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Title:
WATERPROOF POCKET TO BE APPLIED ON GARMENTS, IN PARTICULAR ON SHORTS OR BATHING COSTUMES, AND METHOD FOR APPLYING SUCH POCKET ON A GARMENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/088566
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Waterproof pocket to be applied on garments, in particular on shorts or bathing costumes, comprising: - two delimiting walls 10a, 10b made of waterproof material, of which an inner one 10a intended for facing garment A and an outer one 10b counter facing the first one, which are sealed to one another along a first perimetric portion 2 and delimit an access inlet 4 along a second perimetric portion 3; and - a first 110 and a second seal 120, both of elongated shape, which are attached counter facing each other respectively to the above inner wall 10) and to the above outer wall 10b at the second perimetric portion 3 and are susceptible of coupling to each other for closing inlet 4. The waterproof pocket 1 is characterised in that each seal 110; 120 is provided with: - a base 100 having a first 101 and a second face 102, the seal being attached to one of the two delimiting walls 10a, 10b at the first face 101 and being attached to the other seal 120, 110 by the second face 102 at the two ends 110' and 110"; 120' and 120" thereof; and - at least two elastic appendices 103 that extend in projection from the second face 102 developing parallel to one another in longitudinal direction and are susceptible of inserting with interference between appendices 103 of the 120, 110 in mechanical and hydraulic seal relation. The invention also relates to a method of application of the waterproof pocket 1 to a garment.

Inventors:
BRUNELLO, Corrado (V.le Europa, 30/C, Castelgroffredo, I-46042, IT)
Application Number:
IT2007/000041
Publication Date:
August 09, 2007
Filing Date:
January 19, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
BRUNELLO, Corrado (V.le Europa, 30/C, Castelgroffredo, I-46042, IT)
International Classes:
A41D27/20
Foreign References:
LU46412A11972-01-01
US5255392A1993-10-26
US20050063620A12005-03-24
US5114061A1992-05-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CRIPPA, Paolo, Ernesto et al. (Jacobacci & Partners S.p.A, Via Berchet 9, Padova, I-35131, IT)
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Claims:
Claims

1. Waterproof pocket to be applied on garments, in particular on shorts or bathing costumes, comprising:

- two delimiting walls (10a, 10b) made of waterproof material, of which an inner one (10a) intended to face said garment (A) and an outer one (10b) counter facing the first one, which are sealed to one another along a first perimetric portion (2) and delimit an access inlet (4) along a second perimetric portion (3) ; - a first (110) and a second seal (120) , both of elongated shape, which are attached counter facing each other respectively to said inner wall (10a) and to said outer wall (10b) at said second perimetric portion (3) and are susceptible of coupling to one another for closing said inlet (4) ; characterised in that each seal (110; 120) is provided with:

- a base (100) having a first (101) and a second face (102) , said seal being attached to one of said two delimiting walls (10a, 10b) at said first face (101) and being attached to the other seal (120, 110) through said second face (102) at the two ends (HO', 110"; 120', 120") thereof; and

- at least two elastic appendices (103) that extend projecting from said second face (102) developing

parallel to one another in longitudinal direction and are susceptible of inserting with interference between the appendices (103) of " tne other seal (120, 110) in mechanical and hydraulic seal relation. 2. Waterproof pocket according to claim 1 , wherein said two seals (110; 120) are attached to said delimiting walls (10a, 10b) so that the respective appendices (103) are staggered to one another. 3. Waterproof pocket according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein each elastic appendix (103) has a cross section substantially shaped as *a mushroom and exhibits a stem

(103a) attached to said second face (102) and a rounded head (103b) attached to said stem (103a) by a concave portion (103c) . 4. Waterproof pocket according to claim 3 , wherein said appendices (103) define depressions (104) having a counter shaped cross section relative to that of said appendices (103) .

5. Waterproof pocket according to any one of the previous claims, wherein each seal (110, 120) is made of plastic or thermoplastic material, preferably polyurethane, hot or frequency weldable.

6. Waterproof pocket according to claim 5 , wherein said each seal (110; 120) is attached to the corresponding delimiting wall (10a, 10b) and to the other seal (120,

110) by hot or frequency welding.

