smooth gel is formed.

II Add the components of C one after the other to I and stir until dissolved. III Mix the components of D and add to II while stirring.

Example Composition 19: Conditioning Sha

A Water Ad 100 %

Hybrid H 1 .10 %

B Genapol ® LRO liquid (Clariant) 30.00 %

Sodium Laureth Sulfate

C Genagen ® CAB 818 (Clariant) 6.00 %

Cocamidopropyl Betaine

XIAMETER ® PMX-200 Silicone Fluid 50 CS 0.25 %

Dimethicone

D Water 10.00 %

Jaguar ® C-162 0.20 % Hydroxypropyl Guar (and) Hydroxypropyl

Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride

E Citric Acid q.s.

F Water 4.00 %

Sodium Benzoate 0.45 %

G Sodium Chloride 0.50 %

Procedure:

I Mix the ingredients of phase A and stir until dissolved.

II Add phase B and stir until homogeneous.

III Premix phase C and add to II while stirring.

IV Premix pahse D and add to II while stirring.

V Adjust pH with E to 5.5 to 6.0.

VI Premix phase F and add to V, stir until dissolved.

VII Add phase G and stir until dissolved.

Methods of use:

Example 19 is applied to wet hair. Tap water is employed to create a lather and spread the composition throughout the hair and scalp. The composition is immediately rinsed from the hair. The hair may further be conditioned.

Example Composition 20: Nail Varnish Remover Gel

A Water Ad 100 %

Ethanol 27.00 %

Polyglykoi ® 400 (Clariant) 3.00 %

PEG-8

Glycerin 3.00 %

Aristoflex ® TAC (Clariant) 0.20 % Ammonium Acryloyldimethyitaurate/

Carboxyethyi Acryiate Crosspoiymer

Hybrid H 1 .00 %

B Ethyl Acetate 30.00 % Procedure:

I Add the components of A one after another and stir until homogenous.

II Add B into A and stir until completely dissolved.

III Add C to II.

Example Composition 21 : Whitening Gel

Procedure:

I Combine the ingredients of phase A and B while stirring and heating to 60°C.

II Cool to room temperature and add C.

III Adjust pH with D to 6.0.

IV Add E while stirring, continue stirring until homogeneous. Example Composition 22: O/W Self Tanning Cream

A Hostaphat ® CC 100 (Clariant) 1 .00 %

Cetyl Phosphate

Glyceryl Stearate 0.50 %

Cetearyl Alcohol 0.50 %

Mineral Oil 8.00 %

Isopropyl Palmitate 7.00 %

Tocopherol Acetate 1 .00 % SilCare ® Silicone 41 M15 (Clariant) 1 .00 % Caprylyl Methicone

B Hybrid H 2.00 %

C Water ad 100 %

Hostapon ® KCG (Clariant) 0.50 % Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate

Glycerin 5.00 %

D Fragrance 0.20 %

Phenonip™ ME (Clariant) 1 .00 % Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,

Ethylparaben

E Dihydroxyacetone 5.00 %

Water 8.00 %

Sodium Hydroxide q.s.

Procedure:

I Melt A at 85 °C.

II Stir B in A.

III Premix phase C and add to II, then stir until 30-35°C.

IV Add D to III.

V Dissolve Dihydroxyacetone in water and add E to IV.

VI Adjust pH to 4.0, if necessary Example Composition 23: Make Up Remover

A Water ad 100 %

Glycerin 3.00 %

Hybrid H 0.80 %

B Hostaphat ® KL 340 D (Clariant) 3.00 %

Trilaureth-4 Phosphate

Cetearyl Alcohol 1 .50 %

Plantasens ® Olive LD (Clariant) 2.00 % Hydrogenated Ethylhexyl Olivate (and)

Hydrogenated Olive Oil Unsaponifiables

Isostearyl Isostearate 4.00 %

Isohexadecane 4.00 % c Sodium Hydroxide q.s.

D Nipaguard ® SCP (Ciariant) 1 .00 %

Phenoxyethanol (and) Sorbitan Caprylate

Fragrance 0.20 %

Procedure:

I Mix phase A and stir until dissolved then heat to 80°C.

II Combine ingredients of phase B separately and heat until 80°C.

III Pour II into I and homogenize gently by using Ultra-Turrax. Then cool to room temperature while stirring.

IV Adjust pH with C to 5.5.

V Add D and stir until homogeneous. Example Composition 24: Insect Repellent Lotion

A Diethyl Toluamide 10.00 %

DEET

Hostaphat ® KL 340 D (Ciariant) 1 .00 % Tnlaureth-4 Phosphate

Isohexadecan 5.00 %

C12-15 Alky I Benzoate 5.00 %

Cyclopentasiloxane 2.00 %

B Hybrid H 1 .00 %

C Water Ad 100 %

Ethanol 10.00 %

D Fragrance 0.30 %

Nipaguard ® POB (Ciariant) 0.80 % Phenoxyethanol (and) Piroctone Oiamine

(and) Benzoic Acid Procedure:

I Mix the components of A.

