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Title:
WAY AS ACRONYM FOR WAVE AVOIDANCE YACHT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2001/032500
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In operation for wave avoidance the WAY presents only a small profile and a small part of its total structure to the most dynamically active part of all ocean waves, their surface and crests. This includes all storm and rogue waves. In this mode the bulk of the vessel is distributed through lower more quiescent water and spans differentiated deep wave effect. In this mode the WAY has low above-surface reserve buyoancy-able-to-induce unwanted motion. In wave avoidance mode when not underway, the WAY is stabilised by low reserve buoyancy of its wave piercing causeways (12). Underway the WAY behaves as a hydrodynamic flying body and does not rely on wings or hydrofoils which receive undesirable acceleration forces and motion from deep wave effect. Flight path is controlled by orientation which is controlled by a large separation between center of volume and a moveable center of mass. A WAY has a surface or shallow water mode of operation. The word yacht in the title is to suggest a preferred embodiment of size lying between boat and ship; a size that in conventional vessels is subject to particularly nauseating sea motion. The WAY can be configured for passage making with internal motors and without sails.

Inventors:
Kay, John (#1 Santon Terrace Ramsey Isle of Man IM8 2EB, GB)
Application Number:
PCT/US2000/041479
Publication Date:
May 10, 2001
Filing Date:
October 24, 2000
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
Kay, Bluey (38 Grand Street Brooklyn, N.Y., 11211, US)
Kay, John (#1 Santon Terrace Ramsey Isle of Man IM8 2EB, GB)
International Classes:
B63B1/04; B63B1/10; B63B39/02; B63B41/00; B63B43/04; B63B43/08; B63B43/14; B63B43/06; B63H5/08; (IPC1-7): B63B1/00; B63B43/06; B63G8/14
Foreign References:
US3830178A1974-08-20
US0803174A1905-10-31
US3897744A1975-08-05
US3903827A1975-09-09
US4335987A1982-06-22
US4552083A1985-11-12
US4669683A1987-06-02
US5511504A1996-04-30
US5544610A1996-08-13
US4763596A1988-08-16
US0803174A1905-10-31
US3830178A1974-08-20
US3897744A1975-08-05
US4552083A1985-11-12
Download PDF:
Claims:
AMENDED CLAIMS [received by the International Bureau on 11 May 2001 (11.05.01); original claims 1-9 replaced by new claims 1-16 (4 pages)]
1. For dry accomodation, a smoothtrajectory attheoceanatmosphere interface horizontal passagemakingvariablebuoyancyinwater vessel with rudder control with the means to lower all wave and swell induced motion by several means in combination; when in waveavoidance mode which corresponds to a stateoflowreservebuoyancy, namely ; I. the means of limiting the shock of impact to said vessel of all wave surfaces and crests including storm and rogue waves breaking over said vessel, by limiting the above mean water surface structure to exclude principal accomodation and keeping the vertical and horizontal profile of said structure minimised and optimised to shedding water; II. the means of keeping the altitude and attitude of said vessel constant or slow to change by limiting the buoyancy change available in the structure of said vessel near to saidwaveavoidance mode waterline, to values too low to significantly move said vessel in response to individual waves, by default and without further control ; III. the means of lowering the ratio reservebuoyancy/saidvesseldisplacement towards a value of zero and allowing massive inertia to keep said vessel stabilised or slow to change for altitude and attitude, by default and without further control ; IV. the means of presenting the least resistance profile to waterflowinalldirections by rounded exterior surfaces and the avoidance of horizontal wing appendages or hydrofoils excepting said rudder for navigation in the horizontal plain ; V. the means by which the components of said vessel are distributed vertically and horizontally in the ocean to interact with the many and some cancelling components of shallow and deeper wave effect, and provide for the waterviscousdampening effect to motion transverse to said component large surfaces elongated parallel to the path of said trajectory; VI. the means of a constant, a chosen or an activecorrection for the attitude of said vessel by a controlledvariable and potentialforlargehorizontal seperation in any saidvesselrelative direction, of centerof gravity from centerof buoyancy; VII. the means of altitude or trajectory maintenance or correction by smallforcehydrodynamic flyingbody properties of the elongated parts of said structure when said vessel is pointed by moments of force from said rudder and the horizontal seperation of centerof gravity from centerof ; and by a tesser number of means in combination when in minimum draught mode, namely i. the means of some rounded surfaces of said accomodation hull and said pod (s) floating at the surface, presenting the least resistance for wave induced water flow in any direction and favouring no particular direction for the passage of water save parallel to long axis of said vessel ; ii. the means of limiting the shock of impact to said vessel of all wave surfaces and crests including storm and rogue waves breaking over said vessel, by having the above mean water surface structure of said hull and said pods rounded and keeping the vertical and horizontal profile of said deck and keeping the horizontal and some of the vertical profile of said causeways minimised and optimised to shedding water; iii. the means of attaching rigidly alongside of and to the floating principal accomodation hull, largely submergedlowreservebuoyancywithmassiveinertiaelongated pod ; said vessel is comprised of a. principal accomodation in the form of a buoyant elongated hull hydrodynamically shaped for low resistancelongitudinalsubmarine flight with an exterior surface rounded in planes 90 degrees perpendicular to the long axis and favouring longitudinal water flow, said hull is pulled submarine when in wave avoidance mode. b. an abovethemeanwatersurface deck for atmospheric access and operations with minimal vertical profile and minimal solid horizontal area, in keeping with sufficient strength and utility; c. one or more hydrodynamicallyshaped causeways of minimalcrosssectional area in keeping with a usefull causeway connecting said hull and said deck, said causeway (s) provide the small bouyancy (s) which tend to stabilize said vessel around its mean wave avoidance waterline when in waveavoidance mode and not under way; d. one or more massive hydrodynamicallyshaped ballastpods individually held away from and generally parallel to said hull, when two said ballast pods are incorporated they can be brought together to nest as one hydrodynamic shape for lowresistancelongitudinalsubmarine flight with an exterior surface rounded in planes 90 degrees perpendicular to the long axis and favouring longitudinal water flow : the net buoyancy of said pod (s) is variable from strongly negative when in wave avoidancemode to positive when said vessel is in minimum draught mode: the position of said pods can apply a moment of force to orient said vessel for stability and hydrodynamic flight path, said pods can reach deeper more quiescent water than said accomodation hull for smoothing trajectory of said vessel ; e. one or more keel spars ending in joints and connecting said ballast pod (s) to said hull : said keel spar (s) are articulated from said hull or said hull and said pods, to position said pod (s) in three dimensions relative to said hull.