7. Waterproof pocket according to any one of the previous claims, wherein said at least two seals (110, 120) , when coupled, define a sealing surface (S) in the reciprocal contact zone having a sinuous pattern that prevents water passage.

8. Waterproof pocket ^ according to any one of the previous claims, comprising a gripping element (30) , associated to said outer wall (10b) , which extends external to said inlet (4) and allows disconnecting said two seals (110, 120) .

9. Waterproof pocket according to any one of the previous claims, wherein said waterproof material is a waterproofed fabric . 10. Waterproof pocket according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein said waterproof material is a plastic or thermoplastic material, preferably of the hot or frequency heat welding type. 11. Waterproof pocket according to claim 9 or 10, wherein at least one of said two delimiting walls (10a, 10b) at said first perimetric portion (2) exhibits a first edge (11) that does not contribute to delimiting the inside space of said pocket (1) and is intended for receiving sewing stitches for attaching said pocket (1) to a garment (A) .

12. Waterproof pocket according to claim 11, wherein said inner wall (10a) at said second perimetric portion (3) exhibits a second edge (12) that extends external to said inlet (4) and is intended for receiving sewing stitches for attaching said pocket (1) to a garment (A) .

13. Waterproof pocket according to any one of the previous claims, comprising at least one coating (20) , preferably made of fabric, which is intended to be applied to said garment (A) for covering said outer wall (10b) .

14. Waterproof pocket λ according to claim 13, wherein said outer wall (10b) at said second perimetric portion (3) exhibits a third edge (13) that extends external to said inlet (4) and is intended for being attached to said coating sheet (20) .

15. Garment, in particular shorts or a bathing costume, characterised in that it is provided with at least one waterproof pocket according to any one of claims 1 to 14.

16. Method of application of a waterproof pocket according to claim 12 to a garment (A) , comprising:

(a) - a first sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between said pocket (1) and said garment (A) at said first edge (11) without affecting said delimiting walls (10a, 10b) ; and (b) - a second sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are

applied between said pocket (1) and said garment (A) at said second edge (12) without affecting said delimiting walls (10a, 10b) .

17. Method of application according to claim 16 of a waterproof pocket to a garment (A) according to claims 11 and 14, comprising:

(c) - a third sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between said coating (20) and said pocket (1) at said third edge (13) ; and (d) - a fourth sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between said coating (20) and said garment (A) , affecting said two delimiting walls (10a; 10b) at most at said first edge (11) .

18. Method of application according to claim 17, wherein said fourth sewing step * (d) may be carried out at the same time as said first sewing step (a) .

19. Method of application according to any one of claims 17 to 19, comprising:

(e) - a first reinforcing step, wherein first sewing stitches (210) are applied for attaching the outer wall

(10a) of said pocket to said garment (A) below said first seal (110) ; and

(f) - a first waterproofing step, wherein a first waterproof tape (Tl) is applied to said garment (A) by hot or frequency welding in correspondence of at least

said first sewing stitches (210) for preventing water from entering into said pocket (1) through said first stitches (210) . 20. Method of application according to claim 19, comprising:

(g) - a second reinforcing step, wherein second sewing stitches (220) are applied for attaching said outer wall (10b) to said coating (20) below said second seal (120) ; and (h) - a second waterproofing step, wherein a second waterproof tape (T2) is applied to said coating (20) by hot or frequency welding in correspondence of at least said second sewing stitches (220) for preventing water from entering into said pocket (1) through said second stitches (220) .

Description:

DESCRIPTION

"Waterproof pocket to be applied on garments, in particular on shorts or bathing costumes, and method for applying such pocket on a garment" Field of application

[0001] The present invention refers to a waterproof pocket to be applied on garments, in particular on shorts or bathing costumes, and to a method for applying such pocket on a garment. [0002] The subject pocket generally falls within the field of clothing items and is advantageously applicable on bathing garments, such as shorts, costumes, etc. Prior art [0003] Pockets applicable on garments are known, intended for containing items that may get damaged by the contact with water, such as mobile phones, PDAs, magnetic cards or more simply, banknotes or documents.