II Stir the components of B into I.

III Then add C and stir well.

IV Finally add D and homogenize the emulsion.

EXPERIMENTAL

Viscosity versus polymer concentration

The evaluation of the dependency of viscosity and polymer concentration provides a determination of the thickening capacity of a polymer. Fig. 1 depicts the results of an experiment showing the viscosity versus polymer concentration correlation. Different polymers are compared. In all cases, the polymer or polymer mixture is in an aqueous gel, which is made by adding deionised (Dl) water to the respective polymer amount up to a total weight of 200 g. The mixture is stirred for 2 hours at 200 - 400 rpm, which results in a homogeneous mixture. After resting for 24 hours at ambient temperature the viscosity is measured with a viscometer. This procedure is repeated for each polymer concentration. The viscosity is measured with a Brookfield RVDV-1 viscometer, at 20 °C, with 20 rpm. The viscosity (mPa s) is plotted against the polymer concentration (%): shown in Fig. 1 as Y and X, respectively.

P is carrageenan (polysaccharide); S1 is Aristoflex ® AVC (synthetic polymer); S2 is Aristoflex ® Velvet (synthetic polymer); M1 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely carrageenan and Aristoflex® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; M2 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely carrageenan and Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H1 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of carrageenan and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H2 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of carrageenan and Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic. The conclusions from Fig. 1 are: the synthetic polymers S1 and S2 show very steep viscosity gradients especially at low use concentrations compared to M1 , M2, H1 and H2, this observation was expected due to the cross-linked character of the synthetic polymers S1 and S2. While the mixtures M1 and 2 show at low use concentrations a similar viscosity gradient like the pure carrageenan P, a flatter viscosity gradient is observed for the hybrids H1 and H2 what offers the possibility to control the low viscosity region easily. For the mixtures (M1 , M2) and the hybrids (H1 , H1 ) overall higher viscosities at higher use concentrations are found compared to the pure carrageenan P at which the mixtures (M1 , M2) show slightly higher viscosities than the hybrids (H1 , H1 ).

Viscosity versus electrolyte concentration

The evaluation of the dependency of viscosity and concentration of electrolyte (salt) provides an indication as to the effect of such salt concentration on the thickening capacity of the polymer. Fig. 2 depicts the results of an experiment showing the stability of the viscosity with increasing electrolyte concentration.

Different polymers are compared. In all cases, the polymer or polymer mixture is in an aqueous gel. For a total weight of 200 g, a mixture of the respective amount of NaCI and Dl water is added to 2.0 % polymer. The mixture is stirred for 2 hours at 200 - 400 rpm to hydrate the polymer, which results in a homogeneous mixture. After 24 hours at ambient temperature the viscosity is measured with a

viscometer. This procedure has to be repeated for each NaCI concentration. The viscosity is measured with a Brookfield RVDV-1 viscometer, at 20 °C, with 20 rpm and the respective spindle. The viscosity (mPa s) is plotted against the electrolyte concentration (%): shown in Fig. 2 as Y and X, respectively.

P is guar gum (polysaccharide); S1 is Aristofiex ® AVC (synthetic polymer); S2 is Aristoflex ® Velvet (synthetic polymer); M1 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely guar gum and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; M2 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely guar gum and

Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H1 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of guar gum and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H2 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of guar gum and Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic.

The conclusions from Fig. 2 are: a gel with Guar Gum shows irregular viscosities at different electrolyte levels due to a slightly synergistic effect of Guar Gum and sodium chloride at low salt concentrations followed by a decrease in viscosity as the salt concentration exceeds 1 .0%. The gels with synthetic polymers S1 and S2 as well as with the mixtures M1 and M2 show a significant sensitivity against electrolytes. This becomes obvious by the strong viscosity decrease for S , S2, M1 and M2 especially at low salt concentrations. The gels with hybrids (H1 , H2) show hardly sensitivity against low salt concentrations and keep the viscosity almost constant up to 2.0% NaCI.

Viscoelastic properties

The long term stability of an emulsion containing a stabilizing polymer can be estimated by measuring the viscoelastic properties over a temperature range via oscillation measurements. Fig. 3 depicts the results of an experiment showing the temperature stability of different emulsions containing polymers or polymer mixtures. In all cases, the polymer or polymer mixture is in a simple emulsion as per the below table:

Procedure:

I. Melt A at 80 °C.

II. Add B to A under stirring (400 rpm, 1 !!l. Heat B to 80 °C, add to II under stirring (400 rpm, 2 min), then homogenise for 1 min (Ultraturrax, 20000 rpm).