2. The vessel according to claim 1 where saidexteriorsurfaceroundedinplanes90degrees perpendiculartothelongaxisofsaidaccomodation hull and nestedsaidballast pods are largely circular and saidexteriorsurfacecircularinplanes90degreesperpendiculartothelongaxisofsaid accomodation hull and saidnestedballast pods, do not favour any 90degreesperpendiculartolong axisofsaidvessel component of water flow over said exterior surface.
3. The vessel according to claim 1 and further comprising a mechanism to rapidly release and seperate solid ballast from said pods where integrity of buoyancy of said vessel is compromised.
4. The vessel according to claim 3 wherein said deck incorporates a one way downwardly porous grid structure with the ability to rapidly and freely drain any water breaking over said deck.
5. The vessel according to claim 3 and further comprising one or more propellers and motors incorporated with said pod (s) and or said hull.
6. The vessel according to claim 3 and further comprising a sailing rig on said deck.
7. The vessel according to claim 3 and further comprising a safety net around said deck.
8. The vessel according to claim 3 and further incorporating a computercontrol system for changing, maintaining and optimising position and passage of said vessel in different operational modes: said computercontrol system reads sensors for the orientation of said vessel with respect to the horizontal plane, mean waterline or the depth of immersion, the speed of passage through water and more parameters relative to safety and efficiency of operation: said computercontrol system controls position of said pod (s) relative to said hull and the ratios of air to water ballast in different parts of said pod (s).
9. The vessel according to claim 4 and further ; a. one or more propellers and motors incorporated with said pod (s) and or said hull. b. a sailing rig on said deck. c. a safety net around said deck. d. a computercontrol system for changing, maintaining and optimising position and passage of said vessel in different operational modes: said computercontrol system reads sensors for the orientation of said vessel with respect to the horizontal plane, mean waterline or the depth of immersion, the speed of passage through water and more parameters relative to safety and efficiency of : said computercontrol system controls position of said pods relative to said hull and the ratios of air to water ballast in different parts of said pods.
10. The vessel according to claim 2 and further comprising a mechanism to rapidly release and seperate solid ballast from said pods where integrity of buoyancy of said vessel is compromised.
11. The vessel according to claim 10 wherein said deck incorporates a one way downwardly porous grid structure with the ability to rapidly and freely drain any water breaking over said deck.
12. The vessel according to claim 10 and further comprising one or more propeller and motor incorporated with said pod (s) and or said hull.
13. The vessel according to claim 10 and further comprising a sailing rig on said deck.
14. The vessel according to claim 10 and further comprising a safety net around said deck.
15. The vessel according to claim 10 and further incorporating a computercontrol system for changing, maintaining and optimising position and passage of said vessel in different operational modes: said computercontrol system reads sensors for the orientation of said vessel with respect to the horizontal plane, mean waterline or the depth of immersion, the speed of passage through water and more parameters relative to safety and efficiency of operation: said computercontrol system controls position of said pod [s] relative to said hull and the ratios of air to water ballast in different parts of said pod (s).
16. The vessel according to claim 11 and further ; a. one or more propeller and motor incorporated with said pod (s) and or said hull. b. a sailing rig on said deck. c. a safety net around said deck. d. a computercontrol system for changing, maintaining and optimising position and passage of said vessel in different operational modes: said computercontrol system reads sensors for the orientation of said vessel with respect to the horizontal plane, mean waterline or the depth of immersion, the speed of passage through water and more parameters relative to safety and efficiency of : said computercontrol system controls position of said pod [s] relative to said hull and the ratios of air to water ballast in different parts of said pod (s). STATEMENT UNDER ARTICLE 19 (1) For the amendment to the claims of international application No. PCT/USOO/41479, pages 13 to 16 [4 pages] list new claims 1 to 16 [16 claims] to entirely replace original application pages 13 to 15 [3 pages] of cancelled claims 1 to 9 [9 claims]. Nothing is added to the invention, but rather the claims now better describe the scope. Careful attention has been paid to better semantics and in the interest of improvement a number of new words have been used in the claims which were not used in the original application and description. The words are"trajectory","altitude","attitude","nest"and"nested"and"circular"and are self explanatory in the context of the subject matter. The word"altitude"replaces the use of the word"elevation", "attitude"replaces the use of the word"orientation", "nest"and"nested"substitute for the word"siamised", "circular"is used for certain cases of roundness and is clearly shown in the drawings. "trajectory"is used because it is obvious from the description that the WAY can take a certain three dimensional path as opposed to simply floating. If the description is subsequently amended and that is the applicants'intention; the new words will be introduced to embellish or replace.
Description:
WAY as acronym for Wave Avoidance Yacht Cross References to Related Applications This application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Patent Application Number 60/161,313 Filing Date 10/25/99. The name of the invention has been changed with a less cumbersome acronym.