[0004] To this end, these pockets are made of sheets of waterproof material, such as nylon or polypropylene, perimetrically sealed to one another. Access to the pockets takes place through an aperture provided with suitable closing means capable of ensuring high level of waterproofing. Normally, fasteners of the "zip" type are used as closing means, especially designed to constitute a water barrier in closed condition.

[0005] An example of waterproof pocket is described in U.S. patent 6237152. The pocket is made by perimetrically welding two sheets of waterproof material to each other and it is attached to the garment inside a special containment compartment (not waterproof) . The means for closing the pocket inlet consist of a fastener or zip, provided with two toothed elements that engage with one another in closure under the action of a sliding junction carriage, and of two edges of waterproof material, that extend from the inlet edges for cooperating with the toothed elements of the fastener itself. Functionally, in the closing step, the two edges remain flattened on each other between the teeth of the fastener, forming a water barrier . [0006] Another example of waterproof pocket for garments is described in European patent application EP822764. The means for closing the pocket inlet consist of a fastener of the "a zip" type, provided with two counter-shaped rubber seals that are approached in closing and separated in opening by a junction carriage slidingly associated thereto. Each seal is longitudinally provided with a series of parallel tabs that in closing are forced to sealingly couple with the tabs of the other seal . [0007] Both the aforementioned solutions require quite long and difficult production processes, essentially imposed

by the need of ensuring perfect attachment of the fasteners to the pockets and after that, of the pockets to the garments . Special attention must be paid to the attachment of the end portions of the fasteners to the pockets, since it is just in these zones that water infiltrations are more likely to occur. Of course, this is to the disadvantage of production costs and times. This must be added to the quite high unit cost of the closing fasteners used. [0008] Another disadvantage of waterproof pockets of the conventional type is related to the fact that the closing elements of the fasteners become worn by the effect of the junction carriage sliding and with time, this brings about the loss of the waterproofing capacity. Disclosure of the invention

[0009] In this situation, therefore, the object of the present invention is to eliminate the disadvantages of the mentioned prior art by providing a waterproof pocket to be applied to garments which ensures a high waterproofing level without adopting the conventional fastener closing means .

[0010] Another object of the present invention is to provide a waterproof pocket to be applied to garments which is provided with closing means without moving parts . [0011] Another object of the present invention is to

provide a waterproof pocket to be applied to garments which is simple and inexpensive to manufacture. [0012] These and other objects are all achieved by a waterproof pocket to be applied on garments according to the annexed claims .

Brief description of the drawings

[0013] The technical features of the invention, according to the above objects, are clearly found in the contents of the claims below and the advantages of the same will appear more clearly from the following detailed description, made with reference to the annexed drawings, which show a purely exemplifying and non-limiting embodiment thereof, wherein: [0014] - Figure 1 shows a front view of a waterproof pocket according to the invention in accordance with a preferred embodiment ;

[0015] - Figure 2 shows a section view of the pocket of Figure 1 along the line II-II of the same Figure 1; [0016] - Figure 3 shows ah enlarged section view of a detail of the pocket of Figure 2 relating to two seals; [0017] - Figure 4 shows a perspective bottom view of the two seals of Figure 3; and

[0018] - Figures 5 and 6 respectively show a perspective view and a section view of the pocket according to the invention in relation to a garment on which it must be

applied.

Detailed description

[0019] With reference to the annexed drawings, reference numeral 1 globally denotes the waterproof pocket object of the present invention. The above pocket 1 is intended to be applied to clothing items in general designed for activity that envisage direct contact with water, and in particular bathing garments, such as shorts or bathing costumes . [0020] Advantageously, pocket 1 defines a protected and waterproof compartment suitable for containing items that may get damaged by the contact with water, such as mobile phones, PDAs, magnetic cards, iPod, keys, banknotes or documents . The pocket capacity may be adapted to the user's requirements.

[0021] Therefore, a garment provided with a pocket 1 according to the invention enables the user to freely carry out his/her activity bringing such items with him/her without fearing damaging them. This may be especially convenient for bathers that at the bathing time are forced to leave delicate items like mobile phones or wallets on the beach with the risk that they may be stolen. [0022] Pocket 1 according to the invention comprises two delimiting walls 10a and 10b, made of waterproof material,

of which an inner one 10a intended to face garment A and an outer one 10b counter facing the first one. These two walls are sealed to one another along a first perimetric portion 2 and delimit an access inlet 4 inside the pocket along a second perimetric pocket 3.