!V. Cool to room temperature under stirring. After preparation, the samples are allowed to rest at ambient temperature for 24 hours. The viscoelastic measurements are performed with a rheometer.

Amplitude sweeps (Bohlin Rheometer CS, measuring system PU 50 mm) are conducted to evaluate the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic range (LVE range) at 20 °C. A subsequent oscillatory temperature measurement is performed at strains within this linear viscoelastic range that the structure of the composition is not destroyed during the measurement. The loss factor (tan delta) is plotted against the temperature: shown in Fig. 2 as Y and X, respectively.

P is carrageenan (polysaccharide); S1 is Aristoflex ® AVC (synthetic polymer); S2 is Aristoflex ® Velvet (synthetic polymer); M1 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely carrageenan and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; M2 is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely carrageenan and Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H1 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of carrageenan and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H2 is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of carrageenan and Aristoflex ® Velvet at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic

The conclusions from Fig. 3 are: The viscoelastic properties of a composition help to stabilize the droplets in the continuous phase of an emulsion to avoid creaming or separation. With an oscillating shear stress it is possible to separate the viscous and the elastic properties of a composition: If is the tan delta is greater than 1 , an emulsion behaves more viscous, thus droplets can flow together more easily and the emulsion can separate more easily. If the tan delta is smaller than 1 , the emulsion behaves more elastic and is thus more stable. From the emulsion with pure polysaccharide P least stability is expected as the tan delta is greater than 1 even at temperatures below 40°C. Compared to the polysaccharide P the hybrids (H1 , H2) show improved temperature stability. Generally the emulsions with synthetic or partially synthetic polymers (S1 , S2, M1 , M2, H1 , H2) show better temperature stability than pure polysaccharides.

Dependence of viscosity on pH

Figures 4 and 5 depict the correlation between viscosity and pH and thus show the stability of the thickening activity of the polymer to change of pH. In all cases, the polymer or polymer mixture is in an aqueous medium. For a total weight of 200 g: the respective amount of Dl water is added to 1 .0 % polymer. The mixture is stirred for 2 hours at 200 - 400 rpm to hydrate the polymer, which results in a homogeneous mixture. The pH value is adjusted with stirring: pH 1 - 3: 10 % HCI

pH 4 - 5: 10 % Citric acid

pH 6 - 7: 0.5 % NaOH

pH 8 - 12: 2.0 % NaOH

The samples are allowed to rest at ambient temperature for 24 hours, the pH is measured again and afterwards the viscosity is measured with a viscometer. This procedure is repeated at each pH value. The viscosity is measured with a

Brookfield RVDV-1 viscometer, at 20 °C, with 20 rpm and the respective spindle. The viscosity (mPa s) is plotted against the pH: shown in Figures 4 and 5 as Y and X, respectively.

In Fig. 4: P is guar gum (polysaccharide); S is Aristofiex ® AVC (synthetic polymer); M is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely guar gum and Aristofiex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of guar gum and Aristofiex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic. The conclusions from Fig. 4 are: Below pH 4 and over pH 9 the synthetic polymer S shows a significant decrease in viscosity what is common for this kind of synthetic polymers. For the mixture M a similar effect is observed at lower viscosities while the hybrid H shows an overall lover viscosity but no sensitivity against pH changes like the polysaccharide P. In Fig. 5: P is xanthan gum (polysaccharide); S is Aristoflex ® AVC (synthetic polymer); M is a mixture of two separate polymers, namely xanthan gum and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic; H is a hybrid polymer pursuant to the present invention and is a hybrid of xanthan gum and Aristoflex ® AVC at a 7:3 weight ratio of polysaccharide to synthetic. The conclusions from Fig. 5 are: Below pH 4 and over pH 9 the synthetic polymer S shows a significant decrease in viscosity what is common for this kind of synthetic polymers. For the mixture M, the hybrid H and the polysaccharide P overall lover viscosities are ovserved but no sensitivity against pH changes. The hybrid H shows a slighty higher viscosity compared to the polysaccharide P.

Summary of performance

Table 2

KEY: + = better than pure polysaccharide; o = very similar or equal to pure

polysaccharide;

- = worse than pure polysaccharide; n/a = not applicable. The yield stress is the stress level at which a material ceases to behave elastically i.e. no longer bounces back to its original form prior to the application of stress. The yield stress is a value that indicates the polymer's ability to stably suspend particles. In the Casson method, the square root of both shear rate and shear stress is taken. This often gives an approximately linear plot and enables the yield stress to be determined. The conclusions from Table 2 are: While the hybrids H3, H4, H5 show a similar/ equal yield stress as the pure polysaccharides, the hybrids H1 and H6 show an improved yield stress, meaning a higher value. This gives the indication that these polymers (H1 , H6) have better suspension properties than the pure

polysaccharides.