Backaround--Field of Invention This invention relates to marine vessels and yachts, specifically to vessels providing respite from wave induced accelerations.

Backaround--Description of Prior Art Vessels, ships, boats and other water craft which float at the surface of the sea are effected by weather conditions in ways that are unwanted. Some vessels rely on wind for motive power and some even use waves for riding and entertainment, but in most instances waves and stormy weather result in unwanted motion or accelerations. Most floating water craft design is involved with ways to lessen the unwanted motion. The records of marine architecture are punctuated with methods to lessen undesirable motion for vessels both moored or navigating. Stabilising fins and keels have a long

history. Actively controlled stabilizing wings came, especially for large passenger ships though not without an economic cost and/or a power consumption penalty. More recently vessels described by the acronym SWATH for'small-water-plane twin hull'and HYSWAS for'hydrofoil-small-water-plane ship' have exploited using the relatively-calmer water lying below the surface in which to place some of the buoyancy volume and hydrodynamic-wing surface of the vessel. Vessels described as hydrofoils can lessen wave effect by raising more traditionally shaped hulls so there is less impact with the wave.

SWATH, HYSWAS and Hydrofoil designs show effective reduction in undesirable motions and accelerations up to certain sea states. For higher sea states, in most designs and with a relationship to the size of the vessel, the vessels cease to be fully operable. For seas with waves larger than a given sea state their wave-avoidance effectiveness ends when waves impact their superstructure or main accomodation volume. SWATH, HYSWAS and Hydrofoil designs also rely on underwater horizontal wings to control their hydrodynamic flight at a particular depth. Unfortunately ocean- surface-wave effect can extend down to several times the surface wave height and perturb the flight of wings. Without optimately presenting themselves to every eddy of water motion, these wings can induce turbulence, thence drag and vibration to the vessel. By way of examples, consider 1/winged passenger airline flight in thermal atmospheric or turbulent conditions 2/that wingless flying bodies are used in aeronautics.