[0023] Advantageously the waterproof material may be a waterproofed fabric, similar to that of garment A on which pocket 1 must be applied, or alternatively a plastic or thermoplastic material (polypropylene, nylon, etc . ) , preferably of the hot or frequency heat welding type.

[0024] As explained hereinafter, if a plastic material is used as waterproof material, pocket 1 may comprise a coating 20 preferably made of a material similar to that of garment A. Such coating 20 is intended to be applied to garment A for covering pocket 1 and can optionally be associated also to the outer wall 10b of pocket 1. [0025] Operatively, in accordance with a first embodiment, pocket 1 may be made starting from a single sheet of waterproof material. The sheet is folded in two parts thus defining the above two delimiting walls 10a and 10b. The two walls are then sealed by hot or frequency welding on two opposite sides, leaving a third side open, opposite the folding one, which acts as access inlet 4 to pocket 1. The two sealed sides and the folding side

define the above first perimetric portion 2, whereas the third side defines the above second perimetric portion 3. [0026] As an alternative, in accordance with another embodiment, pocket 1 may be made starting from two sheets of waterproof material. The two sheets, that define the above two delimiting walls 10a and 10b, are perimetrically sealed by hot or frequency welding on three consecutive sides, leaving a fourth side that acts as inlet, open. The three sealed sides define the above first perimetric portion 2, whereas the fourth non sealed side defines the above second perimetric portion 3. [0027] For closing inlet 4 pocket 1 is provided with a first and a second seal 110 and 120. Both seals have an elongated shape and are 'provided with two end portions 110' and 110", 120' and 120". The two seals are attached in counter facing positions with respect to the two delimiting walls 10a and 10b of pocket 1 in correspondence of the second perimetric portion 3 of the latter. [0028] In the description below the seal attached to the inner wall 10a shall be called first seal 110, whereas the other seal attached , to the outer wall 10b shall be called second seal 120. [0029] Functionally, these two seals 110 and 120 are susceptible of coupling to each other for closing inlet 4

of pocket 1 and to this end, taken as a whole, they have a longitudinal development equal to the perimetric development of inlet 4.

[0030] According to a first important aspect of the present invention, each seal 110 and 120 is provided with a base 100 having two faces 101 and 102. At a first face 101 of base 100 the seal is attached to one of the two delimiting walls 10a, 10b of pocket 1, whereas at the second face 102 of base 100 the seal is r attached to the other seal 120, 110 at the two ends 110', 110" and 120', 120" thereof.

[003I]As can be noted in particular in Figures 2 and 3, the two seals 110, 120 are attached to the delimiting walls 10a, 10b in staggered positions for allowing the respective appendices 103 to couple to each other.

[0032] Advantageously, the two seals 110, 120 are made of plastic or thermoplastic material, preferably polyurethane, allowing them a hot or frequency welding. This simplifies the attachment of the seals to the delimiting walls of pocket 1, as well as the attachment of the seals themselves to one another.

[0033] In fact the two seals 110, 120 must be sealingly attached to one another at the ends 110' and 110", 120' and 120" thereof for preventing water infiltrations, as can be observed in Figure 4. Advantageously the

attachment is made by hot or frequency welding, as this technique ensures perfect water sealing and is operatively simple and inexpensive. [0034] Preferably, the attachment . of seals 110, 120 to the delimiting walls of pocket 1 occurs directly on the sheets of waterproofing material, before they are sealed to each other along the above first perimetric portion 2. The attachment between the seals on the other hand occurs at the same time as the sealing of the delimiting walls 10a and 10b, as shall be explained hereinafter.

[0035] According to another . important aspect of the present invention, each seal 110 and 120 is provided with at least two elastic appendices 103 that extend projecting from the second face 102 of base 100. [0036] Appendices 103 develop parallel to each other in longitudinal direction, defining depressions 104 having a counter shaped cross section relative to that of the appendices themselves. Functionally, as shall be explained in detail hereinafter, appendices 103 are susceptible of inserting with interference between appendices 103 of the other seal 1,20, 110 inside the above depressions 104 in mechanical and hydraulic seal relation. [0037] Preferably, the cross ' section of each elastic appendix 103 is substantially shaped as a mushroom. Each

seal therefore exhibits a stem 103a, by which it is connected to the second face 102 of base 100 and a rounded head 103b connected to stem 103a by a concave portion 103c. [0038] In closed condition, appendices 103 of a seal are seated with interference inside depressions 104 of the other seal .