Large size in a vessel can increase its parameters of operation to larger sea states but largeness of vessel is definitely not a universally suitable perogertive. Also some large cargo ships are regularly subject to being broken by the stresses set up by rogue waves, and ocean swells and associated troughs.

However to partly exemplify what is missing from marine vessel architecture and design is to look for the descriptive phrase'Wave Avoidance'. This engineer has not been able to find the phrase'Wave Avoidance'in the prior art of more than 30 million patents worldwide. For vessels which in essence have a small waterplane area, all references would appear to refer to a plane of water. As seas get larger all prior art such as SWATH and HYSWAS can have operation limited by impact with waves.

Hydrofoil vessels can potentially jump from wave to wave with accompanying accelerations. All have to change operations for certain rogue waves. It is as if all have chosen to take on the wrong side of the ocean atmosphere interface in a challenge to deal with large waves while maintaining a smooth ride.

HSWAS and other hydrofoils require a power imput to achieve their lessening of wave effect. The examples of prior art listed below are limited as none fully compares to the scope of the this patent application.

Harding in U. S. Pat. No. 5,544,610 (1996) shows a cargo submarine. As its title implies it is operated

as a submarine and requires stabilisers and active rudders for depth control. Its hull is shown as oval and flattened in cross section in the horizontal plane and described as'horizontal hydrofoil shaped'.

This geometry together with horizontal stabilisers make it especially susceptibly to surface wave effect and accelerations when operating with a submerged depth of less than approximately three times the surface wave height. It shows no means of default or self stabilisation without power except to float at the surface.

Yoshida in US Pat. No. 4,763,596 (1988) describes a type of SWATH vessel with twin submerged hulls and water planes which again require active wing control for their flight in water. These waterplanes are susceptible to perturbation by deep wave motion. Its large above surface accomodation make it susceptible to accelerations from collision with large or rogue waves.

Summary In accordance with the present invention a mobile marine vessel for accomodation can present and maintain the larger part of its body surface in subsurface water that is less dynamic than surface water while still providing above surface or atmospheric access. The amount of vessel exposed to the maximum dynamic effect of any size wave is minimised in keeping with a usefull access to the atmosphere. The surfaces exposed to most dynamically active part of any size wave are contoured for minimal interaction. The underwater surfaces exposed to the least wave active water, create viscous dampening of vertical motion. The resulting dynamics on the vessel are to the greater degree controlled by the interaction with that less dynamic water.

Objects and Avantages It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a a new level of freedom from undesirable motion for all naturally occurring sea states in a floating vessel [of a given size]. This vessel provides accomodation, or accomodation and travel, at the ocean atmosphere interface.

Induced accelerations from surfave waves of all sizes including storm waves and rogue waves, are more effectively avoided than in previous art floating vessels of comparable size. This wave effect avoidance is provided whether making passage, drifting or moored. This wave effect avoidance can be provided by default, that is, without using a power source or power input. It is also an object that this floating vessel can change its mode of operation to wet or dry dock and operate in shallow water.

All surface vessels can be moved by the buoyancy in a wave or swell, of their above waterline structure, and by the impact of a wave. This motion can be amplified into an inefficient and

uncomfortable oscillation by further waves. In the WAY the extra buoyancy and profile of above surface structure is small by comparison, and can not provide enough impetus to cause a motion on the scale felt by other surface vessels. As such the WAY could also be described as a low reserve buoyancy vessel.

The large and seperated into different water depth strata underwater surface area of the WAY restricts any short term fast oscillations that are out of syncronisation with the average motion of the whole body of water that the WAY occupies. Horizontal wings (so called stabilisers on many vessels featuring underwater control) that would receive 1/complex interference and a destabilising influence from the vertical-component-of-deep-wave motion 2/vessel-longitudinal drag, are not required. The WAY is a wingless-flying body when making passage in wave-avoidance mode.

For motive-power efficiency the WAY contends with a greater wetted surface area than comparable-conventional-surface vessels. However this is offset by the advantages of lower surface- wave-producing resistance.

For embodiments with sailing rigs,'knockdown'as experienced by more conventional yachts does not have implications, as the righting moment for the WAY is exceptionally high when in wave- avoidance mode. Similarly the possibility of capsize as for conventional vessels, is virtually non existant unless the whole body depth of water which the WAY occupies can roll fast enough to overcome this exceptionally large righting moment. The WAY is also engineered as a watertight entity able to suffer water over the deck.