[0039] Operatively, the two seals are coupled by exerting pressure at the bases ,1,00 thereof. Appendices 103 get elastically deformed to insert into depressions 104 and, once inserted, they recover their shape adhering closely to one another and thus occupying all the inside space of the depressions. [0040] The mechanical seal between the two seals is mainly due to the holding action that the rounded heads 103b of a seal 110, 120 exert on the rounded heads 103b of the other seal 120, 110, opposing the separation of the two seals. [0041] Advantageously, the two seals 110, 120, when coupled, define in the reciprocal contact zone, a sealing surface S having a sinuous pattern which prevents the water passage and which is defined by the alternating succession of appendices 103 of the two seals 110, 120. [0042] The water seal substantially depends on the extension of the above sealing surface S, which is a

function of the number of appendices 103 arranged in each seal, and on the perfect adhesion between appendices 103, ensured by the elastic properties of the appendices themselves and by their mushroom shape. [0043] Preferably, the number of such appendices 103 may vary from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 10 for each seal. In fact it has been noted that with less than two appendices the hydraulic seal is not satisfactory, whereas with a number of appendices greater than 10 no considerable improvements of the seal are obtained. In accordance with a preferred embodiment illustrated in the Figures, the appendices are in a number of three for each appendix 103. [0044] Advantageously, the waterproof pocket 1 according to the invention is provided with a gripping element 30, which is preferably associated to the above outer wall 10b of pocket 1 and extends external to inlet 4. Such element 30, consisting of a rigid or semi-rigid tongue, allows the user to apply a separation force between the two seals 110 and 120 in order to disconnect them and thus easily open inlet .4 ,of pocket 1.

[0045] The gripping element 30 does not subject the seals to wear, unlike what happens in the prior art solutions, where with the time the fastener carriage in its motion wears out the seals exactly at the sealing zone.

[0046] Operatively, the attachment of pocket 1 according to the invention to a garment A is preferably obtained by sewing the edges of pocket 1 to the garment. [0047] As an alternative, it is possible to envisage gluing pocket 1 to garment A at the inner wall 10a. However this solution does not ensure a mechanical attachment equal to that obtained by sewing and may therefore be optionally adopted if pocket 1 is not very capacious and is not intended for containing especially heavy items . [0048] In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figure 1, at least one of the two delimiting walls 10a, 10b exhibits, at the first perimetric portion 2, a first edge 11 that does not contribute to delimiting the inner space of pocket 1 and is intended for receiving sewing stitches for attaching pocket 1 to a garment A. As shall be explained hereinafter, such first edge 11 may receive sewing stitches also for attaching coating 20 to pocket 1. [0049] The first edge 11 extends along all the first perimetric portion 2 of pocket 1 so that the sewing stitches may be distributed on all the perimetric portion and it is therefore possible to have a mechanically resistant attachment of pocket 1 to garment A. Alternatively, edge 1 may also extend only to some portions of such first perimetric portion 2.

[0050] Preferably, the above edge 1 corresponds to the sealing zone between the two delimiting walls 10a and 10b of pocket 1. The first edge 11 is therefore defined by a perimetric strip of predetermined length L that extends along the first perimetric portion 2. As already said such first edge 11 does not contribute to delimiting the inner space of pocket 1 and can therefore receive sewing stitches without them damaging the integrity of the walls of pocket 1 and becoming water infiltration points. [0051] As already said the sealing of the delimiting walls 10a and 10b is preferably obtained by hot or frequency welding. Such welding also involves the ends of seals 110' e 110", 120' and 120" of the two seals, which are thus sealingly attached to one another. [0052] As an alternative, the first edge 11 may also consist of a perimetric edge of one of the two delimiting walls that extends beyond the perimeter of pocket 1. Such situation may occur when pocket 1 is made using two sheets of waterproof material having different widths. [0053] In accordance with the preferred embodiment illustrated in particular in Figures 2 and 6, the inner wall 10a and the outer wall 10b at the second perimetric portion 3 respectively exhibit a second edge 12 and a third edge 13. Both edges 12 and 13 extend external to inlet 4 above the two seals 110, 120 and are intended for

receiving sewing stitches.