Further objects and advantages will become apparent from a consideration of the ensuing description and accompanying drawings.

Brief Description of the Drawings Fig. 1 shows a low detail perspective of a WAY with starboard side passing observer who is situated at a wave top height.

Fig. 2 is an overall view from the port side of a WAY sectioned open longtitudinally and with parts identification. This embodiment of the WAY has an inclined stern-end causeway 12.

Fig. 3 shows a traversally sectioned view of a WAY in minimum-draught mode.

Fig. 4 shows a simplified end view of a WAY with hull and deck horizontal where ballast pods 15W are canted to one side to counter forces acting on the above-water-surface structure.

Fig. 5 shows a simplified end view of a WAY at its wave avoidance waterline with minimum draught.

Fig. 6 shows a simplified end view of a WAY at its wave-avoidance waterline with maximum draught.

Fig. 7 shows a simplified end view of a WAY with a single ballast pod 15A in minimum-draught mode.

Reference Numerals and Letters 11-main hull. 12-causeway.

13-deck. 14-deckhouse.

15-ballast pod. 15A-ballast pod in floating mode.

15V-tank volumes.

15W-ballast pod mostly flooded with water. 15WF-ballast pod 15W canted forward.

15WM-ballast pod 15W canted to side [laterally] and opposing moment of force M.

16-keel spar. 17-mast.

18-power-articulated hub [with movement on bearings on two axes at 90 degrees].

19-single-axis bearing. 21-propeller-engine-drive unit.

22-safety net at deck 13 perimeters. 23-solid ballast.

24-door to deck [facing to stern].

25-hatch-door seperating causeway 12 from deckhouse 14.

26-hatch with waterproof seal. 27-removeable section of deck 13.

28-tether and control wires to a traction kite.

29-means of ascension from a cabin floor to deckhouse 14.

AL-axis longitudinal for bearings in power articulated hub 18.

B-beach [solid ground] surface or draught level.

M-resultant force on above water surface structure from wind and wind driven water.

W-water surface or water line.

W6-six foot [~ 2 meter] wave surface in approximate scale with the size of a WAY as illustrated.

Preferred Embodiment--Description FIG. 1 shows a simplified perspective for an observer at sea surface level, of the starboard side of the WAY making passage in wave-avoidance mode under sail power. Ballast pods 15WM are swung to the starboard side to counter forces on the sails and above surface structure from a wind approaching the WAY from the observer's side. Tether and control wires 28 leeds to a traction kite not shown.

FIG. 2 shows a view from the port side of a longtitudinal-middle-section representation of a WAY in wave-avoidance mode. A main hull 11 with accomodation for personnel and cargo lies subsurface beneath the most dynamic part of the water, its surface waveform W6. A minimal-vertical-profile-grid

deck 13 is held above the mean water surface. Deck 13 is carried by two rugged wave-piercing structurely-enclosed causeways 12 of minimal cross section in keeping with a usefull causeway for passage of personnel and light cargo between atmospheric access on deck and the main hull.

Causeways 12 are topped by deck houses 14 which are small relative to overall size of the WAY.

Deck houses 14 carry observation windows, some of the WAY's navigation equipment and controls, and doors 24 facing towards the stern for access to the deck. Water tight secondry hatch-doors 25 seperate causeway 12 passages from deck houses 14. A mast 17 rises from each deck house 14. In keeping with a design premise of the WAY for minimal above-water-surface profile, masts 17 are free standing and engineered using carbon-fiber-composite technology for strength with flexibility. Masts 17 can carry sail and also act as hollow conduits for the transfer of air between the interior of the WAY and an elevated position in the atmosphere with a reduced presence of sea spray and water. Since sails are not the subject of this patent they are only represented in the perspective drawing FIG. 1.

One of two flooded ballast pods 15W is shown suspended parallel to and below main hull 11 by keel spars 16. There are two keel spars 16 per ballast pod 15. Each ballast pod 15 contains solid ballast 23 and has multiple tanks or volumes 15V which are seperated by bulkheads. Keel spars 16 connect to ballast pods 15 with single-axis bearings 19 at right angles to the long dimensions of hull 11 and ballast pods 15. Keel spars 16 connect to hull 11 in two power-articulated hubs 18 using bearings on three axes. One axis AL runs through both hubs 18 parallel to the length of hull 11 and allows ballast pods 15 to be swung traversly to port or starboard. An axis in each hub 18 at right angles to the length of hull 11 and parallel to axis bearings 19 allows ballast pods 15 to be swung fore or aft.

FIG. 3 shows a traverse section [through a causeway 2 and hub 18] view of WAY in minimum draught mode with tank volumes 15V empty of water. Protected position and wide seperation of propeller- engine-drive units 21 is shown.

FIG. 4 shows a simplified end view of WAY in wave-avoidance mode. Ballast pods 15W are positioned to one side to prevent list of WAV from moment of force of wind effect M on above surface structure.

FIG. 5 shows a simplified end view of a WAY with a minimum draught while in wave-avoidance mode.

FIG. 6 shows a simplified end view of a WAY with a maximum draught while in wave-avoidance mode.

FIG. 7 shows a simplified end view of an alternative embodiment of WAY in minimum-draught or surface mode. This embodiment features a single ballast pod 15A.

Preferred Embodiment--Operation When in wave-avoidance mode the WAY avoids being accelerated by waves 1/by having low reserve buoyancy and presenting a small profile to water in the most dynamic part of the wave, its surface and 2/by presenting the larger part of its surface areas in more quiescent water, well below surface and in several strata. The lower the strata the more quiescent the water is likely to be. When the WAY is not making passage through the water, the causeways 12 positioned towards the fore and aft of the WAY provide the reserve buoyancy which tend to stabilize the WAY in its wave avoidance mode by default.

The WAY has both variable draught and variable reserve buoyancy and as such it has different modes of operation. A minimum draught with maximum-reserve buoyancy or surface mode is shown in FIG. 3 where tank volumes 15V are filled only with air and keel spars 6 are locked in position. Ballast pods 15 have reserve buoyancy when they contain no water and this provides for a stable WAY with very strong self righting capabilities up to a limit of 90 degrees from the horizontal. These very strong self righting capabilities result from the difficulty of raising the extreme mass of each pod 5 out of the water , given the large buoyancy of main hull 11. The buoyancy of main hull 11 is approximately double the mass of a single pod 15 with tanks 15V filled with air. In minimum draught mode FIG. 3, the WAY can be motored, sailed, moored or beached. Minimum draught mode allows the WAY to navigate waters too shallow for wave avoidance mode. The efficiency of transit through the water is lower than in wave avoidance mode because of the wave making effects of main hull 11 and ballast pods 15A at the surface. However the increased height above water surface for deck 13 and deck houses 14 provides for excellent visibility for navigating inshore and in harbour environments. Minimum-draught mode still provides for wave induced accelerations far below those experienced by conventional vessels, and similar to those experienced by surfaced submarines and for the same reasons. Those reasons are; rounded-above-surface structure tending to deflect or avoid waves coming from any direction, combined with large submerged surface and mass.

When in wave-avoidance mode there is also a minimum-draught position for ballast pods 15W as shown in FIG. 5 where the tanks 15V contain water. Position FIG. 5 can be used when there is insufficient depth of water for lower placement of ballast pods 15. A full correction for a lateral moment of force such as a strong cross wind on sails, is not possible. Position FIG5 thus has a limited utility but may be used for wave avoidance in shallow water while drifting or using engine power, or when moored. In position FIG. 5 a lateral list can be corrected by exchanging on the appropriate side, some water for air in tanks 15V. In position FIG. 5 ballast pods 15W can be moved fore or aft for longitudinal orientation of WAY and hence hydrodynamic flight. With the WAY moored

or anchored in a current and in wave avoidance mode, the ballast pods might be incrementally moved sternwise to counter the downward tug of an anchor line on the bow. This might also involve expelling some ballast water from tanks 15V if reserve buoyancy left in causeways 12 becomes too small because of downward pull of anchor line.

As described there is a range of operation for the WAY between minimum and maximum draught with no restrictions for an intermediate draught other than a possible lesser or different performance. For instance, there is the occasion where the crew want to lessen the chance of water breaking on deck 13 at the expense of less wave avoidance or smoothness of ride. In this circumstance they may opt to have the WAY ride higher in the water body.

Each ballast pod 15 can be moved or swung independant of the other up to a lateral position imposed by the position of the other. For most general cruising in deep water in wave-avoidance mode, ballast pods 15W lie siamised or adjacent to each other and are swung or moved in concert.

Together as a unit, ballast pods 15 are hydrodynamically more efficient, and drag for longitudinal passage is reduced.