[0054] More in detail, the second edge 12 is intended for receiving sewing stitches for attaching pocket 1 to a garment A, whereas the third edge 13 is intended for receiving sewing stitches for attaching coating 20 to pocket 1.

[0055] The method for applying pocket 1 to a garment A, which is a further object of the present invention, shall now be described with reference in particular to Figures 5 and 6.

[0056] In Figure 5 pocket 1 is illustrated for simplicity of graphic realisation with two sides not sealed and with the two seals not attached at the ends. It is understood that pocket 1 is applied to a garment A after it has been sealed perimetrically and at the ends of the two seals. [0057] Such method comprises the following operating steps : [0058] (a) - a first sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between the pocket and garment A at the above first edge 11; and [0059] (b) - a second sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between the pocket and garment A at the above second edge 12.

[0060] Advantageously, in both operating steps the delimiting walls 10a and, 10b are never affected by sewing stitches at the inside space of the pocket. This ensures

their integrity and thus also the waterproofing of pocket 1.

[0061] As already mentioned hereinbefore, pocket 1 may be applied to a garment A associated to a coating 20. In this case, the method of application also comprises the following operating steps :

[0062] (c) - a third sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between coating 20 and pocket 1 at the third edge 13; and [0063] (d) - a fourth sewing step, wherein sewing stitches are applied between coating 20 and garment A along the perimeter of the coating itself.

[0064] Advantageously, the above fourth sewing step (d) may occur at the same time as the above first sewing step (a) . In this case the sewing stitches of the coating on garment A are applied also affecting the first edge 11 of pocket 1. This allows attaching the pocket and the coating at the same time on the garment thus reducing the operating steps and the manufacturing times. [0065] Preferably, as may be seen in Figure 6, the material of coating 20 exceeding the edges of pocket 1 is folded about pocket 1 itself and then attached to garment A and to the pocket during the fourth sewing step (d) . [0066] Advantageously, the method of application according to the invention may also comprise the following further

operating steps:

[0067] (e) - a first reinforcing step, wherein first sewing stitches 210 are applied for attaching the outer wall 10a of pocket 1 to garment A below the first seal 110; and [0068] (f) - a first waterproofing step, wherein a first waterproof tape Tl is applied to garment A by hot or frequency welding in correspondence of at least said first sewing stitches 210. [0069] The reinforcing step is intended for mechanically reinforcing the zone of attachment of the first seal 110 to the inner wall 10a. In fact, during the opening of the seals the traction exerted on the gripping element 30 is transmitted to the zone of attachment of the seals, which with time could become damaged and bring about the detachment of the seal. The first sewing stitches 210 therefore have the function of damping such strains. [0070] The first waterproofing step (f) has the purpose of preventing water from entering into pocket 1 through the above first stitches, which as said are applied below the first seal 110, and thus inside pocket 1. The welding of the first waterproof tape Tl allows re-establishing the integrity of the inner wall 10a of pocket 1. [0071] Advantageously, the method of application according to the invention may also comprise the following further operating steps :

[0072] (g) - a second reinforcing step, wherein second sewing stitches 220 are applied for attaching the outer wall 10b to coating 20 below the second seal 120; and

[0073] (h) - a second waterproofing step, wherein a second waterproof tape T2 is applied to coating 20 by hot or frequency welding in correspondence of at least the above second sewing stitches (220) .

[0074] The purposes of these two steps (g) and (f) are similar to those of the two steps (e) and (f) , that is mechanically reinforcing the zone of attachment of the second seal 120 and restpring the integrity of the outer wall 10b of pocket 1.

[0075] The invention thus conceived thus achieves the intended purposes . [0076] Of course, in the practical embodiment thereof, it may take shapes and configurations differing from that illustrated above without departing from the present scope of protection.

[0077] Moreover, all the parts may be replaced by technically equivalent ones and the sizes, shapes and materials used may be whatever according to the requirements .