Each tank 15V is individually controlled for the proportion of air and water it contains. As such there is some duplicity of effect between the moveability of ballast pods 15 and the ballast effect of individual tanks volumes 15V. The duplicity of effect is limited but can provide a margin of safety for a failure of a part of the system. For instance, changing the ballast effect of individual tank volumes 15V negatively or positively can compensate for an inoperable power-articulated hub 18. Swinging ballast pods 15 can compensate for a failure in the pumping system for all or individual tank volumes 15V, by hydrodynamic flight when WAY is in motion.

When travelling longitudinally through the water body, the surfaces of the WAY act hydrodynamically for lift or wing effect. Wing effect is stronger in wave avoidance mode when a normal maximum vessel surface interacts with water. Overall wing effect is small but sufficient for depth control. A large wing effect could cause peturbations from deep water wave motion. For other than slow speeds, making passage with wave avoidance requires constant control of orientation for maintaining mean waterline position. This is most conveniently left to an automated system which requires 1/a sensor for overall orientation of WAY [ie deck 13 and hull 11] with respect to the horizontal plane 2/sensors for depth of immersion of various parts of the WAY below the mean water surface.

These sensors feed a computer. Dependant on the mode of operation of the WAY, the computer can control motors in power-articulated hub 18 for swinging keel spars 16, and pumps controlling ratio of water to air in tank volumes 15V. For instance, in wave avoidance mode if sensors detect average submersion exceeding optimum wave avoidance position as WAY makes forward passage, ballast pods 15W would be swung incrementally towards stern to tilt WAY bow upwards to

gain hydrodynamic lift for WAY. If a crosswind on sails increased and sensor detected list, ballast pods 15W would be swung incrementally to counter list. Sophistication is important to the best performance and a programmable computer able to interpret a wide field of data aids in this performance.

For security in the face of a breakdown of computer control and/or power for keel spar 16 movement, two basic modes of the WAY should be available as defaults. They are 1/maximum buoyancy FIG. 3 with the ballast pods 15A purged of ballast water and floating alongside hull 11 and 2/wave avoidance position FIG. 2 with ballast pods 15W directly below hull 11. With a breakdown as suggested, these two modes can provide: passage with sail and or motor at a reduced speed, riding out storm conditions in relative comfort, entry to shallow water. Manual cranking of hydraulic pumps and keel spars 16, stockpiled compressed air in cylinders for rapid purging of water from tank volumes 15V and a mechanism for rapidly releasing solid ballast 23 are examples of security features incorporated in the preferred embodiment of the WAY. Purging of water from ballast pods 15W one at a time while keeping the other pod locked in position, can float ballast pods to position 15A Fig. 3 while still maintaining a strong righting moment for the WAY. Similarly it is possible to park both pods 15A together on one side of hull 11 for economy of space at a berth. This position would appear similar to the representation of Fig. 7.

Because bad weather experiences at sea have been the catalyst for developing the WAY, it also brings attention to the issue of safety. Because the WAY adopts this rather steady position in water that may be raging all around, particular attention has to be paid to what happens on deck. Obviously there is usually a slow transition from good weather to storm conditions where a crew can make preparations and then retreat to the safety of interior quarters. However there is also a problem of rogue waves which can even appear on a more or less calm sea. Such a rogue wave can be a problem for any vessel where the crew may have become complacent with the fair weather. Such a wave can break over a deck and sweep off what is untethered. Most reserve buoyancy vessels will at least rise on meeting such a wave and may lessen the amount of water breaking over. Of course this sudden lurch of a vessel may be a danger in of itself. However in the case of the WAY and especially when in wave- avoidance mode, the WAY is not going to rise in synchronisation with a large rogue wave. To address these issues the following features are or can be incorporated. Doors 24 between deck houses 14 and deck 13 face to the stern away from the most likely high water approach. An interlock mechanism ensures that either door 24 or hatch-door 25 is closed and watertight before the other door can be opened. A RADAR or optical detection system is operating to warn of approaching high waves. Deck 13 is surrounded by a safety net 22 of large lattice for low interaction with wind, spray and bulk water . Deck 13 is constructed as a metal grid and carries slats on its underside. These slats

are pushed to block the grid by and to rising water but freely allow water to drop through the grid under gravity.

Because of the possibility of very large or rogue waves passing over deck 13 the rigging for sail on the WAY is specialised. The masts 17 are free standing and engineered with carbon fiber composite for flexibility and strength. This results in mast tapering in section from base to top. The lower hollow portion of masts 17 serve to duct ventilation air between WAY interior and clear atmosphere.

Mechanised self furling sails are carried comparitively high above the ocean surface because the WAY can produce comparatively very high righting moments with deck 13 remaining horizontal. These comparisions refer to most sailing yachts. Sails can be controlled by shrouds which release tension should the event of a waterload occur. The development of reliable efficient kite sails may allow for a WAY yacht of small size which could suffer complete envelopment of its deck area in a large wave while maintaining sail power.

Making passage under engine power involves considerations of noise and maneuverability. Placement of motors and propellers 21 in and outboard respectively of ballast pods 15 provides for both sound insulation from hull 11 and turning moment in navigating the WAY. In inshore maneuvering, minimum draught mode FIG. 3 provides a wide seperation of propeller thrust.

Loading and unloading of items too large or heavy for taking through causeways can be accomplished in minimum-draught mode FIG. 3. Hatch 26 is opened. Section of deck 27 can also be swung open for transfers using a crain or using a hoist from masts 17.

Other Embodiments WAY with single ballast pod.--Description FIG. 7 shows a simplistic end view of a WAY with a single ballast pod in minimum-draught mode.

Having a single ballast pod can simplify the construction and costs but sacrifices some of the versatility of a two pod WAY.

WAY with single ballast pod.--Operation Ballast pod 15A can be locked in position for stability of WAY. Pod 15 can be sunk by flooding of tank volumes 15V to draw the WAY down into wave-avoidance position. However carefull control of coupling 18 is required to ensure hull 11 and deck 13 remain suitably oriented. It is preferable if hull 11 and deck 13 have a self righting moment in of themselves. This is quite possible given the amount

of machinery housed in the bilge of hull 11 and the use of light alloys for deck 13 and deckhouses 14.

Manoeverability with engines is less than in the preferred embodiment.

Motor WAY.--Description The WAY can be embodied without the use of specialised sails for making passage with on board motor power of various alternatives.

Divina WAY.--Description The WAY in its preferred embodiment does not require many additional features to accomplish deeper submersion. The preferred embodiment features complete integrity against the ingress of water where air exchange is accomplished through mast ducts.

Divina WAY.--Operation As described for the preferred embodiment, when making passage hull 11 and ballast pods 15 act hydrodynamically for lift. Using motor power and ballast shift the WAY can be directed into complete submersion with a default return to the surface if motive power is stopped. This application of a WAY could find use as an emergency manoever for collision avoidance. This application of a WAY could find use for observation. Further ballasting could further submerge a WAY without making passage.

This might find application for storm avoidance particularly for small versions of the WAY.

Habitat WAY.--Description A simplified WAY without cruising sails or motors could find application as a habitat with security and freedom from uncomfortable motion in turbulent weather conditions.

Habitat WAY.-Operation Such a habitat might be used for marine observation or as a staging base, and might be moored by drogue or anchor.

Conclusions, Ramifications, and Scope The WAY provides a mobile accomodation environment on the ocean which intrinsically provides a new level of stability and lower cyclic accelerations than other mobile surface vessels in its size class, and especially when weather and sea condition are anything other than calm. Where rough sea conditions pose something of a crisis or discomfort for personnel and equipment on a conventional vessel, the purpose is that these same conditions will appear to be, and effectively be, more benign.

The size of a WAY most suited to a preferred embodiment lies below that of large cargo ships and tankers, and passenger or cruise ships where most sea states are small compared with the size of the vessel.

An analogy which can indicate how the WAY performs, is to imagine a waterlogged tree trunk barely floating in rough water or in the rapids of a river. The tree tunk still carries a branch sticking out [i. e. the deck for some insects or a critter!) and held dry above the surface. The branch and trunk appear remarkeably steady considering the rage all around them.

Accordingly, it can be seen that it is appropriate to introduce the WAY to widen the art of marine vessel architecture and design, as an atmosphere-ocean interface vessel which presents itself largely below, as opposed to conventional vessels which present themselves largely above the interface.

Although the description above contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but as merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. Various other embodiments and ramifications are possible within it's scope. For example, the WAY can be embodied without any motive power means and be towed to location. It would be usefull as a low motion accomodation, staging post or observatory. The WAY can have ballast 23 housed within the main hull. For less mobile configurations ballast 23 can be non moveable. Horizontal orientation can be adjusted solely by tank-contained air-water exchange. The WAY can be configure with a single causeway 12.

Thus the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the examples given.